Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: inclusions

55 Movement of Metallic Inclusions in the Volume of Synthetic Diamonds at High Pressure and High Temperature in the Temperature Gradient Field

Authors: P. I. Yachevskaya, S. A. Terentiev, M. S. Kuznetsov


Several synthetic HPHT diamonds with metal inclusions have been studied. To have possibility of investigate the movement and transformation of the inclusions in the volume of the diamond the samples parallele-piped like shape has been made out of diamond crystals. The calculated value of temperature gradient in the samples of diamond which was placed in high-pressure cell was about 5-10 grad/mm. Duration of the experiments was in range 2-16 hours. All samples were treated several times. It has been found that the volume (dimensions) of inclusions, temperature, temperature gradient and the crystallographic orientation of the samples in the temperature field affects the movement speed of inclusions. Maximum speed of inclusions’ movement reached a value 150 µm/h.

Keywords: diamond, inclusions, temperature gradient, HPHT

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54 Simulation of Binary Nitride Inclusions Effect on Tensile Properties of Steel

Authors: Ali Dalirbod, Peyman Ahmadian


Inclusions are unavoidable part of all steels. Non-metallic inclusions have significant effects on mechanical properties of steel. The effects of inclusion on stress concentration around the matrix/inclusion have been extensively studied. The results relating to single inclusion behavior, describe properly the behavior of stress but not the elongation drop. The raised stress in inclusion/matrix results in crack initiation. The influence of binary inclusions on stress concentration around matrix is a major aim of this work which is representative of the simple pattern distribution of non-metallic inclusions. Stress concentration around inclusions in this case depends on parameters like distance between two inclusions (d), angle between centrally linking line of two inclusions, load axis (φ), and rotational angle of inclusion (θ). FEM analysis was applied to investigate the highest and lowest ductility versus varying parameters above. The simulation results show that there is a critical distance between two cubic inclusions in which bigger than the threshold, the stress, and strain field in matrix/inclusions interface converts into individual fields around each inclusion.

Keywords: nitride inclusion, simulation, tensile properties, inclusion-matrix interface

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53 Optimization of Fourth Order Discrete-Approximation Inclusions

Authors: Elimhan N. Mahmudov


The paper concerns the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality for Cauchy problem of fourth order discrete (PD) and discrete-approximate (PDA) inclusions. The main problem is formulation of the fourth order adjoint discrete and discrete-approximate inclusions and transversality conditions, which are peculiar to problems including fourth order derivatives and approximate derivatives. Thus the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality are obtained incorporating the Euler-Lagrange and Hamiltonian forms of inclusions. Derivation of optimality conditions are based on the apparatus of locally adjoint mapping (LAM). Moreover in the application of these results we consider the fourth order linear discrete and discrete-approximate inclusions.

Keywords: difference, optimization, fourth, approximation, transversality

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52 Effect of Inclusions on the Shape and Size of Crack Tip Plastic Zones by Element Free Galerkin Method

Authors: A. Jameel, G. A. Harmain, Y. Anand, J. H. Masoodi, F. A. Najar


The present study investigates the effect of inclusions on the shape and size of crack tip plastic zones in engineering materials subjected to static loads by employing the element free Galerkin method (EFGM). The modeling of the discontinuities produced by cracks and inclusions becomes independent of the grid chosen for analysis. The standard displacement approximation is modified by adding additional enrichment functions, which introduce the effects of different discontinuities into the formulation. The level set method has been used to represent different discontinuities present in the domain. The effect of inclusions on the extent of crack tip plastic zones is investigated by solving some numerical problems by the EFGM.

Keywords: EFGM, stress intensity factors, crack tip plastic zones, inclusions

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51 Mineralisation and Fluid Inclusions Studies of the Fluorite Deposit at Jebel Mecella, North Eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, Garnit Hechmi, David Banks


The Jebel Mecella F (Ba-Pb-Zn) ore deposits of the Zaghouan district are located in northeastern Tunisia, 60 km south of Tunis. The host rocks belong to the Ressas Formation of Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age and lower Cretaceous layers. Mineralisations occur as stratiform lenses and fracture fillings. The ore mineral assemblage is composed of fluorite, barite, sphalerite galena, and quartz. Primary fluid inclusions in sphalerite have homogenization temperatures ranging from 129 to 145°C final melting temperature range from -14.9 to -10.0, corresponding to salinities of 14.0 to 17.7 wt% NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusions in fluorite homogenize to the liquid phase between 116 and 160°C. The final ice melting temperature ranges from -23 to -15 °C, corresponding to salinities between 17 and 24 wt% NaCl equivalent. The LAICP-MS analyses of the fluid inclusions in fluorite show that these fluids are dominated by Na>K>Mg. Furthermore, the high K/Na values from fluid inclusions suggest the brine interacted with K-rich rocks in the basement or in siliciclastic sediments in the basins. The ore fluids in Jebel Mecella are highly saline and Na-K dominated with lower Mg concentrations, and come from the leaching of the dolomitic host rocks. These results are compatible with Mississippi-Valley-type mineralizing fluids.

