Search results for: elevated temperature
6779 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature
Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan
Abstract:Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.
Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3Procedia PDF Downloads 233
6778 Recurring as a Means of Partial Strength Recovery of Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures
Authors: Shree Laxmi Prashant, Subhash C. Yaragal, K. S. Babu Narayan
Abstract:Concrete is found to undergo degradation when subjected to elevated temperatures and loose substantial amount of its strength. The loss of strength in concrete is mainly attributed to decomposition of C-S-H and release of physically and chemically bound water, which begins when the exposure temperature exceeds 100°C. When such a concrete comes in contact with moisture, the cement paste is found rehydrate and considerable amount of strength lost is found to recover. This paper presents results of an experimental program carried out to investigate the effect of recuring on strength gain of OPC concrete specimens subjected to elevated temperatures from 200°C to 800°C, which were subjected to retention time of two hours and four hours at the designated temperature. Strength recoveries for concrete subjected to 7 designated elevated temperatures are compared. It is found that the efficacy of recuring as a measure of strength recovery reduces with increase in exposure temperature.
Keywords: elevated temperature, recuring, strength recovery, compressive strengthProcedia PDF Downloads 528
6777 Effects of Aggregate Type and Concrete Age on Compressive Strength After Subjected to Elevated Temperature
Authors: Ahmed M. Seyam, Rita Nemes
Abstract:In this study, the influence of elevated temperature and concrete age on the compressive strength of concrete produced by normal quartz aggregate, expanded clay, expanded glass, crushed andesite and crushed clay bricks aggregates were investigated. For this purpose, six different mixtures were prepared by 100% replacement of the coarse aggregate. The specimens were cured in water for seven days, then kept in the laboratory for 120 days and 240 days. The concrete specimens were heated in an electric furnace up to 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 °C and kept at these temperatures for two hours heating, then for 24 hours cooling. The residual compressive strength of the specimens was measured. The results showed that, the elevated temperature induces a significant decrease in a compressive strength in both normal weight and lightweight aggregate concrete, by comparing the behavior of different mixes, in all cases, the strength of the specimens containing crushed andesite aggregates showed a better performance for compressive strength after exposure to elevated temperatures over 800 °C, while the specimens containing expanded glass showing the least residual strength after subjected to elevated temperature; moreover the age of the concrete in all mixes has also been an effective factor, the behavior of the concrete strength loss by increasing heating temperature was not changed but the strength results showing the better performance and higher compressive strength in both ambient and elevated temperature.
Keywords: elevated temperature, concrete age, compressive strength, expanded clay, expanded glass, crushed andesite, crushed clay bricksProcedia PDF Downloads 28
6776 Effects of Elevated Temperatures on the Pumice Based Geoplymer Microstructure
Authors: Mehrzad Mohabbi Yadollahi, Pouneh Abdollahifard, Behzad Mokhtare, Majid Atashafrazeh
Abstract:Geopolymers are believed to provide good fire resistance. The effects of elevated temperatures on mechanical and microstructural properties of pumice-based geopolymer were investigated in this study. Pumice based geopolymer was exposed to elevated temperatures of 200, 400, 600, and 800 ºC for 3 hours. The residual strength of these specimens was determined after cooling at room temperature and microstructures of these samples were investigated by FTIR and SEM analyses. Specimens which were initially grey turned reddish accompanied by the appearance of cracks as temperatures increased to 600 and 800 ºC.
Keywords: geopolymer, pumice, elevated temperature, SEM, FTIRProcedia PDF Downloads 354
6775 Mechanical and Micro-Structural Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer with High-Temperature Exposure
Authors: Young-Cheol Choi, Joo-Hyung Kim, Gyu-Don Moon
Abstract:This paper discusses the effect of Na2O (alkali) content, SiO2/Na2O mole ratio, and elevated temperature on the mechanical performance of fly-ash-based inorganic green geopolymer composites. Fly-ash-based geopolymers, which were manufactured with varying alkali contents (4–8 % of fly ash weight) and SiO2/Na2O mole ratios (0.6–1.4), were subjected to elevated temperatures up to 900 ºC ; the geopolymer composites and their performance were evaluated on the basis of weight loss and strength loss after temperature exposure. In addition, mineralogical changes due to the elevated temperature exposure were studied using x-ray diffraction. Investigations of microstructures and microprobe analysis were performed using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results showed that the fly-ash-based geopolymer responded significantly to high-temperature conditions.
