Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5658

Search results for: freezing temperature

5658 Centrifuge Testing to Determine the Effect of Temperature on the Adhesion Strength of Ice

Authors: Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi


The adhesion of glaze ice on power infrastructure, ships and aerofoils cause monetary and structural damage. Here we investigate the influence of temperature as an important parameter affecting adhesion strength of ice. Two terms are defined to investigate this: 'freezing temperature', the temperature at which glaze ice forms; and 'ambient temperature', the temperature of the surrounding during the test. Using three metal surfaces, the adhesion strength of ice has been calculated as a value of shear stress at the point of detachment on a spinning centrifuge. Findings show that the ambient temperature has a greater influence than the freezing temperature on the adhesion strength of ice. This is because there exists an amorphous liquid-like layer at the ice-surface interface, whose bond with the surface increases in strength at lower ambient temperatures when the substrate conducts heat much faster than the ice and acts as a heat sink. The results will help us to measure the actual adhesion strength of ice to metal surfaces based on data from weather monitoring devices. Future tests envisaged focus on thermally non-conducting substrates and their influence on adhesion strength.

Keywords: ice adhesion, centrifuge, glaze ice, freezing temperature, ambient temperature

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5657 Thermal Image Segmentation Method for Stratification of Freezing Temperatures

Authors: Azam Fazelpour, Saeed R. Dehghani, Vlastimil Masek, Yuri S. Muzychka


The study uses an image analysis technique employing thermal imaging to measure the percentage of areas with various temperatures on a freezing surface. An image segmentation method using threshold values is applied to a sequence of image recording the freezing process. The phenomenon is transient and temperatures vary fast to reach the freezing point and complete the freezing process. Freezing salt water is subjected to the salt rejection that makes the freezing point dynamic and dependent on the salinity at the phase interface. For a specific area of freezing, nucleation starts from one side and end to another side, which causes a dynamic and transient temperature in that area. Thermal cameras are able to reveal a difference in temperature due to their sensitivity to infrared radiance. Using Experimental setup, a video is recorded by a thermal camera to monitor radiance and temperatures during the freezing process. Image processing techniques are applied to all frames to detect and classify temperatures on the surface. Image processing segmentation method is used to find contours with same temperatures on the icing surface. Each segment is obtained using the temperature range appeared in the image and correspond pixel values in the image. Using the contours extracted from image and camera parameters, stratified areas with different temperatures are calculated. To observe temperature contours on the icing surface using the thermal camera, the salt water sample is dropped on a cold surface with the temperature of -20°C. A thermal video is recorded for 2 minutes to observe the temperature field. Examining the results obtained by the method and the experimental observations verifies the accuracy and applicability of the method.

Keywords: ice contour boundary, image processing, image segmentation, salt ice, thermal image

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5656 Bayesian Networks Scoping the Climate Change Impact on Winter Wheat Freezing Injury Disasters in Hebei Province, China

Authors: Xiping Wang,Shuran Yao, Liqin Dai


Many studies report the winter is getting warmer and the minimum air temperature is obviously rising as the important climate warming evidences. The exacerbated air temperature fluctuation tending to bring more severe weather variation is another important consequence of recent climate change which induced more disasters to crop growth in quite a certain regions. Hebei Province is an important winter wheat growing province in North of China that recently endures more winter freezing injury influencing the local winter wheat crop management. A winter wheat freezing injury assessment Bayesian Network framework was established for the objectives of estimating, assessing and predicting winter wheat freezing disasters in Hebei Province. In this framework, the freezing disasters was classified as three severity degrees (SI) among all the three types of freezing, i.e., freezing caused by severe cold in anytime in the winter, long extremely cold duration in the winter and freeze-after-thaw in early season after winter. The factors influencing winter wheat freezing SI include time of freezing occurrence, growth status of seedlings, soil moisture, winter wheat variety, the longitude of target region and, the most variable climate factors. The climate factors included in this framework are daily mean and range of air temperature, extreme minimum temperature and number of days during a severe cold weather process, the number of days with the temperature lower than the critical temperature values, accumulated negative temperature in a potential freezing event. The Bayesian Network model was evaluated using actual weather data and crop records at selected sites in Hebei Province using real data. With the multi-stage influences from the various factors, the forecast and assessment of the event-based target variables, freezing injury occurrence and its damage to winter wheat production, were shown better scoped by Bayesian Network model.

Keywords: bayesian networks, climatic change, freezing Injury, winter wheat

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5655 Protein and MDA (Malondialdehyde) Profil of Bull Sperm and Seminal Plasma After Freezing

Authors: Sri Rahayu, M. Dwi Susan, Aris Soewondo, W. M. Agung Pramana


Semen is an organic fluid (seminal plasma) that contain spermatozoa. Proteins are one of the major seminal plasma components that modulate sperm functionality, influence sperm capacitation and maintaining the stability of the membrane. Semen freezing is a procedure to preserve sperm cells. The process causes decrease in sperm viability due to temperature shock and oxidation stress. Oxidation stress is a disturbance on phosphorylation that increases ROS concentration, and it produces lipid peroxide in spermatozoa membrane resulted in high MDA (malondialdehyde) concentration. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of freezing on protein and MDA profile of bovine sperm cell and seminal plasma after freezing. Protein and MDA of sperm cell and seminal plasma were isolated from 10 sample. Protein profiles was analyzed by SDS PAGE with separating gel 12,5 %. The concentration of MDA was measured by spectrophotometer. The results of the research indicated that freezing of semen cause lost of the seminal plasma proteins with molecular with 20, 10, and 9 kDa. In addition, the result research showed that protein of the sperm (26, 10, 9, 7, and 6 kDa) had been lost. There were difference MDA concentration of seminal plasma and sperm cell were increase after freezing. MDA concentration of seminal plasma before and after freezing were 2.2 and 2.4 nmol, respectively. MDA concentration of sperm cell before and after freezing were 1,5 and 1.8 nmol, respectively. In conclusion, there were differences protein profiles of spermatozoa before and after semen freezing and freezing cause increasing of the MDA concentration.

