Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8980

Search results for: dew point temperature

8980 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test

Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye


Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.

Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
8979 Field Study on Thermal Performance of a Green Office in Bangkok, Thailand: A Possibility of Increasing Temperature Set-Points

Authors: T. Sikram, M. Ichinose, R. Sasaki


In the tropics, indoor thermal environment is usually provided by a cooling mode to maintain comfort all year. Indoor thermal environment performance is sometimes different from the standard or from the first design process because of operation, maintenance, and utilization. The field study of thermal environment in the green building is still limited in this region, while the green building continues to increase. This study aims to clarify thermal performance and subjective perception in the green building by testing the temperature set-points. A Thai green office was investigated twice in October 2018 and in May 2019. Indoor environment variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity) were collected continuously. The temperature set-point was normally set as 23 °C, and it was changed into 24 °C and 25 °C. The study found that this gap of temperature set-point produced average room temperature from 22.7 to 24.6 °C and average relative humidity from 55% to 62%. Thermal environments slight shifted out of the ASHRAE comfort zone when the set-point was increased. Based on the thermal sensation vote, the feeling-colder vote decreased by 30% and 18% when changing +1 °C and +2 °C, respectively. Predicted mean vote (PMV) shows that most of the calculated median values were negative. The values went close to the optimal neutral value (0) when the set-point was set at 25 °C. The neutral temperature was slightly decreased when changing warmer temperature set-points. Building-related symptom reports were found in this study that the number of votes reduced continuously when the temperature was warmer. The symptoms that occurred by a cooler condition had the number of votes more than ones that occurred by a warmer condition. In sum, for this green office, there is a possibility to adjust a higher temperature set-point to +1 °C (24 °C) in terms of reducing cold sensitivity, discomfort, and symptoms. All results could support the policy of changing a warmer temperature of this office to become “a better green building”.

Keywords: thermal environment, green office, temperature set-point, comfort

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8978 Experimental and Simulation Stress Strain Comparison of Hot Single Point Incremental Forming

Authors: Amar Al-Obaidi, Verena Kräusel, Dirk Landgrebe


Induction assisted single point incremental forming (IASPIF) is a flexible method and can be simply utilized to form a high strength alloys. Due to the interaction between the mechanical and thermal properties during IASPIF an evaluation for the process is necessary to be performed analytically. Therefore, a numerical simulation was carried out in this paper. The numerical analysis was operated at both room and elevated temperatures then compared with experimental results. Fully coupled dynamic temperature displacement explicit analysis was used to simulated the hot single point incremental forming. The numerical analysis was indicating that during hot single point incremental forming were a combination between complicated compression, tension and shear stresses. As a result, the equivalent plastic strain was increased excessively by rising both the formed part depth and the heating temperature during forming. Whereas, the forming forces were decreased from 5 kN at room temperature to 0.95 kN at elevated temperature. The simulation shows that the maximum true strain was occurred in the stretching zone which was the same as in experiment.

Keywords: induction heating, single point incremental forming, FE modeling, advanced high strength steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
8977 Comparison between FEM Simulation and Experiment of Temperature Rise in Power Transformer Inner Steel Plate

Authors: Byung hyun Bae


In power transformer, leakage magnetic flux generate temperature rise of inner steel plate. Sometimes, this temperature rise can be serious problem. If temperature of steel plate is over critical point, harmful gas will be generated in the tank. And this gas can be a reason of fire, explosion and life decrease. So, temperature rise forecasting of steel plate is very important at the design stage of power transformer. To improve accuracy of forecasting of temperature rise, comparison between simulation and experiment achieved in this paper.

Keywords: power transformer, steel plate, temperature rise, experiment, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
8976 Stagnation Point Flow Over a Stretching Cylinder with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Slip Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malik, Farzana Khan


In this article, we discuss the behavior of viscous fluid near stagnation point over a stretching cylinder with variable thermal conductivity. The effects of slip conditions are also encountered. Thermal conductivity is considered as a linear function of temperature. By using homotopy analysis method and Fehlberg method we compare the graphical results for both momentum and energy equations. The effect of different parameters on velocity and temperature fields are shown graphically.

