Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Csaba Tóth

20 Temperature Profile Modelling in Flexible Pavement Design

Authors: Csaba Tóth, Éva Lakatos, László Pethő, Seoyoung Cho

Abstract:

The temperature effect on asphalt pavement structure is a crucial factor at the design stage. In this paper, by applying the German guidelines for temperature along the asphalt depth is estimated. The aim is to consider temperature profiles in different seasons in numerical modelling. The model is built with an elastic and isotropic solid element with 19 subdivisions of asphalt layers to reflect the temperature variation. Comparison with the simple three-layer pavement system (asphalt layers, base, and subgrade layers) will be followed to see the difference in result without temperature variation along with the depth. Finally, the fatigue life calculation was checked to prove the validity of the methodology of considering the temperature in the numerical modelling.

Keywords: temperature profile, flexible pavement modeling, finite element method, temperature modeling

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19 Adsorption Studies of Methane on Zeolite NaX, LiX, KX at High Pressures

Authors: El Hadi Zouaoui, Djamel Nibou, Mohamed Haddouche, Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim Ghani, Samira Amokrane

Abstract:

In this study, CH₄ adsorption isotherms on NaX or Faujasite X and exchanged zeolites with Li⁺(LiX), and K⁺(KX) at different temperatures (298, 308, 323 and 353 K) has been investigated, using high pressure (3 MPa (30 bar)) thermo-gravimetric analyser. The experimental results were then validated using several isothermal kinetics models, namely Langmuir, Toth, and Marczewski-Jaroniec, followed by a calculation of the error coefficients between the experimental and theoretical results. It was found that the CH₄ adsorption isotherms are characterized by a strong increase in adsorption at low pressure and a tendency towards a high pressure limit value Qₘₐₓ. The size and position of the exchanged cations, the spherical shape of methane, the specific surface, and the volume of the pores revealed the most important influence parameters for this study. These results revealed that the experimentation and the modeling, well correlated with Marczewski-Jaroniec, Toth, and gave the best results whatever the temperature and the material used.

Keywords: CH₄ adsorption, exchange cations, exchanged zeolite, isotherm study, NaX zeolite

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18 Development of Sports Nation on the Way of Health Management

Authors: Beatrix Faragó, Zsolt Szakály, Ágnes Kovácsné Tóth, Csaba Konczos, Norbert Kovács, Zsófia Pápai, Tamás Kertész

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The future of the nation is the embodiment of a healthy society. A key segment of government policy is the development of health and a health-oriented environment. As a result, sport as an activator of health is an important area for development. In Hungary, sport is a strategic sector with the aim of developing a sports nation. The function of sport in the global society is multifaceted, which is manifested in both social and economic terms. The economic importance of sport is gaining ground in the world, with implications for Central and Eastern Europe. Smaller states, such as Hungary, cannot ignore the economic effects of exploiting the effects of sport. The relationship between physical activity and health is driven by the health economy towards the nation's economic factor. In our research, we analyzed sport as a national strategy sector and its impact on age groups. By presenting the current state of health behavior, we get an idea of the directions where development opportunities require even more intervention. The foundation of the health of a nation is the young age group, whose shaping of health will shape the future generation. Our research was attended by university students from the Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences who will be experts in the field of health in the future. The other group is the elderly, who are a growing social group due to demographic change and are a key segment of the labor market and consumer society. Our study presents the health behavior of the two age groups, their differences, and similarities. The survey also identifies gaps in the development of a health management strategy that national strategies should take into account.

Keywords: competitiveness, health behavior, health economy, health management, sports nation

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17 Comparision of Neutrophil Response to Curvularia, Bipolaris and Aspergillus Species

Authors: Eszter J. Tóth, Alexandra Hoffmann, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp

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Members of the genera Curvularia and Bipolaris are closely related melanin producing filamentous fungi; both of them have the teleomorph states in genus Cochliobolus. While Bipolaris species infect only plants and may cause serious agriculture damages, some Curvularia species was recovered from opportunistic human infections. The human pathogenic species typically cause phaeohyphomycoses, i.e. mould infections caused by melanised fungi, which can manifest as invasive mycoses with frequent involvement of the central nervous system in immunocompromised patients or as local infections (e.g. keratitis, sinusitis, and cutaneous lesions) in immunocompetent people. Although their plant-fungal interactions have been intensively studied, there is only little information available about the human pathogenic feature of these fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the neutrophil granulocytes’ response to hyphal forms of Curvularia and Bipolaris in comparison with the response to Aspergillus. In the present study Curvularia lunata SZMC 23759 and Aspergillus fumigatus SZMC 23245 both isolated from human eye infection, and Bipolaris zeicola BRIP 19582b isolated from plant leaf were examined. Neutrophils were isolated from heparinised venous blood of healthy donors with dextran sedimentation followed by centrifugation over Ficoll and hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Viability and purity of the cells were checked with trypan blue and Wright staining, respectively. Infection of neutrophils was carried out with germinated conidia in a ratio of 5:1. Production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, and nitrogen monoxide was measured both intracellularly and extracellularly in response to the germinated spores with or without the supernatant and after serum treatment. ROS and NOS production of neutrophils in interaction with the three fungi were compared. It is already known that Aspergillus species induce ROS production of neutrophils only after serum treatment. Although, in case of C. lunata, serum opsonisation also induced an intensive production of reactive species, lower level of production was measured in the lack of serum as well. After interaction with the plant pathogenic B. zeicola, amount of reactive species found to be similar with and without serum treatment. The presence of germination supernatant decreased the reactive species production in case of each fungus. Interaction with Curvularia, Bipolaris and Aspergillus species induced different response of neutrophils. It seems that recognition of C. lunata and B. zeicola is independent of serum opsonisation, albeit it increases the level of the produced reactive species in response for C. lunata. The study was supported by the grant LP2016-8/2016.

Keywords: Curvularia, neutrophils, NOS, ROS, serum opsonisation

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16 Improving the Quality of Transport Management Services with Fuzzy Signatures

Authors: Csaba I. Hencz, István Á. Harmati

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Nowadays the significance of road transport is gradually increasing. All transport companies are working in the same external environment where the speed of transport is defined by traffic rules. The main objective is to accelerate the speed of service and it is only dependent on the individual abilities of the managing members. These operational control units make decisions quickly (in a typically experiential and/or intuitive way). For this reason, support for these decisions is an important task. Our goal is to create a decision support model based on fuzzy signatures that can assist the work of operational management automatically. If the model sets parameters properly, the management of transport could be more economical and efficient.

Keywords: freight transport, decision support, information handling, fuzzy methods

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15 Development of an Information System Based Airport Evaluation Method

Authors: Eniko Nagy, Csaba Csiszar

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Satisfaction of air transportation passengers is significantly affected by the perceived quality of airport information services. The development potential of ICT is considerable. The traditional and new functions of ‘smart’ airports are realized by complex services aiding seamless, comfortable and less time-consuming travel. Based on the elements of the transportation chain the information management functions, their relationships and the technical solutions have been identified. The functions have been categorized by their development level and evaluation scores have been assigned to each category. Correction factors influencing the usefulness of the technology or the service have been introduced. A method for the calculation of ‘smart’ index in order to compare the airports in objective way has been developed; thus facilitating further developments. The method has been applied for the case study of Budapest.

Keywords: air transportation informatics, evaluation, information service, smart airport

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14 Investigation of the Grain-Boundary Segregation Transition in the Binary Fe-C Alloy

Authors: Végh Ádám, Mekler Csaba, Dezső András, Szabó Dávid, Stomp Dávid, Kaptay György

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Grain boundary segregation transition (GBST) has been calculated by a thermodynamic model in binary alloys. The method is used on cementite (Fe3C) segregation in base-centered cubic (ferrite) iron (Fe) in the Fe-C binary system. The GBST line is shown in the Fe3C lacking part of the phase diagram with high solvent (Fe) concentration. At a lower solute content (C) or at higher temperature the grain boundary is composed mostly of the solvent atoms (Fe). On higher concentration compared to the GBST line or at lower temperature a phase transformation occurs at the grain boundary, the latter mostly composed of the associates (Fe3C). These low-segregation and high-segregation states are first order interfacial phase transitions of the grain boundary and can be transformed into each other reversibly. These occur when the GBST line is crossed by changing the bulk composition or temperature.