Keywords: fly ash, geopolymer, micro-structure, high-temperature, mechanical structuralProcedia PDF Downloads 542
6774 Numerical Study on the Ultimate Load of Offshore Two-Planar Tubular KK-Joints at Fire-Induced Elevated Temperatures
Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari-Dodaran
Abstract:A total of 270 nonlinear steady-state finite element (FE) analyses were performed on 54 FE models of two-planar circular hollow section (CHS) KK-joints subjected to axial loading at five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). The primary goal was to investigate the effects of temperature and geometrical characteristics on the ultimate strength, modes of failure, and initial stiffness of the KK-joints. Results indicated that on an average basis, the ultimate load of a two-planar tubular KK-joint at 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC is 90%, 75%, 45%, and 16% of the joint’s ultimate load at ambient temperature, respectively. Outcomes of the parametric study showed that replacing the yield stress at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature to apply the EN 1993-1-8 equations for the calculation of the joint’s ultimate load at elevated temperatures may lead to highly unconservative results that might endanger the safety of the structure. Results of the parametric study were then used to develop a set of design formulas, through nonlinear regression analyses, to calculate the ultimate load of two-planar tubular KK-joints subjected to axial loading at elevated temperatures.
Keywords: ultimate load, two-planar tubular KK-joint, axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equationProcedia PDF Downloads 89
6773 Residual Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated Unprocessed Waste Fly Ash after Expose to the Elevated Temperature
Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes, Salem Nehme
Abstract:The present study experimentally investigated the impact of incorporating unprocessed waste fly ash (UWFA) on the residual mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) after exposure to elevated temperature. Three mixtures of SCC have been produced by replacing the cement mass by 0%, 15% and 30% of UWFA. Generally, the fire resistance of SCC has been enhanced by replacing the cement up to 15% of UWFA, especially in case of residual modulus of elasticity which considers more sensitive than other mechanical properties at elevated temperature. However, a strong linear relationship has been observed between the residual flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, where both of them affected significantly by the cracks appearance and propagation as a result of elevated temperature. Sustainable products could be produced by incorporating unprocessed waste powder materials in the production of concrete, where the waste materials, CO2 emissions, and the energy needed for processing are reduced.
Keywords: self-compacting high-performance concrete, unprocessed waste fly ash, fire resistance, residual modulus of elasticityProcedia PDF Downloads 78
6772 A Study on Behaviour of Normal Strength Concrete and High Strength Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures
Authors: Butchi Kameswara Rao Chittem, Rooban Kumar
Abstract:Cement concrete is a complex mixture of different materials. Concrete is believed to have a good fire resistance. Behaviour of concrete depends on its mix proportions and its constituent materials when it is subjected to elevated temperatures. Loss in compressive strength, loss in weight or mass, change in colour and spall of concrete are reported in literature as effects of elevated temperature on concrete. In this paper results are reported on the behaviour of normal strength concrete and high strength concrete subjected to temperatures 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C and different cooling regimes viz. air cooling, water quenching. Rebound hammer test was also conducted to study the changes in surface hardness of concrete specimens subjected to elevated temperatures.
Keywords: normal strength concrete, high-strength concrete, temperature, NDTProcedia PDF Downloads 350
6771 Evaluating the Fire Resistance of Offshore Tubular K-Joints Subjected to Balanced Axial Loads
Authors: Neda Azari Dodaran, Hamid Ahmadi
Abstract:Results of 405 finite element (FE) analyses were used in the present research to study the effect of the joint geometry on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of tubular K-joints subjected to axial loading at fire-induced elevated temperatures. The FE models were validated against the data available from experimental tests. Structural behavior under different temperatures (200ºC, 400ºC, 500ºC, and 700ºC) was investigated and compared to the behavior at ambient temperature (20ºC). A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. Afterwards, ultimate strength data extracted from the FE analyses were compared with the values calculated from the equations proposed by available design codes in which the ultimate strength of the joint at elevated temperatures is obtained by replacing the yield stress of the steel at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature. It was indicated that this method may not have acceptable accuracy for K-joints under axial loading. Hence, a design formula was developed, through nonlinear regression analyses, to determine the ultimate strength of K-joints subjected to balanced axial loads at elevated temperatures.