Keywords: MDA, semen freezing, SDS PAGE, protein profile

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5654 Numerical Study on the Urea Melting and Induced Natural Convection in a Urea Sender Module

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Man Young Kim


The Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system is considered to be the most promising technology to fulfill the stringent emission regulation. In the Urea-SCR system, the urea solutions are used as the reducing agent, which is a eutectic composition (32.5wt% of urea). The advantage of this eutectic compositions is that it has a low freezing point approximately at -11 ℃, however, the problem of freezing occurs at low-temperature levels below that freezing point. To prevent freezing of urea solutions, we need heating systems that can melt by heating the frozen urea solutions in urea storage tank at low-temperature environment. In this study, therefore, a numerical investigation of three-dimensional unsteady heating problems analyzed to find the melting characteristics of the urea solutions on melting process. In this work, it can be found that the urea melting initiated by heat conduction from the heater is enhanced by the natural convection inside the melted liquid urea solutions due to the temperature difference. Also, liquid urea solutions are initially concentrated on the upper parts of the urea sender module.

Keywords: urea solution, melting, heat conduction, natural convection, liquid fraction, phase change

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5653 A Study of Influence of Freezing on Mechanical Properties of Tendon Fascicles

Authors: Martyna Ekiert, Andrzej Mlyniec


Tendons are the biological structures, which primary function is to transfer force generated by muscles to the bones. Unfortunately, damages of tendons are also one of the most common injuries of the human musculoskeletal system. For the most severe cases of tendon rupture, such as the tear of calcaneus tendon or anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, a surgical procedure is the only possible way of full recovery. Tendons used as biological grafts are usually subjected to the process of deep freezing and subsequent thawing. This, in particular for multiple freezing/thawing cycles, may result in changes of tendon internal structure causing deterioration of mechanical properties of the tissue. Therefore, studies on the influence of freezing on tendons biomechanics, including internal water content in soft tissue, seems to be greatly needed. An experimental study of the influence of freezing on mechanical properties of the tendon was performed on fascicles samples dissected form bovine flexor tendons. The preparation procedure was performed with the presence of 0.9% saline solution in order to prevent an excessive tissue drying. All prepared samples were subjected to the different number of freezing/thawing cycles. For freezing part of the protocol we used -80°C temperature while for slow thawing we used fridge temperature (4°C) combined with equalizing temperatures in the standard state (25°C). After final thawing, the mechanical properties of each sample was examined using cyclic loading test. Our results may contribute for better understanding of negative effects of soft tissues freezing, resulting from abnormal thermal expansion of water. This also may help to determine the limit of freezing/thawing cycles disqualifying tissue for surgical purposes and thus help optimize tissues storage conditions.

Keywords: freezing, soft tissue, tendon, bovine fascicles

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5652 Effect of Formulation Compositions and Freezing Rates on the Conformational Changes of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (HA)

Authors: Thanh Phuong Doan, Narueporn Sutanthavibul


The influence of freezing cycle on influenza haemagglutinin (HA) conformational stability was investigated in terms of freezing rates and formulation compositions. The results showed that appropriate HA conformation could be evaluated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy with HA concentration of greater than 0.09 mg/ml. The intermediate freezing rate of approximately 1.0oC/min preserved the original HA conformation better than at slow freezing rate (0.5oC/min) and rapid freezing rate (2.6oC/min). The changes in CD spectra of the secondary HA structure were more pronounced than those of the tertiary HA structure during the evaluation. Additionally, the formulations, which resulted in the highest conformational stability were found to have sucrose present in the composition. As opposed to when only glycine was used, the stability of HA conformation was poor.

Keywords: freezing, haemagglutinin, influenza, circular dichroism

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5651 Freezing Characteristics and Texture Variation of Apple Fruits after Dehydrofreezing Assisted by Instant Controlled Pressure Drop Treatment

Authors: Leila Ben Haj Said, Sihem Bellagha, Karim Allaf


The present study deals with the dehydrofreezing assisted by instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) treatment of apple fruits. Samples previously dehydrated until different water contents (200, 100, and 30% dry basis (db)) and DIC treated were frozen at two different freezing velocities (V+ and V-), depending on the thermal resistance established between the freezing airflow and the sample surface. The effects of sample water content (W) and freezing velocity (V) on freezing curves and characteristics, exudate water (EW) and texture variation were examined. Lower sample water content implied higher freezing rates, lower initial freezing points (IFP), lower practical freezing time (PFT), and lower specific freezing time (SFT). EW (expressed in g exudate water/100 g water in the product) of 200% and 100% db apple samples was approximately 3%, at low freezing velocity (V-). Whereas, it was lower than 0.5% for apple samples with 30% db water content. Moreover, the impact of freezing velocity on EW was significant and very important only for high water content samples. For samples whose water content was lower than 100% db, firmness (maximum puncture force) was as higher as the water content was lower, without any insignificant impact of freezing velocity.

