Search results for: mobility
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 896

Search results for: mobility

896 Mobility Management via Software Defined Networks (SDN) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

Authors: Bilal Haider, Farhan Aadil

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A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) provides various services to end-users traveling on the road at high speeds. However, this high-speed mobility of mobile nodes can cause frequent service disruptions. Various mobility management protocols exist for managing node mobility, but due to their centralized nature, they tend to suffer in the VANET environment. In this research, we proposed a distributed mobility management protocol using software-defined networks (SDN) for VANETs. Instead of relying on a centralized mobility anchor, the mobility functionality is distributed at multiple infrastructural nodes. The protocol is based on the classical Proxy Mobile IP version 6 (PMIPv6). It is evident from simulation results that this work has improved the network performance with respect to nodes throughput, delay, and packet loss.

Keywords: SDN, VANET, mobility management, optimization

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895 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan

Authors: Emad A. Ahmed

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Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behaviour of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Keywords: electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, scattering, computer software, computation physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 619
894 Educational Mobility as a Factor of Tourism Development in the Regional University

Authors: К. Lisinchuk

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An effective approach to the management of international educational mobility in regional universities with the purpose of increasing tourist activity in the region is considered.

Keywords: export and import of tourist and educational services, international academic mobility, regional tourist activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
893 Guidelines for Sustainable Urban Mobility in Historic Districts from International Experiences

Authors: Tamer ElSerafi

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In recent approaches to heritage conservation, the whole context of historic areas becomes as important as the single historic building. This makes the provision of infrastructure and network of mobility an effective element in the urban conservation. Sustainable urban conservation projects consider the high density of activities, the need for a good quality access system to the transit system, and the importance of the configuration of the mobility network by identifying the best way to connect the different districts of the urban area through a complex unique system that helps the synergic development to achieve a sustainable mobility system. A sustainable urban mobility is a key factor in maintaining the integrity between socio-cultural aspects and functional aspects. This paper illustrates the mobility aspects, mobility problems in historic districts, and the needs of the mobility systems in the first part. The second part is a practical analysis for different mobility plans. It is challenging to find innovative and creative conservation solutions fitting modern uses and needs without risking the loss of inherited built resources. Urban mobility management is becoming an essential and challenging issue in the urban conservation projects. Depending on literature review and practical analysis, this paper tries to define and clarify the guidelines for mobility management in historic districts as a key element in sustainability of urban conservation and development projects. Such rules and principles could control the conflict between the socio–cultural and economic activities, and the different needs for mobility in these districts in a sustainable way. The practical analysis includes a comparison between mobility plans which have been implemented in four different cities; Freiburg in Germany, Zurich in Switzerland and Bray Town in Ireland. This paper concludes with a matrix of guidelines that considers both principles of sustainability and livability factors in urban historic districts.

Keywords: sustainable mobility, urban mobility, mobility management, historic districts

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
892 Systematic Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis of Interorganizational Employee Mobility Determinants

Authors: Iva Zdrilić, Petra Došenović Bonča, Darija Aleksić

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Since the boundaryless career, with its emphasis on cross-employer movements, was introduced as a new paradigm of career development, inter-organizational employee mobility has been increasing. Although this phenomenon may have positive implications for individual careers and destination organizations, the consequences for the source organizations losing workers are less clear. The aim of this paper is thus to develop a comprehensive typology of possible inter-organizational employee mobility determinants. Since the most common classification differentiates between mobility determinants at different levels (i.e., economic, organizational, and individual), this paper focuses on building a comprehensive multi-level typology of inter-organizational mobility determinants across diverse sectors and industries. By using a structured literature review approach and bibliometric analysis, the paper reveals both intricate relationships between different mobility determinants and the complexity of inter-organizational networks and social ties. The latter appears as both a mobility determinant (at the organizational and individual level) and a mobility effect. Indeed, inter-organizational employee mobility leads to the formation of networks between source and destination organizations. These networks are practically based on the social ties between mobile employees and their colleagues and, in this way, they close the "inter-organizational employee mobility - inter-organizational network/ties" circle. The paper contributes to the career development literature by uncovering hitherto underexplored diverse determinants of intra- and inter-sectoral mobility as well as the conflicting results of the existing studies on some factors (e.g., inter-organizational networks and/or social ties) that appear both as a mobility determinant and a mobility effect.

