Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6212

Search results for: solid oxide fuel cell

6212 Integration of Multi Effect Desalination with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Power Cycle

Authors: Mousa Meratizaman, Sina Monadizadeh, Majid Amidpour


One of the most favorable thermal desalination methods used widely today is Multi Effect Desalination. High energy consumption in this method causes coupling it with high temperature power cycle like gas turbine. This combination leads to higher energy efficiency. One of the high temperature power systems which have cogeneration opportunities is Solid Oxide Fuel Cell / Gas Turbine. Integration of Multi Effect Desalination with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell /Gas Turbine power cycle in a range of 300-1000 kW is considered in this article. The exhausted heat of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell /Gas Turbine power cycle is used in Heat Recovery Steam Generator to produce needed motive steam for Desalination unit. Thermodynamic simulation and parametric studies of proposed system are carried out to investigate the system performance.

Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell, thermodynamic simulation, multi effect desalination, gas turbine hybrid cycle

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6211 Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Abir Yahya, Hacen Dhahri, Khalifa Slimi


The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.

Keywords: heat sources, Lattice Boltzmann method, solid oxide fuel cell, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
6210 Optimum Design for Cathode Microstructure of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Riazat, H. Abdolvand, M. Baniassadi


In this present work, 3D reconstruction of cathode of SOFC is developed with various volume fractions and porosity. Three Phase Boundary (TPB) of construction of such derived micro structures is calculated. The neural network is used to optimize the porosity and volume fraction of each phase to reach a structure with maximum TPB.

Keywords: fuel cell, solid oxide, TPB, 3D reconstruction

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6209 Energy and Exergy Analysis of Anode-Supported and Electrolyte–Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Gas Turbine Power System

Authors: Abdulrazzak Akroot, Lutfu Namli


Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are one of the most promising technologies since they can produce electricity directly from fuel and generate a lot of waste heat that is generally used in the gas turbines to promote the general performance of the thermal power plant. In this study, the energy, and exergy analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system was proceed in MATLAB to examine the performance characteristics of the hybrid system in two different configurations: anode-supported model and electrolyte-supported model. The obtained results indicate that if the fuel utilization factor reduces from 0.85 to 0.65, the overall efficiency decreases from 64.61 to 59.27% for the anode-supported model whereas it reduces from 58.3 to 56.4% for the electrolyte-supported model. Besides, the overall exergy reduces from 53.86 to 44.06% for the anode-supported model whereas it reduces from 39.96 to 33.94% for the electrolyte-supported model. Furthermore, increasing the air utilization factor has a negative impact on the electrical power output and the efficiencies of the overall system due to the reduction in the O₂ concentration at the cathode-electrolyte interface.

Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell, anode-supported model, electrolyte-supported model, energy analysis, exergy analysis

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6208 Influence of Substitution on Structure of Tin Lantanium Pyrochlore La₂₋ₓSrₓSn₂O₇₋δ(0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Bounar Nedjemeddine


Materials with the pyrochlore lattice structure have attracted much recent attention due to their wide applications in ceramic thermal barrier coatings, high-permittivity dielectrics, and potential solid electrolytes in solid-oxide fuel cells. The work described in this paper is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of a pyrochlore structure based on lanthanum (La₂O₃) and tin (SnO₂) oxides of general formula La₂Sn₂O₇, substituted by Sr at the site La. Their structures were determined from X-ray powder diffraction using CELFER analysis. All the compositions present the space group Fd-3m. The substitution of La by Sr in the La₂Sn₂O₇ compound causes a variation of the cell parameters. The difference in charge between La³⁺ and Sr²⁺ and the difference in size cause the cell parameters to decrease from a=10.7165 A° to a=10.6848 A° for the substitution rates (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 ...), which leads to a decrease in the volume of the mesh. For a substitution rate x = 0.25, there is an increase in the cell parameters (a=10.7035A°), which can be explained by a competitiveness of the size effect and the presence of a gap in the structure which go in the opposite direction.

