Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3912

Search results for: flexible pavement modeling

3912 A Study on Numerical Modelling of Rigid Pavement: Temperature and Thickness Effect

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman, Hamid Nikraz


Pavement engineering plays a significant role to develop cost effective and efficient highway and road networks. In general, pavement regarding structure is categorized in two core group namely flexible and rigid pavements. There are various benefits in application of rigid pavement. For instance, they have a longer life and lower maintenance costs in compare with the flexible pavement. In rigid pavement designs, temperature and thickness are two effective parameters that could widely affect the total cost of the project. In this study, a numerical modeling using Kenpave-Kenslab was performed to investigate the effect of these two important parameters in the rigid pavement.   

Keywords: rigid pavement, Kenpave, Kenslab, thickness, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
3911 Temperature Profile Modelling in Flexible Pavement Design

Authors: Csaba Tóth, Éva Lakatos, László Pethő, Seoyoung Cho


The temperature effect on asphalt pavement structure is a crucial factor at the design stage. In this paper, by applying the German guidelines for temperature along the asphalt depth is estimated. The aim is to consider temperature profiles in different seasons in numerical modelling. The model is built with an elastic and isotropic solid element with 19 subdivisions of asphalt layers to reflect the temperature variation. Comparison with the simple three-layer pavement system (asphalt layers, base, and subgrade layers) will be followed to see the difference in result without temperature variation along with the depth. Finally, the fatigue life calculation was checked to prove the validity of the methodology of considering the temperature in the numerical modelling.

Keywords: temperature profile, flexible pavement modeling, finite element method, temperature modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
3910 Pavement Failures and Its Maintenance

Authors: Maulik L. Sisodia, Tirth K. Raval, Aarsh S. Mistry


This paper summarizes the ongoing researches about the defects in both flexible and rigid pavement and the maintenance in both flexible and rigid pavements. Various defects in pavements have been identified since the existence of both flexible and rigid pavement. Flexible Pavement failure is defined in terms of decreasing serviceability caused by the development of cracks, ruts, potholes etc. Flexible Pavement structure can be destroyed in a single season due to water penetration. Defects in flexible pavements is a problem of multiple dimensions, phenomenal growth of vehicular traffic (in terms of no. of axle loading of commercial vehicles), the rapid expansion in the road network, non-availability of suitable technology, material, equipment, skilled labor and poor funds allocation have all added complexities to the problem of flexible pavements. In rigid pavements due to different type of destress the failure like joint spalling, faulting, shrinkage cracking, punch out, corner break etc. Application of correction in the existing surface will enhance the life of maintenance works as well as that of strengthening layer. Maintenance of a road network involves a variety of operations, i.e., identification of deficiencies and planning, programming and scheduling for actual implementation in the field and monitoring. The essential objective should be to keep the road surface and appurtenances in good condition and to extend the life of the road assets to its design life. The paper describes lessons learnt from pavement failures and problems experienced during the last few years on a number of projects in India. Broadly, the activities include identification of defects and the possible cause there off, determination of appropriate remedial measures; implement these in the field and monitoring of the results.

Keywords: Flexible Pavements, Rigid Pavements, Defects, Maintenance

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3909 Non-Linear Behavior of Granular Materials in Pavement Design

Authors: Mounir Tichamakdj, Khaled Sandjak, Boualem Tiliouine


The design of flexible pavements is currently carried out using a multilayer elastic theory. However, for thin-surface pavements subject to light or medium traffic volumes, the importance of the non-linear stress-strain behavior of unbound granular materials requires the use of more sophisticated numerical models for the structural design of these pavements. The simplified analysis of the nonlinear behavior of granular materials in pavement design will be developed in this study. To achieve this objective, an equivalent linear model derived from a volumetric shear stress model is used to simulate the nonlinear elastic behavior of two unlinked local granular materials often used in pavements. This model is included here to adequately incorporate material non-linearity due to stress dependence and stiffness of the granular layers in the flexible pavement analysis. The sensitivity of the pavement design criteria to the likely variations in asphalt layer thickness and the mineralogical nature of unbound granular materials commonly used in pavement structures are also evaluated.

