Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6063

Search results for: temperature gradient

6063 Linear Study of Electrostatic Ion Temperature Gradient Mode with Entropy Gradient Drift and Sheared Ion Flows

Authors: M. Yaqub Khan, Usman Shabbir

Abstract:

History of plasma reveals that continuous struggle of experimentalists and theorists are not fruitful for confinement up to now. It needs a change to bring the research through entropy. Approximately, all the quantities like number density, temperature, electrostatic potential, etc. are connected to entropy. Therefore, it is better to change the way of research. In ion temperature gradient mode with the help of Braginskii model, Boltzmannian electrons, effect of velocity shear is studied inculcating entropy in the magnetoplasma. New dispersion relation is derived for ion temperature gradient mode, and dependence on entropy gradient drift is seen. It is also seen velocity shear enhances the instability but in anomalous transport, its role is not seen significantly but entropy. This work will be helpful to the next step of tokamak and space plasmas.

Keywords: entropy, velocity shear, ion temperature gradient mode, drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
6062 Movement of Metallic Inclusions in the Volume of Synthetic Diamonds at High Pressure and High Temperature in the Temperature Gradient Field

Authors: P. I. Yachevskaya, S. A. Terentiev, M. S. Kuznetsov

Abstract:

Several synthetic HPHT diamonds with metal inclusions have been studied. To have possibility of investigate the movement and transformation of the inclusions in the volume of the diamond the samples parallele-piped like shape has been made out of diamond crystals. The calculated value of temperature gradient in the samples of diamond which was placed in high-pressure cell was about 5-10 grad/mm. Duration of the experiments was in range 2-16 hours. All samples were treated several times. It has been found that the volume (dimensions) of inclusions, temperature, temperature gradient and the crystallographic orientation of the samples in the temperature field affects the movement speed of inclusions. Maximum speed of inclusions’ movement reached a value 150 µm/h.

Keywords: diamond, inclusions, temperature gradient, HPHT

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
6061 Yield Onset of Thermo-Mechanical Loading of FGM Thick Walled Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

Authors: S. Ansari Sadrabadi, G. H. Rahimi

Abstract:

In this paper, thick walled Cylindrical tanks or tubes made of functionally graded material under internal pressure and temperature gradient are studied. Material parameters have been considered as power functions. They play important role in the elastoplastic behavior of these materials. To clarify their role, different materials with different parameters have been used under temperature gradient. Finally, their effect and loading effect have been determined in first yield point. Also, the important role of temperature gradient was also shown. At the end the study has been results obtained from changes in the elastic modulus and yield stress. Also special attention is also given to the effects of this internal pressure and temperature gradient in the creation of tensile and compressive stresses.

Keywords: FGM, cylindrical pressure tubes, small deformation theory, yield onset, thermal loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
6060 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Applied to the Gas Turbine Blade According to the Thermal Gradient

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Yonseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok

Abstract:

The Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) prevents heat directly transferring from the high-temperature flame to the substrate. Top coat and bond coat compose the TBC and top coat consists of a ceramic and bond coat increases adhesion between the top coat and the substrate. The TBC technology drops the substrate surface temperature by about 150~200°C. In addition, the TBC system has a cooling system to lower the blade temperature by the air flow inside the blade. Then, as a result, the thermal gradient occurs inside the blade by cooling. Also, the internal stress occurs due to the difference in thermal expansion. In this paper, the finite element analyses (FEA) were performed and stress changes were derived according to the thermal gradient of the TBC system. The stress was increased due to the cooling, but difference of the stress between the top coat and bond coat was decreased. So, delamination in the interface between top coat and bond coat.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC), thermal gradient, Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
6059 Thermal Analysis of a Composite of Coco Fiber and Látex

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

Given the unquestionable need of environmental preservation, the natural fibers have been seen as a salutary alternative for production of composites in substitution to the synthetic fibers, vitreous and metallic. In this work, the behavior of a composite was analyzed done with fiber of the peel of the coconut as reinforcement and latex as head office, when submitted the source of heat. The temperature profiles were verified in the internal surfaces and it expresses of the composite as well as the temperature gradient in the same. It was also analyzed the behavior of this composite when submitted to a cold source. As consequence, in function of the answers of the system, conclusions were reached.

