Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: Andy Shaw

69 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column: Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors, especially when the water being treated had a low DO (such as leachate and high organic content waters), or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Thus, the present project aims to fill a part of this gap in the literature by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the design of an EC reactor (ECR1). In order to investigate the performance of ECR1, water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L, which is equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: flow column, electrocoagulation, dissolved oxygen, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
68 Food Waste Management in the Restaurant Industry

Authors: Vijayakumar Karunamoothei, Stephen Wylie, Andy Shaw, Al Shamma'A Ahmed

Abstract:

The main aim of this research is to investigate, analyse and provide solutions for the reduction of food waste in the restaurant industry. The amount of food waste that is sent to landfill by UK restaurants and food chains is considerably high, and also acts as an additional cost to the restaurants, as well as being a significant environmental issue. Food waste, for the most part, is disposed in landfill, but due to rising costs associated with waste disposal, it increases public concerns about the environmental issue. This makes conversion of food waste to energy an economic solution. The relevant properties, such as water content and calorific value, will vary considerably, depending on the particular type of food. This work, therefore, includes the collection and analysis of real data from restaurants on weekly basis. It will also investigate how the waste destined for landfill can be instead reused to produce fuels such as syngas or ethanol, or alternatively as fertilizer. The potential for syngas production will be tested using a microwave plasma reactor.

Keywords: fertilizer, microwave, plasma reactor, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
67 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al-Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, water, electrodes, iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
66 Automated Classification of Hypoxia from Fetal Heart Rate Using Advanced Data Models of Intrapartum Cardiotocography

Authors: Malarvizhi Selvaraj, Paul Fergus, Andy Shaw

Abstract:

Uterine contractions produced during labour have the potential to damage the foetus by diminishing the maternal blood flow to the placenta. In order to observe this phenomenon labour and delivery are routinely monitored using cardiotocography monitors. An obstetrician usually makes the diagnosis of foetus hypoxia by interpreting cardiotocography recordings. However, cardiotocography capture and interpretation is time-consuming and subjective, often lead to misclassification that causes damage to the foetus and unnecessary caesarean section. Both of these have a high impact on the foetus and the cost to the national healthcare services. Automatic detection of foetal heart rate may be an objective solution to help to reduce unnecessary medical interventions, as reported in several studies. This paper aim is to provide a system for better identification and interpretation of abnormalities of the fetal heart rate using RStudio. An open dataset of 552 Intrapartum recordings has been filtered with 0.034 Hz filters in an attempt to remove noise while keeping as much of the discriminative data as possible. Features were chosen following an extensive literature review, which concluded with FIGO features such as acceleration, deceleration, mean, variance and standard derivation. The five features were extracted from 552 recordings. Using these features, recordings will be classified either normal or abnormal. If the recording is abnormal, it has got more chances of hypoxia.

Keywords: cardiotocography, foetus, intrapartum, hypoxia

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
65 Controlling of Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns -Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 35 0C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-35 0C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 35 0C to the vicinity of 28 0C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.8 0C and from 29.8 to 31.9 0C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 28 0C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 35 0C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.

Keywords: water temperature, flow column, electrocoagulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
64 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns-Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar

Abstract:

Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. For instance, the DO oxidises Fe (II) to Fe (III), As (III) to As (V), and cyanide to cyanate and then to ammonia. As well as, removal of nitrogenous compounds accomplishes by the presence of DO. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors especially when the water being treated has low DO (such as leachate and highly polluted waters with organic matter); or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Where, the presence of air bubbles increases the electrical resistance of the EC cell that increase the energy consumption in consequence. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container having a controllable working volume of 0.5 to 1 L. It supplied with a flow column that consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L which equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, flow column, electrocoagulation, aluminium electrodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
63 An Innovative Use of Flow Columns in Electrocoagulation Reactor to Control Water Temperature

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, David Phipps, Ortoneda Pedrola

Abstract:

Temperature is an essential parameter in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it governs the solubility of electrodes and the precipitates and the collision rate of particles in water being treated. Although it has been about 100 years since the EC technology was invented and applied in water and wastewater treatment, the effects of temperature on the its performance were insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container supplied with a flow column consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. The flow column has been installed vertically, half submerged in the water being treated, inside a plastic cylinder. The unsubmerged part of the flow column works as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with different initial temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) to the ECR1 for 20 min. Temperature of effluent water samples were measured using Hanna meter (Model: HI 98130). The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 reduced water temperature from 35, 30, and 25 °C to 24.6, 23.8, and 21.8 °C respectively. While low water temperature, 15 °C, increased slowly to reach 19.1 °C after 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment period. At the same time, water sample with initial temperature of 20 °C showed almost a steady level of temperature along the treatment process, where the temperature increased negligibly from 20 to 20.1 °C after 20 minutes of treatment. In conclusion, ECR1 is able to control the temperature of water being treated around the room temperature even when the initial temperature was high (35 °C) or low (15 °C).