Keywords: granular materials, linear equivalent model, non-linear behavior, pavement design, shear volumetric strain model

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3908 Structural Evaluation of Cell-Filled Pavement

Authors: Subrat Roy


This paper describes the findings of a study carried out for evaluating the performance of cell-filled pavement for low volume roads. Details of laboratory investigations and the methodology adopted for construction of cell-filled pavement are presented. The aim of this study is to evaluate the structural behaviour of cement concrete filled cell pavement laid over three different types of subbases (water bound macadam, soil-cement and moorum). A formwork of cells of a thin plastic sheet was used to construct the cell-filled pavements to form flexible, interlocked block pavements. Surface deflections were measured using falling weight deflectometer and benkelman beam methods. Resilient moduli of pavement layers were estimated from the measured deflections. A comparison of deflections obtained from both the methodology is also presented.

Keywords: cell-filled pavement, WBM, FWD, Moorum

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3907 The Effect of Proper Drainage on the Cost of Building and Repairing Roads

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Saeid Amini, Hamid Reza Ghafouri


One of the most important factors in flexible pavement failure is the lack of proper drainage along the roads. Water on the Paving Systems is one of the main parameters of pavement failure. Though, if water is discharged without delay and prior to discharge in order to prevent damaging the pavement the lifetime of the pavement will be considerably increased. In this study, duration of water stay and materials properties in pavement systems and the effects of aggregate gradation, and hydraulic conductivity of the drainage rate and Effects of subsurface drainage systems, drainage and reduction in the lifetime of the pavement have been studied. The study conducted in accordance with the terms offered can be concluded as under. The more hydraulic conductivity the less drainage time and the use of sub-surface drainage system causes two to three times of the pavement lifetime. In this research it has been tried by study and calculate the drained and undrained pavements lifetime by considering the effectiveness of water and drainage coefficient on flexible materials modulus and by using KENLAYER software to compare the present value cost of these pavements has been paid for a 20 year lifetime design. In this study, 14 pavement sections have been considered, of which 7 sections have been drained and 7 other not. Results show that drained pavements have more initial costs but the failure severity is so little in them and have longer lifetime for a 20 year lifetime design, the drained pavements seem so economic.

Keywords: drainage, base and sub-base, elasticity modulus, aggregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
3906 A Study on FWD Deflection Bowl Parameters for Condition Assessment of Flexible Pavement

Authors: Ujjval J. Solanki, Prof.(Dr.) P.J. Gundaliya, Prof.M.D. Barasara


The application of Falling Weight Deflectometer is to evaluate structural performance of the flexible pavement. The exercise of back calculation is required to know the modulus of elasticity of existing in-service pavement. The process of back calculation needs in-depth field experience for the input of range of modulus of elasticity of bituminous, granular and subgrade layer, and its required number of trial to find such matching moduli with the observed FWD deflection on the field. The study carried out at Barnala-Mansa State Highway Punjab-India using FWD before and after overlay; the deflections obtained at 0 on the load cell, 300, 600, 900,1200, 1500 and 1800 mm interval from the load cell these seven deflection results used to calculate Surface Curvature Index (SCI), Base damage Index (BDI), Base curvature index (BCI). This SCI, BCI and BDI indices are useful to predict the structural performance of in-service pavement and also useful to identify homogeneous section for condition assessment. The SCI, BCI and BDI range are determined for before and after overlay the range of SCI 520 to 51 BDI 294 to 63 BCI 83 to 0.27 for old pavement and SCI 272 to 23 BDI 228 to 28, BCI 25.85 to 4.60 for new pavement. It also shows good correlation with back calculated modulus of elasticity of all the three layer.