Keywords: Jebel Mecella, fluid inclusions, micro thermometry, LA-ICP-MS

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50 Effect of Inclusions in the Ultrasonic Fatigue Endurance of Maraging 300 Steel

Authors: G. M. Dominguez Almaraz, J. A. Ruiz Vilchez, M. A. Sanchez Miranda


Ultrasonic fatigue tests have been carried out in the maraging 300 steel. Experimental results show that fatigue endurance under this modality of testing is closely related to the nature and geometrical properties of inclusions present in this alloy. A model was proposed to correlate the ultrasonic fatigue endurance with the nature and geometrical properties of the crack initiation inclusion. Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were obtained on the fracture surfaces, in order to assess the crack initiation inclusion and to introduce these parameters in the proposed model, with good agreement for the fatigue life prediction.

Keywords: inclusions, ultrasonic fatigue, maraging 300 steel, crack initiation

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49 Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion Study of the Kebbouch South Pb-Zn Deposit, Northwest Tunisia

Authors: Imen Salhi, Salah Bouhlel, Bernrd Lehmann


The Kebbouch South Pb-Zn deposit is located 20 km to the east of El Kef (NW) in the southeastern part of the Triassic diapir belt in the Tunisian Atlas. The deposit is composed of sulfide and non-sulfide zinc-lead ore bodies. The aim of this study is to provide petrographic results, mineralogy, as well as fluid inclusion data of the carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn Kebbouch South deposit. Mineralization forms two major ore types: (1) lenticular dolostones and clay breccias in the contact zone between Triassic and Upper Cretaceous strata;, it consists of small-scale lenticular, strata-or fault-controlled mineralization mainly composed of marcasite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, and (2) stratiform mineralization in the Bahloul Formation (Upper Cenomanian-Lower Turonian) consisting of framboidal and cubic pyrite, disseminated sphalerite and galena. Non-metalliferous and/or gangue minerals are represented by dolomite, calcite, celestite and quartz. Fluid inclusion petrography study has been carried out on calcite and celestite. Fluid inclusions hosted in celestite are less than 20 µm large and show two types of aqueous inclusions: monophase liquid aqueous inclusions (L), abundant and very small, generally less than 15 µm and liquid-rich two phase inclusions (L+V). The gas phase forms a mobile vapor bubble. Microthermometric analyses of (L+V) fluid inclusions for celestite indicate that the homogenization temperature ranges from 121 to 156°C, and final ice melting temperatures are in the range of – 19 to -9°C corresponding to salinities of 12 to 21 wt% NaCl eq. (L+V) fluid inclusions from calcite are frequently localized along the growth zones; their homogenization temperature ranges from 96 to 164°C with final ice melting temperatures between -16 and -7°C corresponding to salinities of 9 to 19 wt% NaCl eq. According to mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies, mineralization in the Pb – Zn Kebbouch South deposit formed between 96 to 164°C with salinities ranging from 9 to 21 wt% NaCl eq. A contribution of basinal brines in the ore formation of the kebbouch South Pb–Zn deposit is likely. The deposit is part of the family of MVT deposits associated with the salt diapir environment.

Keywords: fluid inclusion, Kebbouch South, mineralogy, MVT deposits, Pb-Zn

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48 Dynamic Response around Inclusions in Infinitely Inhomogeneous Media

Authors: Jinlai Bian, Zailin Yang, Guanxixi Jiang, Xinzhu Li


The problem of elastic wave propagation in inhomogeneous medium has always been a classic problem. Due to the frequent occurrence of earthquakes, many economic losses and casualties have been caused, therefore, to prevent earthquake damage to people and reduce damage, this paper studies the dynamic response around the circular inclusion in the whole space with inhomogeneous modulus, the inhomogeneity of the medium is reflected in the shear modulus of the medium with the spatial position, and the density is constant, this method can be used to solve the problem of the underground buried pipeline. Stress concentration phenomena are common in aerospace and earthquake engineering, and the dynamic stress concentration factor (DSCF) is one of the main factors leading to material damage, one of the important applications of the theory of elastic dynamics is to determine the stress concentration in the body with discontinuities such as cracks, holes, and inclusions. At present, the methods include wave function expansion method, integral transformation method, integral equation method and so on. Based on the complex function method, the Helmholtz equation with variable coefficients is standardized by using conformal transformation method and wave function expansion method, the displacement and stress fields in the whole space with circular inclusions are solved in the complex coordinate system, the unknown coefficients are solved by using boundary conditions, by comparing with the existing results, the correctness of this method is verified, based on the superiority of the complex variable function theory to the conformal transformation, this method can be extended to study the inclusion problem of arbitrary shapes. By solving the dynamic stress concentration factor around the inclusions, the influence of the inhomogeneous parameters of the medium and the wavenumber ratio of the inclusions to the matrix on the dynamic stress concentration factor is analyzed. The research results can provide some reference value for the evaluation of nondestructive testing (NDT), oil exploration, seismic monitoring, and soil-structure interaction.