Keywords: inter-organizational mobility, social ties, inter-organizational network, knowledge transfer

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891 Numerical Investigation Including Mobility Model for the Performances of Piezoresistive Sensors

Authors: Abdelaziz Beddiaf

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In this work, we present an analysis based on the study of mobility which is a very important electrical parameter of a piezoresistor and which is directly bound to the piezoresistivity effect in piezoresistive pressure sensors. We determine how the temperature affects mobility when the electric potential is applied. For this, a theoretical approach based on mobility in a p-type Silicon piezoresistor with that of a finite difference model for self-heating is developed. So, the evolution of mobility has been established versus time for different doping levels and with temperature rise provoked by self-heating using a numerical model combined with that of mobility. Furthermore, it has been calculated for some geometrical parameters of the sensor, such as membrane side length and thickness. Also, it is computed as a function of bias voltage. It was observed that mobility is strongly affected by the temperature rise induced by the applied potential when the sensor is actuated for a prolonged time as a consequence of drifting in the output response of the sensor. Finally, this work makes it possible to predict their temperature behavior due to self-heating and to improve this effect by optimizing the geometric properties of the device and by reducing the voltage source applied to the bridge.

Keywords: Sensors, Piezoresistivity, Mobility, Bias voltage

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890 The Penetration of Urban Mobility Multi-Modality Enablers in a Vehicle-Dependent City

Authors: Lama Yaseen, Nourah Al-Hosain

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A Multi-modal system in urban mobility is an essential framework for an optimized urban transport network. Many cities are still heavily dependent on vehicle transportation, dominantly using conventional fuel-based cars for daily travel. With the reliance on motorized vehicles in large cities such as Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, traffic congestion is eminent, which ultimately results in an increase in road emissions and loss of time. Saudi Arabia plans to undergo a massive transformation in mobility infrastructure and urban greening projects, including introducing public transport and other massive urban greening infrastructures that enable alternative mobility options. This paper uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach that analyzes the accessibility of current and planned public transport stations and how they intertwine with massive urban greening projects that may play a role as an enabler of micro-mobility and walk-ability options in the city.

Keywords: urban development, urban mobility, sustainable mobility, Middle East

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
889 Impact of International Student Mobility on European and Global Identity: A Case Study of Switzerland

Authors: Karina Oborune

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International student mobility involves a unique spatio-temporal context and exploring the various aspects of mobile students’ experience can lead to new findings within identity studies. The previous studies have mainly focused on student mobility within Europe and its impact on European identity arguing that students who participate in intra-European mobility already feel European before exchange. Contrary to previous studies, in this paper student mobility is analyzed from different point of view. In order to see whether a true Europeanization of identities is taking place, it is necessary to contrast European identity with alternative supranational identity which could similarly result from student mobility and in particular a global identity. Besides, in the paper there is explored whether geographical constellation (host country continental location during mobility- Europe vs. outside of Europe) plays a role. Based on newly developed model of multicultural, social and socio-demographic variables there is argued that after intra-European mobility only global identity of students could be increased (H1), but the mobility to countries outside of Europe causes changes in European identity (H2). The quantitative study (survey, n=1440, 22 higher education institutions, experimental group of former and future/potential mobile students and control group of non-mobile students) was held in Switzerland where is equally high number of students who participate in intra-European and outside of Europe mobility. The results of multivariate linear regression showed that students who participate in exchange in Europe increase their European identity due to having close friends from Europe, as well as due to length of the mobility experience had impact, but students who participate in exchange outside of Europe increase their global identity due to having close friends from outside of Europe and proficiency in foreign languages.

Keywords: student mobility, European identity, global identity, global identity

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888 Network Mobility Support in Content-Centric Internet

Authors: Zhiwei Yan, Jong-Hyouk Lee, Yong-Jin Park, Xiaodong Lee

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In this paper, we analyze NEtwork MObility (NEMO) supporting problems in Content-Centric Networking (CCN), and propose the CCN-NEMO which can well support the deployment of the content-centric paradigm in large-scale mobile Internet. The CCN-NEMO extends the signaling message of the basic CCN protocol, to support the mobility discovery and fast trigger of Interest re-issuing during the network mobility. Besides, the Mobile Router (MR) is extended to optimize the content searching and relaying in the local subnet. These features can be employed by the nested NEMO to maximize the advantages of content retrieving with CCN. Based on the analysis, we compare the performance on handover latency between the basic CCN and our proposed CCN-NEMO. The results show that our scheme can facilitate the content-retrieving in the NEMO scenario with improved performance.