Keywords: back calculation, base damage index, base curvature index, FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer), surface curvature index

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3905 Cost Effectiveness and Performance Study of Perpetual Pavement Using ABAQUS

Authors: Mansour Fakhri, Monire Zokaei


Where there are many demolitions on conventional asphalt pavements, heavy costs are paid to repair and reconstruct the pavement roads annually. Recently some research has been done in order to increase the pavement life. Perpetual pavement is regarded as one of them which can improve the pavement life and minimize the maintenance activity and cost. In this research, ABAQUS which is a finite element software is implemented for analyzing and simulation of perpetual pavement. Viscoelastic model of material is used and loading wheel is considered to be dynamic. Effect of different parameters on pavement function has been considered. Because of high primary cost these pavements are not widely used. In this regard, life cost analysis was also carried out to compare perpetual pavement to conventional asphalt concrete pavement. It was concluded that although the initial cost of perpetual pavement is higher than that of conventional asphalt pavement, life cycle cost analysis during 50 years of service life showed that the performance of this pavement is better and the whole life cost of that is less.

Keywords: ABAQUS, lifecycle cost analysis, mechanistic empirical, perpetual pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3904 Causes of Deteriorations of Flexible Pavement, Its Condition Rating and Maintenance

Authors: Pooja Kherudkar, Namdeo Hedaoo


There are various causes for asphalt pavement distresses which can develop prematurely or with aging in services. These causes are not limited to aging of bitumen binder but include poor quality materials and construction, inadequate mix design, inadequate pavement structure design considering the traffic and lack of preventive maintenance. There is physical evidence available for each type of pavement distress. Distress in asphalt pavements can be categorized in different distress modes like fracture (cracking and spalling), distortion (permanent deformation and slippage), and disintegration (raveling and potholes). This study shows the importance of severity determination of distresses for the selection of appropriate preventive maintenance treatment. Distress analysis of the deteriorated roads was carried out. Four roads of urban flexible pavements from Pune city was selected as a case study. The roads were surveyed to detect the types, to measure the severity and extent of the distresses. Causes of distresses were investigated. The pavement condition rating values of the roads were calculated. These ranges of ratings were as follows; 1 for poor condition road, 1.1 to 2 for fair condition road and 2.1 to 3 for good condition road. Out of the four roads, two roads were found to be in fair condition and the other two were found in good condition. From the various preventive maintenance treatments like crack seal, fog seal, slurry seal, microsurfacing, surface dressing and thin hot mix/cold mix bituminous overlays, the effective maintenance treatments with respect to the surface condition and severity levels of the existing pavement were recommended.

Keywords: distress analysis, pavement condition rating, preventive maintenance treatments, surface distress measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
3903 Stresses Induced in Saturated Asphalt Pavement by Moving Loads

Authors: Yang Zhong, Meijie Xue


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stresses and excess pore fluid pressure induced by the moving wheel pressure on saturated asphalt pavements, which is one of the reasons for a damage phenomenon in flexible pavement denoted stripping. The saturated asphalt pavement is modeled as multilayered poroelastic half space exerted by a wheel pressure, which is moving at a constant velocity along the surface of the pavement. The governing equations for the proposed analysis are based on the Biot’s theory of dynamics in saturated poroelastic medium. The governing partial differential equations are solved by using Laplace and Hankel integral transforms. The solutions for the stresses and excess pore pressure are expressed in the forms of numerical inversion Laplace and Hankel integral transforms. The numerical simulation results clearly demonstrate the induced deformation and water flow in the asphalt pavement.

Keywords: saturated asphalt pavements, moving loads, excess pore fluid pressure, stress of pavement, biot theory, stress and strain of pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
3902 A Method for Modeling Flexible Manipulators: Transfer Matrix Method with Finite Segments

Authors: Haijie Li, Xuping Zhang


This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the modeling of robot manipulators with flexible links and joints. This approach combines the Discrete Time Transfer Matrix Method with the Finite Segment Method, in which the flexible links are discretized by a number of rigid segments connected by torsion springs; and the flexibility of joints are modeled by torsion springs. The proposed method avoids the global dynamics and has the advantage of modeling non-uniform manipulators. Experiments and simulations of a single-link flexible manipulator are conducted for verifying the proposed methodologies. The simulations of a three-link robot arm with links and joints flexibility are also performed.

