Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 354

Search results for: sewer pipe

354 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulfide gas, temperature, sewer pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
353 A Case Study of Rainfall Derived Inflow/Infiltration in a Separate Sewer System in Gwangju, Korea

Authors: Bumjo Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Joon Ha Kim

Abstract:

The separate sewer system is that collects the wastewater as a sewer pipe and rainfall as a stormwater pipe separately, and then sewage is treated in the wastewater treatment plant, the stormwater is discharged to rivers or lakes through stormwater drainage pipes. Unfortunately, even for separate sewer systems, it is not possible to prevent Rainfall Driven Inflow/Infiltration(RDII) completely to the sewer pipe. Even if the sewerage line is renovated, there is an ineluctable RDII due to the combined sewer system in the house or the difficulty of sewage maintenance in private areas. The basic statistical analysis was performed using environmental data including rainfall, sewage, water qualities and groundwater level in the strict of Gwangju in ​South Korea. During rainfall in the target area, RDII showed an increased rate of 13.4 ~ 53.0% compared to that of a clear day and showed a rapid hydrograph response of 0.3 ~ 3.0 hr. As a result of water quality analysis, BOD5 concentration decreased by 17.3 % and salinity concentration decreased by 8.8 % at the representative spot in the project area compared to the sunny day during rainfall. In contrast to the seasonal fluctuation range of 0.38 m ~ 0.55 m in groundwater in Gwangju area and 0.58 m ~ 0.78 m in monthly fluctuation range, while the difference between groundwater level and the depth of sewer pipe laying was 2.70 m on average, which is larger than the range of fluctuation. Comprehensively, it can be concluded that the increasing of flowrate at sewer line is due to not infiltration water caused by groundwater level rise, construction failure, cracking due to joint failure or conduit deterioration, rainfall was directly inflowed into the sewer line rapidly. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the 'Climate Technology Development and Application' research project (#K07731) through a grant provided by GIST in 2017.

Keywords: ground water, rainfall, rainfall driven inflow/infiltration, separate sewer system

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
352 Monitoring CO2 and H2S Emission in Live Austrian and UK Concrete Sewer Pipes

Authors: Anna Romanova, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulfuric acid is an acknowledged problem and a ticking time-bomb to sewer operators. Whilst the chemical reaction of the corrosion process is well-understood, the indirect roles of other parameters in the corrosion process which are found in sewer environment are not highly reflected on. This paper reports on a field studies undertaken in Austria and United Kingdom, where the parameters of temperature, pH, H2S and CO2 were monitored over a period of time. The study establishes that (i) effluent temperature and pH have similar daily pattern and peak times, When examined in minutes scale, (ii) H2S and CO2 have an identical hourly pattern, (iii) H2S instant or shifted relation to effluent temperature is governed by the root mean square value of CO2.

Keywords: concrete corrosion, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, sewer pipe, sulfuric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
351 Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion Induced by Sulphuric Acid Environment

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Upul Chandrasekara, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulphuric acid attack is a recognised problem worldwide, which is not only an attribute of countries with hot climate conditions as thought before. The significance of this problem is by far only realised when the pipe collapses causing surface flooding and other severe consequences. To change the existing post-reactive attitude of managing companies, easy to use and robust models are required to be developed which currently lack reliable data to be correctly calibrated. This paper focuses on laboratory experiments of establishing concrete pipe corrosion rate by submerging samples in to 0.5 pH sulphuric acid solution for 56 days under 10ºC, 20ºC and 30ºC temperature regimes. The result showed that at very early stage of the corrosion process the samples gained overall mass, at 30ºC the corrosion progressed quicker than for other temperature regimes, however with time the corrosion level for 10ºC and 20ºC regimes tended towards those at 30ºC. Overall, at these conditions the corrosion rates of 10 mm/year, 13,5 mm/year, and 17 mm/year were observed.

Keywords: sewer pipes, concrete corrosion, sulphuric acid, concrete coupons, corrosion rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
350 Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

Authors: Tomomi Uchiyama, Tomoko Okayama, Yukio Ide

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is easily blocked by the fibers, making the turbine lose the function.

