Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: ratcheting

7 Effect of Grain Size and Stress Parameters on Ratcheting Behaviour of Two Different Single Phase FCC Metals

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Mahato, Partha Sarathi De, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti

Abstract:

Ratcheting is one of the most important phenomena to be considered for design and safety assessment of structural components subjected to stress controlled asymmetric cyclic loading in the elasto-plastic domain. In the present study uniaxial ratcheting behavior of commercially pure annealed OFHC copper and aluminium with two different grain sizes has been investigated. Stress-controlled tests have been conducted at various combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. These stresses were selected in such a way that the ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) of the selected materials remains constant. It is found that irrespective of grain size the ratcheting fatigue lives decrease with the increase of both stress amplitude and mean stress following power relationships. However, the effect of stress amplitude on ratcheting lives is observed higher as compared to mean stress for both the FCC metals. It is also found that for both FCC metals ratcheting fatigue lives at a constant ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σ ₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) are more in case fine grain size. So far ratcheting strain rate is concerned, it decreases rapidly within first few cycles and then a steady state is reached. Finally, the ratcheting strain rate increases up to the complete failure of the specimens due to a very large increase of true stress for a substantial reduction in cross-sectional area. The steady state ratcheting strain rate increases with the increase in both stress amplitude and mean stress. Interestingly, a unique perfectly power relationship between steady state ratcheting strain rate and cycles to failure has been found irrespective of stress combination for both FCC metals. Similar to ratcheting strain rate, the strain energy density decreases rapidly within first few cycles followed by steady state and then increases up to a failure of the specimens irrespective of stress combinations for both FCC metals; but strain energy density at steady state decreases with increase in mean stress and increases with the increase of stress amplitude. From the fractography study, it is found that the void density increases with the increase of maximum stress, but the void size and void density are almost same for any combination of stress parameters considering constant maximum stress.

Keywords: ratcheting phenomena, grain size, stress parameter, ratcheting lives, ratcheting strain rate

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6 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan

Abstract:

Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.

Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3

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5 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh

Abstract:

Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

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4 Experimental Determination of Aluminum 7075-T6 Parameters Using Stabilized Cycle Tests to Predict Thermal Ratcheting

Authors: Armin Rahmatfam, Mohammad Zehsaz, Farid Vakili Tahami, Nasser Ghassembaglou

Abstract:

In this paper the thermal ratcheting, kinematic hardening parameters C, γ, isotropic hardening parameters and also k, b, Q combined isotropic/kinematic hardening parameters have been obtained experimentally from the monotonic, strain controlled cyclic tests at room and elevated temperatures of 20°C, 100°C, and 400°C. These parameters are used in nonlinear combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model to predict better description of the loading and reloading cycles in the cyclic indentation as well as thermal ratcheting. For this purpose, three groups of specimens made of Aluminum 7075-T6 have been investigated. After each test and using stable hysteretic cycles, material parameters have been obtained for using in combined nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening models. Also the methodology of obtaining the correct kinematic/isotropic hardening parameters is presented.

Keywords: combined hardening model, kinematic hardening, isotropic hardening, cyclic tests

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3 Material Parameter Identification of Modified AbdelKarim-Ohno Model

Authors: Martin Cermak, Tomas Karasek, Jaroslav Rojicek

Abstract:

The key role in phenomenological modelling of cyclic plasticity is good understanding of stress-strain behaviour of given material. There are many models describing behaviour of materials using numerous parameters and constants. Combination of individual parameters in those material models significantly determines whether observed and predicted results are in compliance. Parameter identification techniques such as random gradient, genetic algorithm, and sensitivity analysis are used for identification of parameters using numerical modelling and simulation. In this paper genetic algorithm and sensitivity analysis are used to study effect of 4 parameters of modified AbdelKarim-Ohno cyclic plasticity model. Results predicted by Finite Element (FE) simulation are compared with experimental data from biaxial ratcheting test with semi-elliptical loading path.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, sensitivity analysis, inverse approach, finite element method, cyclic plasticity, ratcheting