Keywords: flexible manipulator, transfer matrix method, linearization, finite segment method

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
3901 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin


The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: flexible electrode, magnetically controlled MEMS, mathematical modeling, mechanical stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3900 Preparing Data for Calibration of Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdulraaof H. Alqaili, Hamad A. Alsoliman


Through progress in pavement design developments, a pavement design method was developed, which is titled the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). Nowadays, the evolution in roads network and highways is observed in Saudi Arabia as a result of increasing in traffic volume. Therefore, the MEPDG currently is implemented for flexible pavement design by the Saudi Ministry of Transportation. Implementation of MEPDG for local pavement design requires the calibration of distress models under the local conditions (traffic, climate, and materials). This paper aims to prepare data for calibration of MEPDG in Central Saudi Arabia. Thus, the first goal is data collection for the design of flexible pavement from the local conditions of the Riyadh region. Since, the modifying of collected data to input data is needed; the main goal of this paper is the analysis of collected data. The data analysis in this paper includes processing each: Trucks Classification, Traffic Growth Factor, Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT), Monthly Adjustment Factors (MAFi), Vehicle Class Distribution (VCD), Truck Hourly Distribution Factors, Axle Load Distribution Factors (ALDF), Number of axle types (single, tandem, and tridem) per truck class, cloud cover percent, and road sections selected for the local calibration. Detailed descriptions of input parameters are explained in this paper, which leads to providing of an approach for successful implementation of MEPDG. Local calibration of MEPDG to the conditions of Riyadh region can be performed based on the findings in this paper.

Keywords: mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG), traffic characteristics, materials properties, climate, Riyadh

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3899 Impact of Using Pyrolytic Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier on Wearing Course of Flexible Pavement

Authors: Samiya Siddique, Taslima Akter Elma, Shahrina Mahzabin, Tamanna Jerin, Mohammed Russedul Islam


In the maneuver and designing of highway engineering, pavement performance is a principal concern. Quality of construction and materials, traffic volume, climate, etc. are the factors that affect the performance of asphalt concrete. Modified asphalt requires to attain greater strength and stability even at inimical circumstances. In this point of view, pyrolytic carbon black (PCB), which is a by-product of waste tire pyrolysis, holds incomparable properties that individualizes it from other conventional fillers by making it an imminent modifier of bitumen. Optimum asphalt content of 60/70 penetration grade asphalt is determined 5% through the Marshall Stability and Flow test for the wearing course of flexible pavement. 5, 10, and 15 percentages of PCB are then used with neat asphalt for modification. Deviations of physical and rheological properties are investigated on both PCB modified and neat asphalt by going through several laboratory tests such as penetration, softening point, and ductility tests. The obtained results reveal that the performance of paving asphalt can be upgraded by modifying it with PCB. With the increasing percentage of PCB, ductility is gradually decreased, and also penetration grade is gradually reduced from 60/70 to 30/40. Furthermore, asphalt mixtures modified with PCB demonstrate higher stability and lower flow values. The research discloses that the apposite percentage of PCB used in asphalt concrete plays a significant role in the advancement of pavement performances and reutilizing of waste tires.

Keywords: asphalt modification, pavement performances, pyrolytic carbon black, marshall stability, wearing course

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3898 Anlaytical Studies on Subgrade Soil Using Jute Geotextile

