Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11017

Search results for: water temperature

11017 Controlling of Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns -Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola


A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 35 0C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-35 0C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 35 0C to the vicinity of 28 0C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.8 0C and from 29.8 to 31.9 0C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 28 0C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 35 0C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.

Keywords: water temperature, flow column, electrocoagulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
11016 An Innovative Use of Flow Columns in Electrocoagulation Reactor to Control Water Temperature

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, David Phipps, Ortoneda Pedrola


Temperature is an essential parameter in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it governs the solubility of electrodes and the precipitates and the collision rate of particles in water being treated. Although it has been about 100 years since the EC technology was invented and applied in water and wastewater treatment, the effects of temperature on the its performance were insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container supplied with a flow column consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. The flow column has been installed vertically, half submerged in the water being treated, inside a plastic cylinder. The unsubmerged part of the flow column works as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with different initial temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) to the ECR1 for 20 min. Temperature of effluent water samples were measured using Hanna meter (Model: HI 98130). The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 reduced water temperature from 35, 30, and 25 °C to 24.6, 23.8, and 21.8 °C respectively. While low water temperature, 15 °C, increased slowly to reach 19.1 °C after 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment period. At the same time, water sample with initial temperature of 20 °C showed almost a steady level of temperature along the treatment process, where the temperature increased negligibly from 20 to 20.1 °C after 20 minutes of treatment. In conclusion, ECR1 is able to control the temperature of water being treated around the room temperature even when the initial temperature was high (35 °C) or low (15 °C).

Keywords: electrocoagulation, flow column, treatment, water temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
11015 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li


The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

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11014 Impact of Climate Change on Water Level and Properties of Gorgan Bay in the Southern Caspian Sea

Authors: Siamak Jamshidi


The Caspian Sea is the Earth's largest inland body of water. One of the most important issues related to the sea is water level changes. For measuring and recording Caspian Sea water level, there are at least three gauges and radar equipment in Anzali, Nowshahr and Amirabad Ports along the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea. It seems that evaporation, hotter surface air temperature, and in general climate change is the main reasons for its water level fluctuations. Gorgan Bay in the eastern part of the southern boundary of the Caspian Sea is one of the areas under the effect of water level fluctuation. Based on the results of field measurements near the Gorgan Bay mouth temperature ranged between 24°C–28°C and salinity was about 13.5 PSU in midsummer while temperature changed between 10-11.5°C and salinity mostly was 15-16.5 PSU in mid-winter. The decrease of Caspian Sea water level and rivers outflow are the two most important factors for the increase in water salinity of the Gorgan Bay. Results of field observations showed that, due to atmospheric factors, climate changes and decreasing of precipitation over the southern basin of the Caspian Sea during last decades, the water level of bay was reduced around 0.5 m.

Keywords: Caspian Sea, Gorgan Bay, water level fluctuation, climate changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
11013 Performance Evaluation of Thermosiphon Based Solar Water Heater in India

Authors: Dnyandip K. Bhamare, Manish K Rathod, Jyotirmay Banerjee


This paper aims to study performance of a thermosiphon solar water heating system with the help of the proposed analytical model. This proposed model predicts the temperature and mass flow rate in a thermosiphon solar water heating system depending on radiation intensity and ambient temperature. The performance of the thermosiphon solar water heating system is evaluated in the Indian context. For this, eight cities in India are selected considering radiation intensity and geographical positions. Predicted performance at various cities reveals the potential for thermosiphon solar water in India.

Keywords: solar water heater, collector outlet temperature, thermosyphon, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
11012 Preliminary Study on Using of Thermal Energy from Effluent Water for the SBR Process of RO

Authors: Gyeong-Sung Kim, In-soo Ahn, Yong Cho


SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) process is usually applied to membrane water treatment plants to treat its concentrated wastewater. The role of SBR process is to remove COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and NH3 from wastewater before discharging it outside of the water treatment plant using microorganism. Microorganism’s nitrification capability is influenced by water temperature because the nitrification rate of the concentrated wastewater becomes ‘zero’ as water temperature approach 0℃. Heating system is necessary to operate SBR in winter season even though the operating cost increase sharply. The operating cost of SBR at ‘D’ RO water treatment plant in Korea was 51.8 times higher in winter (October to March) compare to summer (April to September) season in 2014. Otherwise the effluent water temperature maintained around 8℃ constantly in winter. This study focuses on application heat pump system to recover the thermal energy from the effluent water of ‘D’ RO plant so that the operating cost will be reduced.