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2 Rock-Bed Thermocline Storage: A Numerical Analysis of Granular Bed Behavior and Interaction with Storage Tank

Authors: Nahia H. Sassine, Frédéric-Victor Donzé, Arnaud Bruch, Barthélemy Harthong

Abstract:

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems are central elements of various types of power plants operated using renewable energy sources. Packed bed TES can be considered as a cost–effective solution in concentrated solar power plants (CSP). Such a device is made up of a tank filled with a granular bed through which heat-transfer fluid circulates. However, in such devices, the tank might be subjected to catastrophic failure induced by a mechanical phenomenon known as thermal ratcheting. Thermal stresses are accumulated during cycles of loading and unloading until the failure happens. For instance, when rocks are used as storage material, the tank wall expands more than the solid medium during charge process, a gap is created between the rocks and tank walls and the filler material settles down to fill it. During discharge, the tank contracts against the bed, resulting in thermal stresses that may exceed the wall tank yield stress and generate plastic deformation. This phenomenon is repeated over the cycles and the tank will be slowly ratcheted outward until it fails. This paper aims at studying the evolution of tank wall stresses over granular bed thermal cycles, taking into account both thermal and mechanical loads, with a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM). Simulations were performed to study two different thermal configurations: (i) the tank is heated homogeneously along its height or (ii) with a vertical gradient of temperature. Then, the resulting loading stresses applied on the tank are compared as well the response of the internal granular material. Besides the study of the influence of different thermal configurations on the storage tank response, other parameters are varied, such as the internal angle of friction of the granular material, the dispersion of particles diameters as well as the tank’s dimensions. Then, their influences on the kinematics of the granular bed submitted to thermal cycles are highlighted.

Keywords: discrete element method (DEM), thermal cycles, thermal energy storage, thermocline

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1 Extension of the Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones for Analyzing Elastic Shakedown in a Multi-Dimensional Load Domain

Authors: Bastian Vollrath, Hartwig Hubel

Abstract:

In case of over-elastic and cyclic loading, strain may accumulate due to a ratcheting mechanism until the state of shakedown is possibly achieved. Load history dependent numerical investigations by a step-by-step analysis are rather costly in terms of engineering time and numerical effort. In the case of multi-parameter loading, where various independent loadings affect the final state of shakedown, the computational effort becomes an additional challenge. Therefore, direct methods like the Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones (STPZ) are developed to solve the problem with a few linear elastic analyses. Post-shakedown quantities such as strain ranges and cyclic accumulated strains are calculated approximately by disregarding the load history. The STPZ is based on estimates of a transformed internal variable, which can be used to perform modified elastic analyses, where the elastic material parameters are modified, and initial strains are applied as modified loading, resulting in residual stresses and strains. The STPZ already turned out to work well with respect to cyclic loading between two states of loading. Usually, few linear elastic analyses are sufficient to obtain a good approximation to the post-shakedown quantities. In a multi-dimensional load domain, the approximation of the transformed internal variable transforms from a plane problem into a hyperspace problem, where time-consuming approximation methods need to be applied. Therefore, a solution restricted to structures with four stress components was developed to estimate the transformed internal variable by means of three-dimensional vector algebra. This paper presents the extension to cyclic multi-parameter loading so that an unlimited number of load cases can be taken into account. The theoretical basis and basic presumptions of the Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones are outlined for the case of elastic shakedown. The extension of the method to many load cases is explained, and a workflow of the procedure is illustrated. An example, adopting the FE-implementation of the method into ANSYS and considering multilinear hardening is given which highlights the advantages of the method compared to incremental, step-by-step analysis.

Keywords: cyclic loading, direct method, elastic shakedown, multi-parameter loading, STPZ

Procedia PDF Downloads 51