Authors: A. Vinod Kumar, G. Sunny Deol, Rakesh Kumar, B. Chandra


Application of fiber reinforcement in road construction is gaining some interest in enhancing soil strength. In this paper, the natural geotextile material obtained from gunny bags was used due to its vast local availability. Construction of flexible pavement on weaker soil such as clay soils is a significant problem in construction as well as in design due to its expansive characteristics. Jute geotextile (JGT) was used on a foundation layer of flexible pavement on rural roads. This problem will be conquered by increasing the subgrade strength by decreasing sub-base layer thickness by improving their overall pavement strength characteristics which ultimately reduces the cost of construction and leads to an economical design. California Bearing Ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and triaxial laboratory tests were conducted on two different soil samples, CI and MI. Weaker soil is reinforced with JGT, JGT+Bitumen. JGT+polythene sheet was varied with heights while performing the laboratory tests. Subgrade strength evaluation was investigated by conducting soak CBR test in the laboratory for clayey and silt soils. Laboratory results reveal that reinforced soak CBR value of clayey soil (CI) observed was 10.35%, and silty soil (MI) was 15.6%. This study intends to develop new technique for reinforcing weaker soil with JGT varying parameters for the need of low volume flexible pavements. It was observed that the performance of JGT is inferior when used with bitumen and polyethylene sheets.

Keywords: CBR, jute geotextile, low volume road, weaker soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
3897 Numerical Modeling Analysis for the Double-Layered Asphalt Pavement Structure Behavior with Interface Bonding

Authors: Minh Tu Le, Quang Huy Nguyen, Mai Lan Nguyen


Bonding characteristics between pavement layers have an important influence on responses of pavement structures. This paper deals with analytical solution for the stresses, strains, and deflections of double-layered asphalt pavement structure. This solution is based on the homogeneous half-space of layered theory developed by Burmister (1943). The partial interaction between the layers is taken into account by considering an interface bonding behavior which is obtained by push-out shear test. Numerical applications considering three cases of bonding (unbonded, partially bonded, and fully bonded overlays) are carried out to the influence of the interface bonding on the structural behavior of asphalt pavement under static loading. Further, it was observed that numerical results indicate that the horizontal shear reaction modulus at the interface (Ks) will significantly affect pavement structure behavior.

Keywords: analytical solution, interface bonding, shear test keyword, double-layered asphalt, shear reaction modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
3896 Field Performance of Cement Treated Bases as a Reflective Crack Mitigation Technique for Flexible Pavements

Authors: Mohammad R. Bhuyan, Mohammad J. Khattak


Deterioration of flexible pavements due to crack reflection from its soil-cement base layer is a major concern around the globe. The service life of flexible pavement diminishes significantly because of the reflective cracks. Highway agencies are struggling for decades to prevent or mitigate these cracks in order to increase pavement service lives. The root cause of reflective cracks is the shrinkage crack which occurs in the soil-cement bases during the cement hydration process. The primary factor that causes the shrinkage is the cement content of the soil-cement mixture. With the increase of cement content, the soil-cement base gains strength and durability, which is necessary to withstand the traffic loads. But at the same time, higher cement content creates more shrinkage resulting in more reflective cracks in pavements. Historically, various states of USA have used the soil-cement bases for constructing flexile pavements. State of Louisiana (USA) had been using 8 to 10 percent of cement content to manufacture the soil-cement bases. Such traditional soil-cement bases yield 2.0 MPa (300 psi) 7-day compressive strength and are termed as cement stabilized design (CSD). As these CSD bases generate significant reflective cracks, another design of soil-cement base has been utilized by adding 4 to 6 percent of cement content called cement treated design (CTD), which yields 1.0 MPa (150 psi) 7-day compressive strength. The reduction of cement content in the CTD base is expected to minimize shrinkage cracks thus increasing pavement service lives. Hence, this research study evaluates the long-term field performance of CTD bases with respect to CSD bases used in flexible pavements. Pavement Management System of the state of Louisiana was utilized to select flexible pavement projects with CSD and CTD bases that had good historical record and time-series distress performance data. It should be noted that the state collects roughness and distress data for 1/10th mile section every 2-year period. In total, 120 CSD and CTD projects were analyzed in this research, where more than 145 miles (CTD) and 175 miles (CSD) of roadways data were accepted for performance evaluation and benefit-cost analyses. Here, the service life extension and area based on distress performance were considered as benefits. It was found that CTD bases increased 1 to 5 years of pavement service lives based on transverse cracking as compared to CSD bases. On the other hand, the service lives based on longitudinal and alligator cracking, rutting and roughness index remain the same. Hence, CTD bases provide some service life extension (2.6 years, on average) to the controlling distress; transverse cracking, but it was inexpensive due to its lesser cement content. Consequently, CTD bases become 20% more cost-effective than the traditional CSD bases, when both bases were compared by net benefit-cost ratio obtained from all distress types.