Keywords: electrocoagulation, flow column, treatment, water temperature

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62 Development of Biotechnological Emulsion Based on Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Lourena M. Veríssimo, Lucas A. Machado, Renata Rutckeviski, Francisco H. Xavier Júnior, Éverton N. Alencar, Andreza R. V. Morais, Teresa R. F. Dantas, Christian M. Oliveira, Arnóbio A. Silva Júnior, Eryvaldo S. T. Egito

Abstract:

This study aimed to obtain emulsion systems based on bullfrog oil (BO). The BO was extracted at 80ºC and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The critical Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLBc) Assay of the BO was performed through BO, Tween® 20, Span® 80 and deionized water mixtures using an Ultra-Turrax® and determined using dynamic light scattering, pH, electrical conductivity and creaming rate. Then, a pseudoternary phase diagram (PPD) was constructed by water titration. The GC/MS analysis of BO suggested Methyl Oleate (9.26%) as major compound. The HLBc was 12.1, wherein the correspondent emulsion showed a pH of 4.83±1.29, electrical conductivity of 103.65 µS, creaming rate of 2.51±0.54%, droplet size of 207.07±8.31 nm and polydispersity index of 0.212±0.005. The PPD showed different formulations characterized as O/W emulsions. Thus, the PPD proved to be a useful tool to produce BO emulsions, in which their constituents may vary within the range of the desired system.

Keywords: bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) oil, emulsion production, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
61 Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control of a Flexible Structure for Vibration Suppression Using MFC Actuator

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Shih-Chieh Tseng

Abstract:

Active vibration control is good for low frequency excitation, with advantages of light weight and adaptability. This paper use a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator for vibration suppression in a cantilevered beam due to its higher output force to suppress the disturbance. A fuzzy sliding mode controller is developed and applied to this system. Experimental results illustrate that the controller and MFC actuator are very effective in attenuating the structural vibration near the first resonant freuqency. Furthermore, this controller is shown to outperform the traditional skyhook controller, with nearly 90% of the vibration suppressed at the first resonant frequency of the structure.

Keywords: Fuzzy sliding mode controller, macro-fiber-composite actuator, skyhook controller, vibration suppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
60 Vibration Control of a Flexible Structure Using MFC Actuator

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Jeng-Jie Huang

Abstract:

Active vibration control is good for low frequency excitation, with advantages of light weight and adaptability. This paper employs a macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuator for vibration suppression in a cantilevered beam due to its higher output force to reject the disturbance. A notch filter with an adaptive tuning algorithm, the leaky filtered-X least mean square algorithm (leaky FXLMS algorithm), is developed and applied to the system. Experimental results show that the controller and MFC actuator was very effective in attenuating the structural vibration. Furthermore, this notch filter controller was compared with the traditional skyhook controller. It was found that its performance was better, with over 88% vibration suppression near the first resonant frequency of the structure.

Keywords: macro-fiber composite, notch filter, skyhook controller, vibration suppression

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
59 Radio Based Location Detection

Authors: M. Pallikonda Rajasekaran, J. Joshapath, Abhishek Prasad Shaw

Abstract:

Various techniques has been employed to find location such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and Beidou (compass). This paper currently deals with finding location using the existing FM signals that operates between 88-108 MHz. The location can be determined based on the received signal strength of nearby existing FM stations by mapping the signal strength values using trilateration concept. Thus providing security to users data and maintains eco-friendly environment at zero installation cost as this technology already existing FM stations operating in commercial FM band 88-108 MHZ. Along with the signal strength based trilateration it also finds azimuthal angle of the transmitter by employing directional antenna like Yagi-Uda antenna at the receiver side.