Keywords: axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation, static strength, tubular K-jointProcedia PDF Downloads 91
6770 Elevated Temperature Shot Peening for M50 Steel
Authors: Xinxin Ma, Guangze Tang, Shuxin Yang, Jinguang He, Fan Zhang, Peiling Sun, Ming Liu, Minyu Sun, Liqin Wang
Abstract:As a traditional surface hardening technique, shot peening is widely used in industry. By using shot peening, a residual compressive stress is formed in the surface which is beneficial for improving the fatigue life of metal materials. At the same time, very fine grains and high density defects are generated in the surface layer which enhances the surface hardness, either. However, most of the processes are carried out at room temperature. For high strength steel, such as M50, the thickness of the strengthen layer is limited. In order to obtain a thick strengthen surface layer, elevated temperature shot peening was carried out in this work by using Φ1mm cast ion balls with a speed of 80m/s. Considering the tempering temperature of M50 steel is about 550 oC, the processing temperature was in the range from 300 to 500 oC. The effect of processing temperature and processing time of shot peening on distribution of residual stress and surface hardness was investigated. As we known, the working temperature of M50 steel can be as high as 315 oC. Because the defects formed by shot peening are unstable when the working temperature goes higher, it is worthy to understand what happens during the shot peening process, and what happens when the strengthen samples were kept at a certain temperature. In our work, the shot peening time was selected from 2 to 10 min. And after the strengthening process, the samples were annealed at various temperatures from 200 to 500 oC up to 60 h. The results show that the maximum residual compressive stress is near 900 MPa. Compared with room temperature shot peening, the strengthening depth of 500 oC shot peening sample is about 2 times deep. The surface hardness increased with the processing temperature, and the saturation peening time decreases. After annealing, the residual compressive stress decreases, however, for 500 oC peening sample, even annealing at 500 oC for 20 h, the residual compressive stress is still over 600 MPa. However, it is clean to see from SEM that the grain size of surface layers is still very small.
Keywords: shot peening, M50 steel, residual compressive stress, elevated temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 359
6769 Effects of Geometrical Parameters on Static Strength of Tubular KT-Joints at Fire Condition
Authors: Hamid Ahmadi, Neda Azari Dodaran
Abstract:This paper aims to study the structural behavior of tubular KT-joints subjected to axial loading at fire induced elevated temperatures. At first, a finite element (FE) model was developed and validated against the data available from experimental tests. Then, a set of 810 FE analyses were performed to study the influence of temperature and dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. The joints were analyzed under two types of axial loading and five different temperatures (20 ºC, 200 ºC, 400 ºC, 550 ºC, and 700 ºC). Results show that the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of KT-joints decrease considerably by increasing the temperature. In the joints having bigger values of the β, the temperature elevation leads to less reduction in ultimate strength; while in the joints with bigger values of the γ, the temperature elevation results in more reduction in ultimate strength. The influence of the θ on the ultimate strength is independent from the temperature. To our knowledge, there is no design formula available for determining the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures. Hence, after parametric study, two equations were developed through nonlinear regression, for calculating the ultimate strength of KT-joints at elevated temperatures.
Keywords: axial loads, fire condition, parametric formula, static strength, tubular KT-jointProcedia PDF Downloads 92
6768 Experimental Study of LPG Diffusion Flame at Elevated Preheated Air Temperatures
Authors: Ahmed A. El-Kafy Amer, H. M. Gad, A. I. Ibrahim, S. I. Abdel-Mageed, T. M. Farag
Abstract:This paper represents an experimental study of LPG diffusion flame at elevated air preheated temperatures. The flame is stabilized in a vertical water-cooled combustor by using air swirler. An experimental test rig was designed to investigate the different operating conditions. The burner head is designed so that the LPG fuel issued centrally and surrounded by the swirling air issues from an air swirler. There are three air swirlers having the same dimensions but having different blade angles to give different swirl numbers of 0.5, 0.87 and 1.5. The combustion air was heated electrically before entering the combustor up to a temperature about 500 K. Three air to fuel mass ratios of 30, 40 and 50 were also studied. The effect of air preheated temperature, swirl number and air to fuel mass ratios on the temperature maps, visible flame length, high temperature region (size) and exhaust species concentrations are studied. Some results show that as the air preheated temperature increases, the volume of high temperature region also increased but the flame length decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature, EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 increased, while EICO decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature from 300 to 500 K, for all air swirl numbers used, the highest increase in EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 are 141, 4 and 65%, respectively.
Keywords: air preheated temperature, air swirler, flame length, emission indexProcedia PDF Downloads 424
6767 Interaction of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Temperature on Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Growth and Fruit Yield
Authors: Himali N. Balasooriya, Kithsiri B. Dassanayake, Saman Seneweera, Said Ajlouni
Abstract:Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] and ambient temperature associated with changing climatic conditions will have significant impacts on agriculture crop productivity and quality. Independent effects of the above two environmental variables on the growth, yield and quality of strawberry were well documented. Higher temperatures over the optimum range (20-25ºC) lead to crop failures, while elevated [CO2] stimulated plant growth and yield but compromised the physical quality of fruits. However, there is very limited understanding of the interaction between these variables on the plant growth, yield and quality. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the interactive effect of high temperature and elevated [CO2] on growth, yield and quality of strawberries. Strawberry cultivars ‘Albion’ and ‘San Andreas’ were grown under six different combinations of two temperatures (25 and 30ºC) and three [CO2] (400, 650 and 950 µmol mol-1) in controlled-environmental growth chambers. Plant growth measurements such as plant height, canopy area, number of flowers, and fruit yield were measured during phonological development. Photosynthesis and transpiration, the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric [CO2] (Ci/Ca) were measured to estimate the physiological adjustment to climate stress. The impact of temperature and [CO2] interaction on growth and yield of strawberry was significant (p < 0.05). Across both cultivars, highest fruit yields were observed at 650 µmol mol-1 [CO2], which was particularly clear at 25°C. The fruit yield gradually decreased at 30°C under all the treatment combinations. However, photosynthesis rates were highest at 650 µmol mol-1 [CO2] but no increment was found at 900 µmol mol-1 [CO2]. Interestingly, Ci/Ca ratio increased with increasing atmospheric [CO2] which was predominant at high temperature. Similarly, fruit yield was substantially reduced at high [CO2] under high temperature. Our findings suggest that increased Ci/Ca ratio at high temperature is likely reduces the photosynthesis and thus yield response to elevated [CO2].