Keywords: slip conditions, stretching cylinder, heat generation/absorption, stagnation point flow, variable thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
8975 Experimental Investigation of Cutting Forces and Temperature in Bone Drilling

Authors: Vishwanath Mali, Hemant Warhatkar, Raju Pawade


Drilling of bone has been always challenging for surgeons due to the adverse effect it may impart to bone tissues. Force has to be applied manually by the surgeon while performing conventional bone drilling which may lead to permanent death of bone tissues and nerves. During bone drilling the temperature of the bone tissues increases to higher values above 47 ⁰C that causes thermal osteonecrosis resulting into screw loosening and subsequent implant failures. An attempt has been made here to study the input drilling parameters and surgical drill bit geometry affecting bone health during bone drilling. A One Factor At a Time (OFAT) method is used to plan the experiments. Input drilling parameters studied include spindle speed and feed rate. The drill bit geometry parameter studied include point angle and helix angle. The output variables are drilling thrust force and bone temperature. The experiments were conducted on goat femur bone at room temperature 30 ⁰C. For measurement of thrust forces KISTLER cutting force dynamometer Type 9257BA was used. For continuous data acquisition of temperature NI LabVIEW software was used. Fixture was made on RPT machine for holding the bone specimen while performing drilling operation. Bone specimen were preserved in deep freezer (LABTOP make) under -40 ⁰C. In case of drilling parameters, it is observed that at constant feed rate when spindle speed increases, thrust force as well as temperature decreases and at constant spindle speed when feed rate increases thrust force as well as temperature increases. The effect of drill bit geometry shows that at constant helix angle when point angle increases thrust force as well as temperature increases and at constant point angle when helix angle increase thrust force as well as temperature decreases. Hence it is concluded that as the thrust force increases temperature increases. In case of drilling parameter, the lowest thrust force and temperature i.e. 35.55 N and 36.04 ⁰C respectively were recorded at spindle speed 2000 rpm and feed rate 0.04 mm/rev. In case of drill bit geometry parameter, the lowest thrust force and temperature i.e. 40.81 N and 34 ⁰C respectively were recorded at point angle 70⁰ and helix angle 25⁰ Hence to avoid thermal necrosis of bone it is recommended to use higher spindle speed, lower feed rate, low point angle and high helix angle. The hard nature of cortical bone contributes to a greater rise in temperature whereas a considerable drop in temperature is observed during cancellous bone drilling.

Keywords: bone drilling, helix angle, point angle, thrust force, temperature, thermal necrosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
8974 Noninvasive Evaluation of Acupuncture by Measuring Facial Temperature through Thermal Image

Authors: An Guo, Hieyong Jeong, Tianyi Wang, Na Li, Yuko Ohno


Acupuncture, known as sensory simulation, has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years. However, present studies had not addressed approaches for noninvasive measurement in order to evaluate therapeutic effect of acupuncture. The purpose of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to evaluate acupuncture by measuring facial temperature through thermal image. Three human subjects were recruited in this study. Each subject received acupuncture therapy for 30 mins. Acupuncture needles (Ø0.16 x 30 mm) were inserted into Baihui point (DU20), Neiguan points (PC6) and Taichong points (LR3), acupuncture needles (Ø0.18 x 39 mm) were inserted into Tanzhong point (RN17), Zusanli points (ST36) and Yinlingquan points (SP9). Facial temperature was recorded by an infrared thermometer. Acupuncture therapeutic effect was compared pre- and post-acupuncture. Experiment results demonstrated that facial temperature changed according to acupuncture therapeutic effect. It was concluded that proposed method showed high potential to evaluate acupuncture by noninvasive measurement of facial temperature.

Keywords: acupuncture, facial temperature, noninvasive evaluation, thermal image

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8973 Centrifuge Testing to Determine the Effect of Temperature on the Adhesion Strength of Ice

Authors: Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi


The adhesion of glaze ice on power infrastructure, ships and aerofoils cause monetary and structural damage. Here we investigate the influence of temperature as an important parameter affecting adhesion strength of ice. Two terms are defined to investigate this: 'freezing temperature', the temperature at which glaze ice forms; and 'ambient temperature', the temperature of the surrounding during the test. Using three metal surfaces, the adhesion strength of ice has been calculated as a value of shear stress at the point of detachment on a spinning centrifuge. Findings show that the ambient temperature has a greater influence than the freezing temperature on the adhesion strength of ice. This is because there exists an amorphous liquid-like layer at the ice-surface interface, whose bond with the surface increases in strength at lower ambient temperatures when the substrate conducts heat much faster than the ice and acts as a heat sink. The results will help us to measure the actual adhesion strength of ice to metal surfaces based on data from weather monitoring devices. Future tests envisaged focus on thermally non-conducting substrates and their influence on adhesion strength.