Keywords: circular inclusions, complex variable function, dynamic stress concentration factor (DSCF), inhomogeneous medium

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47 Fluid Inclusions Analysis of Fluorite from the Hammam Jedidi District, North-Eastern Tunisia

Authors: Miladi Yasmine, Bouhlel Salah, Garnit Hechmi


Hydrothermal vein-type deposits of the Hammam Jedidi F-Ba(Pb-Zn-Cu) are hosted in Lower Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series, and located near a very important structural lineament (NE-SW) corresponding to the Hammam Jedidi Fault in the Tunisian Dorsale. The circulation of the ore forming fluid is triggered by a regional tectonic compressive phase which occurred during the miocène time. Mineralization occurs as stratabound and vein-type orebodies adjacent to the Triassic salt diapirs and within fault in Jurassic limestone. Fluid inclusions data show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralisation deposition: a warmer saline fluid (180°C, 20 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler less saline fluid (126°C, 5wt%NaCl equivalent). The contrasting salinities and halogen ratios suggest that this two fluid derived from one of the brine originated after the dissolution of halite as suggested by its high salinity. The other end member, as indicated by the low Cl/Br ratios, acquired its low salinity by dilution of Br enriched evaporated seawater. These results are compatible with Mississippi-Valley- type mineralization.

Keywords: Jebel Oust, fluid inclusions, North Eastern Tunisia, mineralization

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46 Mechanism of Failure of Pipeline Steels in Sour Environment

Authors: Abhishek Kumar


X70 pipeline steel was electrochemically charged with hydrogen for different durations in order to find crack nucleation and propagation sites. After 3 hours charging, suitable regions for crack initiation and propagation were found. These regions were studied by OM, SEM, EDS and later Vicker hardness test was done. The results brought out that HIC cracks nucleated from regions rich of inclusions and further propagated through the segregation area of some elements, such as manganese, carbon, silicon and sulfur. It is worth-mentioning that all these potential sites for crack nucleation and propagation appeared at the centre of cross section of the specimens. Additionally, cracked area has harder phase than the non-cracked area which was confirmed by hardness test.

Keywords: X70 steel, morphology of inclusions, SEM/EDS/OM, simulation, statistical data

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45 Study of Elastic-Plastic Fatigue Crack in Functionally Graded Materials

Authors: Somnath Bhattacharya, Kamal Sharma, Vaibhav Sonkar


Composite materials emerged in the middle of the 20th century as a promising class of engineering materials providing new prospects for modern technology. Recently, a new class of composite materials known as functionally graded materials (FGMs) has drawn considerable attention of the scientific community. In general, FGMs are defined as composite materials in which the composition or microstructure or both are locally varied so that a certain variation of the local material properties is achieved. This gradual change in composition and microstructure of material is suitable to get gradient of properties and performances. FGMs are synthesized in such a way that they possess continuous spatial variations in volume fractions of their constituents to yield a predetermined composition. These variations lead to the formation of a non-homogeneous macrostructure with continuously varying mechanical and / or thermal properties in one or more than one direction. Lightweight functionally graded composites with high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios have been used successfully in aircraft industry and other engineering applications like in electronics industry and in thermal barrier coatings. In the present work, elastic-plastic crack growth problems (using Ramberg-Osgood Model) in an FGM plate under cyclic load has been explored by extended finite element method. Both edge and centre crack problems have been solved by taking additionally holes, inclusions and minor cracks under plane stress conditions. Both soft and hard inclusions have been implemented in the problems. The validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics theory is limited to the brittle materials. A rectangular plate of functionally graded material of length 100 mm and height 200 mm with 100% copper-nickel alloy on left side and 100% ceramic (alumina) on right side is considered in the problem. Exponential gradation in property is imparted in x-direction. A uniform traction of 100 MPa is applied to the top edge of the rectangular domain along y direction. In some problems, domain contains major crack along with minor cracks or / and holes or / and inclusions. Major crack is located the centre of the left edge or the centre of the domain. The discontinuities, such as minor cracks, holes, and inclusions are added either singly or in combination with each other. On the basis of this study, it is found that effect of minor crack in the domain’s failure crack length is minimum whereas soft inclusions have moderate effect and the effect of holes have maximum effect. It is observed that the crack growth is more before the failure in each case when hard inclusions are present in place of soft inclusions.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, fatigue crack, functionally graded materials, extended finite element method (XFEM)

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44 Contribution of the Study of Inclusion Fluids to the Knowledge of the Conditions of Formation of the Layers with SN-W of Central Hoggar, Algeria