Keywords: NEMO, CCN, mobility, handover latency

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887 Academic Mobility and International Migration: Challenges and Opportunities for African Skilled Immigrants in Sweden

Authors: Anne Kubai

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Since the Lisbon Summit in 2007, discussion and dialogue on ways of enhancing collaboration between Africa and the EU on the issues of migration, mobility and employment has intensified. The Africa-EU Partnership on migration, mobility and employment aims to provide far-reaching responses on migration and employment challenges; and facilitate mobility of people in Africa and the EU. However, since the outcomes of the proposed policies depend on the political interests and institutional capacities of both the EU and African states that are involved, the results have so far been uncoordinated and scattered. Also, many European countries have eased their entry regulations with regard to highly skilled migrants, and there is need to explore the implications of such changes. Therefore, this contribution will address the following questions: How has the progression of migration and border management in the Nordic countries, particularly Sweden, affected the flow and mobility of highly skilled migrants from Africa? What is the possible impact of the changes in receiving countries (such as introduction of tuition fees and more stringent admission regulations for foreign students in Sweden) on skilled migration and mobility? How can highly skilled immigrants be a source of research knowledge between international and local institutions and researchers both in sending and receiving countries?

Keywords: academic mobility, skilled, African, knowledge, research, migrants, Sweden

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886 The Impact of International Student Mobility on Trade and Gross Domestic Product: The Case of China

Authors: Yasir Khan

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The continued growth in international students coming to China for higher education had a significant positive impact on trade and GDP in China. Student mobility may expend trade with their country of origin, owing to superior knowledge, or preferential access to market opportunities. We test this hypothesis using Chinese trade data from 1999 to 2017. In fully-modify (OLS) and dynamic (OLS) testing estimation, we find that a 1.24 percent increase in student inward mobility is associated with a 1 percent increase in Chinese export trade. On the other hand, we find that a 1.18 percent increase in the student inward mobility to China is associated with a 1 percent increase in import trade. In addition, we find that a 1.13 percent increase in international student inward mobility is associated with a 1 percent increase in the GDP. The outcome suggests that international students have a strong influence on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), exports and imports trade. However, the study holds that the government should attach great attachment and importance to the role of international students in the export and import trade.

Keywords: international student mobility, China, export, import, GDP, FMOLS, DOLS

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885 Human Capital Mobility of a Skilled Workforce: A Need for a Future of Europe

Authors: Tiron-Tudor Adriana, Farcas Teodora Viorica, Ciolomic Ioana Andreea

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The issue of human capital mobility inside Europe is still an open one. Even though there were created some tools in order to better move from one country to another to work and study the number of the people doing this is very low because of various factors presented in this paper. The "rethinking educational" agenda of the European Commission has open the floor for new projects which can create steps towards a European language for skills and competences, qualifications. One of these projects is the Partnership for Exchange of experience in Student on-the-job Training. As part of this project, we are interested to see the situation of the human capital inside EU and the elements that were created until now to support this mobility. Also, the main objective of the project is to make a comparison between the four countries involved in PEST project (Romania, Hungary, Finland, and Estonia), at the education and internship level. The results are helpful for the follow of the project, for identifying where changes can be done and need to be done.

Keywords: ECVET, human capital mobility, partnership exchange, students on the job mobility, vocational education and training

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884 Saturation Misbehavior and Field Activation of the Mobility in Polymer-Based OTFTs

Authors: L. Giraudet, O. Simonetti, G. de Tournadre, N. Dumelié, B. Clarenc, F. Reisdorffer

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In this paper we intend to give a comprehensive view of the saturation misbehavior of thin film transistors (TFTs) based on disordered semiconductors, such as most organic TFTs, and its link to the field activation of the mobility. Experimental evidence of the field activation of the mobility is given for disordered semiconductor based TFTs, when reducing the gate length. Saturation misbehavior is observed simultaneously. Advanced transport models have been implemented in a quasi-2D numerical TFT simulation software. From the numerical simulations it is clearly established that field activation of the mobility alone cannot explain the saturation misbehavior. Evidence is given that high longitudinal field gradient at the drain end of the channel is responsible for an excess charge accumulation, preventing saturation. The two combined effects allow reproducing the experimental output characteristics of short channel TFTs, with S-shaped characteristics and saturation failure.