Keywords: location, existing FM signals, received signal strength, trilateration, security, eco-friendly, direction, privacy, zero installation cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
58 Microfluidic Synthesis of Chlorophyll Extraction–Loaded PCL Composite Microparticles Developed as Health Food

Authors: Ching-Ju Hsiao, Mao-Chen Huang, Pei-Fan Chen, Ruo-Yun Chung, Jiun-Hua Chou, Chih-Hui Yang, Keng-Shiang Huang, Jei-Fu Shaw

Abstract:

Chlorophyll has many benefits for human body. It is known to improve the health of the circulatory, digestive, immune and detoxification systems of the body. However, Chl can’t be preserved at the environment of high temperature and light exposure for a long time due to it is chemical structure is easily degradable. This characteristic causes that human body is difficult to absorb Chl effective components. In order to solve this problem, we utilize polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer encapsulation technology to increase the stability of Chl. In particular, we also established a microfluidic platform provide the control of composite beads diameter. The new composite beads is potential to be a health food. Result show that Chl effective components via the microfludic platform can be encapsulated effectively and still preserve its effective components.

Keywords: chlorophyll, PCL, PVA, microfluidic

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57 Entrepreneurial Determinants Contributing to the Long Term Growth of Young Hi-Technology Start-Ups

Authors: A. Binnui, O. Kalinowska-Beszczynska, G. Shaw

Abstract:

It is postulated that innovative deployment of entrepreneurial activities leads to firm's growth. This paper draws upon the key predictions of the core theories on entrepreneurship and innovation to formulate a conceptual framework which can be used to depict the casual chain of events from which entrepreneurs can manage more innovatively and ultimately deliver higher growth which benefits of the regional and national economies. It examines the key firm-based factors extracted from the theories, namely the characteristics of entrepreneurial hi-tech firms, characteristics of innovating firms, and firm growth dynamics that lead to enhanced economic growth. The framework postulates that the key determinants extracted such as entrepreneurial demographics, firm characteristic, skills and competencies, research and development, product/service characteristics, market development, financial of the firm and internationalization might lead to the survival and long term development of high-technology startups.

Keywords: innovative entrepreneurial activities, entrepreneuship, determinants, growth, hi-technology start-upws

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
56 Specified Human Motion Recognition and Unknown Hand-Held Object Tracking

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Pik-Hoe Chen

Abstract:

This paper aims to integrate human recognition, motion recognition, and object tracking technologies without requiring a pre-training database model for motion recognition or the unknown object itself. Furthermore, it can simultaneously track multiple users and multiple objects. Unlike other existing human motion recognition methods, our approach employs a rule-based condition method to determine if a user hand is approaching or departing an object. It uses a background subtraction method to separate the human and object from the background, and employs behavior features to effectively interpret human object-grabbing actions. With an object’s histogram characteristics, we are able to isolate and track it using back projection. Hence, a moving object trajectory can be recorded and the object itself can be located. This particular technique can be used in a camera surveillance system in a shopping area to perform real-time intelligent surveillance, thus preventing theft. Experimental results verify the validity of the developed surveillance algorithm with an accuracy of 83% for shoplifting detection.

Keywords: Automatic Tracking, Back Projection, Motion Recognition, Shoplifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
55 Multiresolution Mesh Blending for Surface Detail Reconstruction

Authors: Honorio Salmeron Valdivieso, Andy Keane, David Toal

Abstract:

In the area of mechanical reverse engineering, processes often encounter difficulties capturing small, highly localized surface information. This could be the case if a physical turbine was 3D scanned for lifecycle management or robust design purposes, with interest on eroded areas or scratched coating. The limitation partly is due to insufficient automated frameworks for handling -localized - surface information during the reverse engineering pipeline. We have developed a tool for blending surface patches with arbitrary irregularities into a base body (e.g. a CAD solid). The approach aims to transfer small surface features while preserving their shape and relative placement by using a multi-resolution scheme and rigid deformations. Automating this process enables the inclusion of outsourced surface information in CAD models, including samples prepared in mesh handling software, or raw scan information discarded in the early stages of reverse engineering reconstruction.