Keywords: micro-hydraulic turbine, power generation, sewage, sewer pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
349 Study of the Effect of Soil Compaction and Height on Pipe Ovality for Buried Steel Pipe

Authors: Ali Ghodsbin Jahromi, Ehsan Moradi

Abstract:

In this paper, the numerical study of buried steel pipe in soil is investigated. Buried pipeline under soil weight, after embankment on the pipe leads to ovality of pipe. In this paper also it is considered the percentage of soil compaction, the soil height on the steel pipe and the external load of a mechanical excavator on the steel pipe and finally, the effect of these on the rate of pipe ovality investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the pipes’ thickness on ovality has been investigated. The results show that increasing the percentage of soil compaction has more effect on reducing percentage of ovality, and if the percentage of soil compaction increases, we can use the pipe with less thickness. Finally, ovality rate of the pipe and acceptance criteria of pipe diameter up to yield stress is investigated.

Keywords: pipe ovality, soil compaction, finite element, pipe thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
348 Quantification and Detection of Non-Sewer Water Infiltration and Inflow in Urban Sewer Systems

Authors: M. Beheshti, S. Saegrov, T. M. Muthanna

Abstract:

Separated sewer systems are designed to transfer the wastewater from houses and industrial sections to wastewater treatment plants. Unwanted water in the sewer systems is a well-known problem, i.e. storm-water inflow is around 50% of the foul sewer, and groundwater infiltration to the sewer system can exceed 50% of total wastewater volume in deteriorated networks. Infiltration and inflow of non-sewer water (I/I) into sewer systems is unfavorable in separated sewer systems and can trigger overloading the system and reducing the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, I/I has negative economic, environmental, and social impacts on urban areas. Therefore, for having sustainable management of urban sewer systems, I/I of unwanted water into the urban sewer systems should be considered carefully and maintenance and rehabilitation plan should be implemented on these water infrastructural assets. This study presents a methodology to identify and quantify the level of I/I into the sewer system. Amount of I/I is evaluated by accurate flow measurement in separated sewer systems for specified isolated catchments in Trondheim city (Norway). Advanced information about the characteristics of I/I is gained by CCTV inspection of sewer pipelines with high I/I contribution. Achieving enhanced knowledge about the detection and localization of non-sewer water in foul sewer system during the wet and dry weather conditions will enable the possibility for finding the problem of sewer system and prioritizing them and taking decisions for rehabilitation and renewal planning in the long-term. Furthermore, preventive measures and optimization of sewer systems functionality and efficiency can be executed by maintenance of sewer system. In this way, the exploitation of sewer system can be improved by maintenance and rehabilitation of existing pipelines in a sustainable way by more practical cost-effective and environmental friendly way. This study is conducted on specified catchments with different properties in Trondheim city. Risvollan catchment is one of these catchments with a measuring station to investigate hydrological parameters through the year, which also has a good database. For assessing the infiltration in a separated sewer system, applying the flow rate measurement method can be utilized in obtaining a general view of the network condition from infiltration point of view. This study discusses commonly used and advanced methods of localizing and quantifying I/I in sewer systems. A combination of these methods give sewer operators the possibility to compare different techniques and obtain reliable and accurate I/I data which is vital for long-term rehabilitation plans.

Keywords: flow rate measurement, infiltration and inflow (I/I), non-sewer water, separated sewer systems, sustainable management

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
347 Deformation Severity Prediction in Sewer Pipelines

Authors: Khalid Kaddoura, Ahmed Assad, Tarek Zayed

Abstract:

Sewer pipelines are prone to deterioration over-time. In fact, their deterioration does not follow a fixed downward pattern. This is in fact due to the defects that propagate through their service life. Sewer pipeline defects are categorized into distinct groups. However, the main two groups are the structural and operational defects. By definition, the structural defects influence the structural integrity of the sewer pipelines such as deformation, cracks, fractures, holes, etc. However, the operational defects are the ones that affect the flow of the sewer medium in the pipelines such as: roots, debris, attached deposits, infiltration, etc. Yet, the process for each defect to emerge follows a cause and effect relationship. Deformation, which is the change of the sewer pipeline geometry, is one type of an influencing defect that could be found in many sewer pipelines due to many surrounding factors. This defect could lead to collapse if the percentage exceeds 15%. Therefore, it is essential to predict the deformation percentage before confronting such a situation. Accordingly, this study will predict the percentage of the deformation defect in sewer pipelines adopting the multiple regression analysis. Several factors will be considered in establishing the model, which are expected to influence the defamation defect severity. Besides, this study will construct a time-based curve to understand how the defect would evolve overtime. Thus, this study is expected to be an asset for decision-makers as it will provide informative conclusions about the deformation defect severity. As a result, inspections will be minimized and so the budgets.