Keywords: dehydrofreezing, instant controlled pressure drop DIC, freezing time, texture

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5650 Cumulus Cells of Mature Local Goat Oocytes Vitrified with Insulin Transferrin Selenium and Heat Shock Protein 70

Authors: Izzatul Ulfana, Angga Pratomo Cahyadi, Rimayanti, Widjiati


Freezing oocyte could cause temperature stress. Temperature stress triggers cell damage. Insulin Transferrin Selenium (ITS) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) had been used to prevent damage to the oocyte after freezing. ITS and HSP70 could cause the difference protective effect. The aim of this research was to obtain an effective cryoprotectant for freezing local goat oocyte in cumulus cells change. The research began by collecting the ovary from a local slaughterhouse in Indonesia, aspiration follicle, in vitro maturation and the freezing had been used vitrification method. Examination of the morphology cells by native staining method. Data on the calculation morphology oocyte analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis Test. After the Kruskall-Wallis Test which indicated significance, followed by Mann-Whitney Test to compare between treatment groups. As a result, cryoprotectant ITS has the best culumus cells after warming

Keywords: Insulin Transferrin Selenium, Heat Shock Protein 70, cryoprotectant, vitrification

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5649 Numerical Simulation of Phase Transfer during Cryosurgery for an Irregular Tumor Using Hybrid Approach

Authors: Rama Bhargava, Surabhi Nishad


The infusion of nanofluids has dramatically enhanced the heat-carrying capacity of the fluids, applicable to many engineering and medical process where the temperature below freezing is required. Cryosurgery is an efficient therapy for the treatment of cancer, but sometimes the excessive cooling may harm the nearby healthy cells. Efforts are therefore done to develop a model which can cause to generate the low temperature as required. In the present study, a mathematical model is developed based on the bioheat transfer equation to simulate the heat transfer from the probe on a tumor (with irregular domain) using the hybrid technique consisting of element free Galerkin method with αα-family of approximation. The probe is loaded will nano-particles. The effects of different nanoparticles, namely Al₂O₃, Fe₃O₄, Au on the heat-producing rate, is obtained. It is observed that the temperature can be brought to (60°C)-(-30°C) at a faster freezing rate on the infusion of different nanoparticles. Besides increasing the freezing rate, the volume of the nanoparticle can also control the size and growth of ice crystals formed during the freezing process. The study is also made to find the time required to achieve the desired temperature. The problem is further extended for multi tumors of different shapes and sizes. The irregular shape of the frozen domain and the direction of ice growth are very sensitive issues, posing a challenge for simulation. The Meshfree method has been one of the accurate methods in such problems as a domain is naturally irregular. The discretization is done using the nodes only. MLS approximation is taken in order to generate the shape functions. Sufficiently accurate results are obtained.

Keywords: cryosurgery, EFGM, hybrid, nanoparticles

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5648 Assessing the Effect of Freezing and Thawing of Coverzone of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Concrete

Authors: Abdulkarim Mohammed Iliyasu, Mahmud Abba Tahir


Freezing and thawing are considered to be one of the major causes of concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This study aimed at assessing the freezing and thawing of concrete within the cover zone by monitoring the formation of ice and melting at different temperatures using electrical measurement technique. A multi-electrode array system was used to obtain the resistivity of ice formation and melting at discrete depths within the cover zone of the concrete. A total number of four concrete specimens (250 mm x 250 mm x 150 mm) made of ordinary Portland cement concrete and ordinary Portland cement replaced by 65% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is investigated. Water/binder ratios of 0.35 and 0.65 were produced and ponded with water to ensure full saturation and then subjected to freezing and thawing process in a refrigerator within a temperature range of -30 0C and 20 0C over a period of time 24 hours. The data were collected and analysed. The obtained results show that the addition of GGBS changed the pore structure of the concrete which resulted in the decrease in conductance. It was recommended among others that, the surface of the concrete structure should be protected as this will help to prevent the instantaneous propagation of ice trough the rebar and to avoid corrosion and subsequent damage.

Keywords: concrete, conductance, deterioration, freezing and thawing

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5647 Reentrant Spin-Glass State Formation in Polycrystalline Er₂NiSi₃

Authors: Santanu Pakhira, Chandan Mazumdar, R. Ranganathan, Maxim Avdeev


Magnetically frustrated systems are of great interest and one of the most adorable topics for the researcher of condensed matter physics, due to their various interesting properties, viz. ground state degeneracy, finite entropy at zero temperature, lowering of ordering temperature, etc. Ternary intermetallics with the composition RE₂TX₃ (RE = rare-earth element, T= d electron transition metal and X= p electron element) crystallize in hexagonal AlB₂ type crystal structure (space group P6/mmm). In a hexagonal crystal structure with the antiferromagnetic interaction between the moments, the center moment is geometrically frustrated. Magnetic frustration along with disorder arrangements of non-magnetic ions are the building blocks for metastable spin-glass ground state formation for most of the compounds of this stoichiometry. The newly synthesized compound Er₂NiSi₃ compound forms in single phase in AlB₂ type structure with space group P6/mmm. The compound orders antiferromagnetically below 5.4 K and spin freezing of the frustrated magnetic moments occurs below 3 K for the compound. The compound shows magnetic relaxation behavior and magnetic memory effect below its freezing temperature. Neutron diffraction patterns for temperatures below the spin freezing temperature have been analyzed using FULLPROF software package. Diffuse magnetic scattering at low temperatures yields spin glass state formation for the compound.