Keywords: ice adhesion, centrifuge, glaze ice, freezing temperature, ambient temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
8972 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee


An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: hot-surface, jet impingement, quenching, stagnation point

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8971 Analysis of Accurate Direct-Estimation of the Maximum Power Point and Thermal Characteristics of High Concentration Photovoltaic Modules

Authors: Yan-Wen Wang, Chu-Yang Chou, Jen-Cheng Wang, Min-Sheng Liao, Hsuan-Hsiang Hsu, Cheng-Ying Chou, Chen-Kang Huang, Kun-Chang Kuo, Joe-Air Jiang


Performance-related parameters of high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) modules (e.g. current and voltage) are required when estimating the maximum power point using numerical and approximation methods. The maximum power point on the characteristic curve for a photovoltaic module varies when temperature or solar radiation is different. It is also difficult to estimate the output performance and maximum power point (MPP) due to the special characteristics of HCPV modules. Based on the p-n junction semiconductor theory, a brand new and simple method is presented in this study to directly evaluate the MPP of HCPV modules. The MPP of HCPV modules can be determined from an irradiated I-V characteristic curve, because there is a non-linear relationship between the temperature of a solar cell and solar radiation. Numerical simulations and field tests are conducted to examine the characteristics of HCPV modules during maximum output power tracking. The performance of the presented method is evaluated by examining the dependence of temperature and irradiation intensity on the MPP characteristics of HCPV modules. These results show that the presented method allows HCPV modules to achieve their maximum power and perform power tracking under various operation conditions. A 0.1% error is found between the estimated and the real maximum power point.

Keywords: energy performance, high concentrated photovoltaic, maximum power point, p-n junction semiconductor

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8970 Thermo-Mechanical Approach to Evaluate Softening Behavior of Polystyrene: Validation and Modeling

Authors: Salah Al-Enezi, Rashed Al-Zufairi, Naseer Ahmad


A Thermo-mechanical technique was developed to determine softening point temperature/glass transition temperature (Tg) of polystyrene exposed to high pressures. The design utilizes the ability of carbon dioxide to lower the glass transition temperature of polymers and acts as plasticizer. In this apparatus, the sorption of carbon dioxide to induce softening of polymers as a function of temperature/pressure is performed and the extent of softening is measured in three-point-flexural-bending mode. The polymer strip was placed in the cell in contact with the linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). CO2 was pumped into the cell from a supply cylinder to reach high pressure. The results clearly showed that full softening point of the samples, accompanied by a large deformation on the polymer strip. The deflection curves are initially relatively flat and then undergo a dramatic increase as the temperature is elevated. It was found that increasing the pressure of CO2 causes the temperature curves to shift from higher to lower by increment of about 45 K, over the pressure range of 0-120 bars. The obtained experimental Tg values were validated with the values reported in the literature. Finally, it is concluded that the defection model fits consistently to the generated experimental results, which attempts to describe in more detail how the central deflection of a thin polymer strip affected by the CO2 diffusions in the polymeric samples.

Keywords: softening, high-pressure, polystyrene, CO₂ diffusions

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8969 Modelling for Temperature Non-Isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Nasser Mohamed Ramli, Mohamad Syafiq Mohamad


Many types of controllers were applied on the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) unit to control the temperature. In this research paper, Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller are compared with Fuzzy Logic controller for temperature control of CSTR. The control system for temperature non-isothermal of a CSTR will produce a stable response curve to its set point temperature. A mathematical model of a CSTR using the most general operating condition was developed through a set of differential equations into S-function using MATLAB. The reactor model and S-function are developed using m.file. After developing the S-function of CSTR model, User-Defined functions are used to link to SIMULINK file. Results that are obtained from simulation and temperature control were better when using Fuzzy logic control compared to PID control.

Keywords: CSTR, temperature, PID, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
8968 Experimental and Numerical Determination of the Freeze Point Depression of a Multi-Phase Flow in a Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger

Authors: Carlos A. Acosta, Amar Bhalla, Ruyan Guo


Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHE) use a rotor shaft assembly with scraping blades to homogenize viscous fluids during the heat transfer process. Obtaining in-situ measurements is difficult because the rotor and scraping blades spin continuously inside the mixing chamber, obstructing the instrumentation pathway. Computational fluid dynamics simulations provide useful insight into the flow behavior around the scraper blades for a variety of fluids and blade geometries. However, numerical solutions often focus on the fluid dynamics and heat transfer phenomena of rotating flow, ignoring the glass-transition temperature and freezing point depression. This research studies the multi-phase fluid dynamics and freezing point depression inside the SSHE with non-isothermal conditions in a time dependent process using an aqueous solution that contains 13.5 wt.% high fructose corn syrup and CO₂. The computational results were validated with in-situ pressure, temperature, and optical spectroscopy measurements. Results from the numerical model show good quantitatively agreement with experimental values.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, freezing point depression, phase-transition temperature, multi-phase flow

