Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: dolomite

43 Surface Characteristics of Bacillus megaterium and Its Adsorption Behavior onto Dolomite

Authors: Mohsen Farahat, Tsuyoshi Hirajima


Surface characteristics of Bacillus megaterium strain were investigated; zeta potential, FTIR and contact angle were measured. Surface energy components including Lifshitz-van der Waals, Hamaker constant, and acid/base components (Lewis acid/Lewis base) were calculated from the contact angle data. The results showed that the microbial cells were negatively charged over all pH regions with high values at alkaline region. A hydrophilic nature for the strain was confirmed by contact angle and free energy of adhesion between microbial cells. Adsorption affinity of the strain toward dolomite was studied at different pH values. The results showed that the cells had a high affinity to dolomite at acid pH comparing to neutral and alkaline pH. Extended DLVO theory was applied to calculate interaction energy between B. megaterium cells and dolomite particles. The adsorption results were in agreement with the results of Extended DLVO approach. Surface changes occurred on dolomite surface after the bio-treatment were monitored; contact angle decreased from 69° to 38° and the mineral’s floatability decreased from 95% to 25% after the treatment.

Keywords: Bacillus megaterium, surface modification, flotation, dolomite, adhesion energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
42 The Effect of Ni/Dolomite Catalyst for Production of Hydrogen from NaBH₄

Authors: Burcu Kiren, Alattin CAkan, Nezihe Ayas


Hydrogen will be arguably the best fuel in the future as it is the most abundant element in the universe. Hydrogen, as a fuel, is notably environmentally benign, sustainable and has high energy content compared to other sources of energy. It can be generated from both conventional and renewable sources. The hydrolysis reaction of metal hydrides provides an option for hydrogen production in the presence of a catalyst. In this study, Ni/dolomite catalyst was synthesized by the wet impregnation method for hydrogen production by hydrolysis reaction of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Besides, the synthesized catalysts characterizations were examined by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer –Emmett – Teller (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of reaction temperature (25-75 °C), reaction time (15-60 min.), amount of catalyst (50-250 mg) and active metal loading ratio (20,30,40 wt.%) were investigated. The catalyst prepared with 30 wt.% Ni was noted as the most suitable catalyst, achieving of 35.18% H₂ and hydrogen production rate of 19.23 mL/gcat.min at 25 °C at reaction conditions of 5 mL of 0.25 M NaOH and 100 mg NaBH₄, 100 mg Ni/dolomite.

Keywords: sodium borohydride, hydrolysis, catalyst, Ni/dolomite, hydrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
41 Geochemical Controls of Salinity in a Typical Acid Mine Drainage Neutralized Groundwater System

Authors: Modreck Gomo


Although the dolomite and calcite carbonates can neutralize Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) and prevent leaching of metals, salinity still remains a huge problem. The study presents a conceptual discussion of geochemical controls of salinity in a typical calcite and dolomite AMD neutralised groundwater systems. Thereafter field evidence is presented to support the conceptual discussions. 1020 field data sets of from a groundwater system reported to be under circumneutral conditions from the neutralization effect of calcite and dolomite is analysed using correlation analysis and bivariate plots. Field evidence indicates that sulphate, calcium and magnesium are strongly and positively correlated to Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) which is used as measure of salinity. In this, a hydrogeochemical system, the dissolution of sulphate, calcium and magnesium form AMD neutralization process contributed 50%, 10% and 5% of the salinity.

Keywords: acid mine drainage, carbonates, neutralization, salinity

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
40 Investigation into the Optimum Hydraulic Loading Rate for Selected Filter Media Packed in a Continuous Upflow Filter

Authors: A. Alzeyadi, E. Loffill, R. Alkhaddar


Continuous upflow filters can combine the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphate) and suspended solid removal in one unit process. The contaminant removal could be achieved chemically or biologically; in both processes the filter removal efficiency depends on the interaction between the packed filter media and the influent. In this paper a residence time distribution (RTD) study was carried out to understand and compare the transfer behaviour of contaminants through a selected filter media packed in a laboratory-scale continuous up flow filter; the selected filter media are limestone and white dolomite. The experimental work was conducted by injecting a tracer (red drain dye tracer –RDD) into the filtration system and then measuring the tracer concentration at the outflow as a function of time; the tracer injection was applied at hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) (3.8 to 15.2 m h-1). The results were analysed according to the cumulative distribution function F(t) to estimate the residence time of the tracer molecules inside the filter media. The mean residence time (MRT) and variance σ2 are two moments of RTD that were calculated to compare the RTD characteristics of limestone with white dolomite. The results showed that the exit-age distribution of the tracer looks better at HLRs (3.8 to 7.6 m h-1) and (3.8 m h-1) for limestone and white dolomite respectively. At these HLRs the cumulative distribution function F(t) revealed that the residence time of the tracer inside the limestone was longer than in the white dolomite; whereas all the tracer took 8 minutes to leave the white dolomite at 3.8 m h-1. On the other hand, the same amount of the tracer took 10 minutes to leave the limestone at the same HLR. In conclusion, the determination of the optimal level of hydraulic loading rate, which achieved the better influent distribution over the filtration system, helps to identify the applicability of the material as filter media. Further work will be applied to examine the efficiency of the limestone and white dolomite for phosphate removal by pumping a phosphate solution into the filter at HLRs (3.8 to 7.6 m h-1).