Keywords: solid-oxide fuel cells, structure, pyrochlore, X-ray diffraction

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6207 Optimal Sputtering Conditions for Nickel-Cermet Anodes in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Waqas Hassan Tanveer, Yoon Ho Lee, Taehyun Park, Wonjong Yu, Yaegeun Lee, Yusung Kim, Suk Won Cha


Nickel-Gadolinium Doped Ceria (Ni-GDC) cermet anodic thin films were prepared on Scandia Stabilized Zirconia (ScSZ) electrolyte supports by radio frequency (RF) sputtering, with a range of different sputtering powers (50 – 200W) and background Ar gas pressures (30 – 90mTorr). The effects of varying sputtering power and pressure on the properties of Ni-GDC films were studied using Focused Ion Beam (FIB), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The Ni content was found to be always higher than the Ce content, at all sputtering conditions. This increased Ni content was attributed to significantly higher energy transfer efficiency of Ni ions as compared to Ce ions with Ar background sputtering gas. The solid oxide fuel cell configuration was completed by using lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM/YSZ) cathodes on the other side of ScSZ supports. Performance comparison of cells was done by Voltage-Current-Power (VIP) curves, while the resistances of various cell components were observed by nyquist plots. Initial results showed that anode films made by higher powered RF sputtering performed better than lower powered ones for a specific Ar pressure. Interestingly, however, anodes made at highest power and pressure, were not the ones that showed the maximum power output at an intermediate solid oxide fuel cell temperature of 800°C. Finally, an optimal sputtering condition was reported for high performance Ni-GDC anodes.

Keywords: intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, nickel-cermet anodic thin films, nyquist plots, radio frequency sputtering

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6206 Parametric Analysis of Syn-gas Fueled SOFC with Internal Reforming

Authors: Sanjay Tushar Choudhary


This paper focuses on the thermodynamic analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). In the present work the SOFC has been modeled to work with internal reforming of fuel which takes place at high temperature and direct energy conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy takes place. The fuel-cell effluent is a high-temperature steam which can be used for co-generation purposes. Syn-gas has been used here as fuel which is essentially produced by steam reforming of methane in the internal reformer of the SOFC. A thermodynamic model of SOFC has been developed for planar cell configuration to evaluate various losses in the energy conversion process within the fuel cell. Cycle parameters like fuel utilization ratio and the air-recirculation ratio have been varied to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the fuel cell. Output performance parameters like terminal voltage, cell-efficiency and power output have been evaluated for various values of current densities. It has been observed that a combination of a lower value of air-circulation ratio and higher values of fuel utilization efficiency gives a better overall thermodynamic performance.

Keywords: current density, SOFC, suel utilization factor, recirculation ratio

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6205 Electrical and Structural Properties of Solid Electrolyte Systems

Authors: Yasin Polat, Yılmaz Dağdemir, Mehmet Arı


Samarium (III) oxide and Ytterbium (III) oxide doped Bismuth trioxide solid solutions, the nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y ternary system were obtained with x=5, 20 mol %, and y=5, 20 mol % dopant concentrations have been synthesized in air atmosphere with solid state reaction. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the samples have been investigated by 4-point probe technique by heating and cooling process. Doped-Bi2O3 materials of solid electrolyte systems are good oxygen anions O2-conductors which have collected much attention as potential solid ceramic electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their relatively high oxygen ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.(Bi2O3)-based electrolytes have also wide other technological applications in devices with high economical interest such as oxygen sensors, ceramic membranes for oxygen separation, oxygen pumps, catalyzing of some heterogeneous reactions, partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons, and additive material in paints. In recent years, many experimental researches have mostly focused on improving of the Bi-based electrolytes which have high oxide ionic conductivity at low temperatures and better performance as alternatives to traditional stabilized zirconia has taken place. Generally, these systems are much better solid electrolytes than well-known stabilized zirconia, because some of the bismuth trioxide phases exhibit higher ion conductivity than other oxide ionic conductors. Crystal structure of the Nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y has been determined by X-Ray powder diffractions (XRD) measurements before and after electrical conductivity measurements of the samples. Surface and grain structure properties of the samples were determined by SEM analysis. The samples which synthesized in this study can be used in industrial applications such as electrolytes of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

Keywords: 4-point probe technique, bismuth trioxide, solid state reaction, solid oxide fuel cell

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6204 Indium Oxide/Scandium Doping Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Composite Films as Electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Yong-Jie Lin, Yi-Feng Lin


In this study, scandium-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (ScYSZ) and In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) with cubic crystalline structures were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal process. ScYSZ films were prepared by the pressing of ScYSZ NPs and were further used for the electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). To increase the ionic conductivity of the ScYSZ electrolyte, different amounts of In2O3 NPs [0 wt% (X(In2O3)=0), 0.21 wt% (X(In2O3)=0.001) and 1.13 wt% (X(In2O3)=0.005)] were doped in the ScYSZ films to increase their oxygen vacancy. The result shows In2O3 NP/ScYSZ films with 1.13 wt% (X(In2O3 )=0.005) In2O3 NPs doping are with largest ionic conductivity of 0.057Ω-1 cm-1 at 900oC, which is 1.6 and 1.8 times higher than YSZ and In2O3 NP/ScYSZ films with 0.21 wt% (X(In2O3)=0.001) In2O3 NPs doping, respectively.