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8967 Unsteady Stagnation-Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Radiation Effect

Authors: F. M. Ali, R. Nazar, N. M. Arifin, I. Pop


In this paper, the problem of unsteady stagnation-point flow and heat transfer induced by a shrinking sheet in the presence of radiation effect is studied. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically by the shooting method. The influence of radiation, unsteadiness and shrinking parameters, and the Prandtl number on the reduced skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer coefficient, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed in detail. It is found that dual solutions exist and the temperature distribution becomes less significant with radiation parameter.

Keywords: heat transfer, radiation effect, shrinking sheet unsteady flow

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8966 Temperature Control and Thermal Management of Cylindrical Lithium Batteries Using Phase Change Materials (PCMs)

Authors: S. M. Sadrameli, Y. Azizi


Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have shown to be one of the most reliable energy storage systems for electric cars in the recent years. Ambient temperature has a significant impact on the performance, lifetime, safety and cost of such batteries. Increasing the temperature degrade the lithium batteries more quickly while working at low-temperature environment results reducing the power and energy capability of the system. A thermal management system has been designed and setup in laboratory scale for controlling the temperature at optimum conditions using PEG-1000 with the melting point in the range of 33-40 oC as a phase change material. Aluminum plates have been installed in the PCM to increase the thermal conductivity and increasing the heat transfer rate. Experimental tests have been run at different discharge rates and ambient temperatures to investigate the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the batteries. The comparison has been made between the system of 6 batteries with and without PCM and the results show that PCM with aluminum plates decrease the surface temperature of the batteries that would result better performance and longer lifetime of the batteries.

Keywords: lithium-ion batteries, phase change materials, thermal management, temperature control

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
8965 Temperature Control Improvement of Membrane Reactor

Authors: Pornsiri Kaewpradit, Chalisa Pourneaw


Temperature control improvement of a membrane reactor with exothermic and reversible esterification reaction is studied in this work. It is well known that a batch membrane reactor requires different control strategies from a continuous one due to the fact that it is operated dynamically. Due to the effect of the operating temperature, the suitable control scheme has to be designed based reliable predictive model to achieve a desired objective. In the study, the optimization framework has been preliminary formulated in order to determine an optimal temperature trajectory for maximizing a desired product. In model predictive control scheme, a set of predictive models have been initially developed corresponding to the possible operating points of the system. The multiple predictive control moves have been further calculated on-line using the developed models corresponding to current operating point. It is obviously seen in the simulation results that the temperature control has been improved compared to the performance obtained by the conventional predictive controller. Further robustness tests have also been investigated in this study.

Keywords: model predictive control, batch reactor, temperature control, membrane reactor

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8964 Analyses and Optimization of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Direct Recycled Aluminium Alloy (AA6061) Wastes by ANOVA Approach

Authors: Mohammed H. Rady, Mohd Sukri Mustapa, S Shamsudin, M. A. Lajis, A. Wagiman


The present study is aimed at investigating microhardness and density of aluminium alloy chips when subjected to various settings of preheating temperature and preheating time. Three values of preheating temperature were taken as 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C. On the other hand, three values of preheating time were chosen (1, 2, 3) hours. The influences of the process parameters (preheating temperature and time) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DOE) approach whereby full factorial design with center point analysis was adopted. The total runs were 11 and they comprise of two factors of full factorial design with 3 center points. The responses were microhardness and density. The results showed that the density and microhardness increased with decreasing the preheating temperature. The results also found that the preheating temperature is more important to be controlled rather than the preheating time in microhardness analysis while both the preheating temperature and preheating time are important in density analysis. It can be concluded that setting temperature at 450 °C for 1 hour resulted in the optimum responses.