Authors: J. Bouguebrine, L. Bouabsa


The ground of study is localized in central Hoggar and contains the most important layers and Stanno-Wolframifére indices of the metallogenic province have tin and wolfram of Hoggar. These layers are always associate with post-orogenetic Panafrican magmatism (GMR) which was set up in the form of circumscribed granitic solid masses of relatively reduced size or in dykes of microgranites. The area studied are in Tounine, Aléméda, Hanana-hananére, Tim Amzi, El Karoussa. The geochemical data processing watch peralumineux character rich person out of Li-F and rare metals (MR). Pegmatites of the type stocksheider, formations of greisens and mineralization Sn-W accompany these granites. Mineralisation Sn-W, expressed particularly well in the seams of quartz and greinsen is spacialement and génitiquement dependent on the maguatism specific to white feldspar-topaz (GMR) (grained and microgrenu). the mineral paragenesis is primarily made up of wolframite and cassetérite. The minerals of gangue are represented by quartz, topaz, the micas containing lithia and the fluorite. A microthermometric study of fluid inclusions related to the granites end on white feldspar-topaz of Hanana, topaz of Hananére, the microgranite of Aléméda, and the seams of quartz D In Tounine (Tiftazouine) and of Tim Amzi; allows to characterize the fluids associated with these layers. It comes out from this study the abundance of aqueous inclusions and three types of fluids were given: -Hot and salted fluids rich in volatile elements particularly CO2; -follow-ups by aquo-carbonic fluids less hot and moderately salted with temperatures of homogenisations (HT) average respectively of 300°C and 180°C; -finally of the aqueous fluids very little salted (≤1%pds.éq.NaCl) and definitely colder. An estimate depths éteé made starting from the diagram of (Haas, 1971) in the system H2O-NaCl, the results are the following: • Inclusion aqueous (L and Lw): correspond to depths of about 50 à500m. • Inclusions aquo-carbonic (Lcw and Lwc): correspond to depths of L order of 600 with 1200m • Carbonic inclusion (Vcw): correspond to depths about 1400à1800m

Keywords: fluid inclusions microthermométrie, cassiterite wolframite, granites with rare metals, Central Hoggar

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43 Microthermometry of Carbonated Rocks of the Hondita-Lomagorda Formations, the Tiger Cave Sector, Municipality of Yaguara, Colombia

Authors: Camila Lozano-Vivas, Camila Quevedo-Villamil, Ingrid Munoz-Quijano, Diego Loaiza


Colombia's limited oil reserves make the finding of new fields of extraction or the potentiate of the existing ones a more important task to do every day; the exploration projects that allow to have a better knowledge of the oil basins are essential. The upper Magdalena Valley basin - VSM, whose reserves are limited, has been one of the first basins for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons in Colombia. The Hondita and Lomagorda formations were deposited in the Late Cretaceous Middle Albian to the Coniacian and are characterized by being the hydrocarbon-generating rocks in the VSM basin oil system along with the Shale de Bambucá; therefore multiple studies have been made. In the oil industry, geochemical properties are used to understand the origin, migration, accumulation, and alteration of hydrocarbons and, in general, the evolution of the basin containing them. One of the most important parameters to understand this evolution is the formation temperature of the oil system. For this reason, a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions was carried out to recognize formation temperatures and to determine certain basic physicochemical variables, homogenization temperature, pressure, density and salinity of the fluid at the time of entrapment, providing evidence on the history of different events in different geological environments in the evolution of a sedimentary basin. Prior to this study, macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analyses of the samples collected in the field were performed. The results of the mentioned properties of the fluid inclusions in the different samples analyzed have salinities ranging from 20.22% to 26.37% eq. by weight NaCl, similar densities found in the ranges of 1.05 to 1.16 g/cc and an average homogenization temperature at 142.92°C, indicating that, at the time of their entanglement, the rock was in the window of generation of medium hydrocarbons –light with fragile characteristics of the rock that would make it useful to treat them as naturally fractured reservoirs.

Keywords: homogenization temperature, fluid inclusions, microthermometry, salinity

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42 Investment Casting Conditions with Tourmaline In-Situ

Authors: Kageeporn Wongpreedee, Bongkot Phichaikamjornwut, Duangkhae Bootkul


The technique of stone in place casting had been established in jewelry production for two decades. However, the process were not widely used since it was limited to precious stones with high hardness and high stabililty at high temperature. This experiment were tested on tourmaline which is semi-precious gemstone having less hardness and less stability comparing to precious stones. The experiment were designed into two parts. The first part is to understand the phenomena of tourmaline under the heating conditions. Natural tourmaline stones were investigated and compared inclusions inside stones tested at temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C. The second part is to cast the treated tourmaline with ion-implanation under the stones in place casting conditions. The results showed that stones were able to tolerate as much as at 700 °C showing the growths of inclusions inside the stones. The second part of this experiment were compared tourmaline with ion-implantation and natural tourmaline using on stones in place casting process at different stone setting types. The results showed that the cracks and inclustions of both treat and natural tourmaline with stones in place casting were propagate due to high stress of metal contractions. The stones with ion-implatation were more likely tolerate to cracks and inclusion propagations inside the stones.