Keywords: cement treated base, cement stabilized base, reflective cracking , service life, flexible pavement

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3895 Effect of Unbound Granular Materials Nonlinear Resilient Behaviour on Pavement Response and Performance of Low Volume Roads

Authors: Khaled Sandjak, Boualem Tiliouine


Structural analysis of flexible pavements has been and still is currently performed using multi-layer elastic theory. However, for thinly surfaced pavements subjected to low to medium volumes of traffics, the importance of non-linear stress-strain behaviour of unbound granular materials (UGM) requires the use of more sophisticated numerical models for structural design and performance of such pavements. In the present work, nonlinear unbound aggregates constitutive model is implemented within an axisymmetric finite element code developed to simulate the nonlinear behaviour of pavement structures including two local aggregates of different mineralogical nature, typically used in Algerian pavements. The performance of the mechanical model is examined about its capability of representing adequately, under various conditions, the granular material non-linearity in pavement analysis. In addition, deflection data collected by falling weight deflectometer (FWD) are incorporated into the analysis in order to assess the sensitivity of critical pavement design criteria and pavement design life to the constitutive model. Finally, conclusions of engineering significance are formulated.

Keywords: FWD backcalculations, finite element simulations, Nonlinear resilient behaviour, pavement response and performance, RLT test results, unbound granular materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
3894 Analytical Studies on Subgrade Soil Using Jute Geotextiles

Authors: A. Vinod Kumar, G. Sunny Deol, Rakesh Kumar, B. Chandra


Application of fiber reinforcement in road construction is gaining some interest in enhancing soil strength. In this paper, the natural Geotextile material obtained from gunny bags was used due to vast local availability material. Construction of flexible pavement on weaker soil such as clay soils are a significant problem in construction as well as in design due to its expansive characteristics. Jute Geotextile (JGT) was used on a foundation layer of flexible pavement on rural roads. This problem will be conquered by increasing the subgrade strength by decreasing sub-base layer thickness by improving their overall pavement strength characteristics which ultimately reduces the cost of construction and leads to economically design. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR), unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and triaxial laboratory tests were conducted on two different soil samples CI and MI. Weaker soil is reinforced with JGT, JGT+Bitumen; JGT+polythene sheet was varied with heights while performing the laboratory tests. Subgrade strength evaluation was investigated by conducting soak CBR test in the laboratory for clayey and silt soils. Laboratory results reveal that reinforced soak CBR value of clayey soil (CI) observed was 10.35%, and silty soil (MI) was 15.6%. This study intends to develop new technique for reinforcing weaker soil with JGT varying parameters for the need of low volume flexible pavements. It was observed that the performance of JGT is inferior when used with bitumen and polyethylene sheets.

Keywords: CBR, Jute geotextile, low volume road, weaker soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
3893 Numerical Multi-Scale Modeling of Rubber Friction on Rough Pavements Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Ashkan Nazari, Saied Taheri


Knowledge of tire-pavement interaction plays a crucial role in designing safer and more reliable tires. Characterizing the tire-pavement frictional interaction leads to a better understanding of vehicle performance in braking and acceleration. In this work, we devise a multi-scale simulation approach to incorporate the effect of pavement surface asperities in different length-scales. We construct two- and three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the interaction between a rubber block and a rough pavement surface with asperities in different scales. To achieve this, the road profile is scanned via a laser profilometer and the obtained asperities are implemented in an FE software (ABAQUS) in micro and macro length-scales. The hysteresis friction, which is due to the dissipative nature of rubber, is the main component of the friction force and therefore is the subject of study in this work. Using different scales not only will assist in characterizing the pavement asperities with sufficient details but also, it is highly effective in preventing extreme local deformations and stress gradients which results in divergence in FE simulations. The simulation results will be validated with experimental results as well as the results reported in the literature.