Keywords: indium oxide/scandium doping Yttria-stabilized zirconia, solid oxide fuel cells, scandium-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia, indium oxide

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6203 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer


Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2, and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: bilirubin oxidase, enzymatic fuel cell, glucose oxidase, nanoparticles

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6202 Anion Exchange Nanocomposite Membrane Doped with ZnO-Nanoparticles for Direct Methanol Alkaline Fuel Cell

Authors: Phumlani Msomi, Patrick Nonjola, Patrick Ndungu, James Ramontja


A series of quaternized poly (2.6 dimethyl – 1.4 phenylene oxide)/ polysulfone (QPPO/PSF) blend anion exchange membrane (AEM) were successfully fabricated and characterized for methanol alkaline fuel cell application. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were introduced in the polymer matrix to enhance the intrinsic properties of the AEM. To confirm successful fabrication, FT-IR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR and HMBC ¹⁵N NMR) were used. The membrane properties were enhanced by the addition of ZnO nanoparticles. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles resulted to a higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 3.72 mmol.g⁻¹and a 30-fold ion conductivity (IC) increase of the nanocomposite due to no (zero (0)) methanol permeability at 30 °C and increased water uptake. The QPPO/PSF/2% ZnO composite retained over 80 % of its initial IC when evaluated for alkaline stability at room temperature. The maximum power output reached for the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) constructed with QPPO/PSF/2%ZnO is 69⁻², which is about three times more than the parent QPPO membrane. The above results indicate that QPPO/PSF-ZnO is a good candidate as an anion exchange membrane for fuel cell application.

Keywords: anion exchange membrane, fuel cell, zinc oxide, nanocomposite

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6201 Sampled-Data Control for Fuel Cell Systems

Authors: H. Y. Jung, Ju H. Park, S. M. Lee


A sampled-data controller is presented for solid oxide fuel cell systems which is expressed by a sector bounded nonlinear model. The sector bounded nonlinear systems, which have a feedback connection with a linear dynamical system and nonlinearity satisfying certain sector type constraints. Also, the sampled-data control scheme is very useful since it is possible to handle digital controller and increasing research efforts have been devoted to sampled-data control systems with the development of modern high-speed computers. The proposed control law is obtained by solving a convex problem satisfying several linear matrix inequalities. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

Keywords: sampled-data control, fuel cell, linear matrix inequalities, nonlinear control

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6200 Study of Porous Metallic Support for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: S. Belakry, D. Fasquelle, A. Rolle, E. Capoen, R. N. Vannier, J. C. Carru


Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising devices for energy conversion due to their high electrical efficiency and eco-friendly behavior. Their performance is not only influenced by the microstructural and electrical properties of the electrodes and electrolyte but also depends on the interactions at the interfaces. Nowadays, commercial SOFCs are electrically efficient at high operating temperatures, typically between 800 and 1000 °C, which restricts their real-life applications. The present work deals with the objectives to reduce the operating temperature and to develop cost-effective intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). This work focuses on the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MS-IT-SOFCs) that would provide cheaper SOFC cells with increased lifetime and reduced operating temperature. In the framework, the local company TIBTECH brings its skills for the manufacturing of porous metal supports. This part of the work focuses on the physical, chemical, and electrical characterizations of porous metallic supports (stainless steel 316 L and FeCrAl alloy) under different exposure conditions of temperature and atmosphere by studying oxidation, mechanical resistance, and electrical conductivity of the materials. Within the target operating temperature (i.e., 500 to 700 ° C), the stainless steel 316 L and FeCrAl alloy slightly oxidize in the air and H2, but don’t deform; whereas under Ar atmosphere, they oxidize more than with previously mentioned atmospheres. Above 700 °C under air and Ar, the two metallic supports undergo high oxidation. From 500 to 700 °C, the resistivity of FeCrAl increases by 55%. But nevertheless, the FeCrAl resistivity increases more slowly than the stainless steel 316L resistivity. This study allows us to verify the compatibility of electrodes and electrolyte materials with metallic support at the operating requirements of the IT-SOFC cell. The characterizations made in this context will also allow us to choose the most suitable fabrication process for all functional layers in order to limit the oxidation of the metallic supports.