Keywords: water treatment, water thermal energy, energy saving, RO, SBR

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
11011 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Das, Niranjan Kumar, Prasun Chakraborti


Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: high temperature tribology, oxidation, turbostratic graphite, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
11010 Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Control System for Fish Farms Based on IoT

Authors: Nadia Yaghoobi, Seyed Majid Esmaeilzadeh


Due to advancements in wireless communication, new sensor capabilities have been created. In addition to the automation industry, the Internet of Things (IoT) has been used in environmental issues and has provided the possibility of communication between different devices for data collection and exchange. Water quality depends on many factors which are essential for maintaining the minimum sustainability of water. Regarding the great dependence of fishes on the quality of the aquatic environment, water quality can directly affect their activity. Therefore, monitoring water quality is an important issue to consider, especially in the fish farming industry. The conventional method of water quality testing is to collect water samples manually and send them to a laboratory for testing and analysis. This time-consuming method is a waste of manpower and is not cost-effective. The water quality measurement system implemented in this project monitors water quality in real-time through various sensors (parameters: water temperature, water level, dissolved oxygen, humidity and ambient temperature, water turbidity, PH). The Wi-Fi module, ESP8266, transmits data collected by sensors wirelessly to ThingSpeak and the smartphone app. Also, with the help of these instantaneous data, water temperature and water level can be controlled by using a heater and a water pump, respectively. This system can have a detailed study of the pollution and condition of water resources and can provide an environment for safe fish farming.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, IoT, monitoring, ThingSpeak, water level, water quality, WiFi module

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11009 Effect of Evaporator Temperature on the Performance of Water Desalination/Refrigeration Adsorption System Using AQSOA-ZO2

Authors: Peter G. Youssef, Saad M. Mahmoud, Raya K. AL-Dadah


Many water desalination technologies have been developed but in general they are energy intensive and have high cost and adverse environmental impact. Recently, adsorption technology for water desalination has been investigated showing the potential of using low temperature waste heat (50-85oC) thus reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions. This work mathematically compares the performance of an adsorption cycle that produces two useful effects namely, fresh water and cooling using two different adsorbents, silica-gel and an advanced zeolite material AQSOA-ZO2, produced by Mitsubishi plastics. It was found that at low chilled water temperatures, typically below 20oC, the AQSOA-Z02 is more efficient than silica-gel as the cycle can produce 5.8 m3 of fresh water per day and 50.1 Rton of cooling per tonne of AQSOA-ZO2. Above 20oC silica-gel is still better as the cycle production reaches 8.4 m3 per day and 62.4 Rton per tonne of silica-gel. These results show the potential of using the AQSOA-Z02 at low chilled water temperature for water desalination and cooling applications.

Keywords: adsorption, desalination, refrigeration, seawater

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
11008 Effect of Current Density, Temperature and Pressure on Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyser Stack

Authors: Na Li, Samuel Simon Araya, Søren Knudsen Kær


This study investigates the effects of operating parameters of different current density, temperature and pressure on the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis stack. A 7-cell PEM water electrolysis stack was assembled and tested under different operation modules. The voltage change and polarization curves under different test conditions, namely current density, temperature and pressure, were recorded. Results show that higher temperature has positive effect on overall stack performance, where temperature of 80 ℃ improved the cell performance greatly. However, the cathode pressure and current density has little effect on stack performance.