Keywords: mobility field activation, numerical simulation, OTFT, saturation failure

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883 Impacting the Processes of Freight Logistics at Upper Austrian Companies by the Use of Mobility Management

Authors: Theresa Steiner, Markus Pajones, Christian Haider

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Traffic is being induced by companies due to their economic behavior. Basically, two different types of traffic occur at company sites: freight traffic and commuting traffic. Due to the fact that these traffic types are connected to each other in different kinds, an integrated approach to manage them is useful. Mobility management is a proved method for companies, to handle the traffic processes caused by their business activities. According to recent trend analysis in Austria, the freight traffic as well as the individual traffic, as part of the commuting traffic, will continue to increase. More traffic jams, as well as negative environmental impacts, are expected impacts for the future. Mobility management is a tool to control the traffic behavior with the scope to reduce emissions and other negative effects which are caused by traffic. Until now, mobility management is mainly used for optimizing commuting traffic without taking the freight logistics processes into consideration. However, the method of mobility management can be used to improve the freight traffic area of a company as well. The focus of this paper will be particularly laid on analyzing to what extent companies are already using mobility management to influence not only the commuting traffic they produce but also their processes of freight logistics. A further objective is to acquire knowledge about the motivating factors which persuade companies to introduce and apply mobility management. Additionally, advantages and disadvantages of this tool will be defined as well as limitations and factors of success, with a special focus on freight logistics, will be depicted. The first step of this paper is to conduct a literature review on the issue of mobility management with a special focus on freight logistics processes. To compare the theoretical findings with the practice, interviews, following a structured interview guidline, with mobility managers of different companies in Upper Austria will be undertaken. A qualitative analysis of these surveys will in a first step show the motivation behind using mobility management to improve traffic processes and how far this approach is already being used to especially influence the freight traffic of the companies. An evaluation to what extent the method of mobility management is already being approached at Upper Austrian companies to regulate freight logistics processes will be one outcome of this publication. Furthermore, the results of the theoretical and practical analysis will reveal not only the possibilities but also the limitations of using mobility management to influence the processes of freight logistics.

Keywords: freight logistics processes, freight traffic, mobility management, passenger traffic

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882 Assessing the Role of Human Mobility on Malaria Transmission in South Sudan

Authors: A. Y. Mukhtar, J. B. Munyakazi, R. Ouifki

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Over the past few decades, the unprecedented increase in mobility has raised considerable concern about the relationship between mobility and vector-borne diseases and malaria in particular. Thus, one can claim that human mobility is one of the contributing factors to the resurgence of malaria. To assess human mobility on malaria burden among hosts, we formulate a movement-based model on a network of patches. We then extend human multi-group SEIAR deterministic epidemic models into a system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Our quantitative stochastic model which is expressed in terms of average rates of movement between compartments is fitted to time-series data (weekly malaria data of 2011 for each patch) using the maximum likelihood approach. Using the metapopulation (multi-group) model, we compute and analyze the basic reproduction number. The result shows that human movement is sufficient to preserve malaria disease firmness in the patches with the low transmission. With these results, we concluded that the sensitivity of malaria to the human mobility is turning to be greatly important over the implications of future malaria control in South Sudan.

Keywords: basic reproduction number, malaria, maximum likelihood, movement, stochastic model

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881 Development and Psychometric Properties of the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian Population

Authors: Sukaesi Marianti

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This study aims to develop the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian population and to investigate its psychometric properties. New items of the scale were created taking into account the Indonesian population which consists of two parallel forms (A and A’). This study uses 30 newly orchestrated items while keeping in mind the characteristics of the targeted population. The scale was administered to 433 public high school students in Malang, Indonesia. Construct validity of its factor structure was demonstrated using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The result exhibits that he model fits the data, and that the delayed alternate form method shows acceptable result. Results yielded that 21 items of the three-dimensional Relational Mobility Scale is suitable for measuring relational mobility in high school students of Indonesian population.