Keywords: antiferromagnetism, magnetic frustration, spin-glass, neutron diffraction

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5646 A Differential Scanning Calorimetric Study of Frozen Liquid Egg Yolk Thawed by Different Thawing Methods

Authors: Karina I. Hidas, Csaba Németh, Anna Visy, Judit Csonka, László Friedrich, Ildikó Cs. Nyulas-Zeke


Egg yolk is a popular ingredient in the food industry due to its gelling, emulsifying, colouring, and coagulating properties. Because of the heat sensitivity of proteins, egg yolk can only be heat treated at low temperatures, so its shelf life, even with the addition of a preservative, is only a few weeks. Freezing can increase the shelf life of liquid egg yolk up to 1 year, but it undergoes gelling below -6 ° C, which is an irreversible phenomenon. The degree of gelation depends on the time and temperature of freezing and is influenced by the process of thawing. Therefore, in our experiment, we examined egg yolks thawed in different ways. In this study, unpasteurized, industrially broken, separated, and homogenized liquid egg yolk was used. Freshly produced samples were frozen in plastic containers at -18°C in a laboratory freezer. Frozen storage was performed for 90 days. Samples were analysed at day zero (unfrozen) and after frozen storage for 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days. Samples were thawed in two ways (at 5°C for 24 hours and 30°C for 3 hours) before testing. Calorimetric properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry, where heat flow curves were recorded. Denaturation enthalpy values were calculated by fitting a linear baseline, and denaturation temperature values were evaluated. Besides, dry matter content of samples was measured by the oven method with drying at 105°C to constant weight. For statistical analysis two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) was employed, where thawing mode and freezing time were the fixed factors. Denaturation enthalpy values decreased from 1.1 to 0.47 at the end of the storage experiment, which represents a reduction of about 60%. The effect of freezing time was significant on these values, already the enthalpy of samples stored frozen for 1 day was significantly reduced. However, the mode of thawing did not significantly affect the denaturation enthalpy of the samples, and no interaction was seen between the two factors. The denaturation temperature and dry matter content did not change significantly either during the freezing period or during the defrosting mode. Results of our study show that slow freezing and frozen storage at -18°C greatly reduces the amount of protein that can be denatured in egg yolk, indicating that the proteins have been subjected to aggregation, denaturation or other protein conversions regardless of how they were thawed.

Keywords: denaturation enthalpy, differential scanning calorimetry, liquid egg yolk, slow freezing

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5645 Experimental and Numerical Determination of the Freeze Point Depression of a Multi-Phase Flow in a Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger

Authors: Carlos A. Acosta, Amar Bhalla, Ruyan Guo


Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHE) use a rotor shaft assembly with scraping blades to homogenize viscous fluids during the heat transfer process. Obtaining in-situ measurements is difficult because the rotor and scraping blades spin continuously inside the mixing chamber, obstructing the instrumentation pathway. Computational fluid dynamics simulations provide useful insight into the flow behavior around the scraper blades for a variety of fluids and blade geometries. However, numerical solutions often focus on the fluid dynamics and heat transfer phenomena of rotating flow, ignoring the glass-transition temperature and freezing point depression. This research studies the multi-phase fluid dynamics and freezing point depression inside the SSHE with non-isothermal conditions in a time dependent process using an aqueous solution that contains 13.5 wt.% high fructose corn syrup and CO₂. The computational results were validated with in-situ pressure, temperature, and optical spectroscopy measurements. Results from the numerical model show good quantitatively agreement with experimental values.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, freezing point depression, phase-transition temperature, multi-phase flow

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5644 The Effect of Randomly Distributed Polypropylene Fibers and Some Additive Materials on Freezing-Thawing Durability of a Fine-Grained Soil

Authors: A. Şahin Zaimoglu


A number of studies have been conducted recently to investigate the influence of randomly oriented fibers on some engineering properties of cohesive and cohesionless soils. However, few studies have been carried out on freezing-thawing behavior of fine-grained soils modified with discrete fiber inclusions and additive materials. This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of randomly distributed polypropylene fibers (PP) and some additive materials [e.g.., borogypsum (BG), fly ash (FA) and cement (C)] on freezing-thawing durability (mass losses) of a fine-grained soil for 6,12 and 18 cycles. The Taguchi method was applied to the experiments and a standard L9 orthogonal array (OA) with four factors and three levels were chosen. A series of freezing-thawing tests were conducted on each specimen. 0-20 % BG, 0-20 % FA, 0-0.25 % PP and 0-3 % of C by total dry weight of mixture were used in the preparation of specimens. Experimental results showed that the most effective materials for the freezing-thawing durability (mass losses) of the samples were borogypsum and fly ash. The values of mass losses for 6, 12 and 18 cycles in optimum conditions were 16.1%, 5.1% and 3.6%, respectively.