Keywords: PEM electrolysis stack, current density, temperature, pressure

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11007 The Study on Corpse Floating Time in Shanghai Region of China

Authors: Hang Meng, Wen-Bin Liu, Bi Xiao, Kai-Jun Ma, Jian-Hui Xie, Geng Fei, Tian-Ye Zhang, Lu-Yi Xu, Dong-Chuan Zhang


The victims in water are often found in the coastal region, along river region or the region with lakes. In China, the examination for the bodies of victims in the water is conducted by forensic doctors working in the public security bureau. Because the enter water time for most of the victims are not clear, and often lack of monitor images and other information, so to find out the corpse enter water time for victims is very difficult. After the corpse of the victim enters the water, it sinks first, then corruption gas produces, which can make the density of the corpse to be less than water, and thus rise again. So the factor that determines the corpse floating time is temperature. On the basis of the temperature data obtained in Shanghai region of China (Shanghai is a north subtropical marine monsoon climate, with an average annual temperature of about 17.1℃. The hottest month is July, the average monthly temperature is 28.6℃, and the coldest month is January, the average monthly temperature is 4.8℃). This study selected about 100 cases with definite corpse enter water time and corpse floating time, analyzed the cases and obtained the empirical law of the corpse floating time. For example, in the Shanghai region, on June 15th and October 15th, the corpse floating time is about 1.5 days. In early December, the bodies who entered the water will go up around January 1st of the following year, and the bodies who enter water in late December will float in March of next year. The results of this study can be used to roughly estimate the water enter time of the victims in Shanghai. Forensic doctors around the world can also draw on the results of this study to infer the time when the corpses of the victims in the water go up.

Keywords: corpse enter water time, corpse floating time, drowning, forensic pathology, victims in the water

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
11006 Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium

Authors: P. Prasannakumar, L. Myoung Young, G. Seung Kye, P. Sang Hun, S. Chul Gyu


In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.

Keywords: embedded, optoacoustic, ultrasound , unfocused transducer

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11005 Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids

Authors: Eyüphan Manay, Bayram Sahin, Emre Mandev, Ibrahim Ates, Tuba Yetim


In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.

Keywords: magnetic nanofluids, thermal conductivity, viscosity, nife2o4-water, cofe2o4-water

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
11004 The Influence of Temperature on Apigenin Extraction from Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by Superheated Water

Authors: J. Švarc-Gajić, A. Cvetanović


Apigenin is a flavone synthetized by many plants and quite abundant in chamomile (Matricaria recutita) in its free form and in the form of its glucoside and different acylated forms. Many beneficial health effects have been attributed to apigenin, such as chemo-preventive, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antispasmodic. It is reported that free apigenin is much more bioactive in comparison to its bound forms. Subcritical water offers numerous advantages in comparison to conventional extraction techniques, such as good selectivity, low price and safety. Superheated water exhibits high hydrolytical potential which must be carefully balanced when using this solvent for the extraction of bioactive molecules. Moderate hydrolytical potential can be exploited to liberate apigenin from its bound forms, thus increasing biological potential of obtained extracts. The polarity of pressurized water and its hydrolytical potential are highly dependent on the temperature. In this research chamomile ligulate flowers were extracted by pressurized hot water in home-made subcritical water extractor in conditions of convective mass transfer. The influence of the extraction temperature was investigated at 30 bars. Extraction yields of total phenols, total flavonoids and apigenin depending on the operational temperature were calculated based on spectrometric assays. Optimal extraction temperature for maximum yields of total phenols and flavonoids showed to be 160°C, whereas apigenin yield was the highest at 120°C.

Keywords: superheated water, temperature, chamomile, apigenin

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
11003 Performance Analysis of Absorption Power Cycle under Different Source Temperatures

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim


The absorption power generation cycle based on the ammonia-water mixture has attracted much attention for efficient recovery of low-grade energy sources. In this paper, a thermodynamic performance analysis is carried out for a Kalina cycle using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid for efficient conversion of low-temperature heat source in the form of sensible energy. The effects of the source temperature on the system performance are extensively investigated by using the thermodynamic models. The results show that the source temperature as well as the ammonia mass fraction affects greatly on the thermodynamic performance of the cycle.