Keywords: filter media, hydraulic loading rate, residence time distribution, tracer

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39 Barclays Bank Zambia: Considerations for Raft Foundation Design on Dolomite Land

Authors: Yashved Serhun, Kim A. Timm


Barclays Bank has identified the need for a head office building in Lusaka, Zambia, and construction of a 7200 m2 three-storey reinforced concrete office building with a structural steel roof is currently underway. A unique characteristic of the development is that the building footprint is positioned on dolomitic land. Dolomite rock has the tendency to react with and breakdown in the presence of slightly acidic water, including rainwater. This leads to a potential for subsidence and sinkhole formation. Subsidence and the formation of sinkholes beneath a building can be detrimental during both the construction and operational phases. This paper outlines engineering principles which were considered during the structural design of the raft foundation for the Barclays head office building. In addition, this paper includes multidisciplinary considerations and the impact of these on the structural engineering design of the raft foundation. By ensuring that the design of raft foundations on dolomitic land incorporates the requirements of all disciplines and relevant design codes during the design process, the risk associated with subsidence and sinkhole formation can be effectively mitigated during the operational phase of the building.

Keywords: dolomite, dolomitic land, raft foundation, structural engineering design

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38 The Engineering Properties of Jordanian Marble

Authors: Mousa Bani Baker, Raed Abendeh, Zaidoon Abu Salem, Hesham Ahmad


This research paper was commissioned to discuss the Jordanian marble, which is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphised limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. The marble has many uses; one of them is using the white marble that has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times. This preference has to do with its softness, relative isotropy and homogeneity, and a relative resistance to shattering. Another use of it is the construction marble which is “a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish” Marble Institute of America. This report focuses most about the marble in Jordan and its properties: rock definition, physical properties, the marble occurrences in Jordan, types of Jordanian marble and their prices and test done on this marble.

Keywords: marble, metamorphic, non-foliated, compressive strength, recrystallized, Moh’s hardness, abrasion, absorption, modulus of rupture, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
37 Effect of Local Steel Slag as a Coarse Aggregate in the Properties of Fly Ash Based-Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: O. M. Omar, A. M. Heniegal, G. D. Abd Elhameed, H. A. Mohamadien


Local steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. Using local steel slag waste as a hundred substitute of crushed stone in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of dolomite. This paper reports the experimental study to investigate the influence of a hundred replacement of dolomite as a coarse aggregate with local steel slag, on the fresh and hardened geopolymer concrete properties. The investigation includes traditional testing of hardening concrete, for selected mixes of cement and geopolymer concrete. It was found that local steel slag as a coarse aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh state of cement and geopolymer concretes. Nevertheless the unit weight of concretes was affected. Meanwhile, the good performance was observed when fly ash used as geopolymer concrete based.

Keywords: geopolymer, molarity, steel slag, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
36 Porosity Characterization and Its Destruction by Authigenic Minerals: Reservoir Sandstones, Mamuniyat Formation, Murzuq Basin, SW Libya

Authors: Mohamrd Ali Alrabib


Sandstones samples were selected from cores of seven wells ranging in depth from 5040 to 7181.4 ft. The dominant authigenic cement phase is quartz overgrowth cement (up to 13% by volume) and this is the major mechanism for porosity reduction. Late stage carbonate cements (siderite and dolomite/ferroan dolomite) are present and these minerals infill intergranular porosity and, therefore, further reduce porosity and probably permeability. Authigenic clay minerals are represented by kaolinite, illite, and grain coating clay minerals. Kaolinite occurs as booklet and vermicular forms. Minor amounts of illite were noted in the studied samples, which commonly block pore throats, thereby reducing permeability. Primary porosity of up to 26.5% is present. Secondary porosity (up to 17%) is also present as a result of feldspar dissolution. The high intergranular volume (IGV) of the sandstones indicates that mechanical and chemical compaction played a more important role than cementation of porosity loss.

Keywords: authigenic minerals, porosity types, porosity reduction, mamuniyat sandstone reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
35 Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Biomass with Elevated Alkali Content: A Comparative Study between Two Alternative Bed Materials

Authors: P. Ninduangdee, V. I. Kuprianov


Palm kernel shell is an important bioenergy resource in Thailand. However, due to elevated alkali content in biomass ash, this oil palm residue shows high tendency to bed agglomeration in a fluidized-bed combustion system using conventional bed material (silica sand). In this study, palm kernel shell was burned in the conical fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) using alumina and dolomite as alternative bed materials to prevent bed agglomeration. For each bed material, the combustion tests were performed at 45kg/h fuel feed rate with excess air within 20–80%. Experimental results revealed rather weak effects of the bed material type but substantial influence of excess air on the behaviour of temperature, O2, CO, CxHy, and NO inside the reactor, as well as on the combustion efficiency and major gaseous emissions of the conical FBC. The optimal level of excess air ensuring high combustion efficiency (about 98.5%) and acceptable level of the emissions was found to be about 40% when using alumina and 60% with dolomite. By using these alternative bed materials, bed agglomeration can be prevented when burning the shell in the proposed conical FBC. However, both bed materials exhibited significant changes in their morphological, physical and chemical properties in the course of the time.