Keywords: stone in place casting, tourmaline, ion implantation, metal contraction

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41 Microdiamond and Moissanite Inclusions in Garnets from Pohorje Mountains, Eastern Alps, Slovenia

Authors: Mirijam Vrabec, Marian Janak, Bojan Ambrozic, Angelja K. Surca, Nastja Rogan Smuc, Nina Zupancic, Saso Sturm


Natural microdiamonds and moissanite (SiC) can form during the orogenic events under ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions (UHP), when parts of Earth’s crust are subducted to extreme depths. So far, such processes were identified only in few places on the Earth, and therefore, represent unique opportunity to study the evolution of the Earth’s deep interior. An important discovery of microdiamonds and moissanite was reported from Pohorje, (Slovenia), where they occurred as single or polyphase inclusions in garnets. Metasedimentary rocks from Pohorje are predominantly gneisses representing parts of the Austroalpine metamorphic units of the Eastern Alps. During Cretaceous orogeny, (ca. 95–92 Ma) continental crustal rocks were deeply subducted to the mantle depths (below 100 km) and metamorphosed at pressures exceeding 3.5 GPa and temperatures between 800–850 °C. Microstructural and phase analysis of the inclusions as well as detailed elemental analysis of host garnets were carried out combining several analytical techniques: optical microscope in plane polarized transmitted light, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) and field-emission scanning microscope (FEG-SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Micro-Raman analysis revealed sharp, first order diamond bands sometimes accompanied by graphite bands implying that transformation of diamond back to graphite occurred. To study the chemical and crystallographic relationship between microdiamonds and co-inclusions, advanced techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied, which included high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), combined with EDS and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). To prepare electron transparent TEM lamellae selectively a dual-beam Focused Ion Beam/SEM (FIB/SEM) was employed. Detailed study of TEM lamellae, which was cross-sectioned from the highly faceted inclusion body located within the host garnet crystal matrix, revealed rich and rather complex internal structure. Namely, the negative crystal facets of the main inclusion body were typically decorated with up to 1 μm thick amorphous layer, reflecting the general garnet composition with slight variations in Fe/Ca content. Within these layers, ELNES analysis revealed the presence of a 28–30 nm thick layer of amorphous carbon. The very last section of this layer corresponds to composition of SiO2. Within the inclusion, besides diamond and moissanite alumosilicate mineral with pronounced layered structure, iron sulfides and chlorine were identified under TEM and CO2 and CH4 using Raman. Moissanite is found as single crystal or composed from numerous highly textured nano-crystals with the average size of 10 nm. Moissanite inclusions were found embedded inside the amorphous crust implying that moissanite crystalized well before the deposition of the amorphous layer. From the microstructural, crystallographic and chemical observations so far we can deduce, that polyphase inclusions in diamond bearing garnets from Pohorje most probably crystallized from reduced supercritical fluids. Based on layered interface structure of the host mineral multiphase process of crystallization is possible. The presence of microdiamonds and moissanite in rocks from Pohorje demonstrates that these parts of the Eastern Alps were subducted to extreme depths, and were subsequently exhumed back to the Earth's surface without complete breakdown of UHP mineral phases, allowing a rear and exceptional opportunity to study them in-situ.

Keywords: diamond, fluid inclusions, moissanite, TEM, UHP metamorphism.

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40 Numerical Modeling of Geogrid Reinforced Soil Bed under Strip Footings Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Ahmed M. Gamal, Adel M. Belal, S. A. Elsoud


This article aims to study the effect of reinforcement inclusions (geogrids) on the sand dunes bearing capacity under strip footings. In this research experimental physical model was carried out to study the effect of the first geogrid reinforcement depth (u/B), the spacing between the reinforcement (h/B) and its extension relative to the footing length (L/B) on the mobilized bearing capacity. This paper presents the numerical modeling using the commercial finite element package (PLAXIS version 8.2) to simulate the laboratory physical model, studying the same parameters previously handled in the experimental work (u/B, L/B & h/B) for the purpose of validation. In this study the soil, the geogrid, the interface element and the boundary condition are discussed with a set of finite element results and the validation. Then the validated FEM used for studying real material and dimensions of strip foundation. Based on the experimental and numerical investigation results, a significant increase in the bearing capacity of footings has occurred due to an appropriate location of the inclusions in sand. The optimum embedment depth of the first reinforcement layer (u/B) is equal to 0.25. The optimum spacing between each successive reinforcement layer (h/B) is equal to 0.75 B. The optimum Length of the reinforcement layer (L/B) is equal to 7.5 B. The optimum number of reinforcement is equal to 4 layers. The study showed a directly proportional relation between the number of reinforcement layer and the Bearing Capacity Ratio BCR, and an inversely proportional relation between the footing width and the BCR.

Keywords: reinforced soil, geogrid, sand dunes, bearing capacity

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39 Existence Result of Third Order Functional Random Integro-Differential Inclusion

Authors: D. S. Palimkar


The FRIGDI (functional random integrodifferential inclusion) seems to be new and includes several known random differential inclusions already studied in the literature as special cases have been discussed in the literature for various aspects of the solutions. In this paper, we prove the existence result for FIGDI under the non-convex case of multi-valued function involved in it.Using random fixed point theorem of B. C. Dhage and caratheodory condition. This result is new to the theory of differential inclusion.