Keywords: freezing-thawing, additive materials, reinforced soil, optimization

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5643 An Inverse Heat Transfer Algorithm for Predicting the Thermal Properties of Tumors during Cryosurgery

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix


This study aimed at developing an inverse heat transfer approach for predicting the time-varying freezing front and the temperature distribution of tumors during cryosurgery. Using a temperature probe pressed against the layer of tumor, the inverse approach is able to predict simultaneously the metabolic heat generation and the blood perfusion rate of the tumor. Once these parameters are predicted, the temperature-field and time-varying freezing fronts are determined with the direct model. The direct model rests on one-dimensional Pennes bioheat equation. The phase change problem is handled with the enthalpy method. The Levenberg-Marquardt Method (LMM) combined to the Broyden Method (BM) is used to solve the inverse model. The effect (a) of the thermal properties of the diseased tissues; (b) of the initial guesses for the unknown thermal properties; (c) of the data capture frequency; and (d) of the noise on the recorded temperatures is examined. It is shown that the proposed inverse approach remains accurate for all the cases investigated.

Keywords: cryosurgery, inverse heat transfer, Levenberg-Marquardt method, thermal properties, Pennes model, enthalpy method

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5642 Investigation of Dry-Blanching and Freezing Methods of Fruits

Authors: Epameinondas Xanthakis, Erik Kaunisto, Alain Le-Bail, Lilia Ahrné


Fruits and vegetables are characterized as perishable food matrices due to their short shelf life as several deterioration mechanisms are being involved. Prior to the common preservation methods like freezing or canning, fruits and vegetables are being blanched in order to inactivate deteriorative enzymes. Both conventional blanching pretreatments and conventional freezing methods hide drawbacks behind their beneficial impacts on the preservation of those matrices. Conventional blanching methods may require longer processing times, leaching of minerals and nutrients due to the contact with the warm water which in turn leads to effluent production with large BOD. An important issue of freezing technologies is the size of the formed ice crystals which is also critical for the final quality of the frozen food as it can cause irreversible damage to the cellular structure and subsequently to degrade the texture and the colour of the product. Herein, the developed microwave blanching methodology and the results regarding quality aspects and enzyme inactivation will be presented. Moreover, heat transfer phenomena, mass balance, temperature distribution, and enzyme inactivation (such as Pectin Methyl Esterase and Ascorbic Acid Oxidase) of our microwave blanching approach will be evaluated based on measurements and computer modelling. The present work is part of the COLDμWAVE project which aims to the development of an innovative environmentally sustainable process for blanching and freezing of fruits and vegetables with improved textural and nutritional quality. In this context, COLDµWAVE will develop tailored equipment for MW blanching of vegetables that has very high energy efficiency and no water consumption. Furthermore, the next steps of this project regarding the development of innovative pathways in MW assisted freezing to improve the quality of frozen vegetables, by exploring in depth previous results acquired by the authors, will be presented. The application of MW assisted freezing process on fruits and vegetables it is expected to lead to improved quality characteristics compared to the conventional freezing. Acknowledgments: COLDμWAVE has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grand agreement No 660067.

Keywords: blanching, freezing, fruits, microwave blanching, microwave

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5641 Giant Achievements in Food Processing

Authors: Farnaz Amidi Fazli


After long period of human experience about food processing from raw eating to canning of food in the last century now it is time to use novel technologies which are sometimes completely different from common technologies. It is possible to decontaminate food without using heat or the foods are stored without using cold chain. Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is a non-thermal method of food preservation that uses short bursts of electricity, PEF can be used for processing liquid and semi-liquid food products. PEF processing offers high quality fresh-like liquid foods with excellent flavor, nutritional value, and shelf-life. High pressure processing (HPP) technology has the potential to fulfill both consumer and scientific requirements. The use of HPP for over 50 years has found applications in non-food industries. For food applications, ‘high pressure’ can be generally considered to be up to 600 MPa for most food products. After years, freezing has its high potential to food preservation due to new and quick freezing methods. Foods which are prepared by this technology have more acceptability and high quality comparing with old fashion slow freezing. Thus, quick freezing has further been adopted as a widespread commercial method for long-term preservation of perishable foods which improved both the health and convenience of everyone in the industrialised countries. Above parameters are achieved by Fluidised-bed freezing systems, freezing by immersion and Hydrofluidisation on the other hand new thawing methods like high-pressure, microwave, ohmic, and acoustic thawing have a key role in quality and adaptability of final product.

Keywords: quick freezing, thawing, high pressure, pulse electric, hydrofluidisation

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5640 The Post Thawing Quality of Boer Goat Semen after Freezing by Mr. Frosty System Using Commercial Diluter

Authors: Gatot Ciptadi, Mudawamah, R. P. Putra, S. Wahjuningsih, A. M. Munazaroh


The success rate of Artificial Insemination (AI) application, particularly in the field at the farmer level is highly dependent on the quality of the sperms one post thawing. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of freezing method (-1oC/ minute) using Mr. Frosty system with commercial diluents on the post-thawing quality of Boer goat semen. Method use is experimental design with the completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments of commercial diluter percentage (v/v). Freezing semen was cryopreserved in 2 main final temperatures of –45 oC (Freezer) and –196 oC (liquid nitrogen). Result showed that different commercial diluter is influenced on viability motility and abnormalities of Boer semen. Pre-freezing qualities of viability, motilities and abnormalities was 88.67+4.16 %, 66.33 +1.53 % and 4.67+ 0.57 % respectively. Meanwhile, post-thawing qualities is considered as good as standard qualities at least more than 40 % (51.0+6.5%). The percentage of commercial diluents were influenced highly significant (P<0.01).The best diluents ration is 1:4 (v/v) for both final sperms stocked. However freezing sperm conserved in -196 oC is better than –45 oC (i.e. motility 39.3.94 % vs. 51.0 + 6.5 %). It was concluded that Mr. frosty system was considered as the feasible method for freezing semen in the reason for practical purposes.