Keywords: GBST, cementite, segregation, Fe-C alloy

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13 Order Optimization of a Telecommunication Distribution Center through Service Lead Time

Authors: Tamás Hartványi, Ferenc Tóth

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European telecommunication distribution center performance is measured by service lead time and quality. Operation model is CTO (customized to order) namely, a high mix customization of telecommunication network equipment and parts. CTO operation contains material receiving, warehousing, network and server assembly to order and configure based on customer specifications. Variety of the product and orders does not support mass production structure. One of the success factors to satisfy customer is to have a proper aggregated planning method for the operation in order to have optimized human resources and highly efficient asset utilization. Research will investigate several methods and find proper way to have an order book simulation where practical optimization problem may contain thousands of variables and the simulation running times of developed algorithms were taken into account with high importance. There are two operation research models that were developed, customer demand is given in orders, no change over time, customer demands are given for product types, and changeover time is constant.

Keywords: CTO, aggregated planning, demand simulation, changeover time

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12 Application of Box-Behnken Response Surface Design for Optimization of Essential Oil Based Disinfectant on Mixed Species Biofilm

Authors: Anita Vidacs, Robert Rajko, Csaba Vagvolgyi, Judit Krisch

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With the optimization of a new disinfectant the number of tests could be decreased and the cost of processing too. Good sanitizers are eco-friendly and allow no resistance evolvement of bacteria. The essential oils (EOs) are natural antimicrobials, and most of them have the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status. In our study, the effect of the EOs cinnamon, marjoram, and thyme was investigated against mixed species bacterial biofilms of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus aureus. The optimal concentration of EOs, disinfection time and level of pH were evaluated with the aid of Response Surface Box-Behnken Design (RSD) on 1 day and 7 days old biofilms on metal, plastic, and wood surfaces. The variable factors were in the range of 1-3 times of minimum bactericide concentration (MBC); 10-110 minutes acting time and 4.5- 7.5 pH. The optimized EO disinfectant was compared to industrial used chemicals (HC-DPE, Hypo). The natural based disinfectants were applicable; the acting time was below 30 minutes. EOs were able to eliminate the biofilm from the used surfaces except from wood. The disinfection effect of the EO based natural solutions was in most cases equivalent or better compared to chemical sanitizers used in food industry.

Keywords: biofilm, Box-Behnken design, disinfectant, essential oil

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11 The Belt and Road Initiative in a Spiderweb of Conflicting Great Power Interests: A Geopolitical Analysis

Authors: Csaba Barnabas Horvath

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The Belt and Road initiative of China is one that can change the face of Eurasia as we know it. Instead of four major, densely populated subcontinents defined by Mackinder (East Asia, Europe, the Indian Subcontinent, and the Middle East) isolated from each other by vast, sparsely populated and underdeveloped regions, it can at last start to function as a geographic whole, with a sophisticated infrastructure linking its different parts to each other. This initiative, however, happens not in a geopolitical vacuum, but in a space of conflicting great power interests. In Central Asia, the influence of China and Russia are in a setting of competition, where despite the cooperation between the two powers to a great degree, issues causing mutual mistrust emerge repeatedly. In Afghanistan, besides western military presence, even India’s efforts can be added to the picture. In Southeast Asia, a key region regarding the maritime Silk Road, India’s Act East policy meets with China’s Belt and Road, not always in consensus, not to mention US and Japanese interests in the region. The presentation aims to take an overview on how conflicting great power interests are likely to influence the outcome of the Belt and Road initiative. The findings show, that overall success of the Belt and Road Initiative may not be as smooth, as hoped by China, but at the same time, in a limited number of strategically important countries (such as Pakistan, Laos, and Cambodia), this setting is actually a factor favoring China, providing at least a selected number of reliable corridors, where the initiative is actually likely to be successful.