Keywords: deformation, prediction, regression analysis, sewer pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
346 Component-Based Approach in Assessing Sewer Manholes

Authors: Khalid Kaddoura, Tarek Zayed

Abstract:

Sewer networks are constructed to protect the communities and the environment from any contact with the sewer mediums. Pipelines, being laterals or sewer mains, and manholes form the huge underground infrastructure in every urban city. Due to the sewer networks importance, the infrastructure asset management field has extensive advancement in condition assessment and rehabilitation decision models. However, most of the focus was devoted to pipelines giving little attention toward manholes condition assessment. In fact, recent studies started to emerge in this area to preserve manholes from any malfunction. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to propose a condition assessment model for sewer manholes. The model divides the manhole into several components and determines the relative importance weight of each component using the Analytic Network Process (ANP) decision-making method. Later, the condition of the manhole is computed by aggregating the condition of each component with its corresponding weight. Accordingly, the proposed assessment model will enable decision-makers to have a final index suggesting the overall condition of the manhole and a backward analysis to check the condition of each component. Consequently, better decisions are made pertinent to maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement actions.

Keywords: Analytic Network Process (ANP), condition assessment, decision-making, manholes

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
345 Predicting Mixing Patterns of Overflows from a Square Manhole

Authors: Modupe O. Jimoh

Abstract:

During manhole overflows, its contents pollute the immediate environment. Understanding the pollutant transfer characteristics between manhole’s incoming sewer and the overflow is therefore of great importance. A square manhole with sides 388 mm by 388 mm and height 700 mm with an overflow facility was used in the laboratory to carry out overflow concentration measurements. Two scenarios were investigated using three flow rates. The first scenario corresponded to when the exit of the pipe becomes blocked and the only exit for the flow is the manhole. The second scenario is when there is an overflow in combination with a pipe exit. The temporal concentration measurements showed that the peak concentration of pollutants in the flow was attenuated between the inlet and the overflow. A deconvolution software was used to predict the Residence time distribution (RTD) and consequently the Cumulative Residence time distribution (CRTD). The CRTDs suggest that complete mixing is occurring between the pipe inlet and the overflow, like what is obtained in a low surcharged manhole. The results also suggest that an instantaneous stirred tank reactor model can describe the mixing characteristics.

Keywords: CRTDs, instantaneous stirred tank reactor model, overflow, square manholes, surcharge, temporal concentration profiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
344 Quality Function Deployment Application in Sewer Pipeline Assessment

Authors: Khalid Kaddoura, Tarek Zayed

Abstract:

Infrastructure assets are essential in urban cities; their purpose is to facilitate the public needs. As a result, their conditions and states shall always be monitored to avoid any sudden malfunction. Sewer systems, one of the assets, are an essential part of the underground infrastructure as they transfer sewer medium to designated areas. However, their conditions are subject to deterioration due to ageing. Therefore, it is of great significance to assess the conditions of pipelines to avoid sudden collapses. Current practices of sewer pipeline assessment rely on industrial protocols that consider distinct defects and grades to conclude the limited average or peak score of the assessed assets. This research aims to enhance the evaluation by integrating the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in assessing the condition of sewer pipelines. The methodology shall study the cause and effect relationship of the systems’ defects to deduce the relative influence weights of each defect. Subsequently, the overall grade is calculated by aggregating the WHAT’s and HOW’s of the House of Quality (HOQ) using the computed relative weights. Thus, this study shall enhance the evaluation of the assets to conclude informative rehabilitation and maintenance plans for decision makers.

Keywords: condition assessment, DEMATEL, QFD, sewer pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
343 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun

Abstract:

This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
342 Numerical Analysis of Water Hammer in a Viscoelastic Pipe System Considering Fluid Structure Interaction

Authors: N. Tavakoli Shirazi

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of pipe-wall viscoelasticity on water hammer pressures. Tests have been conducted in a reservoir-pipe-valve system configured of a main viscoelastic pipeline and two short steel pipes placed upstream and downstream of the main pipe. Rapid closure of a manually operated valve at the downstream end generates water hammer. Experimental measurements at several positions along the pipeline have been collected from the papers. Computer simulations of the experiment have been performed and the results of runs with various options affecting the water hammer are provided and discussed. It is shown that the incorporation of viscoelastic pipe wall mechanical behavior in the hydraulic transient model contributes to a favorable fitting between numerical results and observed data.