Keywords: palm kernel shell, fluidized-bed combustion, alternative bed materials, combustion and emission performance, bed agglomeration prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
34 Effect of Different Factors on Temperature Profile and Performance of an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Rice Husk Gasification

Authors: Dharminder Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, study of temperature profile in a pilot scale air bubbling fluidized bed (ABFB) gasifier for rice husk gasification was carried out. Effects of different factors such as multiple cyclones, gas cooling system, ventilate gas pipe length, and catalyst on temperature profile was examined. ABFB gasifier used in this study had two sections, one is bed section and the other is freeboard section. River sand was used as bed material with air as gasification agent, and conventional charcoal as start-up heating medium in this gasifier. Temperature of different point in both sections of ABFB gasifier was recorded at different ER value and ER value was changed by changing the feed rate of biomass (rice husk) and by keeping the air flow rate constant for long durational of gasifier operation. ABFB with double cyclone with gas coolant system and with short length ventilate gas pipe was found out to be optimal gasifier design to give temperature profile required for high gasification performance in long duration operation. This optimal design was tested with different ER values and it was found that ER of 0.33 was most favourable for long duration operation (8 hr continuous operation), giving highest carbon conversion efficiency. At optimal ER of 0.33, bed temperature was found to be stable at 700 °C, above bed temperature was found to be at 628.63 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature was found to be at 600 °C, top of freeboard temperature was found to be at 517.5 °C, gas temperature was found to be at 195 °C, and flame temperature was found to be 676 °C. Temperature at all the points showed fluctuations of 10 – 20 °C. Effect of catalyst i.e. dolomite (20% with sand bed) was also examined on temperature profile, and it was found that at optimal ER of 0.33, the bed temperature got increased to 795 °C, above bed temperature got decreased to 523 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature got decreased to 548 °C, top of freeboard got decreased to 475 °C, gas temperature got decreased to 220 °C, and flame temperature got increased to 703 °C. Increase in bed temperature leads to higher flame temperature due to presence of more hydrocarbons generated from more tar cracking at higher temperature. It was also found that the use of dolomite with sand bed eliminated the agglomeration in the reactor at such high bed temperature (795 °C).

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, bed temperature, charcoal heating, dolomite, flame temperature, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
33 Petro-Mineralogical Studies of Phosphorite Deposit of Sallopat Block of Banswara District, Rajasthan, India

Authors: K. F. Khan, Samsuddin Khan


The Paleoproterozoic phosphorite deposit of Sallopat block of Banswara district of Rajasthan belongs to kalinjara formation of lunavada group of Aravalli Super Group. The phosphorites are found to occur as massive, brecciated, laminated and stromatolitic associated with calcareous quartzite, interbedded dolomite and multi coloured chert. The phosphorites are showing alternate brown and grey coloured concentric rims which are composed of phosphate, calcite and quartz minerals. Petro-mineralogical studies of phosphorite samples using petrological microscope, XRD, FEG- SEM and EDX reveal that apatite-(CaF) and apatite-(CaOH) are phosphate minerals which are intermixed with minor amount of carbonate materials. Sporadic findings of the uniform tiny granules of partially anisotropic apatite-(CaF) along with dolomite, calcite, quartz, muscovite, zeolite and other gangue minerals have been observed with the replacement of phosphate material by quartz and carbonate. The presence of microbial filaments of organic matter and alternate concentric rims of stromatolitic structure may suggest that the deposition of the phosphate took place in shallow marine oxidizing environmental conditions leading to the formation of phosphorite layers as primary biogenic precipitates by bacterial or algal activities. Different forms and texture of phosphate minerals may be due to environmental vicissitudes at the time of deposition followed by some replacement processes and biogenic activities.

Keywords: apatite, petro-mineralogy, phosphorites, sallopat, stromatolites

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32 Geochemical and Mineralogical Characters of the Coastal Plain Sediments of the Arabian Gulf, Kuwait

Authors: Adel Ahmed Aly Elhabab, Ibrahim Adsani


The present study deals with detailed geochemical and mineralogical studies of the coastal plain sediments formed along the shoreline of the Arabian Gulf area, Kuwait. These deposits are mainly fluviomarine and beach sands. The coastal plain deposits of the central Kuwait shoreline zone were found to consist of average medium-grained sand. The sand composed, on average of about 90% sand, and about 10% or less is mud, and has a unimodal distribution with a mode of medium sand (1-2 ф). The sediments consist mainly quartz, Feldspar, clay minerals with carbonate minerals (detritus calcite and dolomite) and rock fragments (chert). The mineralogy of the clay fractions of the sediments is dominated by illite, palygorskite, mixed layer illite-montmorillonite with minor amounts of chlorite and Kaolinite Heavy minerals are concentrated in the very fine sand fraction and are dominated by opaque minerals, and non opaque minerals which represented by amphiboles, pyroxenes, epidotes, dolomite, zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet and other which represented by Staurolite, Kyanite, Andalusite and Sillimenite as a trace amounts. The chemical analysis for the detrital amphibole grains from sandstone of coastal plain sediments shows the following features; the grains which have (Na+K) <0.50 its composition ranges from actino hornblende to magnesio hornblende, but the grains which have (Na+K) >0.50 its composition have wide variation and on the (Na+K)-AlIV diagram can be characterized two association: Association 1 which characterized by low amount of AlIV and low amount of (Na+K), by comparing the chemical composition of this association and the chemical composition of amphibole grains from older basement rock, can be say, these association may be derived from metamorphic source rocks and association 2 which characterized by high amount of AlIV and low amount of (Na+K), may be derived from volcanic source rocks.