Keywords: belt and road initiative, geostrategic corridors, geopolitics, great power rivalry

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10 Elimination of Mixed-Culture Biofilms Using Biological Agents

Authors: Anita Vidacs, Csaba Vagvolgyi, Judit Krisch

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The attachment of microorganisms to different surfaces and the development of biofilms can lead to outbreaks of food-borne diseases and economic losses due to perished food. In food processing environments, bacterial communities are generally formed by mixed cultures of different species. Plants are sources of several antimicrobial substances that may be potential candidates for the development of new disinfectants. We aimed to investigate cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), marjoram (Origanum majorana), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Essential oils and their major components (cinnamaldehyde, terpinene-4-ol, and thymol) on four-species biofilms of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, and S. aureus. Experiments had three parts: (i) determination of minimum bactericide concentration and the killing time with microdilution methods; (ii) elimination of the four-species 24– and 168-hours old biofilm from stainless steel, polypropylene, tile and wood surfaces; and (iii) comparing the disinfectant effect with industrial used per-acetic based sanitizer (HC-DPE). E. coli and P. putida were more resistant to investigated essential oils and their main components in biofilm, than L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. These Gram-negative bacteria were detected on the surfaces, where the natural based disinfectant had not total biofilm elimination effect. Most promoted solutions were the cinnamon essential oil and the terpinene-4-ol that could eradicate the biofilm from stainless steel, polypropylene and even from tile, too. They have a better disinfectant effect than HC-DPE. These natural agents can be used as alternative solutions in the battle against bacterial biofilms.

Keywords: biofilm, essential oils, surfaces, terpinene-4-ol

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9 Analytical Description of Disordered Structures in Continuum Models of Pattern Formation

Authors: Gyula I. Tóth, Shaho Abdalla

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Even though numerical simulations indeed have a significant precursory/supportive role in exploring the disordered phase displaying no long-range order in pattern formation models, studying the stability properties of this phase and determining the order of the ordered-disordered phase transition in these models necessitate an analytical description of the disordered phase. First, we will present the results of a comprehensive statistical analysis of a large number (1,000-10,000) of numerical simulations in the Swift-Hohenberg model, where the bulk disordered (or amorphous) phase is stable. We will show that the average free energy density (over configurations) converges, while the variance of the energy density vanishes with increasing system size in numerical simulations, which suggest that the disordered phase is a thermodynamic phase (i.e., its properties are independent of the configuration in the macroscopic limit). Furthermore, the structural analysis of this phase in the Fourier space suggests that the phase can be modeled by a colored isotropic Gaussian noise, where any instant of the noise describes a possible configuration. Based on these results, we developed the general mathematical framework of finding a pool of solutions to partial differential equations in the sense of continuous probability measure, which we will present briefly. Applying the general idea to the Swift-Hohenberg model we show, that the amorphous phase can be found, and its properties can be determined analytically. As the general mathematical framework is not restricted to continuum theories, we hope that the proposed methodology will open a new chapter in studying disordered phases.

Keywords: fundamental theory, mathematical physics, continuum models, analytical description

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8 Study of the Adsorptives Properties of Zeolites X Exchanged by the Cations Cu2 + and/or Zn2+

Authors: H. Hammoudi, S. Bendenia, I. Batonneau-Gener, A. Khelifa

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Applying growing zeolites is due to their intrinsic physicochemical properties: a porous structure, regular, generating a large free volume, a high specific surface area, acidic properties of interest to the origin of their activity, selectivity energy and dimensional, leading to a screening phenomenon, hence the name of molecular sieves is generally attributed to them. Most of the special properties of zeolites have been valued as direct applications such as ion exchange, adsorption, separation and catalysis. Due to their crystalline structure stable, their large pore volume and their high content of cation X zeolites are widely used in the process of adsorption and separation. The acidic properties of zeolites X and interesting selectivity conferred on them their porous structure is also have potential catalysts. The study presented in this manuscript is devoted to the chemical modification of an X zeolite by cation exchange. Ion exchange of zeolite NaX by Zn 2 + cations and / or Cu 2 + is gradually conducted by following the evolution of some of its characteristics: crystallinity by XRD, micropore volume by nitrogen adsorption. Once characterized, the different samples will be used for the adsorption of propane and propylene. Particular attention is paid thereafter, on the modeling of adsorption isotherms. In this vein, various equations of adsorption isotherms and localized mobile, some taking into account the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, are used to describe the experimental isotherms. We also used the Toth equation, a mathematical model with three parameters whose adjustment requires nonlinear regression. The last part is dedicated to the study of acid properties of Cu (x) X, Zn (x) X and CuZn (x) X, with the adsorption-desorption of pyridine followed by IR. The effect of substitution at different rates of Na + by Cu2 + cations and / or Zn 2 +, on the crystallinity and on the textural properties was treated. Some results on the morphology of the crystallites and the thermal effects during a temperature rise, obtained by scanning electron microscopy and DTA-TGA thermal analyzer, respectively, are also reported. The acidity of our different samples was also studied. Thus, the nature and strength of each type of acidity are estimated. The evaluation of these various features will provide a comparison between Cu (x) X, Zn (x) X and CuZn (x) X. One study on adsorption of C3H8 and C3H6 in NaX, Cu (x) X , Zn (x) x and CuZn (x) x has been undertaken.