Keywords: natural fiber, composite, temperature, latex, gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
6058 Effect of Magnetic Field on Unsteady MHD Poiseuille Flow of a Third Grade Fluid Under Exponential Decaying Pressure Gradient with Ohmic Heating

Authors: O. W. Lawal, L. O. Ahmed, Y. K. Ali

Abstract:

The unsteady MHD Poiseuille flow of a third grade fluid between two parallel horizontal nonconducting porous plates is studied with heat transfer. The two plates are fixed but maintained at different constant temperature with the Joule and viscous dissipation taken into consideration. The fluid motion is produced by a sudden uniform exponential decaying pressure gradient and external uniform magnetic field that is perpendicular to the plates. The momentum and energy equations governing the flow are solved numerically using Maple program. The effects of magnetic field and third grade fluid parameters on velocity and temperature profile are examined through several graphs.

Keywords: exponential decaying pressure gradient, MHD flow, Poiseuille flow, third grade fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
6057 Review on Quaternion Gradient Operator with Marginal and Vector Approaches for Colour Edge Detection

Authors: Nadia Ben Youssef, Aicha Bouzid

Abstract:

Gradient estimation is one of the most fundamental tasks in the field of image processing in general, and more particularly for color images since that the research in color image gradient remains limited. The widely used gradient method is Di Zenzo’s gradient operator, which is based on the measure of squared local contrast of color images. The proposed gradient mechanism, presented in this paper, is based on the principle of the Di Zenzo’s approach using quaternion representation. This edge detector is compared to a marginal approach based on multiscale product of wavelet transform and another vector approach based on quaternion convolution and vector gradient approach. The experimental results indicate that the proposed color gradient operator outperforms marginal approach, however, it is less efficient then the second vector approach.

Keywords: gradient, edge detection, color image, quaternion

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6056 Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc

Authors: Minto Rattan, Tania Bose, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the effect of linear thermal gradient on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate has been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for discs rotating at linear thermal gradation using von Mises’ yield criterion. The material parameters have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said temperature profile with the disc operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: creep, isotropic, steady-state, thermal gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
6055 Impact of Climatic Parameters on Soil's Nutritional and Enzymatic Properties

Authors: Kanchan Vishwakarma, Shivesh Sharma, Nitin Kumar

Abstract:

Soil is incoherent matter on Earth’s surface having organic and mineral content. The spatial variation of 4 soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were assessed for two seasons’ viz. monsoon and winter along the latitudinal gradient in North-central India as the area of this study is fettered with respect to national status. The study was facilitated to encompass the effect of climate change, enzyme activity and biomass on nutrient cycling. Top soils were sampled from 4 sites in North-India. There were significant correlations found between organic C, N & P wrt to latitude gradient in two seasons. This distribution of enzyme activities and microbial biomass was consequence of alterations in temperature and moisture of soil because of which soil properties change along the latitude transect.

Keywords: latitude gradient, microbial biomass, moisture, soil, organic carbon, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
6054 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: gravity gradient, gravity gradient sensor, accelerometer, single-axis rotation modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
6053 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Authors: Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff

Abstract:

A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, converting and storing solar energy as heat. In this paper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transfer behavior of salinity gradient solar pond. Matlab codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: finite difference method, salt-gradient solar-pond, solar energy, transient heat and mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
6052 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well-known formulas.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
6051 A Key Parameter in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Design and Operation

Authors: Yongjian Gu

Abstract:

Ocean thermal energy is one of the ocean energy sources. It is a renewable, sustainable, and green energy source. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applies the ocean temperature gradient between the warmer surface seawater and the cooler deep seawater to run a heat engine and produce a useful power output. Unfortunately, the ocean temperature gradient is not big. Even in the tropical and equatorial regions, the surface water temperature can only reach up to 28oC and the deep water temperature can be as low as 4oC. The thermal efficiency of the OTEC plants, therefore, is low. In order to improve the plant thermal efficiency by using the limited ocean temperature gradient, some OTEC plants use the method of adding more equipment for better heat recovery, such as heat exchangers, pumps, etc. Obviously, the method will increase the plant's complexity and cost. The more important impact of the method is the additional equipment needs to consume power too, which may have an adverse effect on the plant net power output, in turn, the plant thermal efficiency. In the paper, the author first describes varied OTEC plants and the practice of using the method of adding more equipment for improving the plant's thermal efficiency. Then the author proposes a parameter, plant back works ratio ϕ, for measuring if the added equipment is appropriate for the plant thermal efficiency improvement. Finally, in the paper, the author presents examples to illustrate the application of the back work ratio ϕ as a key parameter in the OTEC plant design and operation.

Keywords: ocean thermal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), OTEC plant, plant back work ratio ϕ

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6050 Solar Pond: Some Issues in Their Management and Mathematical Description

Authors: A. A. Abdullah, K. A. Lindsay

Abstract:

The management of a salt-gradient is investigated with respect to the interaction between the solar pond and its associated evaporation pond. Issues considered are the impact of precipitation and the operation of the flushing system with particular reference to the case in which the flushing fluid is pure water. Results suggest that a management strategy based on a flushing system that simply replaces evaporation losses of water from the solar pond and evaporation pond will be optimally efficient. Such a management strategy will maintain the operational viability of a salt-gradient solar pond as a reservoir of cheap heat while simultaneously ensuring that the associated evaporation pond can feed the storage zone of the solar pond with sufficient saturated brine to balance the effect of salt diffusion. Other findings are, first, that once near saturation is achieved in the evaporation pond, the efficacy of the proposed management strategy is relatively insensitive to both the size of the evaporation pond or its depth, and second, small changes in the extraction of heat from the storage zone of a salt-gradient solar pond have an amplified effect on the temperature of that zone. The possibility of boiling of the storage zone cannot be ignored in a well-configured salt-gradient solar pond.

Keywords: aqueous sodium chloride, constitutive expression, solar pond, salt-gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
6049 Observation of Inverse Blech Length Effect during Electromigration of Cu Thin Film

Authors: Nalla Somaiah, Praveen Kumar

Abstract:

Scaling of transistors and, hence, interconnects is very important for the enhanced performance of microelectronic devices. Scaling of devices creates significant complexity, especially in the multilevel interconnect architectures, wherein current crowding occurs at the corners of interconnects. Such a current crowding creates hot-spots at the respective corners, resulting in non-uniform temperature distribution in the interconnect as well. This non-uniform temperature distribution, which is exuberated with continued scaling of devices, creates a temperature gradient in the interconnect. In particular, the increased current density at corners and the associated temperature rise due to Joule heating accelerate the electromigration induced failures in interconnects, especially at corners. This has been the classic reliability issue associated with metallic interconnects. Herein, it is generally understood that electromigration induced damages can be avoided if the length of interconnect is smaller than a critical length, often termed as Blech length. Interestingly, the effect of non-negligible temperature gradients generated at these corners in terms of thermomigration and electromigration-thermomigration coupling has not attracted enough attention. Accordingly, in this work, the interplay between the electromigration and temperature gradient induced mass transport was studied using standard Blech structure. In this particular sample structure, the majority of the current is forcefully directed into the low resistivity metallic film from a high resistivity underlayer film, resulting in current crowding at the edges of the metallic film. In this study, 150 nm thick Cu metallic film was deposited on 30 nm thick W underlayer film in the configuration of Blech structure. Series of Cu thin strips, with lengths of 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μm, were fabricated. Current density of ≈ 4 × 1010 A/m² was passed through Cu and W films at a temperature of 250ºC. Herein, along with expected forward migration of Cu atoms from the cathode to the anode at the cathode end of the Cu film, backward migration from the anode towards the center of Cu film was also observed. Interestingly, smaller length samples consistently showed enhanced migration at the cathode end, thus indicating the existence of inverse Blech length effect in presence of temperature gradient. A finite element based model showing the interplay between electromigration and thermomigration driving forces has been developed to explain this observation.