Keywords: sperm quality, goat, viability, diluteR

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5639 Evaluation of Durability Performance for Bio-Energy Co-Product

Authors: Bo Yang, Hali̇l Ceylan, Ali Ulvi̇ Uzer


This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of biofuel co-products (BCPs) with sulfur-free lignin addition on the unconsolidated on strength and durability behavior in pavement soil stabilization subjected to freezing–thawing cycles. For strength behavior, a series of unconfined compression tests were conducted. Mass losses were also calculated after freezing–thawing cycles as criteria for durability behavior. To investigate the effect of the biofuel co-products on the durability behavior of the four type’s soils, mass losses were calculated after 12 freezing–thawing cycles. The co-products tested are promising additives for improving durability under freeze-thaw conditions, and each type has specific advantages.

Keywords: durability, mass lose, freezing–thawing test, bio-energy co-product, soil stabilization

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5638 Cows Milk Quality on Different Sized Dairy Farms

Authors: Ramutė Miseikienė, Saulius Tusas


Somatic cell count and bacteria count are the main indicators of cow milk quality. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare parameters of milk quality in different-sized cows herds. Milk quality of ten dairy cows farms during one year period was analyzed. Dairy farms were divided into five groups according to number of cows in the farm (under 50 cows, 51–100 cows, 101–200 cows, 201–400 cows and more than 400 cows). The averages of somatic cells bacteria count in milk and milk freezing temperature were analyzed. Also, these parameters of milk quality were compared during outdoor (from May to September) and indoor (from October to April) periods. The largest number of SCC was established in the smallest farms, i.e., in farms under 50 cows and 51-100 cows (respectively 264±9,19 and 300±10,24 thousand/ml). Reliable link between the smallest and largest dairy farms and farms with 101-200 and 201-400 cows and count of somatic cells in milk has not been established (P > 0.05). Bacteria count had a low tendency to decrease when the number of cows in farms increased. The highest bacteria number was determined in the farms with 51-100 cows and the the lowest bacteria count was in milk when 201-400 and more than 401 cows were kept. With increasing the number of cows milk maximal freezing temperature decreases (significant negative trend), i. e, indicator is improving. It should be noted that in all farms milk freezing point never exceeded requirements (-0.515 °C). The highest difference between SCC in milk during the indoor and outdoor periods was established in farms with 201-400 cows (respectively 218.49 thousand/ml and 268.84 thousand/ml). However, the count of SC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) during outdoor period in large farms (201-400 and more cows). There was no significant difference between bacteria count in milk during both – outdoor and indoor – periods (P > 0.05).

Keywords: bacteria, cow, farm size, somatic cell count

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5637 Hydrofracturing for Low Temperature Waxy Reservoirs: Problems and Solutions

Authors: Megh Patel, Arjun Chauhan, Jay Thakkar


Hydrofracturing is the most prominent but at the same time expensive, highly skilled and time consuming well stimulation technique. Due to high cost and skilled labor involved, it is generally carried out as the consummate solution among other well stimulation techniques. Considering today’s global petroleum market, no gaffe or complications could be entertained during fracturing, as it would further hamper the current dwindling economy. The literature would be dealing with the challenges encountered during fracturing low temperature waxy reservoirs and the prominent solutions to overcome such teething troubles. During fracturing treatment for, shallow and high freezing point waxy oil reservoirs, the first line problems are to overcome uncompleted breakdown, uncompleted cleanup of fracturing fluids and cold damages to the formations by injecting cold fluid (fluid at ambient conditions). Injecting fracturing fluids at ambient conditions have the tendency to decrease the near wellbore reservoir temperature below the freezing point of oil reservoir and hence leading to wax deposition around the wellbore thereby hampering the fluid production as well as fracture propagation. To overcome such problems, solutions such as hot fracturing fluid injection, encapsulated heat generating hydraulic fracturing fluid system, and injection of wax inhibitor techniques would be discussed. The paper would also be throwing light on changes in rheological properties occurred during heating fracturing fluids and solutions to deal with it taking economic considerations into account.

Keywords: hydrofracturing, waxy reservoirs, low temperature, viscosity, crosslinkers

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5636 Motherhood Medicalization and Marketing: From Media Frames to Women's Decisions

Authors: Leila Mohammadi


This article discusses the technology of social egg freezing in the context of existing literature on medicalization, motherhood, and marketing. The social egg freezing technique offers to preserve some healthy eggs for age-related fertility decline in the future. The study draws on a qualitative analysis and participants observation of media publications, including text, images, or audio-visual about social egg freezing technology and postpone maternity, to identify and compare their communication strategies from a framing theory perspective. Using 442 surveys and 158 pieces of publications in Spanish media, this study demonstrated that the narratives used by these publications and their structures follow a marketing objective to medicalize motherhood. Within these frames, the market of preserving fertility is cast to show compassion and concern about women. In the opinion of participants, egg freezing technology liberates, empowers, and automates women from patriarchal control, and also gives them the responsibility of taking care of their body and reproductive system. This study showed this opinion is significantly influenced by media and their communication strategies supported by providers of this business.