Keywords: chemical composition, clay minerals, coastal area, electro probe micro analyzer (EPMA), fluviomarine sediments, heavy minerals

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31 Optimization of Gold Mining Parameters by Cyanidation

Authors: Della Saddam Housseyn


Gold, the quintessential noble metal, is one of the most popular metals today, given its ever-increasing cost in the international market. The Amesmessa gold deposit is one of the gold-producing deposits. The first step in our job is to analyze the ore (considered rich ore). Mineralogical and chemical analysis has shown that the general constitution of the ore is quartz in addition to other phases such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, dolomite. The second step consists of all the leaching tests carried out in rolling bottles. These tests were carried out on 14 samples to determine the maximum recovery rate and the optimum consumption of reagent (NaCN and CaO). Tests carried out on a pulp density at 50% solid, 500 ppm cyanide concentration and particle size less than 0.6 mm at alkaline pH gave a recovery rate of 94.37%.

Keywords: cyanide, DRX, FX, gold, leaching, rate of recovery, SAA

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
30 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz


14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Mukdadiya Formation, mudstone, clay minerals, XRD, Shewasoor

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
29 Use of Industrial Wastes for Production of Low-Cost Building Material

Authors: Frank Aneke, Elizabeth Theron


Demand for building materials in the last decade due to growing population, has caused scarcity of low-cost housing in South Africa. The investigation thoroughly examined dolomitic waste (DW), silica fume (SF) and River sand (RS) effects on the geotechnical behaviour of fly ash bricks. Bricks samples were prepared at different ratios as follows: I. FA1 contained FA70% + RS30%, II. FA2 contained FA60% + DW10%+RS30%, III. FA3 has a mix proportion of FA50% + DW20%+RS30%, IV. FA4 has a mix ratio FA40% + DW30%+RS30%, V. FA5 contained FA20% + DW40% + SF10%+RS30% by mass percentage of the FA material. However, utilization of this wastes in production of bricks, does not only produce a valuable commercial product that is cost effective, but also reduces a major waste disposal problem from the surrounding environment.

Keywords: bricks, dolomite, fly ash, industrial wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
28 Transition from Closed Lake to the Open Lake in Miocene Climatic Optimum

Authors: Davor Pavelić, Marijan Kovačić, Darko Tibljaš, Ivo Galić, Frane Marković, Ivica Pavičić


In the area of the rift-type North Croatian Basin that represents the south-western marginal part of the Pannonian Basin System, in the late Early Miocene evolved a lake that was characterized by mainly dolomite deposition. The dolomites that are associated with tuffites and marls are well bedded and frequently horizontally laminated. Dolomite is the most abundant carbonate mineral, but hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate is also detected. Tuffite layers consist of altered vitroclasts, feldspar christaloclasts, analcime, carbonate minerals, and clastic grains of quartz, feldspar, amphibole and mica. Marls are bedded and horizontally laminated. All the deposits contain analcime that indicates synsedimentary volcanism and alkaline lake conditions. The sedimentary association suggests deposition in a shallow, hydrologically closed lake which evolved in an arid climate in the first stage of the lake evolution. The second stage is represented by the intercalation of sandstones and dolomites. The sandstones are bedded and horizontally laminated, having erosive lower bedding planes. They were probably deposited from sustained high-density turbidity currents as a consequence of sliding of previously deposited sand in the shallower lake or underflows (hyperpicnal flows) that were emanating from delta channels in the period of a river flooding on the land. Some beds include randomly dispersed sub-angular to rounded pebbles up to 3 cm in diameter. Their lower bedding planes are sharp and non-erosive, indicating resedimented deposits of a grain flow type. The sandstones that are intercalated with dolomites reflect changes of hydrologically open and closed lacustrine environments controlled by the frequent alternation of the humid and arid climate. The third stage, which probably commenced in the Middle Miocene, indicates restoring of a long-lived, hydrologically mostly open lake characterized by deposition of siliciclastics, i.e., sandstones intercalated with siltstones. The lacustrine deposition was controlled by a humid climate. The whole lacustrine deposition coincides with the Miocene Climatic Optimum characterized by a hot and warm, and generally humid climate. However, the development of the closed lake, which correlates with similar lakes in northern Bosnia and central Serbia, indicates the existence of an arid zone in the region that was confined by areas characterized by a more humid climate in the late Early Miocene.