Keywords: Blech structure, electromigration, temperature gradient, thin films

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
6048 Investigation of Geothermal Gradient of the Niger Delta from Recent Studies

Authors: Adedapo Jepson Olumide, Kurowska Ewa, K. Schoeneich, Ikpokonte A. Enoch

Abstract:

In this paper, subsurface temperature measured from continuous temperature logs were used to determine the geothermal gradient of NigerDelta sedimentary basin. The measured temperatures were corrected to the true subsurface temperatures by applying the American Association of Petroleum Resources (AAPG) correction factor, borehole temperature correction factor with La Max’s correction factor and Zeta Utilities borehole correction factor. Geothermal gradient in this basin ranges from 1.20C to 7.560C/100m. Six geothermal anomalies centres were observed at depth in the southern parts of the Abakaliki anticlinorium around Onitsha, Ihiala, Umuaha area and named A1 to A6 while two more centre appeared at depth of 3500m and 4000m named A7 and A8 respectively. Anomaly A1 describes the southern end of the Abakaliki anticlinorium and extends southwards, anomaly A2 to A5 were found associated with a NW-SE structural alignment of the Calabar hinge line with structures describing the edge of the Niger Delta basin with the basement block of the Oban massif. Anomaly A6 locates in the south-eastern part of the basin offshore while A7 and A8 are located in the south western part of the basin offshore. At the average exploratory depth of 3500m, the geothermal gradient values for these anomalies A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A8 are 6.50C/100m, 1.750C/100m, 7.50C/100m, 1.250C/100m, 6.50C/100m, 5.50C/100m, 60C/100m, and 2.250C/100m respectively. Anomaly A8 area may yield higher thermal value at greater depth than 3500m. These results show that anomalies areas of A1, A3, A5, A6 and A7 are potentially prospective and explorable for geothermal energy using abandoned oil wells in the study area. Anomalies A1, A3.A5, A6 occur at areas where drilled boreholes were not exploitable for oil and gas but for the remaining areas where wells are so exploitable there appears no geothermal anomaly. Geothermal energy is environmentally friendly, clean and reversible.

Keywords: temperature logs, geothermal gradient anomalies, alternative energy, Niger delta basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
6047 Global Convergence of a Modified Three-Term Conjugate Gradient Algorithms

Authors: Belloufi Mohammed, Sellami Badreddine

Abstract:

This paper deals with a new nonlinear modified three-term conjugate gradient algorithm for solving large-scale unstrained optimization problems. The search direction of the algorithms from this class has three terms and is computed as modifications of the classical conjugate gradient algorithms to satisfy both the descent and the conjugacy conditions. An example of three-term conjugate gradient algorithm from this class, as modifications of the classical and well known Hestenes and Stiefel or of the CG_DESCENT by Hager and Zhang conjugate gradient algorithms, satisfying both the descent and the conjugacy conditions is presented. Under mild conditions, we prove that the modified three-term conjugate gradient algorithm with Wolfe type line search is globally convergent. Preliminary numerical results show the proposed method is very promising.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, three-term conjugate gradient, sufficient descent property, line search

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
6046 Torsional Vibration of Carbon Nanotubes via Nonlocal Gradient Theories

Authors: Mustafa Arda, Metin Aydogdu

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have many possible application areas because of their superior physical properties. Nonlocal Theory, which unlike the classical theories, includes the size dependency. Nonlocal Stress and Strain Gradient approaches can be used in nanoscale static and dynamic analysis. In the present study, torsional vibration of CNTs was investigated according to nonlocal stress and strain gradient theories. Effects of the small scale parameters to the non-dimensional frequency were obtained. Results were compared with the Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Lattice Dynamics. Strain Gradient Theory has shown more weakening effect on CNT according to the Stress Gradient Theory. Combination of both theories gives more acceptable results rather than the classical and stress or strain gradient theory according to Lattice Dynamics.