Keywords: atmospheric CO₂ concentration, fruit yield, strawberry, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 140
6766 Evaluating Residual Mechanical and Physical Properties of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures
Authors: S. Hachemi, A. Ounis, S. Chabi
Abstract:This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effects of elevated temperature on compressive and flexural strength of Normal Strength Concrete (NSC), High Strength Concrete (HSC) and High Performance Concrete (HPC). In addition, the specimen mass and volume were measured before and after heating in order to determine the loss of mass and volume during the test. In terms of non-destructive measurement, ultrasonic pulse velocity test was proposed as a promising initial inspection method for fire damaged concrete structure. 100 Cube specimens for three grades of concrete were prepared and heated at a rate of 3°C/min up to different temperatures (150, 250, 400, 600, and 900°C). The results show a loss of compressive and flexural strength for all the concretes heated to temperature exceeding 400°C. The results also revealed that mass and density of the specimen significantly reduced with an increase in temperature.
Keywords: high temperature, compressive strength, mass loss, ultrasonic pulse velocityProcedia PDF Downloads 282
6765 Stress-Strain Relation for Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperature
Authors: Josef Novák, Alena Kohoutková
Abstract:The performance of concrete structures in fire depends on several factors which include, among others, the change in material properties due to the fire. Today, fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) belongs to materials which have been widely used for various structures and elements. While the knowledge and experience with FRC behavior under ambient temperature is well-known, the effect of elevated temperature on its behavior has to be deeply investigated. This paper deals with an experimental investigation and stress‑strain relations for hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) which contains siliceous aggregates, polypropylene and steel fibers. The main objective of the experimental investigation is to enhance a database of mechanical properties of concrete composites with addition of fibers subject to elevated temperature as well as to validate existing stress-strain relations for HFRC. Within the investigation, a unique heat transport test, compressive test and splitting tensile test were performed on 150 mm cubes heated up to 200, 400, and 600 °C with the aim to determine a time period for uniform heat distribution in test specimens and the mechanical properties of the investigated concrete composite, respectively. Both findings obtained from the presented experimental test as well as experimental data collected from scientific papers so far served for validating the computational accuracy of investigated stress-strain relations for HFRC which have been developed during last few years. Owing to the presence of steel and polypropylene fibers, HFRC becomes a unique material whose structural performance differs from conventional plain concrete when exposed to elevated temperature. Polypropylene fibers in HFRC lower the risk of concrete spalling as the fibers burn out shortly with increasing temperature due to low ignition point and as a consequence pore pressure decreases. On the contrary, the increase in the concrete porosity might affect the mechanical properties of the material. To validate this thought requires enhancing the existing result database which is very limited and does not contain enough data. As a result of the poor database, only few stress-strain relations have been developed so far to describe the structural performance of HFRC at elevated temperature. Moreover, many of them are inconsistent and need to be refined. Most of them also do not take into account the effect of both a fiber type and fiber content. Such approach might be vague especially when high amount of polypropylene fibers are used. Therefore, the existing relations should be validated in detail based on other experimental results.
Keywords: elevated temperature, fiber reinforced concrete, mechanical properties, stress strain relationProcedia PDF Downloads 265
6764 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes
Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao
Abstract:The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.
Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphologyProcedia PDF Downloads 95
6763 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature
Authors: Sung-Uk Wee, Chang-Sung Seok, Jae-Mean Koo, Jeong-Min Lee
Abstract:Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.