Keywords: stainless steel 316L, FeCrAl alloy, solid oxide fuel cells, porous metallic support

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6199 Performance and Processing Evaluation of Solid Oxide Cells by Co-Sintering of GDC Buffer Layer and LSCF Air Electrode

Authors: Hyun-Jong Choi, Minjun Kwak, Doo-Won Seo, Sang-Kuk Woo, Sun-Dong Kim


Solid Oxide Cell(SOC) systems can contribute to the transition to the hydrogen society by utilized as a power and hydrogen generator by the electrochemical reaction with high efficiency at high operation temperature (>750 ℃). La1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3, which is an air electrode, is occurred stability degradations due to reaction and delamination with yittria stabilized zirconia(YSZ) electrolyte in a water electrolysis mode. To complement this phenomenon SOCs need gadolinium doped ceria(GDC) buffer layer between electrolyte and air electrode. However, GDC buffer layer requires a high sintering temperature and it causes a reaction with YSZ electrolyte. This study carried out low temperature sintering of GDC layer by applying Cu-oxide as a sintering aid. The effect of a copper additive as a sintering aid to lower the sintering temperature for the construction of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was investigated. GDC buffer layer with 0.25-10 mol% CuO sintering aid was prepared by reacting GDC power and copper nitrate solution followed by heating at 600 ℃. The sintering of CuO-added GDC powder was optimized by investigating linear shrinkage, microstructure, grain size, ionic conductivity, and activation energy of CuO-GDC electrolytes at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1400 ℃. The sintering temperature of the CuO-GDC electrolyte decreases from 1400 ℃ to 1100 ℃ by adding the CuO sintering aid. The ionic conductivity of the CuO-GDC electrolyte shows a maximum value at 0.5 mol% of CuO. However, the addition of CuO has no significant effects on the activation energy of GDC electrolyte. GDC-LSCF layers were co-sintering at 1050 and 1100 ℃ and button cell tests were carried out at 750 ℃.

Keywords: Co-Sintering, GDC-LSCF, Sintering Aid, solid Oxide Cells

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6198 Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials

Authors: Christian C. Vaso, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera


One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.

Keywords: ceramics, microstructure, fuel cells, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

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6197 Air Conditioning Variation of 1kW Open-Cathode Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

Authors: Mohammad Syahirin Aisha, Khairul Imran Sainan


The PEM fuel cell is a device that generate electric by electrochemical reaction between hydrogen fuel and oxygen in the fuel cell stack. PEM fuel cell consists of an anode (hydrogen supply), a cathode (oxygen supply) and an electrolyte that allow charges move between the two positions of the fuel cell. The only product being developed after the reaction is water (H2O) and heat as the waste which does not emit greenhouse gasses. The performance of fuel cell affected by numerous parameters. This study is restricted to cathode parameters that affect fuel cell performance. At the anode side, the reactant is not going through any changes. Experiments with variation in air velocity (3m/s, 6m/s and 9m/s), temperature (10oC, 20oC, 35oC) and relative humidity (50%, 60%, and 70%) have been carried out. The experiments results are presented in the form of fuel cell stack power output over time, which demonstrate the impacts of the various air condition on the execution of the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the experimental analysis shows that with variation of air conditions, it gives different fuel cell performance behavior. The maximum power output of the experiment was measured at an ambient temperature of 25oC with relative humidity and 9m/s velocity of air.

Keywords: air-breathing PEM fuel cell, cathode side, performance, variation in air condition

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6196 Characterization of Porosity and Flow in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with 3D Focused Ion Beam Serial Slicing

Authors: Daniel Phifer, Anna Prokhodtseva


DualBeam (FIB-SEM) has long been the technology of choice to sub-sample and characterize materials at site-specific locations which are difficult or impossible to extract by conventional embedding/polishing methods. Whereas Ga based FIB provides excellent resolution and enables precise material removal, the current is usually limited and only allows the extraction of small material biopsies typically ranging from 5-70um wide. Xe Plasma FIB, by contrast, has around 38x more current and can remove more material at the same time to extract significant sized chunks (100-1000um) of materials for further analysis. This increased volume has enabled time-prohibitive investigations like large grain 3D serial sectioning and EBSD and micro-machining for micro-mechanical testing. Investigation of the pore spaces with 3D modeling can determine the relative characteristics of the materials to help design or select properties for best function. Pore spaces can be described with a tortuosity number which is calculated by modules in the 3D analysis software. Xe Plasma FIB technology provides a workflow with sufficient volume to characterize porosity when both large-volume 3D materials characterization and nanometer resolution is required to understand the system.