Keywords: ammonia-water mixture, Kalina cycle, low-grade heat source, source temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
11002 Design and Construction of a Solar Mobile Anaerobic Digestor for Rural Communities

Authors: César M. Moreira, Marco A. Pazmiño-Hernández, Marco A. Pazmiño-Barreno, Kyle Griffin, Pratap Pullammanappallil


An anaerobic digestion system that was completely operated on solar power (both photovoltaic and solar thermal energy), and mounted on a trailer to make it mobile, was designed and constructed. A 55-gallon batch digester was placed within a chamber that was heated by hot water pumped through a radiator. Hot water was produced by a solar thermal collector and photovoltaic panels charged a battery which operated pumps for recirculating water. It was found that the temperature in the heating chamber was maintained above ambient temperature but it follows the same trend as ambient temperature. The temperature difference between the chamber and ambient values was not constant but varied with time of day. Advantageously, the temperature difference was highest during night and early morning and lowest near noon. In winter, when ambient temperature dipped to 2 °C during early morning hours, the chamber temperature did not drop below 10 °C. Model simulations showed that even if the digester is subjected to diurnal variations of temperature (as observed in winter of a subtropical region), about 63 % of the waste that would have been processed under constant digester temperature of 38 °C, can still be processed. The cost of the digester system without the trailer was $1,800.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, solar-mobile, rural communities, solar, hybrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
11001 Enhancement Performance of Desalination System Using Humidification and Dehumidification Processes

Authors: Zeinab Syed Abdel Rehim


Water shortage is considered as one of the huge problems the world encounter now. Water desalination is considered as one of the more suitable methods governments can use to substitute the increased need for potable water. The humidification-dehumidification process for water desalination is viewed as a promising technique for small capacity production plants. The process has several attraction features which include the use of sustainable energy sources, low technology, and low-temperature dehumidification. A pilot experimental set-up plant was constructed with the conventional HVAC components such as air blower that supplies air to an air duct inside which air preheater, steam injector and cooling coil of a small refrigeration unit are placed. The present work evaluates the characteristics of humidification-dehumidification process for water desalination as a function of air flow rate, total power input and air inlet temperature in order to study the optimum conditions required to produce distilled water.

Keywords: condensation, dehumidification, evaporation, humidification, water desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
11000 Dynamic Process of Single Water Droplet Impacting on a Hot Heptane Surface

Authors: Mingjun Xu, Shouxiang Lu


Understanding the interaction mechanism between the water droplet and pool fire has an important significance in engineering application of water sprinkle/spray/mist fire suppression. The micro impact process is unclear when the droplet impacts on the burning liquid surface at present. To deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of pool fire suppression with water spray/mist, dynamic processes of single water droplet impinging onto a hot heptane surface are visualized with the aid of a high-speed digital camera at 2000 fps. Each test is repeated 20 times. The water droplet diameter is around 1.98 mm, and the impact Weber number ranges from 30 to 695. The heptane is heated by a hot plate to mimic the burning condition, and the temperature varies from 30 to 90°C. The results show that three typical phenomena, including penetration, crater-jet and surface bubble, are observed, and the pool temperature has a significant influence on the critical condition for the appearance of each phenomenon. A global picture of different phenomena is built according to impact Weber number and pool temperature. In addition, the pool temperature and Weber number have important influences on the characteristic parameters including maximum crater depth, crown height and liquid column height. For a fixed Weber number, the liquid column height increases with pool temperature.

Keywords: droplet impact, fire suppression, hot surface, water spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
10999 Design and Development of Solar Water Cooler Using Principle of Evaporation

Authors: Vipul Shiralkar, Rohit Khadilkar, Shekhar Kulkarni, Ismail Mullani, Omkar Malvankar


The use of water cooler has increased and become an important appliance in the world of global warming. Most of the coolers are electrically operated. In this study an experimental setup of evaporative water cooler using solar energy is designed and developed. It works on the principle of heat transfer using evaporation of water. Water is made to flow through copper tubes arranged in a specific array manner. Cotton plug is wrapped on copper tubes and rubber pipes are arranged in the same way as copper tubes above it. Water percolated from rubber pipes is absorbed by cotton plug. The setup has 40L water carrying capacity with forced cooling arrangement and variable speed fan which uses solar energy stored in 20Ah capacity battery. Fan speed greatly affects the temperature drop. Tests were performed at different fan speed. Maximum temperature drop achieved was 90C at 1440 rpm of fan speed. This temperature drop is very attractive. This water cooler uses solar energy hence it is cost efficient and it is affordable to rural community as well. The cooler is free from any harmful emissions like other refrigerants and hence environmental friendly. Very less maintenance is required as compared to the conventional electrical water cooler.