Keywords: caratheodory condition, random differential inclusion, random solution, integro-differential inclusion

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38 Effect of Non-metallic Inclusion from the Continuous Casting Process on the Multi-Stage Forging Process and the Tensile Strength of the Bolt: Case Study

Authors: Tomasz Dubiel, Tadeusz Balawender, Miroslaw Osetek


The paper presents the influence of non-metallic inclusions on the multi-stage forging process and the mechanical properties of the dodecagon socket bolt used in the automotive industry. The detected metallurgical defect was so large that it directly influenced the mechanical properties of the bolt and resulted in failure to meet the requirements of the mechanical property class. In order to assess the defect, an X-ray examination and metallographic examination of the defective bolt were performed, showing exogenous non-metallic inclusion. The size of the defect on the cross-section was 0.531 [mm] in width and 1.523 [mm] in length; the defect was continuous along the entire axis of the bolt. In analysis, a FEM simulation of the multi-stage forging process was designed, taking into account a non-metallic inclusion parallel to the sample axis, reflecting the studied case. The process of defect propagation due to material upset in the head area was analyzed. The final forging stage in shaping the dodecagonal socket and filling the flange area was particularly studied. The effect of the defect was observed to significantly reduce the effective cross-section as a result of the expansion of the defect perpendicular to the axis of the bolt. The mechanical properties of products with and without the defect were analyzed. In the first step, the hardness test confirmed that the required value for the mechanical class 8.8 of both bolt types was obtained. In the second step, the bolts were subjected to a static tensile test. The bolts without the defect gave a positive result, while all 10 bolts with the defect gave a negative result, achieving a tensile strength below the requirements. Tensile strength tests were confirmed by metallographic tests and FEM simulation with perpendicular inclusion spread in the area of the head. The bolts were damaged directly under the bolt head, which is inconsistent with the requirements of ISO 898-1. It has been shown that non-metallic inclusions with orientation in accordance with the axis of the bolt can directly cause loss of functionality and these defects should be detected even before assembling in the machine element.

Keywords: continuous casting, multi-stage forging, non-metallic inclusion, upset bolt head

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37 Behavior of the Foundation of Bridge Reinforced by Rigid and Flexible Inclusions

Authors: T. Karech A. Noui, T. Bouzid


This article presents a comparative study by numerical analysis of the behavior of reinforcements of clayey soils by flexible columns (stone columns) and rigid columns (piles). The numerical simulation was carried out in 3D for an assembly of foundation, columns and a pile of a bridge. Particular attention has been paid to take into account the installation of the columns. Indeed, in practice, due to the compaction of the column, the soil around it sustains a lateral expansion and the horizontal stresses are increased. This lateral expansion of the column can be simulated numerically. This work represents a comparative study of the interaction between the soil on one side, and the two types of reinforcement on the other side, and their influence on the behavior of the soil and of the pile of a bridge.

Keywords: piles, stone columns, interaction, foundation, settlement, consolidation

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36 Evaluation of Marwit Rod El Leqah Quartz Deposits As A Strategic Source of High Purity Quartz

Authors: Suzan Sami Ibrahim, Mohamed Gad Shahien, Ali Quarny Seliem, Mostafa Ragab Abukhadra


Pegmatite quartz deposits of Marwit Rod El Leqah area classify as medium purity quartz with 99.575 % average SiO2 content and therefore do not match the requirements of high technical applications (99.8 % SiO2 for solar cells, 99.8% SiO2 for electronics). Petrographic field and petrographic investigations reveal that, the reduction of the silica content attributed mainly to impurities of iron oxide, muscovite, rutile, orthoclase, granitic rafts and fluid inclusions. Such impurities resulted in raising Fe2O3, Al2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O and Na2O relative to the silica content. Structural impurities are the main source of trace elements in the quartz samples.

Keywords: High purity quartz, High-tech applications, solid impurities, structural impurities

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35 Plasticity in Matrix Dominated Metal-Matrix Composite with One Active Slip Based Dislocation

Authors: Temesgen Takele Kasa


The main aim of this paper is to suggest one active slip based continuum dislocation approach to matrix dominated MMC plasticity analysis. The approach centered the free energy principles through the continuum behavior of dislocations combined with small strain continuum kinematics. The analytical derivation of this method includes the formulation of one active slip system, the thermodynamic approach of dislocations, determination of free energy, and evolution of dislocations. In addition zero and non-zero energy dissipation analysis of dislocation evolution is also formulated by using varational energy minimization method. In general, this work shows its capability to analyze the plasticity of matrix dominated MMC with inclusions. The proposed method is also found to be capable of handling plasticity of MMC.