Keywords: AA6061, density, DOE, hot extrusion, microhardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
8963 Thermodynamics of Aqueous Solutions of Organic Molecule and Electrolyte: Use Cloud Point to Obtain Better Estimates of Thermodynamic Parameters

Authors: Jyoti Sahu, Vinay A. Juvekar


Electrolytes are often used to bring about salting-in and salting-out of organic molecules and polymers (e.g. polyethylene glycols/proteins) from the aqueous solutions. For quantification of these phenomena, a thermodynamic model which can accurately predict activity coefficient of electrolyte as a function of temperature is needed. The thermodynamics models available in the literature contain a large number of empirical parameters. These parameters are estimated using lower/upper critical solution temperature of the solution in the electrolyte/organic molecule at different temperatures. Since the number of parameters is large, inaccuracy can bethe creep in during their estimation, which can affect the reliability of prediction beyond the range in which these parameters are estimated. Cloud point of solution is related to its free energy through temperature and composition derivative. Hence, the Cloud point measurement can be used for accurate estimation of the temperature and composition dependence of parameters in the model for free energy. Hence, if we use a two pronged procedure in which we first use cloud point of solution to estimate some of the parameters of the thermodynamic model and determine the rest using osmotic coefficient data, we gain on two counts. First, since the parameters, estimated in each of the two steps, are fewer, we achieve higher accuracy of estimation. The second and more important gain is that the resulting model parameters are more sensitive to temperature. This is crucial when we wish to use the model outside temperatures window within which the parameter estimation is sought. The focus of the present work is to prove this proposition. We have used electrolyte (NaCl/Na2CO3)-water-organic molecule (Iso-propanol/ethanol) as the model system. The model of Robinson-Stokes-Glukauf is modified by incorporating the temperature dependent Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. The Helmholtz free energy expression contains, in addition to electrostatic and translational entropic contributions, three Flory-Huggins pairwise interaction contributions viz., and (w-water, p-polymer, s-salt). These parameters depend both on temperature and concentrations. The concentration dependence is expressed in the form of a quadratic expression involving the volume fractions of the interacting species. The temperature dependence is expressed in the form .To obtain the temperature-dependent interaction parameters for organic molecule-water and electrolyte-water systems, Critical solution temperature of electrolyte -water-organic molecules is measured using cloud point measuring apparatus The temperature and composition dependent interaction parameters for electrolyte-water-organic molecule are estimated through measurement of cloud point of solution. The model is used to estimate critical solution temperature (CST) of electrolyte water-organic molecules solution. We have experimentally determined the critical solution temperature of different compositions of electrolyte-water-organic molecule solution and compared the results with the estimates based on our model. The two sets of values show good agreement. On the other hand when only osmotic coefficients are used for estimation of the free energy model, CST predicted using the resulting model show poor agreement with the experiments. Thus, the importance of the CST data in the estimation of parameters of the thermodynamic model is confirmed through this work.

Keywords: concentrated electrolytes, Debye-Hückel theory, interaction parameters, Robinson-Stokes-Glueckauf model, Flory-Huggins model, critical solution temperature

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8962 Identification of Accumulated Hydrocarbon Based on Heat Propagation Analysis in Order to Develop Mature Field: Case Study in South Sumatra Basin, Indonesia

Authors: Kukuh Suprayogi, Muhamad Natsir, Olif Kurniawan, Hot Parulian, Bayu Fitriana, Fery Mustofa


The new approach by utilizing the heat propagation analysis carried out by studying and evaluating the effect of the presence of hydrocarbons to the flow of heat that goes from the bottom surface to surface. Heat propagation is determined by the thermal conductivity of rocks. The thermal conductivity of rock itself is a quantity that describes the ability of a rock to deliver heat. This quantity depends on the constituent rock lithology, large porosity, and pore fluid filler. The higher the thermal conductivity of a rock, the more easily the flow of heat passing through these rocks. With the same sense, the heat flow will more easily pass through the rock when the rock is filled with water than hydrocarbons, given the nature of the hydrocarbons having more insulator against heat. The main objective of this research is to try to make the model the heat propagation calculations in degrees Celsius from the subsurface to the surface which is then compared with the surface temperature is measured directly at the point of location. In calculating the propagation of heat, we need to first determine the thermal conductivity of rocks, where the rocks at the point calculation are not composed of homogeneous but consist of strata. Therefore, we need to determine the mineral constituent and porosity values of each stratum. As for the parameters of pore fluid filler, we assume that all the pores filled with water. Once we get a thermal conductivity value of each unit of the rock, then we begin to model the propagation of heat profile from the bottom to the surface. The initial value of the temperature that we use comes from the data bottom hole temperature (BHT) is obtained from drilling results. Results of calculations per depths the temperature is displayed in plotting temperature versus depth profiles that describe the propagation of heat from the bottom of the well to the surface, note that pore fluid is water. In the technical implementation, we can identify the magnitude of the effect of hydrocarbons in reducing the amount of heat that crept to the surface based on the calculation of propagation of heat at a certain point and compared with measurements of surface temperature at that point, assuming that the surface temperature measured is the temperature that comes from the asthenosphere. This publication proves that the accumulation of hydrocarbon can be identified by analysis of heat propagation profile which could be a method for identifying the presence of hydrocarbons.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, rock, pore fluid, heat propagation