Keywords: motherhood, social egg freezing, medicalization, marketing, media frames, fertility, assisted reproductive system

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5635 Determination of Resistance to Freezing of Bonded Façade Joint

Authors: B. Nečasová, P. Liška, J. Šlanhof


Verification of vented wooden façade system with bonded joints is presented in this paper. The potential of bonded joints is studied and described in more detail. The paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical research about the effects of freeze cycling on the bonded joint. For the purpose of tests spruce timber profiles were chosen for the load bearing substructure. Planks from wooden plastic composite and Siberian larch are representing facade cladding. Two types of industrial polyurethane adhesives intended for structural bonding were selected. The article is focused on the preparation as well as on the subsequent curing and conditioning of test samples. All test samples were subjected to 15 cycles that represents sudden temperature changes, i.e. immersion in a water bath at (293.15 ± 3) K for 6 hours and subsequent freezing to (253.15 ± 2) K for 18 hours. Furthermore, the retention of bond strength between substructure and cladding was tested and strength in shear was determined under tensile stress. Research data indicate that little, if any, damage to the bond results from freezing cycles. Additionally, the suitability of selected group of adhesives in combination with timber substructure was confirmed.

Keywords: adhesive system, bonded joints, wooden lightweight façade, timber substructure

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5634 Detection of Parkinsonian Freezing of Gait

Authors: Sang-Hoon Park, Yeji Ho, Gwang-Moon Eom


Fast and accurate detection of Freezing of Gait (FOG) is desirable for appropriate application of cueing which has been shown to ameliorate FOG. Utilization of frequency spectrum of leg acceleration to derive the freeze index requires much calculation and it would lead to delayed cueing. We hypothesized that FOG can be reasonably detected from the time domain amplitude of foot acceleration. A time instant was recognized as FOG if the mean amplitude of the acceleration in the time window surrounding the time instant was in the specific FOG range. Parameters required in the FOG detection was optimized by simulated annealing. The suggested time domain methods showed performances comparable to those of frequency domain methods.

Keywords: freezing of gait, detection, Parkinson's disease, time-domain method

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5633 Screening of Freezing Tolerance in Eucalyptus Genotypes (Eucalyptus spp.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Ionic Leakage, Proline Accumulation and Stomatal Density

Authors: S. Lahijanian, M. Mobli, B. Baninasab, N. Etemadi


Low temperature extremes are amongst the major stresses that adversely affect the plant growth and productivity. Cold stress causes oxidative stress, physiological, morphological and biochemical changes in plant cells. Generally, low temperatures similar to salinity and drought exert their negative effects mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the plant cells. Changes in climatic condition leading to more frequent extreme conditions will require adapted crop species on a larger scale in order to sustain agricultural production. Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees (and a few shrubs) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of this genus dominate the tree flora of Australia. The eucalyptus genus contains more than 580 species and large number of cultivars, which are native to Australia. Large distribution and diversity of compatible eucalyptus cultivars reflect the fact of ecological flexibility of eucalyptus. Some eucalyptus cultivars can sustain hard environmental conditions like high and low temperature, salinity, high level of PH, drought, chilling and freezing which are intensively effective on crops with tropical and subtropical origin. In this study, we tried to evaluate freezing tolerance of 12 eucalyptus genotypes by means of four different morphological and physiological methods: Chlorophyll fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, proline and stomatal density. The studied cultivars include Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. coccifera, E. darlympleana, E. erythrocorys, E. glaucescens, E. globulus, E. gunnii, E. macrocorpa, E. microtheca, E. rubida, E. tereticornis, and E. urnigera. Except for stomatal density recording, in other methods, plants were exposed to five gradual temperature drops: zero, -5, -10, -15 and -20 degree of centigrade and they remained in these temperatures for at least one hour. Experiment for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence showed that genotypes E. erythrocorys and E. camaldulensis were the most resistant genotypes and E. gunnii and E.coccifera were more sensitive than other genotypes to freezing stress effects. In electrolyte leakage experiment with regard to significant interaction between cultivar and temperature, genotypes E. erythrocorys and E.macrocorpa were shown to be the most tolerant genotypes and E. gunnii, E. urnigera, E. microtheca and E. tereticornis with the more ionic leakage percentage showed to be more sensitive to low temperatures. Results of Proline experiment approved that the most resistant genotype to freezing stress is E. erythrocorys. In the stomatal density experiment, the numbers of stomata under microscopic field were totally counted and the results showed that the E. erythrocorys and E. macrocorpa genotypes had the maximum and E. coccifera and E. darlympleana genotypes had minimum number of stomata under microscopic field (0.0605 mm2). In conclusion, E. erythrocorys identified as the most tolerant genotype; meanwhile E. gunnii classified as the most freezing susceptible genotype in this investigation. Further, remarkable correlation was not obtained between the stomatal density and other cold stress measures.

Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence, cold stress, ionic leakage, proline, stomatal density

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5632 Prediction of Permeability of Frozen Unsaturated Soil Using Van Genuchten Model and Fredlund-Xing Model in Soil Vision

Authors: Bhavita S. Dave, Jaimin Vaidya, Chandresh H. Solanki, Atul K.


To measure the permeability of a soil specimen, one of the basic assumptions of Darcy's law is that the soil sample should be saturated. Unlike saturated soils, the permeability of unsaturated soils cannot be found using conventional methods as it does not follow Darcy's law. Many empirical models, such as the Van Genuchten Model and Fredlund-Xing Model were suggested to predict permeability value for unsaturated soil. Such models use data from the soil-freezing characteristic curve to find fitting parameters for frozen unsaturated soils. In this study, soil specimens were subjected to 0, 1, 3, and 5 freezing-thawing (F-T) cycles for different degrees of saturation to have a wide range of suction, and its soil freezing characteristic curves were formulated for all F-T cycles. Changes in fitting parameters and relative permeability with subsequent F-T cycles are presented in this paper for both models.

Keywords: frozen unsaturated soil, Fredlund Xing model, soil-freezing characteristic curve, Van Genuchten model

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5631 Application of Artificial Ground-Freezing to Construct a Passenger Interchange Tunnel for the Subway Line 14 in Paris, France

Authors: G. Lancellotta, G. Di Salvo, A. Rigazio, A. Davout, V. Pastore, G. Tonoli, A. Martin, P. Jullien, R. Jagow-Klaff, R. Wernecke


Artificial ground freezing (AGF) technique is a well-proven soil improvement approach used worldwide to construct shafts, tunnels and many other civil structures in difficult subsoil or ambient conditions. As part of the extension of Line 14 of the Paris subway, a passenger interchange tunnel between the new station at Porte de CI ichy and the new Tribunal the Grand Instance has been successfully constructed using this technique. The paper presents the successful application of AGF by Liquid Nitrogen and Brine implemented to provide structural stability and groundwater cut-off around the passenger interchange tunnel. The working conditions were considered to be rather challenging, due to the proximity of a hundred-year-old existing service tunnel of the Line 13, and subsoil conditions on site. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the relevant soil parameters for hydro-thermal-mechanical aspects and to implement numerical analyses. Monitoring data were used in order to check and control the development and the efficiency of the freezing process as well as to back analyze the parameters assumed for the design, both during the freezing and thawing phases.

Keywords: artificial ground freezing, brine method, case history, liquid nitrogen

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5630 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol on Cryopreserved Bovine Oocytes

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Nur Ihsan, Hadiah


In the embryo transfer program, to address the limited production of embryos in vivo, in vitro embryo production has become an alternative approach that is relatively inexpensive. One potential source of embryos that can be developed is to use immature oocytes then conducted in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization. However, obstacles encountered were oocyte viability mammals have very limited that it cannot be stored for a long time, so we need oocyte cryopreservation. The research was conducted to know the optimal concentration use of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant on oocytes freezing.Material use in this research was immature oocytes; taken from abbatoir which was aspirated from follicle with diameter 2-6 mm. Concentration ethylen glycol used were 0,5 M, I M, 1,5 M and 2M. The freezing method used was conventional method combined with a five-step protocol washing oocytes from cryoprotectant after thawing. The result showed that concentration ethylen glycol have the significant effect (P<0.05) on oocytes quality after thawing and in vitro maturation. It was concluded that concentration 1,5 M was the best concentration for freezing oocytes using conventional method.

Keywords: bovine, conventional freezing, ethylen glycol, oocytes

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5629 Effect of Fiber Inclusion on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil Subjected to Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: Arun Prasad, P. B. Ramudu, Deep Shikha, Deep Jyoti Singh


A number of studies have been conducted recently to investigate the influence of randomly oriented fibers on some engineering properties of cohesive soils.Freezing and thawing of soil affects the strength, durability and permeability of soil adversely. Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of inclusion of randomly distributed polypropylene fibers on the strength, hydraulic conductivity and durability of local soil (CL) subjected to freeze–thaw cycles. For evaluating the change in strength of soil, a series of unconfined compression tests as well as tri-axial tests were carried out on reinforced and unreinforced soil samples. All the samples were subjected to seven cycles of freezing and thawing. Freezing was carried out at a temperature of - 15 to -18 °C; and thawing was carried out by keeping the samples at room temperature. The reinforcement of soil samples was done by mixing with polypropylene fibers, 12 mm long and with an aspect ratio of 240. The content of fibers was varied from 0.25 to 1% by dry weight of soil. The maximum strength of soil was found in samples having a fiber content of 0.75% for all the samples that were prepared at optimum moisture content (OMC), and if the OMC was increased (+2% OMC) or decreased (-2% OMC), the maximum strength observed at 0.5% fiber inclusion. The effect of fiber inclusion and freeze–thaw on the hydraulic conductivity was studied increased from around 25 times to 300 times that of the unreinforced soil, without subjected to any freeze-thaw cycles. For studying the increased durability of soil, mass loss after each freeze-thaw cycle was calculated and it was found that samples reinforced with polypropylene fibers show 50-60% less loss in weight than that of the unreinforced soil.

Keywords: fiber reinforcement, freezingand thawing, hydraulic conductivity, unconfined compressive strength

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