Keywords: torsional vibration, carbon nanotubes, nonlocal gradient theory, stress, strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
6045 Vertical Distribution of the Monthly Average Values of the Air Temperature above the Territory of Kakheti in 2012-2017

Authors: Khatia Tavidashvili, Nino Jamrishvili, Valerian Omsarashvili

Abstract:

Studies of the vertical distribution of the air temperature in the atmosphere have great value for the solution of different problems of meteorology and climatology (meteorological forecast of showers, thunderstorms, and hail, weather modification, estimation of climate change, etc.). From the end of May 2015 in Kakheti after 25-year interruption, the work of anti-hail service was restored. Therefore, in connection with climate change, the need for the detailed study of the contemporary regime of the vertical distribution of the air temperature above this territory arose. In particular, the indicated information is necessary for the optimum selection of rocket means with the works on the weather modification (fight with the hail, the regulation of atmospheric precipitations, etc.). Construction of the detailed maps of the potential damage distribution of agricultural crops from the hail, etc. taking into account the dimensions of hailstones in the clouds according to the data of radar measurements and height of locality are the most important factors. For now, in Georgia, there is no aerological probing of atmosphere. To solve given problem we processed information about air temperature profiles above Telavi, at 27 km above earth's surface. Information was gathered during four observation time (4, 10, 16, 22 hours with local time. After research, we found vertical distribution of the average monthly values of the air temperature above Kakheti in ‎2012-2017 from January to December. Research was conducted from 0.543 to 27 km above sea level during four periods of research. In particular, it is obtained: -during January the monthly average air temperature linearly diminishes with 2.6 °C on the earth's surface to -57.1 °C at the height of 10 km, then little it changes up to the height of 26 km; the gradient of the air temperature in the layer of the atmosphere from 0.543 to 8 km - 6.3 °C/km; height of zero isotherm - is 1.33 km. -during July the air temperature linearly diminishes with 23.5 °C to -64.7 °C at the height of 17 km, then it grows to -47.5 °C at the height of 27 km; the gradient of the air temperature of - 6.1 °C/km; height of zero isotherm - is 4.39 km, which on 0.16 km is higher than in the sixties of past century.

Keywords: hail, Kakheti, meteorology, vertical distribution of the air temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
6044 A New Family of Globally Convergent Conjugate Gradient Methods

Authors: B. Sellami, Y. Laskri, M. Belloufi

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient methods are an important class of methods for unconstrained optimization, especially for large-scale problems. Recently, they have been much studied. In this paper, a new family of conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization. This method includes the already existing two practical nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, which produces a descent search direction at every iteration and converges globally provided that the line search satisfies the Wolfe conditions. The numerical experiments are done to test the efficiency of the new method, which implies the new method is promising. In addition the methods related to this family are uniformly discussed.

Keywords: conjugate gradient method, global convergence, line search, unconstrained optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
6043 A New Conjugate Gradient Method with Guaranteed Descent

Authors: B. Sellami, M. Belloufi

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient methods are an important class of methods for unconstrained optimization, especially for large-scale problems. Recently, they have been much studied. In this paper, we propose a new two-parameter family of conjugate gradient methods for unconstrained optimization. The two-parameter family of methods not only includes the already existing three practical nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, but also has other family of conjugate gradient methods as subfamily. The two-parameter family of methods with the Wolfe line search is shown to ensure the descent property of each search direction. Some general convergence results are also established for the two-parameter family of methods. The numerical results show that this method is efficient for the given test problems. In addition, the methods related to this family are uniformly discussed.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, conjugate gradient method, line search, global convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
6042 Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case

Authors: A. Selmi, A. Bisharat

Abstract:

Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin's 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green's function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green's function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.