Keywords: closed lake, open lake, Miocene climatic optimum, Pannonian basin system, Croatia

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27 The Effects of Lithofacies on Oil Enrichment in Lucaogou Formation Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks in Santanghu Basin, China

Authors: Guoheng Liu, Zhilong Huang


For more than the past ten years, oil and gas production from marine shale such as the Barnett shale. In addition, in recent years, major breakthroughs have also been made in lacustrine shale gas exploration, such as the Yanchang Formation of the Ordos Basin in China. Lucaogou Formation shale, which is also lacustrine shale, has also yielded a high production in recent years, for wells such as M1, M6, and ML2, yielding a daily oil production of 5.6 tons, 37.4 tons and 13.56 tons, respectively. Lithologic identification and classification of reservoirs are the base and keys to oil and gas exploration. Lithology and lithofacies obviously control the distribution of oil and gas in lithological reservoirs, so it is of great significance to describe characteristics of lithology and lithofacies of reservoirs finely. Lithofacies is an intrinsic property of rock formed under certain conditions of sedimentation. Fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale formed under different sedimentary conditions display great particularity and distinctiveness. Hence, to our best knowledge, no constant and unified criteria and methods exist for fine-grained sedimentary rocks regarding lithofacies definition and classification. Consequently, multi-parameters and multi-disciplines are necessary. A series of qualitative descriptions and quantitative analysis were used to figure out the lithofacies characteristics and its effect on oil accumulation of Lucaogou formation fine-grained sedimentary rocks in Santanghu basin. The qualitative description includes core description, petrographic thin section observation, fluorescent thin-section observation, cathode luminescence observation and scanning electron microscope observation. The quantitative analyses include X-ray diffraction, total organic content analysis, ROCK-EVAL.II Methodology, soxhlet extraction, porosity and permeability analysis and oil saturation analysis. Three types of lithofacies were mainly well-developed in this study area, which is organic-rich massive shale lithofacies, organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies and organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies mainly include massive shale and tuffaceous shale, of which quartz and clay minerals are the major components. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies contain lamina and cloddy structure. Rocks from this lithofacies chiefly consist of dolomite and quartz. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies mainly contains massive bedding fine-grained carbonate rocks, of which fine-grained dolomite accounts for the main part. Organic-rich massive shale lithofacies contain the highest content of free hydrocarbon and solid organic matter. Moreover, more pores were developed in organic-rich massive shale lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies contain the lowest content solid organic matter and develop the least amount of pores. Organic-rich laminated and cloddy hybrid sedimentary lithofacies develop the largest number of cracks and fractures. To sum up, organic-rich massive shale lithofacies is the most favorable type of lithofacies. Organic-lean massive carbonate lithofacies is impossible for large scale oil accumulation.

Keywords: lithofacies classification, tuffaceous shale, oil enrichment, Lucaogou formation

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26 Stratigraghy and Identifying Boundaries of Mozduran Formation with Magnetite Method in East Kopet-Dagh Basin

Authors: Z. Kadivar, M. Vahidinia, A. Mousavinia


Kopet-Dagh Mountain Range is located in the north and northeast of Iran. Mozduran Formation in the east of Kopet-Dagh is mainly composed of limestone, dolomite, with shale and sandstone interbedded. Mozduran Formation is reservoir rock of the Khangiran gas field. The location of the study was east Kopet-Dagh basin (Northeast Iran) where the deliberate thickness of formation is 418 meters. In the present study, a total of 57 samples were gathered. Moreover, 100 thin sections were made out of 52 samples. According to the findings of the thin section study, 18 genera and nine species of foraminifera and algae were identified. Based on the index fossils, the age of the Mozduran Formation was identified as Upper Jurassic (Kimmerdgian-Tithonian) in the east of Kopet-Dagh basin. According to the magnetite data (total intensity and RTP map), there is a disconformity (low intensity) between the Kashaf-Rood Formation and Mozduran Formation. At the top, where among Mozduran Formation and Shurijeh Formation, is high intensity and a widespread disconformity (high intensity).

Keywords: upper jurassic, magnetometre, mozduran formation, stratigraphy

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25 Effect of Crashed Stone on Properties of Fly Ash Based-Geopolymer Concrete with Local Alkaline Activator in Egypt

Authors: O. M. Omar, G. D. Abd Elhameed, A. M. Heniegal, H. A. Mohamadien


Green concrete are generally composed of recycling materials as hundred or partial percent substitutes for aggregate, cement, and admixture in concrete. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, efforts are needed to develop environmentally friendly construction materials. Using of fly ash based geopolymer as an alternative binder can help reduce CO2 emission of concrete. The binder of geopolymer concrete is different from the ordinary Portland cement concrete. Geopolymer Concrete specimens were prepared with different concentration of NaOH solution M10, M14, and, M16 and cured at 60 ºC in duration of 24 hours and 8 hours, in addition to the curing in direct sunlight. Thus, it is necessary to study the effects of the geopolymer binder on the behavior of concrete. Concrete is made by using geopolymer technology is environmental friendly and could be considered as part of the sustainable development. In this study the Local Alkaline Activator in Egypt and dolomite as coarse aggregate in fly ash based-geopolymer concrete was investigated. This paper illustrates the development of mechanical properties. Since the gained compressive strength for geopolymer concrete at 28 days was in the range of 22.5MPa – 43.9MPa.