Keywords: pipe system, PVC pipe, viscoelasticity, water hammer

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
341 Reservoir Inflow Prediction for Pump Station Using Upstream Sewer Depth Data

Authors: Osung Im, Neha Yadav, Eui Hoon Lee, Joong Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach is commonly used in lots of fields for forecasting. In water resources engineering, forecast of water level or inflow of reservoir is useful for various kind of purposes. Due to advantages of ANN, many papers were written for inflow prediction in river networks, but in this study, ANN is used in urban sewer networks. The growth of severe rain storm in Korea has increased flood damage severely, and the precipitation distribution is getting more erratic. Therefore, effective pump operation in pump station is an essential task for the reduction in urban area. If real time inflow of pump station reservoir can be predicted, it is possible to operate pump effectively for reducing the flood damage. This study used ANN model for pump station reservoir inflow prediction using upstream sewer depth data. For this study, rainfall events, sewer depth, and inflow into Banpo pump station reservoir between years of 2013-2014 were considered. Feed – Forward Back Propagation (FFBF), Cascade – Forward Back Propagation (CFBP), Elman Back Propagation (EBP) and Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX) were used as ANN model for prediction. A comparison of results with ANN model suggests that ANN is a powerful tool for inflow prediction using the sewer depth data.

Keywords: artificial neural network, forecasting, reservoir inflow, sewer depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
340 Decision Making under Strict Uncertainty: Case Study in Sewer Network Planning

Authors: Zhen Wu, David Lupien St-Pierre, Georges Abdul-Nour

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In decision making under strict uncertainty, decision makers have to choose a decision without any information about the states of nature. The classic criteria of Laplace, Wald, Savage, Hurwicz and Starr are introduced and compared in a case study of sewer network planning. Furthermore, results from different criteria are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, this paper discusses the idea that decision making under strict uncertainty (DMUSU) can be viewed as a two-player game and thus be solved by a solution concept in game theory: Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: decision criteria, decision making, sewer network planning, decision making, strict uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
339 Flame Acceleration of Premixed Natural Gas/Air Explosion in Closed Pipe

Authors: H. Mat Kiah, Rafiziana M. Kasmani, Norazana Ibrahim, Roshafima R. Ali, Aziatul N.Sadikin

Abstract:

An experimental study has been done to investigate the flame acceleration in a closed pipe. A horizontal steel pipe, 2m long and 0.1 m in diameter (L/D of 20), was used in this work. For tests with 90 degree bends, the bend had a radius of 0.1 m and thus, the pipe was lengthened 1 m (based on the centreline length of the segment). Ignition was affected one end of the vessel while the other end was closed. Only stoichiometric concentration (Ф, = 1.0) of natural gas/air mixtures will be reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that bend pipe configuration gave three times higher in maximum over-pressure (5.5 bars) compared to straight pipe (2.0 bars). From the results, the highest flame speed of 63 m s-1 was observed in a gas explosion with bent pipe, greater by a factor of ~3 as compared with straight pipe (23 m s-1). This occurs because bending acts similar to an obstacle, in which this mechanism can induce more turbulence, initiating combustion in an unburned pocket at the corner region and causing a high mass burning rate which increases the flame speed.

Keywords: bending, gas explosion, bending, flame acceleration, over-pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
338 Bed Evolution under One-Episode Flushing in a Truck Sewer in Paris, France

Authors: Gashin Shahsavari, Gilles Arnaud-Fassetta, Alberto Campisano, Roberto Bertilotti, Fabien Riou

Abstract:

Sewer deposits have been identified as a major cause of dysfunctions in combined sewer systems regarding sewer management, which induces different negative consequents resulting in poor hydraulic conveyance, environmental damages as well as worker’s health. In order to overcome the problematics of sedimentation, flushing has been considered as the most operative and cost-effective way to minimize the sediments impacts and prevent such challenges. Flushing, by prompting turbulent wave effects, can modify the bed form depending on the hydraulic properties and geometrical characteristics of the conduit. So far, the dynamics of the bed-load during high-flow events in combined sewer systems as a complex environment is not well understood, mostly due to lack of measuring devices capable to work in the “hostile” in combined sewer system correctly. In this regards, a one-episode flushing issue from an opening gate valve with weir function was carried out in a trunk sewer in Paris to understanding its cleansing efficiency on the sediments (thickness: 0-30 cm). During more than 1h of flushing within 5 m distance in downstream of this flushing device, a maximum flowrate and a maximum level of water have been recorded at 5 m in downstream of the gate as 4.1 m3/s and 2.1 m respectively. This paper is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of this type of gate for around 1.1 km (from the point -50 m to +1050 m in downstream from the gate) by (i) determining bed grain-size distribution and sediments evolution through the sewer channel, as well as their organic matter content, and (ii) identifying sections that exhibit more changes in their texture after the flush. For the first one, two series of sampling were taken from the sewer length and then analyzed in laboratory, one before flushing and second after, at same points among the sewer channel. Hence, a non-intrusive sampling instrument has undertaken to extract the sediments smaller than the fine gravels. The comparison between sediments texture after the flush operation and the initial state, revealed the most modified zones by the flush effect, regarding the sewer invert slope and hydraulic parameters in the zone up to 400 m from the gate. At this distance, despite the increase of sediment grain-size rages, D50 (median grain-size) varies between 0.6 mm and 1.1 mm compared to 0.8 mm and 10 mm before and after flushing, respectively. Overall, regarding the sewer channel invert slope, results indicate that grains smaller than sands (< 2 mm) are more transported to downstream along about 400 m from the gate: in average 69% before against 38% after the flush with more dispersion of grain-sizes distributions. Furthermore, high effect of the channel bed irregularities on the bed material evolution has been observed after the flush.