Keywords: Eshelby tensor, Eshelby-like tensor, Green’s function, Mindlin’s 2nd gradient model, spherical inclusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
6041 Dynamic Measurement System Modeling with Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Changqiao Wu, Guoqing Ding, Xin Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, ways of modeling dynamic measurement systems are discussed. Specially, for linear system with single-input single-output, it could be modeled with shallow neural network. Then, gradient based optimization algorithms are used for searching the proper coefficients. Besides, method with normal equation and second order gradient descent are proposed to accelerate the modeling process, and ways of better gradient estimation are discussed. It shows that the mathematical essence of the learning objective is maximum likelihood with noises under Gaussian distribution. For conventional gradient descent, the mini-batch learning and gradient with momentum contribute to faster convergence and enhance model ability. Lastly, experimental results proved the effectiveness of second order gradient descent algorithm, and indicated that optimization with normal equation was the most suitable for linear dynamic models.

Keywords: dynamic system modeling, neural network, normal equation, second order gradient descent

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6040 Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of the Directional Solidified Zn-Al-Cu Alloy

Authors: Mehmet Izzettin Yilmazer, Emin Cadirli

Abstract:

Zn-7wt.%Al-2.96wt.%Cu eutectic alloy was directionally solidified upwards with different temperature gradients (from 6.70 K/mm to 10.67 K/mm) at a constant growth rate (16.4 Km/s) and also different growth rate (from 8.3 micron/s to 166 micron/s) at a constant temperature gradient (10.67 K/mm) using a Bridgman–type growth apparatus.The values of eutectic spacing were measured from longitudinal and transverse sections of the samples. The dependency of microstructures on the G and V were determined with linear regression analysis and experimental equations were found as λl=8.953xVexp-0.49, λt=5.942xVexp-0.42 and λl=0.008xGexp-1.23, λt=0.024xGexp-0.93. The measurements of microhardness of directionally solidified samples were obtained by using a microhardness test device. The dependence of microhardness HV on temperature gradient and growth rate were analyzed. The dependency of microhardness on the G and V were also determined with linear regression analysis as HVl=110.66xVexp0.02, HVt=111.94xVexp0.02 and HVl=69.66xGexp0.17, HVt=68.86xGexp0.18. The experimental results show that the microhardness of the directionally solidified Zn-Al-Cu alloy increases with increasing the growth rate. The results obtained in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results.

Keywords: directional solidification, eutectic alloys, microstructure, microhardness

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6039 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho

Abstract:

The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
6038 Hybrid Gravity Gradient Inversion-Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Motion Planning of Mobile Robots

Authors: Meng Wu

Abstract:

Motion planning is a common task required to be fulfilled by robots. A strategy combining Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and gravity gradient inversion algorithm is proposed for motion planning of mobile robots. In this paper, in order to realize optimal motion planning strategy, the cost function in ACO is designed based on gravity gradient inversion algorithm. The obstacles around mobile robot can cause gravity gradient anomalies; the gradiometer is installed on the mobile robot to detect the gravity gradient anomalies. After obtaining the anomalies, gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed to calculate relative distance and orientation between mobile robot and obstacles. The relative distance and orientation deduced from gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed as cost function in ACO algorithm to realize motion planning. The proposed strategy is validated by the simulation and experiment results.

Keywords: motion planning, gravity gradient inversion algorithm, ant colony optimization

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6037 Optimized Simultaneous Determination of Theobromine and Caffeine in Fermented and Unfermented Cacao Beans and in Cocoa Products Using Step Gradient Solvent System in Reverse Phase HPLC

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Kim Ryan A. Won

Abstract:

Fast, reliable and simultaneous HPLC analysis of theobromine and caffeine in cacao and cocoa products was optimized in this study. The samples tested were raw, fermented, and roasted cacao beans as well as commercially available cocoa products. The HPLC analysis was carried out using step gradient solvent system with acetonitrile and water buffered with H3PO4 as the mobile phase. The HPLC system was optimized using 273 nm wavelength at 35 °C for the column temperature with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Using this method, the theobromine percent recovery mean, Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) is 118.68(±3.38)%, 0.727 and 1.05 respectively. The percent recovery mean, LOD and LOQ for caffeine is 105.53(±3.25)%, 2.42 and 3.50 respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision for theobromine is 4.31% and 4.48% respectively, while 7.02% and 7.03% was for caffeine respectively. Compared to the standard method in AOAC using methanol in isocratic solvent system, the results of the study produced lesser chromatogram noise with emphasis on theobromine and caffeine. The method is readily usable for cacao and cocoa substances analyses using HPLC with step gradient capability.