Keywords: geopolymer, molarity, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate

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24 Mineralogy and Classification of Altered Host Rocks in the Zaghia Iron Oxide Deposit, East of Bafq, Central Iran

Authors: Azat Eslamizadeh, Neda Akbarian


The Zaghia Iron ore, in 15 km east of a town named Bafq, is located in Precambrian formation of Central Iran in form of a small local deposit. The Volcano-sedimentary rocks of Precambrian-Cambrian age, belonging to Rizu series have spread through the region. Substantial portion of the deposit is covered by alluvial deposits. The rocks hosting the Zaghia iron ore have a main combination of rhyolitic tuffs along with clastic sediments, carbonate include sandstone, limestone, dolomite, conglomerate and is somewhat metamorphed causing them to have appeared as slate and phyllite. Moreover, carbonate rocks are in existence as skarn compound of marble bearing tremolite with mineralization of magnetite-hematite. The basic igneous rocks have dramatically altered into green rocks consist of actinolite-tremolite and chlorite along with amount of iron (magnetite + Martite). The youngest units of ore-bearing rocks in the area are found as dolerite - diabase dikes. The dikes are cutting the rhyolitic tuffs and carbonate rocks.

Keywords: Zaghia, iron ore deposite, mineralogy, petrography Bafq, Iran

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23 Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

Authors: Samad Alipour, Khadije Mosavi Onlaghi


Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.

Keywords: Urmia Lake, weathering, mineralogy, augite, Iran

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22 Processing and Characterization of Glass-Epoxy Composites Filled with Linz-Donawitz (LD) Slag

Authors: Pravat Ranjan Pati, Alok Satapathy


Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag a major solid waste generated in huge quantities during steel making. It comes from slag formers such as burned lime/dolomite and from oxidizing of silica, iron etc. while refining the iron into steel in the LD furnace. Although a number of ways for its utilization have been suggested, its potential as a filler material in polymeric matrices has not yet been explored. The present work reports the possible use of this waste in glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites as a filler material. Hybrid composites consisting of bi-directional e-glass-fiber reinforced epoxy filled with different LD slag content (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 wt%) are prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. The composites are characterized in regard to their density, porosity, micro-hardness and strength properties. X-ray diffractography is carried out in order to ascertain the various phases present in LDS. This work shows that LD slag, in spite of being a waste, possesses fairly good filler characteristics as it modifies the strength properties and improves the composite micro-hardness of the polymeric resin.

Keywords: characterization, glass-epoxy composites, LD slag, waste utilization

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21 Heavy Metals of Natural Phosphate Ore and the Way They Affect the Various Mineralurgic Modes of Treatment

Authors: Bezzi Nacer


The study focused on the qualitative and quantitative study of Trace elements contained in the natural phosphate ore of Djebel Onk layer and their behaviour to the various mineralurgic modes of treatment. The main objective is to locate the importance of these contents according to granulometry and their association with the existing mineralogical species and to define how the most appropriate treatment. The raw ore is in first submitted to a prior mechanical treatment consisting of homogenization operations, of grinding and of sifting, in order to separate it into three particle-size classes: fine <100 µm (F); medium 100-500 µm (I) and coarse > 500 µm (G), and then treated by calcination, washing and floatation. The identification of the different mineralogical phases, the chemical composition and the thermal behaviour of these samples were realized by various techniques: MEB, DRX, ATG-ATD, etc. The study of Trace elements, carried out by ICP-MS, identified thirty items, consisting mainly of rare earths and of transition metals. A close relation between trace elements and various minerals phases (apatite, dolomite and silicates), through operations of substitution. These elements are distributed between several mineralogical phases, in particular apatite (strontium, uranium, chrome, barium, cadmium) and silicates (strontium, sodium, nickel, zinc and copper).

Keywords: valorization of natural phosphate ore, heavy metals, qualitative and quantitative analysis, various mineralurgic

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20 Irrigation Water Quality Evaluation Based on Multivariate Statistical Analysis: A Case Study of Jiaokou Irrigation District

Authors: Panpan Xu, Qiying Zhang, Hui Qian


Groundwater is main source of water supply in the Guanzhong Basin, China. To investigate the quality of groundwater for agricultural purposes in Jiaokou Irrigation District located in the east of the Guanzhong Basin, 141 groundwater samples were collected for analysis of major ions (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42-, Cl-, HCO3-, and CO32-), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). Sodium percentage (Na%), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH), and potential salinity (PS) were applied for irrigation water quality assessment. In addition, multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the underlying hydrogeochemical processes. Results show that the content of TDS mainly depends on Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, and SO42-, and the HCO3- content is generally high except for the eastern sand area. These are responsible for complex hydrogeochemical processes, such as dissolution of carbonate minerals (dolomite and calcite), gypsum, halite, and silicate minerals, the cation exchange, as well as evaporation and concentration. The average evaluation levels of Na%, RSC, MH, and PS for irrigation water quality are doubtful, good, unsuitable, and injurious to unsatisfactory, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary for decision makers to comprehensively consider the indicators and thus reasonably evaluate the irrigation water quality.