Keywords: gas turbine blade, tensile test, fatigue life, stress-strainProcedia PDF Downloads 388
6762 Enhanced High-Temperature Strength of HfNbTaTiZrV Refractory High-Entropy Alloy via Al₂O₃ Reinforcement
Authors: Bingjie Wang, Qianqian Qang, Nan Lu, Xiubing Liang, Baolong Shen
Abstract:Novel composites of HfNbTaTiZrV refractory high-entropy alloy (RHEA) reinforced with 0-5 vol.% Al₂O₃ particles have been synthesized by vacuum arc melting. The microstructure evolution, compressive mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures, as well as strengthening mechanism of the composites, are analyzed. The HfNbTaTiZrV RHEA reinforced with 4 vol.% Al₂O₃ displays excellent phase stability at elevated temperatures. A superior compressive yield strength of 2700 MPa at room temperature, 1392 MPa at 800 °C, and 693 MPa at 1000 °C has been obtained for this composite. The improved yield strength results from multiple strengthening mechanisms caused by Al₂O₃ addition, including interstitial strengthening, grain boundary strengthening, and dispersion strengthening. Besides, the effects of interstitial strengthening increase with the temperature and is the main strengthening mechanism at elevated temperatures. These findings not only promote the development of oxide-reinforced RHEAs for challenging engineering applications but also provide guidelines for the design of light refractory materials with multiple strengthening mechanisms.
Keywords: Al₂O₃-reinforcement, HfNbTaTiZrV, refractory high-entropy alloy, interstitial strengtheningProcedia PDF Downloads 17
6761 In situ High Temperature Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films
Authors: M. Rouhani, F. C. N. Hong, Y. R. Jeng
Abstract:The tribological performance of DLC films is limited by graphitization at elevated temperatures. Despite of numerous studies on the thermal stability of DLC films, a comprehensive in-situ characterization at elevated temperature is still lacking. In this study, DLC films were deposited using filtered cathodic arc vacuum method. Thermal stability of the films was characterized in-situally using a synchronized technique integrating Raman spectroscopy and depth-sensing measurements. Tests were performed in a high temperature chamber coupled with feedback control to make it possible to study the temperature effects in the range of 21 – 450 ̊C. Co-located SPM and Raman microscopy maps at different temperature over a specific area on the surface of the film were prepared. The results show that the thermal stability of the DLC films depends on their sp3 content. Films with lower sp3 content endure graphitization during the temperature-course used in this study. The graphitization is accompanied with significant changes in surface roughness and Raman spectrum of the film. Surface roughness of the films start to change even before graphitization transformation could be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Depth-sensing tests (nanoindentation, nano-scratch and wear) endorse the surface roughness change seen before graphitization occurrence. This in-situ study showed that the surface of the films is more sensitive to temperature rise compared to the bulk. We presume the changes observed in films hardness, surface roughness and scratch resistance with temperature rise, before graphitization occurrence, is due to surface relaxation.
Keywords: DLC film, nanoindentation, Raman spectroscopy, thermal stabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 128
6760 Experimental and Simulation Stress Strain Comparison of Hot Single Point Incremental Forming
Authors: Amar Al-Obaidi, Verena Kräusel, Dirk Landgrebe
Abstract:Induction assisted single point incremental forming (IASPIF) is a flexible method and can be simply utilized to form a high strength alloys. Due to the interaction between the mechanical and thermal properties during IASPIF an evaluation for the process is necessary to be performed analytically. Therefore, a numerical simulation was carried out in this paper. The numerical analysis was operated at both room and elevated temperatures then compared with experimental results. Fully coupled dynamic temperature displacement explicit analysis was used to simulated the hot single point incremental forming. The numerical analysis was indicating that during hot single point incremental forming were a combination between complicated compression, tension and shear stresses. As a result, the equivalent plastic strain was increased excessively by rising both the formed part depth and the heating temperature during forming. Whereas, the forming forces were decreased from 5 kN at room temperature to 0.95 kN at elevated temperature. The simulation shows that the maximum true strain was occurred in the stretching zone which was the same as in experiment.
Keywords: induction heating, single point incremental forming, FE modeling, advanced high strength steelProcedia PDF Downloads 147
6759 Evaluation of Formability of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures
Authors: Ramezani M., Neitzert T.
Abstract:This paper investigates mechanical properties and formability of the AZ61 magnesium alloy at high temperatures. Tensile tests were performed at elevated temperatures of up to 400ºC. The results showed that as temperature increases, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease significantly, while the material experiences an increase in ductility (maximum elongation before break). A finite element model has been developed to further investigate the formability of the AZ61 alloy by deep drawing a square cup. Effects of different process parameters such as punch and die geometry, forming speed and temperature as well as blank-holder force on deep drawability of the AZ61 alloy were studied and optimum values for these parameters are achieved which can be used as a design guide for deep drawing of this alloy.