Keywords: cacao, caffeine, HPLC, step gradient solvent system, theobromine

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
6036 A Refined Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory for Assessing Scaling-Dependent Vibration Behavior of Microbeams

Authors: Xiaobai Li, Li Li, Yujin Hu, Weiming Deng, Zhe Ding

Abstract:

A size-dependent Euler–Bernoulli beam model, which accounts for nonlocal stress field, strain gradient field and higher order inertia force field, is derived based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory considering velocity gradient effect. The governing equations and boundary conditions are derived both in dimensional and dimensionless form by employed the Hamilton principle. The analytical solutions based on different continuum theories are compared. The effect of higher order inertia terms is extremely significant in high frequency range. It is found that there exists an asymptotic frequency for the proposed beam model, while for the nonlocal strain gradient theory the solutions diverge. The effect of strain gradient field in thickness direction is significant in low frequencies domain and it cannot be neglected when the material strain length scale parameter is considerable with beam thickness. The influence of each of three size effect parameters on the natural frequencies are investigated. The natural frequencies increase with the increasing material strain gradient length scale parameter or decreasing velocity gradient length scale parameter and nonlocal parameter.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli Beams, free vibration, higher order inertia, Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory, velocity gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
6035 Ultra-Fast pH-Gradient Ion Exchange Chromatography for the Separation of Monoclonal Antibody Charge Variants

Authors: Robert van Ling, Alexander Schwahn, Shanhua Lin, Ken Cook, Frank Steiner, Rowan Moore, Mauro de Pra

Abstract:

Purpose: Demonstration of fast high resolution charge variant analysis for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics within 5 minutes. Methods: Three commercially available mAbs were used for all experiments. The charge variants of therapeutic mAbs (Bevacizumab, Cetuximab, Infliximab, and Trastuzumab) are analyzed on a strong cation exchange column with a linear pH gradient separation method. The linear gradient from pH 5.6 to pH 10.2 is generated over time by running a linear pump gradient from 100% Thermo Scientific™ CX-1 pH Gradient Buffer A (pH 5.6) to 100% CX-1 pH Gradient Buffer B (pH 10.2), using the Thermo Scientific™ Vanquish™ UHPLC system. Results: The pH gradient method is generally applicable to monoclonal antibody charge variant analysis. In conjunction with state-of-the-art column and UHPLC technology, ultra fast high-resolution separations are consistently achieved in under 5 minutes for all mAbs analyzed. Conclusion: The linear pH gradient method is a platform method for mAb charge variant analysis. The linear pH gradient method can be easily optimized to improve separations and shorten cycle times. Ultra-fast charge variant separation is facilitated with UHPLC that complements, and in some instances outperforms CE approaches in terms of both resolution and throughput.

Keywords: charge variants, ion exchange chromatography, monoclonal antibody, UHPLC

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6034 A New Class of Conjugate Gradient Methods Based on a Modified Search Direction for Unconstrained Optimization

Authors: Belloufi Mohammed, Sellami Badreddine

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient methods have played a special role for solving large scale optimization problems due to the simplicity of their iteration, convergence properties and their low memory requirements. In this work, we propose a new class of conjugate gradient methods which ensures sufficient descent. Moreover, we propose a new search direction with the Wolfe line search technique for solving unconstrained optimization problems, a global convergence result for general functions is established provided that the line search satisfies the Wolfe conditions. Our numerical experiments indicate that our proposed methods are preferable and in general superior to the classical conjugate gradient methods in terms of efficiency and robustness.

Keywords: unconstrained optimization, conjugate gradient method, sufficient descent property, numerical comparisons

Procedia PDF Downloads 261