Keywords: confirmatory factor analysis, delayed alternate form, Indonesian population, relational mobility scale

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880 Mobility-Aware Relay Selection in Two Hop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Network

Authors: Tayyaba Hussain, Sobia Jangsher, Saqib Ali, Saqib Ejaz

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Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAV’s) have gained great popularity due to their remoteness, ease of deployment and high maneuverability in different applications like real-time surveillance, image capturing, weather atmospheric studies, disaster site monitoring and mapping. These applications can involve a real-time communication with the ground station. However, altitude and mobility possess a few challenges for the communication. UAV’s at high altitude usually require more transmit power. One possible solution can be with the use of multi hops (UAV’s acting as relays) and exploiting the mobility pattern of the UAV’s. In this paper, we studied a relay (UAV’s acting as relays) selection for a reliable transmission to a destination UAV. We exploit the mobility information of the UAV’s to propose a Mobility-Aware Relay Selection (MARS) algorithm with the objective of giving improved data rates. The results are compared with Non Mobility-Aware relay selection scheme and optimal values. Numerical results show that our proposed MARS algorithm gives 6% better achievable data rates for the mobile UAV’s as compared with Non MobilityAware relay selection scheme. On average a decrease of 20.2% in data rate is achieved with MARS as compared with SDP solver in Yalmip.

Keywords: mobility aware, relay selection, time division multiple acess, unmanned aerial vehicle

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879 GE as a Channel Material in P-Type MOSFETs

Authors: S. Slimani, B. Djellouli

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Novel materials and innovative device structures has become necessary for the future of CMOS. High mobility materials like Ge is a very promising material due to its high mobility and is being considered to replace Si in the channel to achieve higher drive currents and switching speeds .Various approaches to circumvent the scaling limits to benchmark the performance of nanoscale MOSFETS with different channel materials, the optimized structure is simulated within nextnano in order to highlight the quantum effects on DG MOSFETs when Si is replaced by Ge and SiO2 is replaced by ZrO2 and HfO2as the gate dielectric. The results have shown that Ge MOSFET have the highest mobility and high permittivity oxides serve to maintain high drive current. The simulations show significant improvements compared with DGMOSFET using SiO2 gate dielectric and Si channel.

Keywords: high mobility, high-k, quantum effects, SOI-DGMOSFET

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878 Advocating for Those with Limited Mobility

Authors: Dorothy I. Riddle

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Limited mobility (or an inability to walk more than 15 meters without sitting down to rest) restricts full community participation for 13 percent of Canadian adults or 4.2 million persons), yet Canadian accessibility standards are silent on distance to be walked as an accessibility barrier to be addressed. Instead, they focus on ensuring access for the wheeled mobility devices used regularly by le The Accessible Canada Act mandates that Canada be barrier free by 2040, which will necessitate eliminating distance to be walked as a barrier in federal programs and services. This paper details the results of a multi-year research project funded by Accessibility Standards Canada to document the lived experience of those struggling with limited mobility and make recommendations regarding how to ensure accessibility for those with limited mobility. Over 2,600 Canadians from across Canada participated in an online survey and follow-up focus groups. The results underscored the importance of providing not only mobility supports in public facilities but also the information necessary for planning access to federal programs and services. As numerous participants indicated, if they weren’t sure how far they would have to walk, they simply stayed home and depended on friends and relatives for help with errands or appointments. This included failing to participate in civic activities, such as voting, for fear of having to walk too far and stand unsupported for too long. Types of information that were deemed critical included whether or not mobility aids were available, where seating to rest was located throughout the facility, what alternatives to standing while waiting for service and having to walk to the service provider (rather than the provider coming to the customer) were available, and diagrams of accessible parking and its relationship to elevators and services.

Keywords: accessibility standards, distance to be walked, limited mobility, mobility aids, service to customer

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877 ‘Internationalize Yourself’: Mobility in Academia as a Form of Continuing Professional Training