Keywords: active slip, continuum dislocation, distortion, dominated, energy dissipation, matrix dominated, plasticity

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34 Effect of Sulfur Content on Fatigue Strength of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: Sachin S. Patil, Mohan I. Mehta, Sandip J. Sutar, Akshay B. Patil, Shreyas S. Kirwai, Suresh Arangi


MnS is the most commonly found inclusion in steel, which is desirable for machinability of alloy steels but only up to a certain limit, beyond which it weakens fatigue properties of steel. In present work, the effect of sulfur content and its inclusions on the fatigue behavior of AISI 4140 steel is studied (sulfur content 0.002% and 0.016%). Metallurgical analysis, Mechanical testing and Rotating Bending Fatigue (RBF) test were carried out. With the increase in sulfur content, ductility and toughness of the material decrease significantly and large scatter is observed in UTS and impact energy values. From the results of RBF testing, it can be observed that increase in sulfur content from 0.002% to 0.016% has a negligible effect on the endurance strength of AISI 4140 for similar hardness level. Fractography analysis was carried out to study the failure modes in testing.

Keywords: AISI 4140, sulfur content, MnS inclusion, rotating bending fatigue

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33 Limiting Fracture Stress of Composite Ceramics with Symmetric Triangle Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Jinfeng Yu, Xinhua Ni


The limiting fracture stress predicting model of composite ceramics with symmetric triangle eutectic was established based on its special microscopic structure. The symmetric triangle eutectic is consisted of matrix, the strong constraint inter-phase and reinforced fiber inclusions which are 120 degrees uniform symmetrical distribution. Considering the conditions of the rupture of the cohesive bond between matrix and fibers in eutectic and the stress concentration effect at the fiber end, the intrinsic fracture stress of eutectic was obtained. Based on the biggest micro-damage strain in eutectic, defining the load function, the macro-damage fracture stress of symmetric triangle eutectic was determined by boundary conditions. Introducing the conception of critical zone, the theoretical limiting fracture stress forecasting model of composite ceramics was got, and the stress was related to the fiber size and fiber volume fraction in eutectic. The calculated results agreed with the experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: symmetric triangle eutectic, composite ceramics, limiting stress, intrinsic fracture stress

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32 Critical Thinking Skills in Activities Included in 11th Grade Chemistry Textbook - An Analytical Study

Authors: Sozan H. Omar, Luluah A. Al Jabr


The current study aimed to identify critical thinking skills and its level of inclusion in all the activities (44) listed in 11th grade chemistry textbooks. The researcher used a descriptive analytical method by using the content analyzing design. An instrument was created for this purpose and tested for validity and reliability. Results showed that, all activities included critical thinking skills with different ratios as follow: conclusion skill was (87.72%), induction skill was (80.90%), interpretation skill was (77. 72%), discussion of evaluation skill was (68.64%), and assumption skill was (50.45%). Also, the study results indicated that, the level of inclusion of critical thinking skills in the scientific activities was more explicit than implicit with same order as the level of inclusions. In the light of the study's results, the researcher provided some recommendations including the need to provide and redistribute critical thinking skills in the activities listed the chemistry textbook, as well as the need to pay attention to the inclusion level of these skills more implicitly in the activities.

Keywords: critical thinking skills, chemistry textbooks, scientific activities

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31 Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Panel Based on Mori-Tanaka Scheme

Authors: Seok-In Bae, Young-Hoon Lee, Ji-Hwan Kim


Due to the asymmetry of the material properties of the Functionally Graded Materials(FGMs) in the thickness direction, neutral surface of the model is not the same as the mid-plane of the symmetric structure. In order to investigate the thermal bucking behavior of FGMs, neutral surface is chosen as a reference plane. In the model, material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent, and varied continuously in the thickness direction of the plate. Further, the effective material properties such as Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are homogenized using Mori-Tanaka scheme which considers the interaction among adjacent inclusions. In this work, the finite element methods are used, and the first-order shear deformation theory of plate are accounted. The thermal loads are assumed to be uniform, linear and non-linear distribution through the thickness directions, respectively. Also, the effects of various parameters for thermal buckling behavior of FGM panel are discussed in detail.

Keywords: functionally graded plate, thermal buckling analysis, neutral surface

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30 The Effect of Randomly Distributed Polypropylene Fibers and Some Additive Materials on Freezing-Thawing Durability of a Fine-Grained Soil

Authors: A. Şahin Zaimoglu


A number of studies have been conducted recently to investigate the influence of randomly oriented fibers on some engineering properties of cohesive and cohesionless soils. However, few studies have been carried out on freezing-thawing behavior of fine-grained soils modified with discrete fiber inclusions and additive materials. This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of randomly distributed polypropylene fibers (PP) and some additive materials [e.g.., borogypsum (BG), fly ash (FA) and cement (C)] on freezing-thawing durability (mass losses) of a fine-grained soil for 6,12 and 18 cycles. The Taguchi method was applied to the experiments and a standard L9 orthogonal array (OA) with four factors and three levels were chosen. A series of freezing-thawing tests were conducted on each specimen. 0-20 % BG, 0-20 % FA, 0-0.25 % PP and 0-3 % of C by total dry weight of mixture were used in the preparation of specimens. Experimental results showed that the most effective materials for the freezing-thawing durability (mass losses) of the samples were borogypsum and fly ash. The values of mass losses for 6, 12 and 18 cycles in optimum conditions were 16.1%, 5.1% and 3.6%, respectively.