Keywords: adsorption, acidity, ion exchange, zeolite

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7 The Teacher’s Role in Generating and Maintaining the Motivation of Adult Learners of English: A Mixed Methods Study in Hungarian Corporate Contexts

Authors: Csaba Kalman

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In spite of the existence of numerous second language (L2) motivation theories, the teacher’s role in motivating learners has remained an under-researched niche to this day. If we narrow down our focus on the teacher’s role on motivating adult learners of English in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context in corporate environments, empirical research is practically non-existent. This study fills the above research niche by exploring the most motivating aspects of the teacher’s personality, behaviour, and teaching practices that affect adult learners’ L2 motivation in corporate contexts in Hungary. The study was conducted in a wide range of industries in 18 organisations that employ over 250 people in Hungary. In order to triangulate the research, 21 human resources managers, 18 language teachers, and 466 adult learners of English were involved in the investigation by participating in interview studies, and quantitative questionnaire studies that measured ten scales related to the teacher’s role, as well as two criterion measure scales of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The qualitative data were analysed using a template organising style, while descriptive, inferential statistics, as well as multivariate statistical techniques, such as correlation and regression analyses, were used for analysing the quantitative data. The results showed that certain aspects of the teacher’s personality (thoroughness, enthusiasm, credibility, and flexibility), as well as preparedness, incorporating English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in the syllabus, and focusing on the present, proved to be the most salient aspects of the teacher’s motivating influence. The regression analyses conducted with the criterion measure scales revealed that 22% of the variance in learners’ intrinsic motivation could be explained by the teacher’s preparedness and appearance, and 23% of the variance in learners’ extrinsic motivation could be attributed to the teacher’s personal branding and incorporating ESP in the syllabus. The findings confirm the pivotal role teachers play in motivating L2 learners independent of the context they teach in; and, at the same time, call for further research so that we can better conceptualise the motivating influence of L2 teachers.

Keywords: adult learners, corporate contexts, motivation, teacher’s role

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6 Opportunities of an Industrial City in the Leisure Tourism

Authors: E. Happ, A. Albert Tóth

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The aim of the research is to investigate the forms of the demands of leisure tourism in a West-Hungarian industrial city, Győr. Today, Győr is still a traditional industrial city, its industry is mainly based on vehicle industry, but the role of tourism is increasing in the life of the city as well. Because of the industrial nature and the strong economy of the city, the ratio of business tourists is high. It can be stated that MICE tourism is dominating in Győr. Developments of the last decade can help the city with new tourism products to increase the leisure tourism. The new types of tourism – besides business tourism – can help the providers to increase the occupancy rates and the demand at the weekends. The research demonstrates the theoretical background of the topic, and it shows the present situation of the tourism in Győr with secondary data. The secondary research contains statistical data from the Hungarian Statistical Office and the city council, and it is based on the providers’ data. The next part of the paper shows the potential types of leisure tourism with the help of primary research. The primary research contains the results of an online questionnaire with a sample of 1000 potential customers. It is completed with 10 in-depth interviews with tourism experts, who explained their opinions about the opportunities of leisure tourism in Győr from the providers’ side. The online questionnaire was filled out in spring 2017 by customers, who have already stayed in Győr or plan to visit the city. At the same time in-depth interviews were made with hotel managers, head of touristic institutions and employees at the council. Based on the research it can be stated that the touristic supply of Győr allows the increase of the leisure tourism ratio in the city. Primarily, the cultural and health tourism show potential development, but the supply side of touristic services can be developed in order to increase the number of guest nights. The tourism marketing needs to be strengthened in the city, and a distinctive marketing activity - from other cities - is needed as well. To conclude, although Győr is an industrial city, it has a transforming industrial part, and tourism is also strongly present in its economy. Besides the leading role of business tourism, different types of leisure tourism have the opportunity to take place in the city.