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8961 Mathematical Modeling of a Sub-Wet Bulb Temperature Evaporative Cooling Using Porous Ceramic Materials

Authors: Meryem Kanzari, Rabah Boukhanouf, Hatem G. Ibrahim


Indirect Evaporative Cooling process has the advantage of supplying cool air at constant moisture content. However, such system can only supply air at temperatures above wet bulb temperature. This paper presents a mathematical model for a sub-wet bulb temperature indirect evaporative cooling arrangement that can overcome this limitation and supply cool air at temperatures approaching dew point and without increasing its moisture content. In addition, the use of porous ceramics as wet media materials offers the advantage of integration into building elements. Results of the computer show that the proposed design is capable of cooling air to temperatures lower than the ambient wet bulb temperature and achieving wet bulb effectiveness of about 1.17.

Keywords: indirect evaporative cooling, porous ceramic, sub-wet bulb temperature, mathematical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
8960 Effect of Different Factors on Temperature Profile and Performance of an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Rice Husk Gasification

Authors: Dharminder Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, study of temperature profile in a pilot scale air bubbling fluidized bed (ABFB) gasifier for rice husk gasification was carried out. Effects of different factors such as multiple cyclones, gas cooling system, ventilate gas pipe length, and catalyst on temperature profile was examined. ABFB gasifier used in this study had two sections, one is bed section and the other is freeboard section. River sand was used as bed material with air as gasification agent, and conventional charcoal as start-up heating medium in this gasifier. Temperature of different point in both sections of ABFB gasifier was recorded at different ER value and ER value was changed by changing the feed rate of biomass (rice husk) and by keeping the air flow rate constant for long durational of gasifier operation. ABFB with double cyclone with gas coolant system and with short length ventilate gas pipe was found out to be optimal gasifier design to give temperature profile required for high gasification performance in long duration operation. This optimal design was tested with different ER values and it was found that ER of 0.33 was most favourable for long duration operation (8 hr continuous operation), giving highest carbon conversion efficiency. At optimal ER of 0.33, bed temperature was found to be stable at 700 °C, above bed temperature was found to be at 628.63 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature was found to be at 600 °C, top of freeboard temperature was found to be at 517.5 °C, gas temperature was found to be at 195 °C, and flame temperature was found to be 676 °C. Temperature at all the points showed fluctuations of 10 – 20 °C. Effect of catalyst i.e. dolomite (20% with sand bed) was also examined on temperature profile, and it was found that at optimal ER of 0.33, the bed temperature got increased to 795 °C, above bed temperature got decreased to 523 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature got decreased to 548 °C, top of freeboard got decreased to 475 °C, gas temperature got decreased to 220 °C, and flame temperature got increased to 703 °C. Increase in bed temperature leads to higher flame temperature due to presence of more hydrocarbons generated from more tar cracking at higher temperature. It was also found that the use of dolomite with sand bed eliminated the agglomeration in the reactor at such high bed temperature (795 °C).

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, bed temperature, charcoal heating, dolomite, flame temperature, rice husk

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8959 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel


The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

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8958 Numerical Study on the Urea Melting and Induced Natural Convection in a Urea Sender Module

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Man Young Kim


The Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system is considered to be the most promising technology to fulfill the stringent emission regulation. In the Urea-SCR system, the urea solutions are used as the reducing agent, which is a eutectic composition (32.5wt% of urea). The advantage of this eutectic compositions is that it has a low freezing point approximately at -11 ℃, however, the problem of freezing occurs at low-temperature levels below that freezing point. To prevent freezing of urea solutions, we need heating systems that can melt by heating the frozen urea solutions in urea storage tank at low-temperature environment. In this study, therefore, a numerical investigation of three-dimensional unsteady heating problems analyzed to find the melting characteristics of the urea solutions on melting process. In this work, it can be found that the urea melting initiated by heat conduction from the heater is enhanced by the natural convection inside the melted liquid urea solutions due to the temperature difference. Also, liquid urea solutions are initially concentrated on the upper parts of the urea sender module.