Keywords: bed-load evolution, combined sewer systems, flushing efficiency, sediments transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
337 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan

Abstract:

The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262. Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made, then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine. Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165 mm and the expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread was acceptable.

Keywords: pipe taper thread, three-wire probe, measure and calibration, the universal length measuring machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
336 Contemplation of Thermal Characteristics by Filling Ratio of Aluminium Oxide Nano Fluid in Wire Mesh Heat Pipe

Authors: D. Mala, S. Sendhilnathan, D. Ratchagaraja

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In this paper, the performance of heat pipe in terms of overall heat transfer coefficient and thermal resistance is quantified by varying the volume of working fluid and the performance parameters are contemplated. For this purpose Al2O3 nano particles with a density of 9.8 gm/cm3 and a volume concentration of 1% is used as the working fluid in experimental heat pipe. The performance of heat pipe was evaluated by conducting experiments with different thermal loads and different angle of inclinations. Thermocouples are used to record the temperature distribution across the experiment. The results provide evidence that the suspension of Al2O3 nano particles in the base fluid increases the thermal efficiency of heat pipe and can be used in practical heat exchange applications.

Keywords: heat pipe, angle of inclination, thermal resistance, thermal efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
335 Comparative Syudy Of Heat Transfer Capacity Limits of Heat Pipe

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, A. Ghanami

Abstract:

Heat pipe is simple heat transfer device which combines the conduction and phase change phenomena to control the heat transfer without any need for external power source. At hot surface of heat pipe, the liquid phase absorbs heat and changes to vapor phase. The vapor phase flows to condenser region and with the loss of heat changes to liquid phase. Due to gravitational force the liquid phase flows to evaporator section.In HVAC systems the working fluid is chosen based on the operating temperature. The heat pipe has significant capability to reduce the humidity in HVAC systems. Each HVAC system which uses heater, humidifier or dryer is a suitable nominate for the utilization of heat pipes. Generally heat pipes have three main sections: condenser, adiabatic region and evaporator.Performance investigation and optimization of heat pipes operation in order to increase their efficiency is crucial. In present article, a parametric study is performed to improve the heat pipe performance. Therefore, the heat capacity of heat pipe with respect to geometrical and confining parameters is investigated. For the better observation of heat pipe operation in HVAC systems, a CFD simulation in Eulerian- Eulerian multiphase approach is also performed. The results show that heat pipe heat transfer capacity is higher for water as working fluid with the operating temperature of 340 K. It is also observed that the vertical orientation of heat pipe enhances it’s heat transfer capacity.

Keywords: heat pipe, HVAC system, grooved heat pipe, heat pipe limits

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
334 Improve Heat Pipe Thermal Performance in H-VAC Systems Using CFD Modeling

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, A. Ghanami

Abstract:

A heat pipe is simple heat transfer device which combines the conduction and phase change phenomena to control the heat transfer without any need for external power source. At a hot surface of the heat pipe, the liquid phase absorbs heat and changes to the vapor phase. The vapor phase flows to condenser region and with the loss of heat changes to the liquid phase. Due to gravitational force the liquid phase flows to the evaporator section. In HVAC systems, the working fluid is chosen based on the operating temperature. The heat pipe has significant capability to reduce the humidity in HVAC systems. Each HVAC system which uses the heater, humidifier, or dryer is a suitable nominate for the utilization of heat pipes. Generally, heat pipes have three main sections: condenser, adiabatic region, and evaporator. Performance investigation and optimization of heat pipes operation in order to increase their efficiency is crucial. In the present article, a parametric study is performed to improve the heat pipe performance. Therefore, the heat capacity of the heat pipe with respect to geometrical and confining parameters is investigated. For the better observation of heat pipe operation in HVAC systems, a CFD simulation in Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase approach is also performed. The results show that heat pipe heat transfer capacity is higher for water as working fluid with the operating temperature of 340 K. It is also showed that the vertical orientation of heat pipe enhances its heat transfer capacity.