Keywords: AZ61, formability, magnesium, mechanical propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 519
6758 Simulation Study on Polymer Flooding with Thermal Degradation in Elevated-Temperature Reservoirs
Authors: Lin Zhao, Hanqiao Jiang, Junjian Li
Abstract:Polymers injected into elevated-temperature reservoirs inevitably suffer from thermal degradation, resulting in severe viscosity loss and poor flooding performance. However, for polymer flooding in such reservoirs, present simulators fail to provide accurate results for lack of description on thermal degradation. In light of this, the objectives of this paper are to provide a simulation model for polymer flooding with thermal degradation and study the effect of thermal degradation on polymer flooding in elevated-temperature reservoirs. Firstly, a thermal degradation experiment was conducted to obtain the degradation law of polymer concentration and viscosity. Different types of polymers degraded in the Thermo tank with elevated temperatures. Afterward, based on the obtained law, a streamline-assistant model was proposed to simulate the degradation process under in-situ flow conditions. Model validation was performed with field data from a well group of an offshore oilfield. Finally, the effect of thermal degradation on polymer flooding was studied using the proposed model. Experimental results showed that the polymer concentration remained unchanged, while the viscosity degraded exponentially with time after degradation. The polymer viscosity was functionally dependent on the polymer degradation time (PDT), which represented the elapsed time started from the polymer particle injection. Tracing the real flow path of polymer particle was required. Therefore, the presented simulation model was streamline-assistant. Equation of PDT vs. time of flight (TOF) along streamline was built by the law of polymer particle transport. Based on the field polymer sample and dynamic data, the new model proved its accuracy. Study of degradation effect on polymer flooding indicated: (1) the viscosity loss increased with TOF exponentially in the main body of polymer-slug and remained constant in the slug front; (2) the responding time of polymer flooding was delayed, but the effective time was prolonged; (3) the breakthrough of subsequent water was eased; (4) the capacity of polymer adjusting injection profile was diminished; (5) the incremental recovery was reduced significantly. In general, the effect of thermal degradation on polymer flooding performance was rather negative. This paper provides a more comprehensive insight into polymer thermal degradation in both the physical process and field application. The proposed simulation model offers an effective means for simulating the polymer flooding process with thermal degradation. The negative effect of thermal degradation suggests that the polymer thermal stability should be given full consideration when designing polymer flooding project in elevated-temperature reservoirs.
Keywords: polymer flooding, elevated-temperature reservoir, thermal degradation, numerical simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 74
6757 Fire Resistance of High Alumina Cement and Slag Based Ultra High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Cementitious Composites
Authors: A. Q. Sobia, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi
Abstract:Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthened reinforced concrete (RC) structures are susceptible to intense deterioration when exposed to elevated temperatures, particularly in the incident of fire. FRP has the tendency to lose bond with the substrate due to the low glass transition temperature of epoxy; the key component of FRP matrix. In the past few decades, various types of high performance cementitious composites (HPCC) were explored for the protection of RC structural members against elevated temperature. However, there is an inadequate information on the influence of elevated temperature on the ultra high performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (UHPFRCC) containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as a replacement of high alumina cement (HAC) in conjunction with hybrid fibres (basalt and polypropylene fibres), which could be a prospective fire resisting material for the structural components. The influence of elevated temperatures on the compressive as well as flexural strength of UHPFRCC, made of HAC-GGBS and hybrid fibres, were examined in this study. Besides control sample (without fibres), three other samples, containing 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of basalt fibres by total weight of mix and 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres, were prepared and tested. Another mix was also prepared with only 1 kg/m3 of polypropylene fibres. Each of the samples were retained at ambient temperature as well as exposed to 400, 700 and 1000 °C followed by testing after 28 and 56 days of conventional curing. Investigation of results disclosed that the use of hybrid fibres significantly helped to improve the ambient temperature compressive and flexural strength of UHPFRCC, which was found to be 80 and 14.3 MPa respectively. However, the optimum residual compressive strength was marked by UHPFRCC-CP (with polypropylene fibres only), equally after both curing days (28 and 56 days), i.e. 41%. In addition, the utmost residual flexural strength, after 28 and 56 days of curing, was marked by UHPFRCC– CP and UHPFRCC– CB2 (1 kg/m3 of PP fibres + 1% of basalt fibres) i.e. 39% and 48.5% respectively.
Keywords: fibre reinforced polymer materials (FRP), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), high-alumina cement, hybrid, fibresProcedia PDF Downloads 238
6756 Simulation of Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Nickel-Based Alloy at Elevated Temperatures
Authors: Harish Ramesh Babu, Marco Böcker, Mario Raddatz, Sebastian Henkel, Horst Biermann, Uwe Gampe
Abstract:Thermal power machines are subjected to cyclic loading conditions under elevated temperatures. At these extreme conditions, the durability of the components has a significant influence. The material mechanical behaviour has to be known in detail for a failsafe construction. For this study a nickel-based alloy is considered, the deformation and fatigue behaviour of the material is analysed under cyclic loading. A viscoplastic model is used for calculating the deformation behaviour as well as to simulate the rate-dependent and cyclic plasticity effects. Finally, the cyclic deformation results of the finite element simulations are compared with low cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments.