Authors: Sonja Goegele, Petra Kletzenbauer

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The FH JOANNEUM- a university of applied sciences based in Austria - cooperates in teaching and research with well-known international universities and thus aims to foster so-called strategic partnerships. The exchange of university lecturers and other faculty members is a way to achieve and secure strategic company goals, in which excellent research and teaching play a central role in order to improve both the development of academics and administration. Thanks to mobility not only the university but also the involved people truly benefit in their professional development which can be seen on several levels: increased foreign language proficiency, excellent networking possibilities within the scientific community as well as reinforced didactic competencies in the form of different teaching and learning methodologies. The paper discusses mobility in the light of the university’s strategic paper entitled ‘Hands on 2022’ by presenting results from an empirical research study among faculty members who participate in exchange programmes on a regular basis. In the form of an online questionnaire, mobility was discussed from different angles such as networking, collaborative research, professional training for academics and the overall impact of the exchange within and outside the organization. From the findings, it can be concluded that mobility is an asset for any university. However, keeping in constant dialogue with partner universities requires more than the purpose of the exchange itself. Building rapport and keeping a relationship of trust are challenges that need to be addressed more closely in order to run successful mobility programmes. Best Practice examples should highlight the importance of mobility as a vital initiative to transfer disciplines.

Keywords: higher education, internationalization, mobility, strategic partnerships

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876 Multidimensional Approach to Analyse the Environmental Impacts of Mobility

Authors: Andras Gyorfi, Andras Torma, Adrienn Buruzs

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Mobility has been evolved to a determining field of science. The continuously developing segment involves a variety of affected issues such as public and economic sectors. Beside the changes in mobility the state of environment had also changed in the last period. Alternative mobility as a separate category and the idea of its widespread appliance is such a new field that needs to be studied deeper. Alternative mobility implies finding new types of propulsion, using innovative kinds of power and energy resources, revolutionizing the approach to vehicular control. Including new resources and excluding others has such a complex effect which cannot be unequivocally confirmed by today’s scientific achievements. Changes in specific parameters will most likely reduce the environmental impacts, however, the production of new substances or even their subtraction of the system will cause probably energy deficit as well. The aim of this research is to elaborate the environmental impact matrix of alternative mobility and cognize the factors that are yet unknown, analyse them, look for alternative solutions and conclude all the above in a coherent system. In order to this, we analyse it with a method called ‘the system of systems (SoS) method’ to model the effects and the dynamics of the system. A part of the research process is to examine its impacts on the environment, and to decide whether the newly developed versions of alternative mobility are affecting the environmental state. As a final result, a complex approach will be used which can supplement the current scientific studies. By using the SoS approach, we create a framework of reference containing elements in which we examine the interactions as well. In such a way, a flexible and modular model can be established which supports the prioritizing of effects and the deeper analysis of the complex system.

Keywords: environment, alternative mobility, complex model, element analysis, multidimensional map

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875 Obstacles Faced by Female Older Adults with Physical Disabilities in Rural Regions

Authors: Kaycee Bills

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This study examined the mobility experiences faced by female older adults who have physical disabilities and require the use of wheelchairs or other equipment for mobility. Despite the advances in ADA policies that were put in place to accommodate those who have disabilities, the findings of this study suggest that women who are older adults with disabilities face mobility issues in rural regions regarding the steepness of ramps, narrow spaces, and rough terrain on a regular basis), which require additional assistance. Implications for future practice and research are discussed.

Keywords: social work, accessibility, disability, gender equality

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874 Intergenerational Class Mobility in Greece: A Cross-Cohort Analysis with Evidence from European Union-Statistics on Income and Living Conditions

Authors: G. Stamatopoulou, M. Symeonaki, C. Michalopoulou

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In this work, we study the intergenerational social mobility in Greece, in order to provide up-to-date evidence on the changes in the mobility patterns throughout the years. An analysis for both men and women aged between 25-64 years old is carried out. Three main research objectives are addressed. First, we aim to examine the relationship between the socio-economic status of parents and their children. Secondly, we investigate the evolution of the mobility patterns between different birth cohorts. Finally, the role of education is explored in shaping the mobility patterns. For the analysis, we draw data on both parental and individuals' social outcomes from different national databases. The social class of origins and destination is measured according to the European Socio-Economic Classification (ESeC), while the respondents' educational attainment is coded into categories based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Applying the Markov transition probability theory, and a range of measures and models, this work focuses on the magnitude and the direction of the movements that take place in the Greek labour market, as well as the level of social fluidity. Three-way mobility tables are presented, where the transition probabilities between the classes of destination and origins are calculated for different cohorts. Additionally, a range of absolute and relative mobility rates, as well as distance measures, are presented. The study covers a large time span beginning in 1940 until 1995, shedding light on the effects of the national institutional processes on the social movements of individuals. Given the evidence on the mobility patterns of the most recent birth cohorts, we also investigate the possible effects of the 2008 economic crisis.