Keywords: application lifecycle management, multiresolution deformation, reverse engineering, robust design, surface blending

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54 AINA: Disney Animation Information as Educational Resources

Authors: Piedad Garrido, Fernando Repulles, Andy Bloor, Julio A. Sanguesa, Jesus Gallardo, Vicente Torres, Jesus Tramullas

Abstract:

With the emergence and development of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), Higher Education is experiencing rapid changes, not only in its teaching strategies but also in student’s learning skills. However, we have noticed that students often have difficulty when seeking innovative, useful, and interesting learning resources for their work. This is due to the lack of supervision in the selection of good query tools. This paper presents AINA, an Information Retrieval (IR) computer system aimed at providing motivating and stimulating content to both students and teachers working on different areas and at different educational levels. In particular, our proposal consists of an open virtual resource environment oriented to the vast universe of Disney comics and cartoons. Our test suite includes Disney’s long and shorts films, and we have performed some activities based on the Just In Time Teaching (JiTT) methodology. More specifically, it has been tested by groups of university and secondary school students.

Keywords: information retrieval, animation, educational resources, JiTT

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
53 Online Impulse Buying: A Study Based on Hedonic Shopping Value and Website Quality

Authors: Chechen Liao, Hung Wen Shaw

Abstract:

Recently, online impulse buying has been growing rapidly. It has become a major issue of concern and provided a lot of opportunities for online businesses. This study examines the effect of hedonic shopping values on hedonic motivations, and in turn affecting the urge of impulse buying. The study also explores the effects of website quality and the individual characteristics of impulsiveness on the urge of impulse buying. A total of 459 valid questionnaires were collected. Structural equation modelling was used to test the research hypothesis. This study found that adventure shopping, value shopping, and social shopping have a positive effect on hedonic motivations, which in turn positively affect the urge of impulse buying. Website quality and the individual characteristics of impulsiveness have a positive effect on the urge of impulse buying. The result of this study validates the phenomenon of online impulse buying behavior. This study also suggests that having a good website quality is the most important factor for increasing the likelihood of consumer impulse purchase. The study could serve as a basis for future research regarding online impulse buying behavior.

Keywords: hedonic motivation, hedonic shopping value, impulse buying, impulsiveness, website quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
52 Using Photo-Elicitation to Explore the Cosmology of Personal Training

Authors: John Gray, Andy Smith, Hazel James

Abstract:

With the introduction of projects such as GP referral and other medical exercise schemes, there has been a shift in the cosmology underpinning exercise leadership. That is, the knowledge base of exercise leaders, specifically personal trainers, has moved from a cosmology based on aesthetic and physical fitness demands to one requiring interaction with the dominant biomedical model underpinning contemporary medicine. In line with this shift research has demonstrated that personal trainer education has aligned itself to a biotechnological model. However, whilst there is a need to examine exercise as medicine, and consider the role of personal trainers as prescribers of these interventions, the possible issues surrounding the growing medicalization of the exercise cosmology have not been explored. Using a phenomenological methodology, and the novel approach of photo-elicitation, this research examined the practices of successful personal trainers. The findings highlight that a growing focus on an iatro-biological based scientific process of exercise prescription may prove problematical. Through the development of a model of practitioner-based knowledge, it is argued there is a possible growing disconnection between the theoretical basis of exercise science and the working cosmology of exercise practitioners.

Keywords: biomedicine, cosmology, personal training, photo-elicitation

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51 Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in Suspended Activated Sludge Process Augmented with Immobilized Biomass: A Pilot Study

Authors: Haon-Yao Chen, Cheng-Fang Lin, Pui-Kwan Andy Hong, Ping-Yi Yang, Kok Kwang Ng, Sheng-Fu Yang

Abstract:

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) are a natural phenomenon in the soil environment that can be applied in wastewater treatment. At a domestic wastewater treatment plant, we performed a pilot test of installing bioplates with entrapped biomass into a conventional aeration basin for SND, and investigated the effects of bioplate packing ratio, hydraulic retention time, dissolved oxygen level, on/off aeration mode, and supplemental carbon and alkalinity on nitrogen removal. With the pilot aeration basin of 1.3 m3 loaded with mixed liquor suspended solids of 1500-2500 mg/L and bioplates at PR of 3.2% (3.2% basin volume) operated at HRT of 6 h and DO of 4-6 mg/L without supplemental carbon or alkalinity, nitrogen in the wastewater was removed to an effluent total nitrogen (TN) of 7.3 mg/L from an influent TN of 28 mg/L. The bioplate robust cellulose triacetate structure carrying the biomass shows promise in retrofitting conventional aeration basins for enhanced nutrient removal.