Keywords: complex low cycle fatigue, elevated temperature, fe-simulation, viscoplasticProcedia PDF Downloads 83
6755 Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia): Changing Proteomic Patterns of Pollen under Elevated NO₂ Concentration and/or Future Rising Temperature Scenario
Authors: Xiaojie Cheng, Ulrike Frank, Feng Zhao, Karin Pritsch
Abstract:Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive weed that has become an increasing global problem. In addition to affecting land use and crop yields, ragweed has a strong impact on human health as it produces highly allergenic pollen. Global warming will result in an earlier and longer pollen season enhanced pollen production and an increase in pollen allergenicity with a negative effect on atopic patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of increasing temperature, the future climate scenario in the Munich area, southern Germany, predicted on the basis of RCP8.5 until the end of 2050s, or/and NO₂, a major air pollutant, 1) on the vegetative and reproductive characteristics of ragweed plants, 2) on the total allergenicity of ragweed pollen, 3) on the total pollen proteomic patterns. Ragweed plants were cultivated for the whole plant vegetation period under controlled conditions either under ambient climate conditions or 4°C higher temperatures with or without additional NO₂. Higher temperature resulted in bigger plant sizes, longer male inflorescences, and longer pollen seasons. The total allergenic potential of the pollen was accessed by dot blot using serum from ragweed pollen sensitized patients. The comparative immunoblot analysis revealed that the in vivo fumigation of ragweed plants with elevated NO₂-concentrations significantly increased the allergenic potential of the pollen, and in combination with increased temperature, the allergenic potential was even higher. On the other hand, label-free protein quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed. The results showed that more proteins were significantly up- and down-regulated under higher temperatures with/without elevated NO₂ conditions. Most of the highly expressed proteins were participating intensively in the metabolic process, the cellular process, and the stress defense process. These findings suggest that rising temperature and elevated NO₂ are important environmental factors for higher abiotic stress activities, catalytic activities, and thus higher allergenic potential observed in pollen proteins.
Keywords: climate change, NO₂, pollen proteome, ragweed, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 123
6754 Determination of Material Constants and Zener-Hollomon Parameter of AA2017 Aluminium Alloy under Hot Compression Test
Authors: C. H. Shashikanth, M. J. Davidson, V. Suresh Babu
Abstract:The formability of metals depends on a number of variables such as strain, strain rate, and temperature. Though most of the metals are formable at room temperature, few are not. To evaluate the workability of such metals at elevated temperatures, thermomechanical experiments should be carried out to find out the forming temperatures and strain rates. Though a number of constitutive relations are available to correlate the material parameters and the corresponding formability at elevated temperatures, the constitutive rule proposed by Arrhenius has been used in this work. Thus, in the present work, the material constants such as A (constant), α (stress multiplier), β (constant), and n (stress exponent) of AA 2017 has been found by conducting a series of hot compression tests at different temperatures such as 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C and at different strain rates such as 0.16, 0.18, and 0.2. True stress (σt), true strains (εt) deformation activation energy (Q), and the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z value) were also calculated. The results indicate that the value of ln (Z) decreases as the temperature increases and it increases as the strain rate increases.
Keywords: hot compression test, aluminium alloy, flow stress, activation energyProcedia PDF Downloads 526
6753 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes
Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi
Abstract:In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.
Keywords: bond stress, compressive strength, elevated temperatures, fiber reinforced concrete, modulus of raptureProcedia PDF Downloads 348
6752 High Temperature and High Pressure Purification of Hydrogen from Syngas Using Metal Organic Framework Adsorbent
Authors: Samira Rostom, Robert Symonds, Robin W. Hughes
Abstract:Hydrogen is considered as one of the most important clean and renewable energy carriers for a sustainable energy future. However, its efficient and cost-effective purification remains challenging. This paper presents the potential of using metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in combination with pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology for syngas based H2 purification. PSA process analysis is done considering high pressure and elevated temperature process conditions, it reduces the demand for off-gas recycle to the fuel reactor and simultaneously permits higher desorption pressure, thereby reducing the parasitic load on the hydrogen compressor. The elevated pressure and temperature adsorption we present here is beneficial to minimizing overall process heating and cooling demand compared to existing processes. Here, we report the comparative performance of zeolite-5A, Cu-BTC, and the mix of zeolite-5A/Cu-BTC for H2 purification from syngas typical of those exiting water-gas-shift reactors. The MOFs were synthesized hydrothermally and then mixed systematically at different weight ratios to find the optimum composition based on the adsorption performance. The formation of different compounds were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and desorption, SEM, FT-IR, TG, and water vapor adsorption technologies. Single-component adsorption isotherms of CO2, CO, CH4, N2, and H2 over single materials and composites were measured at elevated pressures and different temperatures to determine their equilibrium adsorption capacity. The examination of the stability and regeneration performance of metal–organic frameworks was carried out using a gravimetric system at temperature ranges of 25-150℃ for a pressure range of 0-30 bar. The studies of adsorption/desorption on the MOFs showed selective adsorption of CO2, CH4, CO, and N2 over H2. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that the Ni-MOF-74/Cu-BTC composites are promising candidates for industrial H2 purification processes.