Keywords: heat pipe, HVAC system, grooved heat pipe, heat pipe limits

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
333 Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of the Harmfulness of Defects in Oil Pipes

Authors: B. Medjadji, L. Aminallah, B. Serier, M. Benlebna

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In this study, the finite element method in 3-D is used to calculate the integral J in the semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to internal pressure. The stress-strain curve of the pipe has been determined experimentally. The J-integral was calculated in two fronts crack (Ф = 0 and Ф = π/2). The effect of the configuration of the crack on the J integral is analysed. The results show that an external longitudinal crack in a pipe is the most dangerous. It also shows that the increase in the applied pressure causes a remarkable increase of the integral J. The effect of the depth of the crack becomes important when the ratio between the depth of the crack and the thickness of the pipe (a / t) tends to 1.

Keywords: J integral, pipeline, crack, MEF

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
332 A Hedonic Valuation Approach to Valuing Combined Sewer Overflow Reductions

Authors: Matt S. Van Deren, Michael Papenfus

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Seattle is one of the hundreds of cities in the United States that relies on a combined sewer system to collect and convey municipal wastewater. By design, these systems convey all wastewater, including industrial and commercial wastewater, human sewage, and stormwater runoff, through a single network of pipes. Serious problems arise for combined sewer systems during heavy precipitation events when treatment plants and storage facilities are unable to accommodate the influx of wastewater needing treatment, causing the sewer system to overflow into local waterways through sewer outfalls. CSOs (Combined Sewer Overflows) pose a serious threat to human and environmental health. Principal pollutants found in CSO discharge include microbial pathogens, comprising of bacteria, viruses, parasites, oxygen-depleting substances, suspended solids, chemicals or chemical mixtures, and excess nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus. While concentrations of these pollutants can vary between overflow events, CSOs have the potential to spread disease and waterborne illnesses, contaminate drinking water supplies, disrupt aquatic life, and effect a waterbody’s designated use. This paper estimates the economic impact of CSOs on residential property values. Using residential property sales data from Seattle, Washington, this paper employs a hedonic valuation model that controls for housing and neighborhood characteristics, as well as spatial and temporal effects, to predict a consumer’s willingness to pay for improved water quality near their homes. Initial results indicate that a 100,000-gallon decrease in the average annual overflow discharged from a sewer outfall within 300 meters of a home is associated with a 0.053% increase in the property’s sale price. For the average home in the sample, the price increase is estimated to be $18,860.23. These findings reveal some of the important economic benefits of improving water quality by reducing the frequency and severity of combined sewer overflows.

Keywords: benefits, hedonic, Seattle, sewer

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
331 Mathematical Modelling and Parametric Study of Water Based Loop Heat Pipe for Ground Application

Authors: Shail N. Shah, K. K. Baraya, A. Madhusudan Achari

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Loop Heat Pipe is a passive two-phase heat transfer device which can be used without any external power source to transfer heat from source to sink. The main aim of this paper is to have modelling of water-based LHP at varying heat loads. Through figures, how the fluid flow occurs within the loop has been explained. Energy Balance has been done in each section. IC (Iterative Convergence) scheme to find out the SSOT (Steady State Operating Temperature) has been developed. It is developed using Dev C++. To best of the author’s knowledge, hardly any detail is available in the open literature about how temperature distribution along the loop is to be evaluated. Results for water-based loop heat pipe is obtained and compared with open literature and error is found within 4%. Parametric study has been done to see the effect of different parameters on pressure drop and SSOT at varying heat loads.

Keywords: loop heat pipe, modelling of loop heat pipe, parametric study of loop heat pipe, functioning of loop heat pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
330 Lightweight High-Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor for Vehicles-Investigation of Pipe Diffuser Designs by Means of CFD

Authors: Eleni Ioannou, Pascal Nucara, Keith Pullen

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The subject of this paper is the investigation of the best efficiency design of a compressor diffuser applied in new lightweight, ultra efficient micro-gas turbine engines for vehicles. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are obtained utilizing steady state simulations for a wedge and an ”oval” type pipe diffuser in an effort to identify the beneficial effects of the pipe diffuser design. The basic flow features are presented with particular focus on the optimization of the pipe diffuser leading to higher efficiencies for the compressor stage. The optimised pipe diffuser is designed to exploit the 3D freedom enabled by Selective Laser Melting, hence purposely involves an investigation of geometric characteristics that do not follow the traditional diffuser concept.