Keywords: dual-beam, FIB-SEM, porosity, SOFC, solid oxide fuel cell

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6195 The Evaluation for Interfacial Adhesion between SOFC and Metal Adhesive in the High Temperature Environment

Authors: Sang Koo Jeon, Seung Hoon Nahm, Oh Heon Kwon


The unit cell of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) must be stacked as several layers type to obtain the high power. The most of researcher have concerned about the performance of stacked SOFC rather than the structural stability of stacked SOFC and especially interested how to design for reducing the electrical loss and improving the high efficiency. Consequently, the stacked SOFC able to produce the electrical high power and related parts like as manifold, gas seal, bipolar plate were developed to optimize the stack design. However, the unit cell of SOFC was just layered on the interconnector without the adhesion and the hydrogen and oxygen were injected to the interfacial layer in the high temperature. On the operating condition, the interfacial layer can be the one of the weak point in the stacked SOFC. Therefore the evaluation of the structural safety for the failure is essentially needed. In this study, interfacial adhesion between SOFC and metal adhesive was estimated in the high temperature environment. The metal adhesive was used to strongly connect the unit cell of SOFC with interconnector and provide the electrical conductivity between them. The four point bending test was performed to measure the interfacial adhesion. The unit cell of SOFC and SiO2 wafer were diced and then attached by metal adhesive. The SiO2 wafer had the center notch to initiate a crack from the tip of the notch. The modified stereomicroscope combined with the CCD camera and system for measuring the length was used to observe the fracture behavior. Additionally, the interfacial adhesion was evaluated in the high temperature condition because the metal adhesive was affected by high temperature. Also the specimen was exposed in the furnace during several hours and then the interfacial adhesion was evaluated. Finally, the interfacial adhesion energy was quantitatively determined and compared in the each condition.

Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), metal adhesive, adhesion, high temperature

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6194 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani


Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

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6193 Field Synergy Analysis of Combustion Characteristics in the Afterburner of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

Authors: Shing-Cheng Chang, Cheng-Hao Yang, Wen-Sheng Chang, Chih-Chia Lin, Chun-Han Li


The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising green technology which can achieve a high electrical efficiency. Due to the high operating temperature of SOFC stack, the off-gases at high temperature from anode and cathode outlets are introduced into an afterburner to convert the chemical energy into thermal energy by combustion. The heat is recovered to preheat the fresh air and fuel gases before they pass through the stack during the SOFC power generation system operation. For an afterburner of the SOFC system, the temperature control with a good thermal uniformity is important. A burner with a well-designed geometry usually can achieve a satisfactory performance. To design an afterburner for an SOFC system, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is adoptable. In this paper, the hydrogen combustion characteristics in an afterburner with simple geometry are studied by using CFD. The burner is constructed by a cylinder chamber with the configuration of a fuel gas inlet, an air inlet, and an exhaust outlet. The flow field and temperature distributions inside the afterburner under different fuel and air flow rates are analyzed. To improve the temperature uniformity of the afterburner during the SOFC system operation, the flow paths of anode/cathode off-gases are varied by changing the positions of fuels and air inlet channel to improve the heat and flow field synergy in the burner furnace. Because the air flow rate is much larger than the fuel gas, the flow structure and heat transfer in the afterburner is dominated by the air flow path. The present work studied the effects of fluid flow structures on the combustion characteristics of an SOFC afterburner by three simulation models with a cylindrical combustion chamber and a tapered outlet. All walls in the afterburner are assumed to be no-slip and adiabatic. In each case, two set of parameters are simulated to study the transport phenomena of hydrogen combustion. The equivalence ratios are in the range of 0.08 to 0.1. Finally, the pattern factor for the simulation cases is calculated to investigate the effect of gas inlet locations on the temperature uniformity of the SOFC afterburner. The results show that the temperature uniformity of the exhaust gas can be improved by simply adjusting the position of the gas inlet. The field synergy analysis indicates the design of the fluid flow paths should be in the way that can significantly contribute to the heat transfer, i.e. the field synergy angle should be as small as possible. In the study cases, the averaged synergy angle of the burner is about 85̊, 84̊, and 81̊ respectively.