Keywords: irrigation water quality, multivariate statistical analysis, groundwater, hydrogeochemical process

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19 Iron Extraction from Bog Iron Ore in Early French Colonial America

Authors: Yves Monette, Brad Loewen, Louise Pothier


This study explores the first bog iron ore extraction activities which took place in colonial New France. Archaeological excavations carried on the founding site of Montreal in the last ten years have revealed the remains of Fort Ville-Marie erected in 1642. In a level related to the fort occupation between 1660 and 1680, kilos of scories, a dozen of half-finished iron artefacts and a light yellow clayey ore material have recovered that point to extractive metallurgy activities at the fort. Examples of scories, artefacts and of a possible bog iron ore were submitted to SEM-EDS analysis. The results clearly indicate that iron was extracted from local limonite ores in a bloomery. We discovered that the gangue material could be traced from the ore to the scories. However, some lime silicates and some accessory minerals found in the scories, like barite and celestine for example, were absent from the ore but present in dolomite fragments found in the same archaeological context. The tracing of accessory minerals suggests that the ironmaster introduced a lime flux in the bloomery charge to maximize the separation of the iron ore. Before the introduction of the blast furnace in Western Europe during the first half of the 18th Century, the use of fluxes in iron bloomery was not a common practice.

Keywords: bog iron ore, extractive metallurgy, French colonial America, Montreal, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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18 Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of Soils from an Arid Region of Misurata-Libya: Treated Wastewater Irrigation Impacts

Authors: Khalifa Alatresh, Mirac Aydin


This research explores the impacts of irrigation by treated wastewater (TWW) on the mineralogical and chemical attributes of sandy calcareous soils in the Southern region of Misurata. Soil samples obtained from three horizons (A, B, and C) of six TWW-irrigated pedons (29years) and six other pedons from nearby non-irrigated areas (dry-control). The results demonstrated that the TWW-irrigated pedons had significantly higher salinity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphor (AP), total nitrogen (TN), and organic matter (OM) relative to the control pedons. Nonetheless, all the values of interest (EC < 4000 µs/cm < SAR < 13, pH < 8.5 and ESP < 15) remained lower than the thresholds, showing no issues with sodicity or salinity. Irrigated pedons contained significantly higher amounts of total clay and showed an altered distribution of particle sizes and minerals identified (quartz, calcite, microcline, albite, anorthite, and dolomite) within the profile. The observed results included the occurrence of Margarite, Anorthite, Chabazite, and Tridymite minerals after the application of TWW in small quantities that are not enough to influence soil genesis and classification.0,51 cm.

Keywords: treated wastewater, sandy calcareous soils, soil mineralogy, and chemistry

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17 Experimental Study on Granulated Steel Slag as an Alternative to River Sand

Authors: K. Raghu, M. N. Vathhsala, Naveen Aradya, Sharth


River sand is the most preferred fine aggregate for mortar and concrete. River sand is a product of natural weathering of rocks over a period of millions of years and is mined from river beds. Sand mining has disastrous environmental consequences. The excessive mining of river bed is creating an ecological imbalance. This has lead to have restrictions imposed by ministry of environment on sand mining. Driven by the acute need for sand, stone dust or manufactured sand prepared from the crushing and screening of coarse aggregate is being used as sand in the recent past. However manufactured sand is also a natural material and has quarrying and quality issues. To reduce the burden on the environment, alternative materials to be used as fine aggregates are being extensively investigated all over the world. Looking to the quantum of requirements, quality and properties there has been a global consensus on a material – Granulated slags. Granulated slag has been proven as a suitable material for replacing natural sand / crushed fine aggregates. In developed countries, the use of granulated slag as fine aggregate to replace natural sand is well established and is in regular practice. In the present paper Granulated slag has been experimented for usage in mortar. Slags are the main by-products generated during iron and steel production in the steel industry. Over the past decades, the steel production has increased and, consequently, the higher volumes of by-products and residues generated which have driven to the reuse of these materials in an increasingly efficient way. In recent years new technologies have been developed to improve the recovery rates of slags. Increase of slags recovery and use in different fields of applications like cement making, construction and fertilizers help in preserving natural resources. In addition to the environment protection, these practices produced economic benefits, by providing sustainable solutions that can allow the steel industry to achieve its ambitious targets of “zero waste” in coming years. Slags are generated at two different stages of steel production, iron making and steel making known as BF(Blast Furnace) slag and steel slag respectively. The slagging agent or fluxes, such as lime stone, dolomite and quartzite added into BF or steel making furnaces in order to remove impurities from ore, scrap and other ferrous charges during smelting. The slag formation is the result of a complex series of physical and chemical reactions between the non-metallic charge(lime stone, dolomite, fluxes), the energy sources(coal, coke, oxygen, etc.) and refractory materials. Because of the high temperatures (about 15000 C) during their generation, slags do not contain any organic substances. Due to the fact that slags are lighter than the liquid metal, they float and get easily removed. The slags protect the metal bath from atmosphere and maintain temperature through a kind of liquid formation. These slags are in liquid state and solidified in air after dumping in the pit or granulated by impinging water systems. Generally, BF slags are granulated and used in cement making due to its high cementious properties, and steel slags are mostly dumped due to unfavourable physio-chemical conditions. The increasing dump of steel slag not only occupies a plenty of land but also wastes resources and can potentially have an impact on the environment due to water pollution. Since BF slag contains little Fe and can be used directly. BF slag has found a wide application, such as cement production, road construction, Civil Engineering work, fertilizer production, landfill daily cover, soil reclamation, prior to its application outside the iron and steel making process.