Keywords: business tourism, Győr, industrial city, leisure tourism, touristic demand

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5 A Differential Scanning Calorimetric Study of Frozen Liquid Egg Yolk Thawed by Different Thawing Methods

Authors: Karina I. Hidas, Csaba Németh, Anna Visy, Judit Csonka, László Friedrich, Ildikó Cs. Nyulas-Zeke

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Egg yolk is a popular ingredient in the food industry due to its gelling, emulsifying, colouring, and coagulating properties. Because of the heat sensitivity of proteins, egg yolk can only be heat treated at low temperatures, so its shelf life, even with the addition of a preservative, is only a few weeks. Freezing can increase the shelf life of liquid egg yolk up to 1 year, but it undergoes gelling below -6 ° C, which is an irreversible phenomenon. The degree of gelation depends on the time and temperature of freezing and is influenced by the process of thawing. Therefore, in our experiment, we examined egg yolks thawed in different ways. In this study, unpasteurized, industrially broken, separated, and homogenized liquid egg yolk was used. Freshly produced samples were frozen in plastic containers at -18°C in a laboratory freezer. Frozen storage was performed for 90 days. Samples were analysed at day zero (unfrozen) and after frozen storage for 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 days. Samples were thawed in two ways (at 5°C for 24 hours and 30°C for 3 hours) before testing. Calorimetric properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry, where heat flow curves were recorded. Denaturation enthalpy values were calculated by fitting a linear baseline, and denaturation temperature values were evaluated. Besides, dry matter content of samples was measured by the oven method with drying at 105°C to constant weight. For statistical analysis two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) was employed, where thawing mode and freezing time were the fixed factors. Denaturation enthalpy values decreased from 1.1 to 0.47 at the end of the storage experiment, which represents a reduction of about 60%. The effect of freezing time was significant on these values, already the enthalpy of samples stored frozen for 1 day was significantly reduced. However, the mode of thawing did not significantly affect the denaturation enthalpy of the samples, and no interaction was seen between the two factors. The denaturation temperature and dry matter content did not change significantly either during the freezing period or during the defrosting mode. Results of our study show that slow freezing and frozen storage at -18°C greatly reduces the amount of protein that can be denatured in egg yolk, indicating that the proteins have been subjected to aggregation, denaturation or other protein conversions regardless of how they were thawed.

Keywords: denaturation enthalpy, differential scanning calorimetry, liquid egg yolk, slow freezing

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4 Communication Training about Depression and Suicide Prevention for Pharmacists: A Hungarian Pilot Study

Authors: Mónika Ditta Tóth, Ádám Fritz, Balázs Hankó, György Purebl

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Communication training about depression and suicide prevention for pharmacists – A Hungarian pilot study Mónika Ditta Tóth1, Ádám Fritz2, Balázs Hankó2, György Purebl1 1: Semmelweis University, Institute of Behavioural Sciences 2: Semmelweis University, University Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy Administration Background: Suicide rates in Hungary have been one of the highest in the European Union. Depression is one of the main risk factors for suicide and recognizing and treating depression is an effective way to prevent suicidal behaviour. In their daily practice, pharmacists meet patients with high risk of mental health problems. Therefore they have a key role in the prevention of depression and suicide. Aim: The main aim of this study is to raise pharmacists’ awareness about depression and suicide to enable better recognation of verbal and non-verbal signs of these deseases. Another important objective is to reduce their stigma about depression and increase their confidence in communication with depressed and/or suicidal patients. Methods: A 3-hour communication workshop has been delivered in this pilot study about the reasons, trigger factors, verbal and non-verbal signs of depression and suicide. The training includes communication techniques which have been developed to patients needs, as well as role-playing scenarios. Depression Stigma and Morris Confidence Scales were applied before, after and 6 weeks following the training. The results of the training group are then compared with two of the following pharmacist groups: 1. written material only (N=15), 2. no material (N=15). Results: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the training group regarding the level of confidence in treating and communicating with patients with depression and/or suicide following the training, and after 6 weeks (F(2, 24)= 7,135, p=,004; baseline: 20,37, after training: 30,00, follow up: 27,66). After the 3-hour workshop the personal stigma about depression decreased (baselin: 19,75 after training: 17,00, p=0,075) in the training group (N=9), whilst the perceived stigma did not change (before: 33.54, after: 33,44, p=NS). Trainees assessed the workshop as ‘useful’ and ‘gap filling’. No significant differences was found in the group of pharmacisists who got written material only. Conclusions: Despite the high rates of depression and suicide in Hungary, pharmacists do not receive lectures or seminars about mental health during their university studies. Such half-day workshops could fill this gap and give practical help to recognize and communicate with depressed and/or suicidal patients in a more effective way. This way pharmacists, as community gate-keepers, could contribute to a more effective suicide prevention program in Hungary.