Keywords: cohort analysis, education, Greece, intergenerational mobility, social class

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873 An Efficient Resource Management Algorithm for Mobility Management in Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Mallikarjuna Rao Yamarthy, Subramanyam Makam Venkata, Satya Prasad Kodati

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The main objective of the proposed work is to reduce the overall network traffic incurred by mobility management, packet delivery cost and to increase the resource utilization. The proposed algorithm, An Efficient Resource Management Algorithm (ERMA) for mobility management in wireless mesh networks, relies on pointer based mobility management scheme. Whenever a mesh client moves from one mesh router to another, the pointer is set up dynamically between the previous mesh router and current mesh router based on the distance constraints. The algorithm evaluated for signaling cost, data delivery cost and total communication cost performance metrics. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated for both internet sessions and intranet sessions. The proposed algorithm yields significantly better performance in terms of signaling cost, data delivery cost, and total communication cost.

Keywords: data delivery cost, mobility management, pointer forwarding, resource management, wireless mesh networks

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872 The Long-Term Impact of Health Conditions on Social Mobility Outcomes: A Modelling Study

Authors: Lise Retat, Maria Carmen Huerta, Laura Webber, Franco Sassi

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Background: Intra-generational social mobility (ISM) can be defined as the extent to which individuals change their socio-economic position over a period of time or during their entire life course. The relationship between poor health and ISM is established. Therefore, quantifying the impact that potential health policies have on ISM now and into the future would provide evidence for how social inequality could be reduced. This paper takes the condition of overweight and obesity as an example and estimates the mean earning change per individual if the UK were to introduce policies to effectively reduce overweight and obesity. Methods: The HealthLumen individual-based model was used to estimate the impact of obesity on social mobility measures, such as earnings, occupation, and wealth. The HL tool models each individual's probability of experiencing downward ISM as a result of their overweight and obesity status. For example, one outcome of interest was the cumulative mean earning per person of implementing a policy which would reduce adult overweight and obesity by 1% each year between 2020 and 2030 in the UK. Results: Preliminary analysis showed that by reducing adult overweight and obesity by 1% each year between 2020 and 2030, the cumulative additional mean earnings would be ~1,000 Euro per adult by 2030. Additional analysis will include other social mobility indicators. Conclusions: These projections are important for illustrating the role of health in social mobility and for providing evidence for how health policy can make a difference to social mobility outcomes and, in turn, help to reduce inequality.

Keywords: modelling, social mobility, obesity, health

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871 Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure

Authors: Rajesh Agarwal

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Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.

Keywords: capacitance, mobility, organic, thin film transistor

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870 Effectiveness of Myofascial Release Technique in Treatment of Sacroiliac Joint Hypo-Mobility in Postnatal Women

Authors: Ahmed A. Abd El Rahim, Mohamed M. M. Essa, Magdy M. A. Shabana, Said A. Mohamed, Mohamed Ibrahim Mabrouk

Abstract:

Background: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) dysfunction is considered the main cause of pregnancy-related back pain, which may continue to persist postnatally. Myofascial release technique (MFR) is an application of low-intensity, prolonged stretch to myofascial structures to improve function by increasing the sliding properties of restricted myofascial tissues. Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the effect of MFR on postnatal SIJ hypo-mobility. Materials and Methods: Fifty postnatal women complaining of SIJ hypo-mobility participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 26 to 35 yrs., and their body mass index (BMI) didn`t exceed 30 kg/m2. They were randomly assigned to two equal groups, group A (Gr. A) and group B (Gr. B). Both groups received three sessions per week for eight successive weeks. Gr. A received a traditional physical therapy program, while Gr. B received a traditional physical therapy program in addition to MFR. Doppler imaging of vibration was utilized to measure SIJ mobility pre- and post-intervention, and an electronic digital goniometer was used to measure back flexion and extension Range of motion. Results: Findings revealed a statistical improvement in post-intervention values of SIJ mobility in addition to trunk flexion and extension ROM in Gr. B compared to Gr. A (P<0.001). Conclusion: Adding MFR to traditional physical therapy programs is highly recommended in the treatment of SIJ hypo-mobility in postnatal women.