Keywords: steel slag, river sand, granulated slag, environmental

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16 Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Serpentinite-Derived Ni-Bearing Laterites from Fars Province, Iran: Implications for the Lateritization Process and Classification of Ni-Laterites

Authors: S. Rasti, M. A. Rajabzadeh


Nickel-bearing laterites occur as two parallel belts along Sedimentary Zagros Orogenic (SZO) and Metamorphic Sanandaj-Sirjan (MSS) petrostructural zones, Fars Province, south Iran. An undisturbed vertical profile of these laterites includes protolith, saprolite, clay, and oxide horizons from base to top. Highly serpentinized harzburgite with relicts of olivine and orthopyroxene is regarded as the source rock. The laterites are unusual in lacking a significant saprolite zone with little development of Ni-silicates. Hematite, saponite, dolomite, smectite and clinochlore increase, while calcite, olivine, lizardite and chrysotile decrease from saprolite to oxide zones. Smectite and clinochlore with minor calcite are the major minerals in clay zone. Contacts of different horizons in laterite profiles are gradual and characterized by a decrease in Mg concentration ranging from 18.1 to 9.3 wt.% in oxide and saprolite, respectively. The maximum Ni concentration is 0.34 wt.% (NiO) in the base of the oxide zone, and goethite is the major Ni-bearing phase. From saprolite to oxide horizons, Al2O3, K2O, TiO2, and CaO decrease, while SiO2, MnO, NiO, and Fe2O3 increase. Silica content reaches up to 45 wt.% in the upper part of the soil profile. There is a decrease in pH (8.44-8.17) and an increase in organic matter (0.28-0.59 wt.%) from base to top of the soils. The studied laterites are classified in the oxide clans which were derived from ophiolite ultramafic rocks under Mediterranean climate conditions.

Keywords: Iran, laterite, mineralogy, ophiolite

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15 Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Water Saturation for Mishrif Carbonate Formation

Authors: F. S. Kadhim, A. Samsuri, H. Alwan


Well logging records can help to answer many questions from a wide range of special interested information and basic petrophysical properties to formation evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. The accurate calculations of porosity in carbonate reservoirs are the most challenging aspects of well log analysis. Many equations have been developed over the years based on known physical principles or on empirically derived relationships, which are used to calculate porosity, estimate lithology and water saturation; however these parameters are calculated from well logs by using modern technique in a current study. Nasiriya (NS) oilfield is one of giant oilfields in the Middle East, and the formation under study is the Mishrif carbonate formation which is the shallowest hydrocarbon bearing zone in the NS oilfield. Neurolog software (V5, 2008) was used to digitize the scanned copies of the available logs. Environmental corrections had been made as per Schlumberger charts 2005, which supplied in the Interactive Petrophysics software (IP, V3.5, 2008). Three saturation models have been used to calculate water saturation of carbonate formations, which are simple Archie equation, Dual water model, and Indonesia model. Results indicate that the Mishrif formation consists mainly of limestone, some dolomite and shale. The porosity interpretation shows that the logging tools have a good quality after making the environmental corrections. The average formation water saturation for Mishrif formation is around 0.4-0.6.This study is provided accurate behavior of petrophysical properties with depth for this formation by using modern software.

Keywords: lithology, porosity, water saturation, carbonate formation, mishrif formation

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14 Factors Controlling Durability of Some Egyptian Non-Stylolitic Marbleized Limestone to Salt Weathering

Authors: H. El Shayab, G. M. Kamh, N. G. Abdel Ghafour, M. L. Abdel Latif


Nowadays, marbleized limestone becomes one of the most important sources of the mineral wealth in Egypt as they have beautiful colors (white, grey, rose, yellow and creamy, etc.) make it very suitable for decoration purposes. Non-styolitic marbleized limestone which not contains styolitic surfaces. The current study aims to study different factors controlling durability of non-styolitic marbleized limestone against salt crystallization weathering. The achievement aim of the research was required nine representative samples were collected from the studied areas. Three samples from each of the studied areas. The studied samples was characterized by various instrumental methods before salt weathering, to determine its mineralogical composition, chemical composition and pore physical properties respectively. The obtained results revealed that both of Duwi and Delga studied samples nearly have the same average ∆M% 1.63 and 1.51 respectively and consequently A.I. stage of deformation. On the other hand, average ∆M% of Wata studied samples is 0.29 i.e. lower than two other studied areas. Wata studied samples are more durable against salt crystallization test than Duwi and Delga. The difference in salt crystallization durability may be resulted from one of the following factors: Microscopic textural effect as both of micrite and skeletal percent are in directly proportional to durability of stones to salt weathering. Dolomite mineral present as a secondary are in indirectly proportional to durability of stones to salt weathering. Increase in MgO% also associated with decrease the durability of studied samples against salt crystallization test. Finally, all factors affecting positively against salt crystallization test presents in Wadi Wata studied samples rather than others two areas.

Keywords: marbleized limestone, salt weathering, Wata, salt weathering

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