Keywords: evaporation, cooler, energy, copper, solar, cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
10998 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy


As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: desalination, scarcity of fresh water, water purification, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
10997 Wireless Sensor Networks for Water Quality Monitoring: Prototype Design

Authors: Cesar Eduardo Hernández Curiel, Victor Hugo Benítez Baltazar, Jesús Horacio Pacheco Ramírez


This paper is devoted to present the advances in the design of a prototype that is able to supervise the complex behavior of water quality parameters such as pH and temperature, via a real-time monitoring system. The current water quality tests that are performed in government water quality institutions in Mexico are carried out in problematic locations and they require taking manual samples. The water samples are then taken to the institution laboratory for examination. In order to automate this process, a water quality monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks is proposed. The system consists of a sensor node which contains one pH sensor, one temperature sensor, a microcontroller, and a ZigBee radio, and a base station composed by a ZigBee radio and a PC. The progress in this investigation shows the development of a water quality monitoring system. Due to recent events that affected water quality in Mexico, the main motivation of this study is to address water quality monitoring systems, so in the near future, a more robust, affordable, and reliable system can be deployed.

Keywords: pH measurement, water quality monitoring, wireless sensor networks, ZigBee

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
10996 Water Gas Shift Activity of PtBi/CeO₂ Catalysts for Hydrogen Production

Authors: N. Laosiripojana, P. Tepamatr


The influence of bismuth on the water gas shift activities of Pt on ceria was studied. The flow reactor was used to study the activity of the catalysts in temperature range 100-400°C. The feed gas composition contains 5%CO, 10% H₂O and balance N₂. The total flow rate was 100 mL/min. The outlet gas was analyzed by on-line gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector. The catalytic activities of bimetallic 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ catalyst were greatly enhanced when compared with the activities of monometallic 2%Pt/CeO₂ catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and surface area analysis. X-ray diffraction pattern of Pt/CeO₂ and PtBi/CeO₂ indicated slightly shift of diffraction angle when compared with pure ceria. This result was due to strong metal-support interaction between platinum and ceria solid solution, causing conversion of Ce⁴⁺ to larger Ce³⁺. The distortions inside ceria lattice structure generated strain into the oxide lattice and facilitated the formation of oxygen vacancies which help to increase water gas shift performance. The H₂-Temperature Programmed Reduction indicated that the reduction peak of surface oxygen of 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ shifts to lower temperature than that of 2%Pt/CeO₂ causing the enhancement of the water gas shift activity of this catalyst. Pt played an important role in catalyzing the surface reduction of ceria and addition of Bi alter the reduction temperature of surface ceria resulting in the improvement of the water gas shift activity of Pt catalyst.

Keywords: bismuth, platinum, water gas shift, ceria

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10995 An Experimental Study on the Temperature Reduction of Exhaust Gas at a Snorkeling of Submarine

Authors: Seok-Tae Yoon, Jae-Yeong Choi, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Yong-Jin Cho, Jong-Chun Park


Conventional submarines obtain propulsive force by using an electric propulsion system consisting of a diesel generator, battery, motor, and propeller. In the underwater, the submarine uses the electric power stored in the battery. After that, when a certain amount of electric power is consumed, the submarine floats near the sea water surface and recharges the electric power by using the diesel generator. The voyage carried out while charging the power is called a snorkel, and the high-temperature exhaust gas from the diesel generator forms a heat distribution on the sea water surface. The heat distribution is detected by weapon system equipped with thermo-detector and that is the main cause of reducing the survivability of the submarine. In this paper, an experimental study was carried out to establish optimal operating conditions of a submarine for reduction of infrared signature radiated from the sea water surface. For this, a hot gas generating system and a round acrylic water tank with adjustable water level were made. The control variables of the experiment were set as the mass flow rate, the temperature difference between the water and the hot gas in the water tank, and the water level difference between the air outlet and the water surface. The experimental instrumentation used a thermocouple of T-type to measure the released air temperature on the surface of the water, and a thermography system to measure the thermal energy distribution on the water surface. As a result of the experiment study, we analyzed the correlation between the final released temperature of the exhaust pipe exit in a submarine and the depth of the snorkel, and presented reasonable operating conditions for the infrared signature reduction of submarine.