Keywords: MOF, H2 purification, high T, PSAProcedia PDF Downloads 12
6751 Impact of Elevated Temperature on Spot Blotch Development in Wheat and Induction of Resistance by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Authors: Jayanwita Sarkar, Usha Chakraborty, Bishwanath Chakraborty
Abstract:Plants are constantly interacting with various abiotic and biotic stresses. In changing climate scenario plants are continuously modifying physiological processes to adapt to changing environmental conditions which profoundly affect plant-pathogen interactions. Spot blotch in wheat is a fast-rising disease in the warmer plains of South Asia where the rise in minimum average temperature over most of the year already affecting wheat production. Hence, the study was undertaken to explore the role of elevated temperature in spot blotch disease development and modulation of antioxidative responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for biocontrol of spot blotch at high temperature. Elevated temperature significantly increases the susceptibility of wheat plants to spot blotch causing pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. Two PGPR Bacillus safensis (W10) and Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense (IP8) isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and blady grass (Imperata cylindrical L.) rhizophere respectively, showing in vitro antagonistic activity against Bipolaris sorokiniana were tested for growth promotion and induction of resistance against spot blotch in wheat. GC-MS analysis showed that Bacillus safensis (W10) and Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense (IP8) produced antifungal and antimicrobial compounds in culture. Seed priming with these two bacteria significantly increase growth, modulate antioxidative signaling and induce resistance and eventually reduce disease incidence in wheat plants at optimum as well as elevated temperature which was further confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using polyclonal antibody raised against Bipolaris sorokiniana. Application of the PGPR led to enhancement in activities of plant defense enzymes- phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3 glucanase in infected leaves. Immunolocalization of chitinase and β-1,3 glucanase in PGPR primed and pathogen inoculated leaf tissue was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy using PAb of chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase and gold labelled conjugates. Activity of ascorbate-glutathione redox cycle related enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase along with antioxidants such as carotenoids, glutathione and ascorbate and osmolytes like proline and glycine betain accumulation were also increased during disease development in PGPR primed plant in comparison to unprimed plants at high temperature. Real-time PCR analysis revealed enhanced expression of defense genes- chalcone synthase and phenyl alanineammonia lyase. Over expression of heat shock proteins like HSP 70, small HSP 26.3 and heat shock factor HsfA3 in PGPR primed plants effectively protect plants against spot blotch infection at elevated temperature as compared with control plants. Our results revealed dynamic biochemical cross talk between elevated temperature and spot blotch disease development and furthermore highlight PGPR mediated array of antioxidative and molecular alterations responsible for induction of resistance against spot blotch disease at elevated temperature which seems to be associated with up-regulation of defense genes, heat shock proteins and heat shock factors, less ROS production, membrane damage, increased expression of redox enzymes and accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidants.
Keywords: antioxidative enzymes, defense enzymes, elevated temperature, heat shock proteins, PGPR, Real-Time PCR, spot blotch, wheatProcedia PDF Downloads 108
6750 High Temperature in Caustic Pretreatment of Gold Locked in the Residue after Filtration from Gold Cyanidation Leaching
Authors: K. L. Kabemba, R. F. Sandenberg
Abstract:The usual way to desorb gold is by elution with a hot concentrated alkaline solution of sodium cyanide. The high temperature is necessary because the dielectric constant of water decreases with increasing temperature hence the electrostatic forces between charcoal and the gold cyanide complex decreases. High alkalinity and a high concentration of cyanide are necessary for gold desorption because both OH- and CN- ions are preferentially adsorbed. The rate of elution increases with increasing anion concentration but decreases with increasing cation concentration that means the rate of elution passes through a maximum as the concentration of the eluting salt (NaCN, for example) is increased. The anion that gives the best results, the cyanide ion, decomposes fairly rapidly at elevated temperatures (40% in 6 hours, 90% in 24 hours at 95°C).
Keywords: caustic, cyanide, gold, temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 255