Keywords: freezing-thawing, additive materials, reinforced soil, optimization

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29 Experimental Study on Improving the Engineering Properties of Sand Dunes Using Random Fibers-Geogrid Reinforcement

Authors: Adel M. Belal, Sameh Abu El-Soud, Mariam Farid


This study presents the effect of reinforcement inclusions (fibers-geogrids) on fine sand bearing capacity under strip footings. Experimental model tests were carried out using a rectangular plates [(10cm x 38 cm), (7.5 cm x 38 cm), and (12.5 cm x 38 cm)] with a geogrids and randomly reinforced fibers. The width and depth of the geogrid were varied to determine their effects on the engineering properties of treated poorly graded fine sand. Laboratory model test results for the ultimate stresses and the settlement of a rigid strip foundation supported by single and multi-layered fiber-geogrid-reinforced sand are presented. The number of layers of geogrid was varied between 1 to 4. The effect of the first geogrid reinforcement depth, the spacing between the reinforcement and its length on the bearing capacity is investigated by experimental program. Results show that the use of flexible random fibers with a content of 0.125% by weight of the treated sand dunes, with 3 geogrid reinforcement layers, u/B= 0.25 and L/B=7.5, has a significant increase in the bearing capacity of the proposed system.

Keywords: earth reinforcement, geogrid, random fiber, reinforced soil

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28 Comparison between Ultra-High-Performance Concrete and Ultra-High-Performance-Glass Concrete

Authors: N. A. Soliman, A. F. Omran, A. Tagnit-Hamou


The finely ground waste glass has successfully used by the authors to develop and patent an ecological ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC), which was named as ultra-high-performance-glass concrete (UHPGC). After the successful development in laboratory, the current research presents a comparison between traditional UHPC and UHPGC produced using large-scale pilot plant mixer, in terms of rheology, mechanical, and durability properties. The rheology of the UHPGCs was improved due to the non-absorptive nature of the glass particles. The mechanical performance of UHPGC was comparable and very close to the traditional UHPC due to the pozzolan reactivity of the amorphous waste glass. The UHPGC has also shown excellent durability: negligible permeability (chloride-ion ≈ 20 Coulombs from the RCPT test), high abrasion resistance (volume loss index less than 1.3), and almost no freeze-thaw deterioration even after 1000 freeze-thaw cycles. The enhancement in the strength and rigidity of the UHPGC mixture can be referred to the inclusions of the glass particles that have very high strength and elastic modulus.

Keywords: ground glass pozzolan, large-scale production, sustainability, ultra-high performance glass concrete

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27 Modeling of Ductile Fracture Using Stress-Modified Critical Strain Criterion for Typical Pressure Vessel Steel

Authors: Carlos Cuenca, Diego Sarzosa


Ductile fracture occurs by the mechanism of void nucleation, void growth and coalescence. Potential sites for initiation are second phase particles or non-metallic inclusions. Modelling of ductile damage at the microscopic level is very difficult and complex task for engineers. Therefore, conservative predictions of ductile failure using simple models are necessary during the design and optimization of critical structures like pressure vessels and pipelines. Nowadays, it is well known that the initiation phase is strongly influenced by the stress triaxiality and plastic deformation at the microscopic level. Thus, a simple model used to study the ductile failure under multiaxial stress condition is the Stress Modified Critical Strain (SMCS) approach. Ductile rupture has been study for a structural steel under different stress triaxiality conditions using the SMCS method. Experimental tests are carried out to characterize the relation between stress triaxiality and equivalent plastic strain by notched round bars. After calibration of the plasticity and damage properties, predictions are made for low constraint bending specimens with and without side grooves. Stress/strain fields evolution are compared between the different geometries. Advantages and disadvantages of the SMCS methodology are discussed.

Keywords: damage, SMSC, SEB, steel, failure

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26 Effect of Diamagnetic Additives on Defects Level of Soft LiTiZn Ferrite Ceramics

Authors: Andrey V. Malyshev, Anna B. Petrova, Anatoly P. Surzhikov


The article presents the results of the influence of diamagnetic additives on the defects level of ferrite ceramics. For this purpose, we use a previously developed method based on the mathematical analysis of experimental temperature dependences of the initial permeability. A phenomenological expression for the description of such dependence was suggested and an interpretation of its main parameters was given. It was shown, that the main criterion of the integral defects level of ferrite ceramics is the relation of two parameters correlating with elastic stress value in a material. Model samples containing a controlled number of intergranular phase inclusions served to prove the validity of the proposed method, as well as to assess its sensitivity in comparison with the traditional XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis. The broadening data of diffraction reflexes of model samples have served for such comparison. The defects level data obtained by the proposed method are in good agreement with the X-ray data. The method showed high sensitivity. Therefore, the legitimacy of the selection relationship β/α parameters of phenomenological expression as a characteristic of the elastic state of the ferrite ceramics confirmed. In addition, the obtained data can be used in the detection of non-magnetic phases and testing the optimal sintering production technology of soft magnetic ferrites.

Keywords: cure point, initial permeability, integral defects level, homogeneity

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