Keywords: experiment study, flow rate, infrared signature, snorkeling, thermography

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
10994 Unsupervised Learning and Similarity Comparison of Water Mass Characteristics with Gaussian Mixture Model for Visualizing Ocean Data

Authors: Jian-Heng Wu, Bor-Shen Lin


The temperature-salinity relationship is one of the most important characteristics used for identifying water masses in marine research. Temperature-salinity characteristics, however, may change dynamically with respect to the geographic location and is quite sensitive to the depth at the same location. When depth is taken into consideration, however, it is not easy to compare the characteristics of different water masses efficiently for a wide range of areas of the ocean. In this paper, the Gaussian mixture model was proposed to analyze the temperature-salinity-depth characteristics of water masses, based on which comparison between water masses may be conducted. Gaussian mixture model could model the distribution of a random vector and is formulated as the weighting sum for a set of multivariate normal distributions. The temperature-salinity-depth data for different locations are first used to train a set of Gaussian mixture models individually. The distance between two Gaussian mixture models can then be defined as the weighting sum of pairwise Bhattacharyya distances among the Gaussian distributions. Consequently, the distance between two water masses may be measured fast, which allows the automatic and efficient comparison of the water masses for a wide range area. The proposed approach not only can approximate the distribution of temperature, salinity, and depth directly without the prior knowledge for assuming the regression family, but may restrict the complexity by controlling the number of mixtures when the amounts of samples are unevenly distributed. In addition, it is critical for knowledge discovery in marine research to represent, manage and share the temperature-salinity-depth characteristics flexibly and responsively. The proposed approach has been applied to a real-time visualization system of ocean data, which may facilitate the comparison of water masses by aggregating the data without degrading the discriminating capabilities. This system provides an interface for querying geographic locations with similar temperature-salinity-depth characteristics interactively and for tracking specific patterns of water masses, such as the Kuroshio near Taiwan or those in the South China Sea.

Keywords: water mass, Gaussian mixture model, data visualization, system framework

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10993 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al-Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola


In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, water, electrodes, iron

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10992 Effect of Polymer Residues for Wastewater Treatment from Petroleum Production

Authors: Chayonnat Thanamun, Kreangkrai Maneeintr


For petroleum industry, polymer flooding is the one of the main methods in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that is used water-soluble polymer such as partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) to increase oil production. It is added to the flooding water to improve the mobility ratio in the flooding process. During the polymer flooding process, water is produced as a by-product along with oil and gas production. This produced water is a mixture of inorganic and organic compound. Moreover, produced water is more difficult to treat than that from water flooding. In this work, the effect of HPAM residue on the wastewater treatment from polymer flooding is studied. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is selected to use as a flocculant. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of polymer residues in produced water on the wastewater treatment by using PAC. The operating parameters of this study are flocculant dosage ranging from 300,400 and 500 mg/L temperature from 30-50 Celsius degree and HPAM concentrations from 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L. Furthermore, the turbidity, as well as total suspended solids (TSS), are also studied. The results indicated that with an increase in HPAM concentration, the TSS and turbidity increase gradually with the increasing of coagulant dosage under the same temperature. Also, the coagulation-flocculation performance is improved with the increasing temperature. This can be applied to use in the wastewater treatment from oil production before this water can be injected back to the reservoir.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, petroleum production, polyaluminium chloride, polyacrylamide

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10991 Effect of Temperature on the Water Retention Capacity of Liner Materials

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mahbashi, Mosleh A. Al-Shamrani, Muawia Dafalla


Mixtures of sand and clay are frequently used to serve for specific purposes in several engineering practices. In environmental engineering, liner layers and cover layers are common for controlling waste disposal facilities. These layers are exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuation specially when existing in unsaturated condition. The relationship between soil suction and water content for these materials is essential for understanding their unsaturated behavior and properties such as retention capacity and unsaturated follow (hydraulic conductivity). This study is aimed at investigating retention capacity for two sand-natural expansive clay mixtures (15% (C15) and 30% (C30) expansive clay) at two ambient temperatures within the range of 5 -50 °C. Soil water retention curves (SWRC) for these materials were determined at these two ambient temperatures using different salt solutions for a wide range of suction (up to 200MPa). The results indicate that retention capacity of C15 mixture underwent significant changes due to temperature variations. This effect tends to be less visible when the clay fraction is doubled (C30). In addition, the overall volume change is marginally affected by high temperature within the range considered in this study.