Keywords: urea solution, melting, heat conduction, natural convection, liquid fraction, phase change

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8957 Prediction of Ionic Liquid Densities Using a Corresponding State Correlation

Authors: Khashayar Nasrifar


Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit particular properties exemplified by extremely low vapor pressure and high thermal stability. The properties of ILs can be tailored by proper selection of cations and anions. As such, ILs are appealing as potential solvents to substitute traditional solvents with high vapor pressure. One of the IL properties required in chemical and process design is density. In developing corresponding state liquid density correlations, scaling hypothesis is often used. The hypothesis expresses the temperature dependence of saturated liquid densities near the vapor-liquid critical point as a function of reduced temperature. Extending the temperature dependence, several successful correlations were developed to accurately correlate the densities of normal liquids from the triple point to a critical point. Applying mixing rules, the liquid density correlations are extended to liquid mixtures as well. ILs are not molecular liquids, and they are not classified among normal liquids either. Also, ILs are often used where the condition is far from equilibrium. Nevertheless, in calculating the properties of ILs, the use of corresponding state correlations would be useful if no experimental data were available. With well-known generalized saturated liquid density correlations, the accuracy in predicting the density of ILs is not that good. An average error of 4-5% should be expected. In this work, a data bank was compiled. A simplified and concise corresponding state saturated liquid density correlation is proposed by phenomena-logically modifying reduced temperature using the temperature-dependence for an interacting parameter of the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This modification improves the temperature dependence of the developed correlation. Parametrization was next performed to optimize the three global parameters of the correlation. The correlation was then applied to the ILs in our data bank with satisfactory predictions. The correlation of IL density applied at 0.1 MPa and was tested with an average uncertainty of around 2%. No adjustable parameter was used. The critical temperature, critical volume, and acentric factor were all required. Methods to extend the predictions to higher pressures (200 MPa) were also devised. Compared to other methods, this correlation was found more accurate. This work also presents the chronological order of developing such correlations dealing with ILs. The pros and cons are also expressed.

Keywords: correlation, corresponding state principle, ionic liquid, density

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8956 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying


One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming

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8955 Thermal Analysis of a Graphite Calorimeter for the Measurement of Absorbed Dose for Therapeutic X-Ray Beam

Authors: I.J. Kim, B.C. Kim, J.H. Kim, C.-Y. Yi


Heat transfer in a graphite calorimeter is analyzed by using the finite elements method. The calorimeter is modeled in 3D geometry. Quasi-adiabatic mode operation is realized in the simulation and the temperature rise by different sources of the ionizing radiation and electric heaters is compared, directly. The temperature distribution caused by the electric power was much different from that by the ionizing radiation because of its point-like localized heating. However, the temperature rise which was finally read by sensing thermistors agreed well to each other within 0.02 %.

Keywords: graphite calorimeter, finite element analysis, heat transfer, quasi-adiabatic mode

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8954 Numerical Investigation of Thermal Energy Storage Panel Using Nanoparticle Enhanced Phase Change Material for Micro-Satellites

Authors: Jelvin Tom Sebastian, Vinod Yeldho Baby


In space, electronic devices are constantly attacked with radiation, which causes certain parts to fail or behave in unpredictable ways. To advance the thermal controllability for microsatellites, we need a new approach and thermal control system that is smaller than that on conventional satellites and that demand no electric power. Heat exchange inside the microsatellites is not that easy as conventional satellites due to the smaller size. With slight mass gain and no electric power, accommodating heat using phase change materials (PCMs) is a strong candidate for solving micro satellites' thermal difficulty. In other words, PCMs can absorb or produce heat in the form of latent heat, changing their phase and minimalizing the temperature fluctuation around the phase change point. The main restriction for these systems is thermal conductivity weakness of common PCMs. As PCM is having low thermal conductivity, it increases the melting and solidification time, which is not suitable for specific application like electronic cooling. In order to increase the thermal conductivity nanoparticles are introduced. Adding the nanoparticles in base PCM increases the thermal conductivity. Increase in weight concentration increases the thermal conductivity. This paper numerically investigates the thermal energy storage panel with nanoparticle enhanced phase change material. Silver nanostructure have increased the thermal properties of the base PCM, eicosane. Different weight concentration (1, 2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, 8, 10%) of silver enhanced phase change material was considered. Both steady state and transient analysis was performed to compare the characteristics of nanoparticle enhanced phase material at different heat loads. Results showed that in steady state, the temperature near the front panel reduced and temperature on NePCM panel increased as the weight concentration increased. With the increase in thermal conductivity more heat was absorbed into the NePCM panel. In transient analysis, it was found that the effect of nanoparticle concentration on maximum temperature of the system was reduced as the melting point of the material reduced with increase in weight concentration. But for the heat load of maximum 20W, the model with NePCM did not attain the melting point temperature. Therefore it showed that the model with NePCM is capable of holding more heat load. In order to study the heat load capacity double the load is given, maximum of 40W was given as first half of the cycle and the other is given constant OW. Higher temperature was obtained comparing the other heat load. The panel maintained a constant temperature for a long duration according to the NePCM melting point. In both the analysis, the uniformity of temperature of the TESP was shown. Using Ag-NePCM it allows maintaining a constant peak temperature near the melting point. Therefore, by altering the weight concentration of the Ag-NePCM it is possible to create an optimum operating temperature required for the effective working of the electronics components.