Keywords: CFD, centrifugal compressor, micro-gas turbine, pipe diffuser, SLM, wedge diffuser

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
329 Developing a GIS-Based Tool for the Management of Fats, Oils, and Grease (FOG): A Case Study of Thames Water Wastewater Catchment

Authors: Thomas D. Collin, Rachel Cunningham, Bruce Jefferson, Raffaella Villa

Abstract:

Fats, oils and grease (FOG) are by-products of food preparation and cooking processes. FOG enters wastewater systems through a variety of sources such as households, food service establishments, and industrial food facilities. Over time, if no source control is in place, FOG builds up on pipe walls, leading to blockages, and potentially to sewer overflows which are a major risk to the Environment and Human Health. UK water utilities spend millions of pounds annually trying to control FOG. Despite UK legislation specifying that discharge of such material is against the law, it is often complicated for water companies to identify and prosecute offenders. Hence, it leads to uncertainties regarding the attitude to take in terms of FOG management. Research is needed to seize the full potential of implementing current practices. The aim of this research was to undertake a comprehensive study to document the extent of FOG problems in sewer lines and reinforce existing knowledge. Data were collected to develop a model estimating quantities of FOG available for recovery within Thames Water wastewater catchments. Geographical Information System (GIS) software was used in conjunction to integrate data with a geographical component. FOG was responsible for at least 1/3 of sewer blockages in Thames Water waste area. A waste-based approach was developed through an extensive review to estimate the potential for FOG collection and recovery. Three main sources were identified: residential, commercial and industrial. Commercial properties were identified as one of the major FOG producers. The total potential FOG generated was estimated for the 354 wastewater catchments. Additionally, raw and settled sewage were sampled and analysed for FOG (as hexane extractable material) monthly at 20 sewage treatment works (STW) for three years. A good correlation was found with the sampled FOG and population equivalent (PE). On average, a difference of 43.03% was found between the estimated FOG (waste-based approach) and sampled FOG (raw sewage sampling). It was suggested that the approach undertaken could overestimate the FOG available, the sampling could only capture a fraction of FOG arriving at STW, and/or the difference could account for FOG accumulating in sewer lines. Furthermore, it was estimated that on average FOG could contribute up to 12.99% of the primary sludge removed. The model was further used to investigate the relationship between estimated FOG and number of blockages. The higher the FOG potential, the higher the number of FOG-related blockages is. The GIS-based tool was used to identify critical areas (i.e. high FOG potential and high number of FOG blockages). As reported in the literature, FOG was one of the main causes of sewer blockages. By identifying critical areas (i.e. high FOG potential and high number of FOG blockages) the model further explored the potential for source-control in terms of ‘sewer relief’ and waste recovery. Hence, it helped targeting where benefits from implementation of management strategies could be the highest. However, FOG is still likely to persist throughout the networks, and further research is needed to assess downstream impacts (i.e. at STW).

Keywords: fat, FOG, GIS, grease, oil, sewer blockages, sewer networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
328 Study on Heat Transfer Capacity Limits of Heat Pipe with Working Fluids Ammonia and Water

Authors: M. Heydari, A. Ghanami

Abstract:

Heat pipe is simple heat transfer device which combines the conduction and phase change phenomena to control the heat transfer without any need for external power source. At hot surface of heat pipe, the liquid phase absorbs heat and changes to vapor phase. The vapor phase flows to condenser region and with the loss of heat changes to liquid phase. Due to gravitational force the liquid phase flows to evaporator section. In HVAC systems the working fluid is chosen based on the operating temperature. The heat pipe has significant capability to reduce the humidity in HVAC systems. Each HVAC system which uses heater, humidifier or dryer is a suitable nominate for the utilization of heat pipes. Generally heat pipes have three main sections: condenser, adiabatic region, and evaporator. Performance investigation and optimization of heat pipes operation in order to increase their efficiency is crucial. In the present article, a parametric study is performed to improve the heat pipe performance. Therefore, the heat capacity of heat pipe with respect to geometrical and confining parameters is investigated. For the better observation of heat pipe operation in HVAC systems, a CFD simulation in Eulerian- Eulerian multiphase approach is also performed. The results show that heat pipe heat transfer capacity is higher for water as working fluid with the operating temperature of 340 K. It is also showed that the vertical orientation of heat pipe enhances it’s heat transfer capacity.used in the abstract.