Keywords: soil water retention curve, sand-expansive clay liner, suction, temperature

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10990 Application of Dissolved Air Flotation for Removal of Oil from Wastewater

Authors: Talat Ghomashchi, Zahra Akbari, Shirin Malekpour, Marjan Alimirzaee


Mixing the waste water of industries with natural water has caused environmental pollution. So researcher try to obtain methods and optimum conditions for waste water treatment. One of important stage in waste water treatment is dissolved air flotation. DAF is used for the removal of suspended solids and oils from waste water. In this paper, the effect of several parameters on flotation efficiency with Cationic polyacrylamide as flocculant, was examined, namely, (a) concentration of cationic flocculants, (b) pH (c) fast mixing time, (d) fast mixing speed,(e) slow mixing time,(f) retention time and temperature. After design of experiment, in each trial turbidity of waste water was measured by spectrophotometer. Results show that contribution of pH and concentration of flocculant on flotation efficiency are 75% and 9% respectively. Cationic polyacrylamide led to a significant increase in the settling speed and effect of temperature is negligible. In the optimum condition, the outcome of the DAF unit is increased and amount of suspended solid and oil in waste water is decreased effectively.

Keywords: dissolved air flotation, oil industry, waste water, treatment

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10989 Control Strategy of Solar Thermal Cooling System under the Indonesia Climate

Authors: Budihardjo Sarwo Sastrosudiro, Arnas Lubis, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, Nasruddin Jusuf


Solar thermal cooling system was installed on Mechanical Research Center (MRC) Building that is located in Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. It is the first cooling system in Indonesia that utilizes solar energy as energy input combined with natural gas; therefore, the control system must be appropriated with the climates. In order to stabilize the cooling capacity and also to maximize the use of solar energy, the system applies some controllers. Constant flow rate and on/off controller are applied for the hot water, chilled water and cooling water pumps. The hot water circulated by pump when the solar radiation is over than 400W/m2, and the chilled water is continually circulated by pump and its temperature is kept constant 7 °C by absorption chiller. The cooling water is also continually circulated until the outlet temperature of cooling tower below than 27 oC. Furthermore, the three-way valve is used to control the hot water for generate vapor on absorption chiller. The system performance using that control system is shown in this study results.

Keywords: absorption chiller, control system, solar cooling, solar energy

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10988 Studies on the Spontaneous Reductive Decomposition Behavior of Permanganate in the Water

Authors: Hyun Kyu Lee, Won Zin Oh, June Hyun Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Sang June Choi, Hak Soo Kim


The oxidative dissolution of chromium oxide by manganese oxides including permanganate have been widely studied not only for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plant, but also for the environmental control of the toxic chromate caused by naturally occurring manganese dioxide. However, little attention has been made for the spontaneous reductive decomposition of permanganate in the water, which is a competing reaction with the oxidation of the chromium oxide by permanganate. The objective of this study is to investigate the spontaneous reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water, depending on the variation of acidity, temperature and concentration. Results of the experiments showed that the permanganate reductive decomposition product is manganese dioxide, and this reaction accompanies with the same molar amount of hydrogen ion consumption. Therefore, at the neutral condition (ex. potassium permanganate solution without acidic chemicals), the permanganate do not reduce by itself at any condition of temperature, concentration within the experimental range. From the results, we confirmed that the oxidation reaction for the permanganate reduction is the water oxidation that is accompanying the oxygen evolution. The experimental results on the reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water also showed that the degree and rate of permanganate reduction increases with the temperature, acidity and concentration. The spontaneous decomposition of the permanganates obtained in the studies would become a good reference to select the operational condition, such as temperature, acidity and concentration, for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plants.

Keywords: permanganate reduction, spontaneous decomposition, water oxidation, acidity, temperature, permanganate concentration, chemical decontamination, nuclear power plant

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