Keywords: afterburner, combustion, field synergy, solid oxide fuel cell

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6192 Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects Coating

Authors: Seyedeh Narjes Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Enayati, Fathallah Karimzadeh, Nigel Mark Sammes


The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcinations is described herein. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the as-prepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the 2 ratio results in the formation of desired copper spinel single phase at both calcinations temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decomposes to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react to each other to form copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were obtained 2 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.

Keywords: SOFC interconnect coatings, Copper ferrite, Spinels, electrical conductivity, Glycine–nitrate process

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6191 Experimental Investigation of Performance Anode Side of PEM Fuel Cell with Spin Method Coated with YSZ+SDC

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dinçer, Salih Yayla


In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell was experimentally investigated. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using YSZ+SDC. A solution having 0,1 gr YttriaStabilized Zirconia (YSZ) + 0,1 Samarium-Doped Ceria (SDC) + 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a micro-pipette. Then the anode side of PEM fuel cell was coated with YSZ+ SDC by using spin method. In the experimental study, current, voltage and power performances before and after coating were recorded and then compared to each other. It was found that the efficiency of PEM fuel cell increases after the coating with YSZ+SDC.

Keywords: fuel cell, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), membrane, spin method

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6190 High Temperature Oxidation of Cr-Steel Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Saeed Ghali, Azza Ahmed, Taha Mattar


Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising solution for the energy resources leakage. Ferritic stainless steel becomes a suitable candidate for the SOFCs interconnects due to the recent advancements. Different steel alloys were designed to satisfy the needed characteristics in SOFCs interconnect as conductivity, thermal expansion and corrosion resistance. Refractory elements were used as alloying elements to satisfy the needed properties. The oxidation behaviour of the developed alloys was studied where the samples were heated for long time period at the maximum operating temperature to simulate the real working conditions. The formed scale and oxidized surface were investigated by SEM. Microstructure examination was carried out for some selected steel grades. The effect of alloying elements on the behaviour of the proposed interconnects material and the performance during the working conditions of the cells are explored and discussed. Refractory metals alloying of chromium steel seems to satisfy the needed characteristics in metallic interconnects.

Keywords: SOFCs, Cr-steel, interconnects, oxidation

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6189 Preparation, Characterization and Ionic Conductivity of (1‒x) (CdI2‒Ag2CrO4)‒(x) Al2O3 Composite Solid Electrolytes

Authors: Rafiuddin


Composite solid electrolyte of the salt and oxide type is an effective approach to improve the ionic conductivity in low and intermediate temperature regions. The conductivity enhancement in the composites occurs via interfaces. Because of their high ionic conduction, composite electrolytes have wide applications in different electrochemical devices such as solid-state batteries, solid oxide fuel cells, and electrochemical cells. In this work, a series of novel (1‒x) (CdI2‒Ag2CrO4)‒xAl2O3 composite solid electrolytes has been synthesized. The prepared materials were characterized by X‒ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and AC impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectra show single semicircle representing the simultaneous contribution of grain and grain boundary. The conductivity increased with the increase of Al2O3 content and shows the maximum conductivity (σ= 0.0012 S cm‒1) for 30% of Al2O3 content at 30 ℃.

Keywords: composite solid electrolyte, X-ray diffraction, Impedance spectroscopy, ionic conductivity

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6188 Lanthanum Strontium Titanate Based Anode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: A. Saurabh Singh, B. Raghvendra, C. Prabhakar Singh


Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are one of the most attractive electrochemical energy conversion systems, as these devices present a clean energy production, thus promising high efficiencies and low environmental impact. The electrodes are the main components that decisively control the performance of a SOFC. Conventional, anode materials (like Ni-YSZ) are operates at very high temperature. Therefore, cost-effective materials which operate at relatively lower temperatures are still required. In present study, we have synthesized La doped Strontium Titanate via solid state reaction route. The structural, microstructural and density of the pellet have been investigated employing XRD, SEM and Archimedes Principle, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the systems has been determined by impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrical conductivity of the Lanthanum Strontium Titanate (LST) has been found to be higher than the composite Ni-YSZ system at 700 °C.