Keywords: heat pipe, HVAC system, grooved heat pipe, heat pipe limits

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
327 Heat Pipe Thermal Performance Improvement in H-VAC Systems Using CFD Modeling

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, A. Ghanami

Abstract:

Heat pipe is a simple heat transfer device which combines the conduction and phase change phenomena to control the heat transfer without any need for external power source. At hot surface of the heat pipe, the liquid phase absorbs heat and changes to vapor phase. The vapor phase flows to condenser region and with the loss of heat changes to liquid phase. Due to gravitational force, the liquid phase flows to evaporator section. In HVAC systems, the working fluid is chosen based on the operating temperature. The heat pipe has significant capability to reduce the humidity in HVAC systems. Each HVAC system which uses heater, humidifier or dryer is a suitable nominate for the utilization of heat pipes. Generally, heat pipes have three main sections: condenser, adiabatic region, and evaporator.Performance investigation and optimization of heat pipes operation in order to increase their efficiency is crucial. In the present article, a parametric study is performed to improve the heat pipe performance. Therefore, the heat capacity of the heat pipe with respect to geometrical and confining parameters is investigated. For the better observation of heat pipe operation in HVAC systems, a CFD simulation in Eulerian- Eulerian multiphase approach is also performed. The results show that heat pipe heat transfer capacity is higher for water as working fluid with the operating temperature of 340 K. It is also showed that the vertical orientation of heat pipe enhances its heat transfer capacity.

Keywords: heat pipe, HVAC system, grooved heat pipe, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
326 Heat Pipes Thermal Performance Improvement in H-VAC Systems Using CFD Modeling

Authors: M. Heydari, A. Ghanami

Abstract:

Heat pipe is simple heat transfer device which combines the conduction and phase change phenomena to control the heat transfer without any need for external power source. At hot surface of heat pipe, the liquid phase absorbs heat and changes to vapor phase. The vapor phase flows to condenser region and with the loss of heat changes to liquid phase. Due to gravitational force the liquid phase flows to evaporator section.In HVAC systems the working fluid is chosen based on the operating temperature. The heat pipe has significant capability to reduce the humidity in HVAC systems. Each HVAC system which uses heater, humidifier or dryer is a suitable nominate for the utilization of heat pipes. Generally heat pipes have three main sections: condenser, adiabatic region and evaporator.Performance investigation and optimization of heat pipes operation in order to increase their efficiency is crucial. In present article, a parametric study is performed to improve the heat pipe performance. Therefore, the heat capacity of heat pipe with respect to geometrical and confining parameters is investigated. For the better observation of heat pipe operation in HVAC systems, a CFD simulation in Eulerian- Eulerian multiphase approach is also performed. The results show that heat pipe heat transfer capacity is higher for water as working fluid with the operating temperature of 340 K. It is also showed that the vertical orientation of heat pipe enhances it’s heat transfer capacity.

Keywords: heat pipe, HVAC system, grooved heat pipe, heat pipe limits

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
325 Improvement of Heat Pipe Thermal Performance in H-VAC Systems Using CFD Modeling

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, A. Ghanami

Abstract:

Heat pipe is simple heat transfer device which combines the conduction and phase change phenomena to control the heat transfer without any need for external power source. At hot surface of heat pipe, the liquid phase absorbs heat and changes to vapor phase. The vapor phase flows to condenser region and with the loss of heat changes to liquid phase. Due to gravitational force the liquid phase flows to evaporator section. In HVAC systems the working fluid is chosen based on the operating temperature. The heat pipe has significant capability to reduce the humidity in HVAC systems. Each HVAC system which uses heater, humidifier or dryer is a suitable nominate for the utilization of heat pipes. Generally heat pipes have three main sections: condenser, adiabatic region and evaporator.Performance investigation and optimization of heat pipes operation in order to increase their efficiency is crucial. In present article, a parametric study is performed to improve the heat pipe performance. Therefore, the heat capacity of heat pipe with respect to geometrical and confining parameters is investigated. For the better observation of heat pipe operation in HVAC systems, a CFD simulation in Eulerian- Eulerian multiphase approach is also performed. The results show that heat pipe heat transfer capacity is higher for water as working fluid with the operating temperature of 340 K. It is also showed that the vertical orientation of heat pipe enhances it’s heat transfer capacity used in the abstract.

Keywords: heat pipe, HVAC system, grooved heat pipe, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 271