Keywords: immobilization, nitrification/denitrification, nutrient removal, total nitrogen

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50 Length Dimension Correlates of Longitudinal Physical Conditioning on Indian Male Youth

Authors: Seema Sharma Kaushik, Dhananjoy Shaw

Abstract:

Various length dimensions of the body have been a variable of interest in the research areas of kinanthropometry. However the inclusion of length measurements in various studies remains restricted to reflect characteristics of a particular game/sport at a particular time. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to study various length dimensions correlates of a longitudinal physical conditioning program on Indian male youth. The study was conducted on 90 Indian male youth. The sample was equally divided into three groups namely, progressive load training (PLT), constant load training (CLT) and no load training (NL). The variables included sitting height, leg length, arm length and foot length. The study was conducted by adopting the multi group repeated measure design. Three different groups were measured four times after completion of each of the three meso-cycles of six-weeks duration each. The measurements were taken using the standard landmarks and procedures. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of co-variance were computed to analyze the data statistically. The post-hoc analysis was conducted for the significant F-ratios at 0.05 level. The study concluded that the followed longitudinal physical conditioning program had significant effect on various length dimensions of Indian male youth.

Keywords: Indian male youth, longitudinal, length dimensions, physical conditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
49 Affordable and Sustainable Housing Construction - Case Studies

Authors: Tony Rizk, Mohan Mahal, John Shaw

Abstract:

Recent material advances and cost efficiencies are transforming the housing industry away from traditional lumber and gypsum material to alternate fiberboard material that is workable, resistant to fire, mold and pest infestation. The use of these materials may add to the initial cost of construction. However, the life cycle (cradle to grave) cost of houses using these construction materials and methods are lower than the life cycle costs using traditional housing construction materials and methods. This paper will present four (4) case studies of sustainable house projects. Each project was designed and constructed using earthen based, sustainable fiber board material that is resistant to fire, mold and infestation, and fabricated at very low material calorific value. These house projects have living space range from 625 sq. ft. for an accessory dwelling unit and up to 3,200 sq. ft., 1-story and 2-story homes. For each case study, we will present the house engineering design and construction method, the initial construction costs, a summary of the life cycle costs, and a comparison to the life cycle cost of traditional housing available in the literature.

Keywords: residential housing, sustainable housing, life cycle cost, fire resistance, mold and infestation resistance

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48 The Constitution of Kenya, 2010, and the Feminist Legal Theory

Authors: Tecla Rita Karendi, Andy Cons Matata

Abstract:

Although before and at the advent of colonial administration, several women such as Mekatilili wa Menza and Muthoni Nyanjiru took up leadership positions in resisting the colonial administration. Kenya is generally considered a patriarchal society. Many women who tried to take up positions of leadership in postcolonial Kenya, such as the Nobel Prize winner Wangari Maathai, were branded as prostitutes or generally immoral women. However, the Constitution of Kenya, 2010, has since made a huge impact not only in the area of affirmative action but also in various aspects of the feminist legal theory such as the constitutional requirement that no more than two-thirds of the members of the elective or appointive bodies should be of the same gender. This favours women who are often sidelined in elective posts such as parliament or county assemblies and state-appointed posts in the parastatals and commissions. The constitution also recognizes the right to abortion, which was outrightly outlawed in the independence constitution. Certain practices adverse to women’s health, such as wife inheritance, female genital mutilation, and property rights, are either outlawed or framed to recognized women’s rights. The education of the girl-child is also now considered a priority, unlike in the past. Despite these developments, a lot remains to be done.

Keywords: feminist legal theory, constitution of Kenya, 2010, affirmative action, leadership

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47 The Applicability of Western Environmental Criminology Theories to the Arabic Context

Authors: Nawaf Alotaibi, Andy Evans, Alison Heppenstall, Nick Malleson

Abstract:

Throughout the last two decades, motor vehicle theft (MVT) has accounted for the largest proportion of property crime incidents in Saudi Arabia (SA). However, to date, few studies have investigated SA’s MVT problem. Those that have are primarily focused on the characteristics of car thieves, and most have overlooked any spatial-temporal distribution of MVT incidents and the characteristics of victims. This paper represents the first step in understanding this problem by reviewing the existing MVT studies contextualised within the theoretical frameworks developed in environmental criminology theories – originating in the West – and exploring to what extent they are relevant to the SA context. To achieve this, the paper has identified a range of key features in SA that are different from typical Western contexts, that could limit the appropriateness and capability of applying existing environmental criminology theories. Furthermore, despite these Western studies reviewed so far having introduced a number of explanatory variables for MVT rates, a range of significant elements are apparently absent in the current literature and this requires further analysis. For example, almost no attempts have been made to quantify the associations between the locations of vehicle theft, recovery of stolen vehicles, joyriding and traffic volume.