Keywords: sacroiliac hypo-mobility, sacroiliac dysfunction, myofascial release technique, traditional physical therapy, postnatal

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869 Reinventing Urban Governance: Sustainable Transport Solutions for Mitigating Climate Risks in Smart Cities

Authors: Jaqueline Nichi, Leila Da Costa Ferreira, Fabiana Barbi Seleguim, Gabriela Marques Di Giulio, Mariana Barbieri

Abstract:

The transport sector is responsible for approximately 55% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in addition to pollution and other negative externalities, such as road accidents and congestion, that impact the routine of those who live in large cities. The objective of this article is to discuss the application and use of distinct mobility technologies such as climate adaptation and mitigation measures in the context of smart cities in the Global South. The documentary analysis is associated with 22 semi structured interviews with managers who work with mobility technologies in the public and private sectors and in civil society organizations to explore solutions in multilevel governance for smart and low-carbon mobility based on the case study from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The hypothesis that innovation and technology to mitigate and adapt to climate impacts are not yet sufficient to make mobility more sustainable has been confirmed. The results indicate four relevant aspects for advancing a climate agenda in smart cities: integrated planning, coproduction of knowledge, experiments in governance, and new means of financing to guarantee the sustainable sociotechnical transition of the sector.

Keywords: urban mobility, climate change, smart cities, multilevel governance

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868 How Strategic Urban Design Promote Sustainable Urban Mobility: A Comparative Analysis of Cities from Global North and Global South

Authors: Rati Sandeep Choudhari

Abstract:

Mobility flows are considered one of the most important elements of urbanisation, with transport infrastructure serving as a backbone of urban fabrics. Although rapid urbanisation and changing land use patterns have led to an increase in urban mobility levels around the globe, mobility, in general, has become an unpleasant experience for city dwellers, making locations around the city inconvenient to access. With public transport featured in almost every sustainable mobility plan in developing countries, the intermodality and integration with appropriate non–motorised transport infrastructure is often neglected. As a result, people choose to use private cars and two-wheelers to travel, rendering public transit systems underutilised, and encroaching onto pedestrian space on streets, thus making urban mobility unsafe and inconvenient for a major section of society. On the other hand, cities in the West, especially in Europe, depend heavily on inter–modal transit systems, allowing people to shift between metros, buses, trams, walking, and cycling to access even the remote locations of the city. Keeping accessibility as the focal point while designing urban mobility plans and policies, these cities have appropriately refined their urban form, optimised urban densities, developed a multimodal transit system, and adopted place-making strategies to foster a sense of place, thus, improving the quality of urban mobility experience in cities. Using a qualitative research approach, the research looks in detail into the existing literature on what kind of strategies can be applied to improve the urban mobility experience for city dwellers. It further studies and draws out a comparative analysis of cities in both developed and developing parts of the world where these strategies have been used to create people-centric mobility systems, fostering a sense of place with respect to urban mobility and how these strategies affected their social, economic, and environmental dynamics. The examples reflect on how different strategies like redefining land use patterns to form close knit neighbourhoods, development of non – motorise transit systems, and their integration with public transport infrastructure and place-making approach has helped in enhancing the quality and experience of mobility infrastructure in cities. The research finally concludes by laying out strategies that can be adopted by cities of the Global South to develop future mobility systems in a people-centric and sustainable way.

Keywords: urban mobility, sustainable transport, strategic planning, people-centric approach

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867 Experimental Measurement for Vehicular Communication Evaluation Using Obu Arada System

Authors: Aymen Sassi

Abstract:

The equipment of vehicles with wireless communication capabilities is expected to be the key to the evolution to next generation intelligent transportation systems (ITS). The IEEE community has been continuously working on the development of an efficient vehicular communication protocol for the enhancement of Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE). Vehicular communication systems, called V2X, support vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications. The efficiency of such communication systems depends on several factors, among which the surrounding environment and mobility are prominent. Accordingly, this study focuses on the evaluation of the real performance of vehicular communication with special focus on the effects of the real environment and mobility on V2X communication. It starts by identifying the real maximum range that such communication can support and then evaluates V2I and V2V performances. The Arada LocoMate OBU transmission system was used to test and evaluate the impact of the transmission range in V2X communication. The evaluation of V2I and V2V communication takes the real effects of low and high mobility on transmission into account.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11p, V2I, V2X, mobility, PLR, Arada LocoMate OBU, maximum range

Procedia PDF Downloads 378