Keywords: IT-SOFC, LST, Lanthanum Strontium Titanate, electrical conductivity

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6187 Passive Heat Exchanger for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cooling

Authors: Ivan Tolj


Water produced during electrochemical reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell can be used for internal humidification of reactant gases; hydrogen and air. On such a way it is possible to eliminate expensive external humidifiers and simplify fuel cell balance-of-plant (BoP). When fuel cell operates at constant temperature (usually between 60 °C and 80 °C) relatively cold and dry ambient air heats up quickly upon entering channels which cause further drop in relative humidity (below 20%). Low relative humidity of reactant gases dries up polymer membrane and decrease its proton conductivity which results in fuel cell performance drop. It is possible to maintain such temperature profile throughout fuel cell cathode channel which will result in close to 100 % RH. In order to achieve this, passive heat exchanger was designed using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent). Such passive heat exchanger (with variable surface area) is suitable for small scale PEM fuel cells. In this study, passive heat exchanger for single PEM fuel cell segment (with 20 x 1 cm active area) was developed. Results show close to 100 % RH of air throughout cathode channel with increased fuel cell performance (mainly improved polarization curve) and improved durability.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, passive heat exchange, relative humidity, thermal management

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6186 An Empirical Dynamic Fuel Cell Model Used for Power System Verification in Aerospace

Authors: Giuliano Raimondo, Jörg Wangemann, Peer Drechsel


In systems development involving Fuel Cells generators, it is important to have from an early stage of the project a dynamic model for the electrical behavior of the stack to be shared between involved development parties. It allows independent and early design and tests of fuel cell related power electronic. This paper presents an empirical Fuel Cell system model derived from characterization tests on a real system. Moreover, it is illustrated how the obtained model is used to build and validate a real-time Fuel Cell system emulator which is used for aerospace electrical integration testing activities.

Keywords: fuel cell, modelling, real time emulation, testing

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6185 Quaternized PPO/PSF Anion Exchange Membranes Doped with ZnO-Nanoparticles for Fuel Cell Application

Authors: P. F. Msomi, P. T. Nonjola, P. G. Ndungu, J. Ramontja


In view of the projected global energy demand and increasing levels of greenhouse gases and pollutants issues have inspired an intense search for alternative new energy technologies, which will provide clean, low cost and environmentally friendly solutions to meet the end user requirements. Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFC) have been recognized as ideal candidates for the generation of such clean energy for future stationary and mobile applications due to their many advantages. The key component of the AAEMFC is the anion exchange membrane (AEM). In this report, a series of quaternized poly (2.6 dimethyl – 1.4 phenylene oxide)/ polysulfone (QPPO/PSF) blend anionic exchange membranes (AEM) were successfully fabricated and characterized for alkaline fuel cell application. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were introduced in the polymer matrix to enhance the intrinsic properties of the AEM. The characteristic properties of the QPPO/PSF and QPPO/PSF-ZnO blend membrane were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle (CA). To confirm successful quaternisation, FT-IR spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) were used. Other properties such as ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, contact angle and ion conductivity (IC) were also undertaken to check if the prepared nanocomposite materials are suitable for fuel cell application. The membrane intrinsic properties were found to be enhanced by the addition of ZnO nanoparticles. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles resulted to a highest IEC of 3.72 mmol/g and a 30-fold IC increase of the nanocomposite due to its lower methanol permeability. The above results indicate that QPPO/PSF-ZnO is a good candidate for AAEMFC application.

Keywords: anion exchange membrane, fuel cell, zinc oxide nanoparticle, nanocomposite

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6184 Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum Aluminate Electrolyte Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: Onkar Nath Verma, Nitish Kumar Singh, Raghvendra, Pravin Kumar, Prabhakar Singh


The perovskite type electrolyte material LaAlO3 was prepared by solution based auto-combustion method using Al (NO3)3.6H2O, La2O3 with dilute nitrate acid (HNO3) as precursors and citric acid (C6H8O7.H2O) as a fuel. The synthesis protocol gave an easy processing of the LaAlO3 nano-particles. The XRD measurement revealed that the material has single phase with space group R-3c (rhombohedral). Thermal behavior was measured by simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The compact pellet density was determined. Also, the surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity of LaAlO3 was measured employing LCR meter and found to increase with increasing temperature. This increase in conductivity may be attributed to increased mobility of oxide ion.

Keywords: perovskite, LaAlO3, XRD, SEM, DTA-TGA, SOFC

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6183 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel

Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar


The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.

Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristics

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