Keywords: carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer, micro/nano-satellite, nanoparticle phase change material, thermal energy storage

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8953 Thermal Image Segmentation Method for Stratification of Freezing Temperatures

Authors: Azam Fazelpour, Saeed R. Dehghani, Vlastimil Masek, Yuri S. Muzychka


The study uses an image analysis technique employing thermal imaging to measure the percentage of areas with various temperatures on a freezing surface. An image segmentation method using threshold values is applied to a sequence of image recording the freezing process. The phenomenon is transient and temperatures vary fast to reach the freezing point and complete the freezing process. Freezing salt water is subjected to the salt rejection that makes the freezing point dynamic and dependent on the salinity at the phase interface. For a specific area of freezing, nucleation starts from one side and end to another side, which causes a dynamic and transient temperature in that area. Thermal cameras are able to reveal a difference in temperature due to their sensitivity to infrared radiance. Using Experimental setup, a video is recorded by a thermal camera to monitor radiance and temperatures during the freezing process. Image processing techniques are applied to all frames to detect and classify temperatures on the surface. Image processing segmentation method is used to find contours with same temperatures on the icing surface. Each segment is obtained using the temperature range appeared in the image and correspond pixel values in the image. Using the contours extracted from image and camera parameters, stratified areas with different temperatures are calculated. To observe temperature contours on the icing surface using the thermal camera, the salt water sample is dropped on a cold surface with the temperature of -20°C. A thermal video is recorded for 2 minutes to observe the temperature field. Examining the results obtained by the method and the experimental observations verifies the accuracy and applicability of the method.

Keywords: ice contour boundary, image processing, image segmentation, salt ice, thermal image

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8952 Yield Onset of Thermo-Mechanical Loading of FGM Thick Walled Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

Authors: S. Ansari Sadrabadi, G. H. Rahimi


In this paper, thick walled Cylindrical tanks or tubes made of functionally graded material under internal pressure and temperature gradient are studied. Material parameters have been considered as power functions. They play important role in the elastoplastic behavior of these materials. To clarify their role, different materials with different parameters have been used under temperature gradient. Finally, their effect and loading effect have been determined in first yield point. Also, the important role of temperature gradient was also shown. At the end the study has been results obtained from changes in the elastic modulus and yield stress. Also special attention is also given to the effects of this internal pressure and temperature gradient in the creation of tensile and compressive stresses.

Keywords: FGM, cylindrical pressure tubes, small deformation theory, yield onset, thermal loading

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8951 Optimizing Operation of Photovoltaic System Using Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic

Authors: N. Drir, L. Barazane, M. Loudini


It is well known that photovoltaic (PV) cells are an attractive source of energy. Abundant and ubiquitous, this source is one of the important renewable energy sources that have been increasing worldwide year by year. However, in the V-P characteristic curve of GPV, there is a maximum point called the maximum power point (MPP) which depends closely on the variation of atmospheric conditions and the rotation of the earth. In fact, such characteristics outputs are nonlinear and change with variations of temperature and irradiation, so we need a controller named maximum power point tracker MPPT to extract the maximum power at the terminals of photovoltaic generator. In this context, the authors propose here to study the modeling of a photovoltaic system and to find an appropriate method for optimizing the operation of the PV generator using two intelligent controllers respectively to track this point. The first one is based on artificial neural networks and the second on fuzzy logic. After the conception and the integration of each controller in the global process, the performances are examined and compared through a series of simulation. These two controller have prove by their results good tracking of the MPPT compare with the other method which are proposed up to now.

Keywords: maximum power point tracking, neural networks, photovoltaic, P&O

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