Keywords: environmental criminology theories, motor vehicle theft, Saudi Arabia, spatial analysis

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46 Fiction and Reality in Animation: Taking Final Flight of the Osiris as an Example

Authors: Syong-Yang Chung, Xin-An Chen

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the less well-known animation “Final Flight of the Osiris”, consisting of an initial exploration of the film color, storyline, and the simulacrum meanings of the roles, which leads to a further exploration of the light-shadow contrast and the psychological images presented by the screen colors and the characters. The research is based on literature review, and all data was compiled for the analysis of the visual vocabulary evolution of the characters. In terms of the structure, the relational study of the animation and the historical background of that time came first, including The Wachowskis’ and Andy Jones’ impact towards the cinematographic version and the animation version of “The Matrix”. Through literature review, the film color, the meaning and the relevant points were clarified. It was found in this research that “Final Flight of the Osiris” separates the realistic and virtual spaces by the changing the color tones; the "self" of the audience gradually dissolves into the "virtual" in the simulacra world, and the "Animatrix" has become a virtual field for the audience to understand itself about "existence" and "self".

Keywords: the matrix, the final flight of Osiris, Wachowski brothers, simulacres

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
45 Rule Based Architecture for Collaborative Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design Optimisation

Authors: Nickolay Jelev, Andy Keane, Carren Holden, András Sóbester

Abstract:

In aircraft design, the jump from the conceptual to preliminary design stage introduces a level of complexity which cannot be realistically handled by a single optimiser, be that a human (chief engineer) or an algorithm. The design process is often partitioned along disciplinary lines, with each discipline given a level of autonomy. This introduces a number of challenges including, but not limited to: coupling of design variables; coordinating disciplinary teams; handling of large amounts of analysis data; reaching an acceptable design within time constraints. A number of classical Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) architectures exist in academia specifically designed to address these challenges. Their limited use in the industrial aircraft design process has inspired the authors of this paper to develop an alternative strategy based on well established ideas from Decision Support Systems. The proposed rule based architecture sacrifices possibly elusive guarantees of convergence for an attractive return in simplicity. The method is demonstrated on analytical and aircraft design test cases and its performance is compared to a number of classical distributed MDO architectures.

Keywords: Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation, Rule Based Architecture, Aircraft Design, Decision Support System

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44 The Impacts of Local Decision Making on Customisation Process Speed across Distributed Boundaries

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Qahtani, Gary. B. Wills, Andy. M. Gravell

Abstract:

Communicating and managing customers’ requirements in software development projects play a vital role in the software development process. While it is difficult to do so locally, it is even more difficult to communicate these requirements over distributed boundaries and to convey them to multiple distribution customers. This paper discusses the communication of multiple distribution customers’ requirements in the context of customised software products. The main purpose is to understand the challenges of communicating and managing customisation requirements across distributed boundaries. We propose a model for Communicating Customisation Requirements of Multi-Clients in a Distributed Domain (CCRD). Thereafter, we evaluate that model by presenting the findings of a case study conducted with a company with customisation projects for 18 distributed customers. Then, we compare the outputs of the real case process and the outputs of the CCRD model using simulation methods. Our conjecture is that the CCRD model can reduce the challenge of communication requirements over distributed organisational boundaries, and the delay in decision making and in the entire customisation process time.