Keywords: communication training, pharmacists, depression, suicide

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3 Oxidative Stress Related Alteration of Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cellular Models

Authors: Orsolya Horvath, Laszlo Deres, Krisztian Eros, Katalin Ordog, Tamas Habon, Balazs Sumegi, Kalman Toth, Robert Halmosi

Abstract:

Introduction: Oxidative stress induces an imbalance in mitochondrial fusion and fission processes, finally leading to cell death. The two antioxidant molecules, BGP-15 and L2286 have beneficial effects on mitochondrial functions and on cellular oxidative stress response. In this work, we studied the effects of these compounds on the processes of mitochondrial quality control. Methods: We used H9c2 cardiomyoblast and isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) for the experiments. The concentration of stressors and antioxidants was beforehand determined with MTT test. We applied 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in 125 µM, 400 µM and 800 µM concentrations for 4 and 8 hours on H9c2 cells. H₂O₂ was applied in 150 µM and 300 µM concentration for 0.5 and 4 hours on both models. L2286 was administered in 10 µM, while BGP-15 in 50 µM doses. Cellular levels of the key proteins playing role in mitochondrial dynamics were measured in Western blot samples. For the analysis of mitochondrial network dynamics, we applied electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Results: Due to MNNG treatment the level of fusion proteins (OPA1, MFN2) decreased, while the level of fission protein DRP1 elevated markedly. The levels of fusion proteins OPA1 and MNF2 increased in the L2286 and BGP-15 treated groups. During the 8 hour treatment period, the level of DRP1 also increased in the treated cells (p < 0.05). In the H₂O₂ stressed cells, administration of L2286 increased the level of OPA1 in both H9c2 and NRCM models. MFN2 levels in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes raised considerably due to BGP-15 treatment (p < 0.05). L2286 administration decreased the DRP1 level in H9c2 cells (p < 0.05). We observed that the H₂O₂-induced mitochondrial fragmentation could be decreased by L2286 treatment. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the PARP-inhibitor L2286 has beneficial effect on mitochondrial dynamics during oxidative stress scenario, and also in the case of directly induced DNA damage. We could make the similar conclusions in case of BGP-15 administration, which, via reducing ROS accumulation, propagates fusion processes, this way aids preserving cellular viability. Funding: GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00049; GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00048; GINOP-2.3.3-15-2016-00025; EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00004; ÚNKP-17-4-I-PTE-209

Keywords: H9c2, mitochondrial dynamics, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, oxidative stress

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2 Applicability of Polyisobutylene-Based Polyurethane Structures in Biomedical Disciplines: Some Calcification and Protein Adsorption Studies

Authors: Nihan Nugay, Nur Cicek Kekec, Kalman Toth, Turgut Nugay, Joseph P. Kennedy

Abstract:

In recent years, polyurethane structures are paving the way for elastomer usage in biology, human medicine, and biomedical application areas. Polyurethanes having a combination of high oxidative and hydrolytic stability and excellent mechanical properties are focused due to enhancing the usage of PUs especially for implantable medical device application such as cardiac-assist. Currently, unique polyurethanes consisting of polyisobutylenes as soft segments and conventional hard segments, named as PIB-based PUs, are developed with precise NCO/OH stoichiometry (∽1.05) for obtaining PIB-based PUs with enhanced properties (i.e., tensile stress increased from ∽11 to ∽26 MPa and elongation from ∽350 to ∽500%). Static and dynamic mechanical properties were optimized by examining stress-strain graphs, self-organization and crystallinity (XRD) traces, rheological (DMA, creep) profiles and thermal (TGA, DSC) responses. Annealing procedure was applied for PIB-based PUs. Annealed PIB-based PU shows ∽26 MPa tensile strength, ∽500% elongation, and ∽77 Microshore hardness with excellent hydrolytic and oxidative stability. The surface characters of them were examined with AFM and contact angle measurements. Annealed PIB-based PU exhibits the higher segregation of individual segments and surface hydrophobicity thus annealing significantly enhances hydrolytic and oxidative stability by shielding carbamate bonds by inert PIB chains. According to improved surface and microstructure characters, greater efforts are focused on analyzing protein adsorption and calcification profiles. In biomedical applications especially for cardiological implantations, protein adsorption inclination on polymeric heart valves is undesirable hence protein adsorption from blood serum is followed by platelet adhesion and subsequent thrombus formation. The protein adsorption character of PIB-based PU examines by applying Bradford assay in fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin solutions. Like protein adsorption, calcium deposition on heart valves is very harmful because vascular calcification has been proposed activation of osteogenic mechanism in the vascular wall, loss of inhibitory factors, enhance bone turnover and irregularities in mineral metabolism. The calcium deposition on films are characterized by incubating samples in simulated body fluid solution and examining SEM images and XPS profiles. PIB-based PUs are significantly more resistant to hydrolytic-oxidative degradation, protein adsorption and calcium deposition than ElastEonTM E2A, a commercially available PDMS-based PU, widely used for biomedical applications.

Keywords: biomedical application, calcification, polyisobutylene, polyurethane, protein adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1 On the Possibility of Real Time Characterisation of Ambient Toxicity Using Multi-Wavelength Photoacoustic Instrument

Authors: Tibor Ajtai, Máté Pintér, Noémi Utry, Gergely Kiss-Albert, Andrea Palágyi, László Manczinger, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Gábor Szabó, Zoltán Bozóki

Abstract:

According to the best knowledge of the authors, here we experimentally demonstrate first, a quantified correlation between the real-time measured optical feature of the ambient and the off-line measured toxicity data. Finally, using these correlations we are presenting a novel methodology for real time characterisation of ambient toxicity based on the multi wavelength aerosol phase photoacoustic measurement. Ambient carbonaceous particulate matter is one of the most intensively studied atmospheric constituent in climate science nowadays. Beyond their climatic impact, atmospheric soot also plays an important role as an air pollutant that harms human health. Moreover, according to the latest scientific assessments ambient soot is the second most important anthropogenic emission source, while in health aspect its being one of the most harmful atmospheric constituents as well. Despite of its importance, generally accepted standard methodology for the quantitative determination of ambient toxicology is not available yet. Dominantly, ambient toxicology measurement is based on the posterior analysis of filter accumulated aerosol with limited time resolution. Most of the toxicological studies are based on operational definitions using different measurement protocols therefore the comprehensive analysis of the existing data set is really limited in many cases. The situation is further complicated by the fact that even during its relatively short residence time the physicochemical features of the aerosol can be masked significantly by the actual ambient factors. Therefore, decreasing the time resolution of the existing methodology and developing real-time methodology for air quality monitoring are really actual issues in the air pollution research. During the last decades many experimental studies have verified that there is a relation between the chemical composition and the absorption feature quantified by Absorption Angström Exponent (AAE) of the carbonaceous particulate matter. Although the scientific community are in the common platform that the PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) is the only methodology that can measure the light absorption by aerosol with accurate and reliable way so far, the multi-wavelength PAS which are able to selectively characterise the wavelength dependency of absorption has become only available in the last decade. In this study, the first results of the intensive measurement campaign focusing the physicochemical and toxicological characterisation of ambient particulate matter are presented. Here we demonstrate the complete microphysical characterisation of winter time urban ambient including optical absorption and scattering as well as size distribution using our recently developed state of the art multi-wavelength photoacoustic instrument (4λ-PAS), integrating nephelometer (Aurora 3000) as well as single mobility particle sizer and optical particle counter (SMPS+C). Beyond this on-line characterisation of the ambient, we also demonstrate the results of the eco-, cyto- and genotoxicity measurements of ambient aerosol based on the posterior analysis of filter accumulated aerosol with 6h time resolution. We demonstrate a diurnal variation of toxicities and AAE data deduced directly from the multi-wavelength absorption measurement results.

Keywords: photoacoustic spectroscopy, absorption Angström exponent, toxicity, Ames-test

Procedia PDF Downloads 151