Keywords: customisation software products, global software engineering, local decision making, requirement engineering, simulation model

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43 Evaluation of Erodibility Status of Soils in Some Areas of Imo and Abia States of Nigeria

Authors: Andy Obinna Ibeje

Abstract:

In this study, the erodibility indices and some soil properties of some cassava farms in selected areas of Abia and Imo States were investigated. This study involves taking measurements of some soil parameters such as permeability, soil texture and particle size analysis from which the erodibility indices were compared. Results showed that soils of the areas are very sandy. The results showed that Isiukwuato with index of 72 has the highest erodibility index. The results also showed that Arondizuogu with index of 34 has the least erodibility index. The results revealed that soil erodibility (k) values varied from 34 to 72. Nkporo has the highest sand content; Inyishie has the least silt content. The result indicates that there were respectively strong inverse relationship between clay and silt contents and erodibility index. On the other hand, sand, organic matter and moisture contents as well as soil permeability has significantly high positive correlation with soil erodibility and it can be concluded that particle size distribution is a major finger print on the erodibility index of soil in the study area. It is recommended that safe cultural practices like crop rotation, matching and adoption of organic farming techniques be incorporated into farming communities of Abia and Imo States in order to stem the advances of erosion in the study area.

Keywords: erodibility, indices, soil, sand

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42 Morphology of Indian Female Athletes of Different Track and Field Events

Authors: Anju Luthra, Rajender Lal, Dhananjoy Shaw

Abstract:

Participation in games and sports in the contemporary times has become more competing with the developed scientific knowledge, skills and methods, along with the equipment and applied research in the field. In spite of India being a large country having vast resources and potential, its performance in the world of sports on the whole needs sincere attention for better achievements. Beside numerous factors responsible for the dismal performance of a sportsperson, the physique and body composition, including the size, shape and form are known to play a significant role. The present investigation was undertaken to study the specific morphological characteristics of Indian female Track and Field athletes. A total of 300 athletes were randomly selected as sample for the purpose of the study from the six events having 50 athletes in each event including 100m., 400m., Shot Put, Discus Throw, Long Jump and High Jump. The study included body weight, body fat percentage, lean body weight, endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy as variables. The data were computed statistically by using Mean, Standard Deviation and Analysis of Variance. The post-hoc analysis was conducted where the F-ratio was found to be significant at .05 level. The study concluded that there is a significant difference with regard to the selected variables among the Indian female athletes of different track and field events.

Keywords: Indian female athletes, body composition, morphology, somatotypes, track and field

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41 Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Africa

Authors: Joseph Levodo, Andy Ford, ISSA Chaer

Abstract:

Africa enjoys some of the best solar radiation levels in the world averaging between 4-6 kWh/m2/day for most of the year and the global economic and political conditions that tend to make African countries more dependent on their own energy resources have caused growing interest in wanting renewable energy based technologies. However to-date, implementation of Modern Energy Technologies in Africa is still very low especially the use of solar conversion technologies. It was initially speculated that the low uptake of solar technology in Africa was associated with the continent’s high poverty levels and limitations in technical capacity as well as awareness. Nonetheless, this is not an academic based speculation and the exact reasons for this low trend in technology adoption are unclear and require further investigation. This paper presents literature review and analysis relating to the techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation in Africa. The literature review would include the following four main categories: design methods, techno-economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic power generation, performance evaluations of various systems, Then it looks at the role of policy and potential future of technological development of photovoltaic (PV) by exploring the impact of alternative policy instruments and technology cost reductions on the financial viability of investing solar photovoltaic (PV) in Africa.

Keywords: Africa Solar Potential, policy, photovoltaic, technologies

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40 Understanding Climate Change with Chinese Elderly: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Climate Change in East China

Authors: Pelin Kinay, Andy P. Morse, Elmer V. Villanueva, Karyn Morrissey, Philip L Staddon, Shanzheng Zhang, Jingjing Liu

Abstract:

The present study aims to evaluate the climate change and health related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the elderly population (60 years plus) in Hefei and Suzhou cities of China (n=300). This cross-sectional study includes 150 participants in each city. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and climate change perceptions were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. When asked about the potential impacts of climate change over 79% of participants stated that climate change affected their lifestyle. Participants were most concerned about storms (51.7%), food shortage (33.3%) and drought (26%). The main health risks cited included water contamination (32%), air pollution related diseases (38.3%) and lung disease (43%). Finally, a majority (68.3%) did not report receiving government assistance on climate change issues. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data in order to understand the links between socio-demographical factors and KAP of the participants. These findings provide insights for potential adaptation strategies targeting the elderly. It is recommended that government should take responsibility in creating awareness strategies to improve the coping capacity of elderly in China to climate change and its health impacts and develop climate change adaptation strategies.

Keywords: China, climate change, elderly, KAP

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