Keywords: friction, finite element, multi-scale modeling, rubber

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
3892 Moisture Variations in Unbound Layers in an Instrumented Pavement Section

Authors: R. Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder


This study presents the moisture variations of unbound layers from April 2012 to January 2014 in the Interstate 40 (I-40) pavement section in New Mexico. Three moisture probes were installed at different layers inside the pavement which measure the continuous moisture variations of the pavement. Data show that the moisture contents of unbound layers are typically constant throughout the day and month unless there is rainfall. Moisture contents of all unbound layers change with rainfall. Change in ground water table may affect the moisture content of unbound layers which has not investigated in this study. In addition, the Level 3 predictions of moisture contents using the Pavement Mechanistic-Empirical (ME) Design software are compared and found quite reasonable. However, results presented in the current study may not be applicable for pavement in other regions.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, moisture probes, resilient modulus, climate model

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
3891 Development of Structural Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavement Using Traffic Speed Deflectometer Data

Authors: Sittampalam Manoharan, Gary Chai, Sanaul Chowdhury, Andrew Golding


The primary objective of this paper is to present a simplified approach to develop the structural deterioration model using traffic speed deflectometer data for flexible pavements. Maintaining assets to meet functional performance is not economical or sustainable in the long terms, and it would end up needing much more investments for road agencies and extra costs for road users. Performance models have to be included for structural and functional predicting capabilities, in order to assess the needs, and the time frame of those needs. As such structural modelling plays a vital role in the prediction of pavement performance. A structural condition is important for the prediction of remaining life and overall health of a road network and also major influence on the valuation of road pavement. Therefore, the structural deterioration model is a critical input into pavement management system for predicting pavement rehabilitation needs accurately. The Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD) is a vehicle-mounted Doppler laser system that is capable of continuously measuring the structural bearing capacity of a pavement whilst moving at traffic speeds. The device’s high accuracy, high speed, and continuous deflection profiles are useful for network-level applications such as predicting road rehabilitations needs and remaining structural service life. The methodology adopted in this model by utilizing time series TSD maximum deflection (D0) data in conjunction with rutting, rutting progression, pavement age, subgrade strength and equivalent standard axle (ESA) data. Then, regression analyses were undertaken to establish a correlation equation of structural deterioration as a function of rutting, pavement age, seal age and equivalent standard axle (ESA). This study developed a simple structural deterioration model which will enable to incorporate available TSD structural data in pavement management system for developing network-level pavement investment strategies. Therefore, the available funding can be used effectively to minimize the whole –of- life cost of the road asset and also improve pavement performance. This study will contribute to narrowing the knowledge gap in structural data usage in network level investment analysis and provide a simple methodology to use structural data effectively in investment decision-making process for road agencies to manage aging road assets.

Keywords: adjusted structural number (SNP), maximum deflection (D0), equant standard axle (ESA), traffic speed deflectometer (TSD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
3890 The Effect of Nanoclay on Long Term Performance of Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: A. Khodadadi, Hasani, Salehi


The advantages of using modified asphalt binders are widely recognized—primarily, improved rutting resistance, reduced fatigue cracking and less cold-temperature cracking. Nanoclays are known to enhance the properties of many polymers. Nanoclays are used to improve modulus and tensile strength, flame resistance and thermal and structural properties of many materials. This paper intends to investigate the application and development of nano-technological concepts for bituminous materials and asphalt pavements. The application of nano clay on the fatigue life of asphalt pavement have not been yet thoroughly understood. In this research, two type of highway asphalt materials, dense Marshall specimens, with 2% nano clay and without nano clay, were employed for the fatigue behavior of the asphalt pavement.The effect of nano additive on the performance of flexible pavements has been investigated through the indirect tensile test for the samples prepared with 2% nano clay and without nano clay in four stress levels from 200–500 kPa. The primary results indicated samples with 2% nano clay have almost double or even more fatigue life in most of stress levels.

Keywords: Nano clay, Asphalt, fatigue life, pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
3889 Developing Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves

Authors: Gregory Kelly, Gary Chai, Sittampalam Manoharan, Deborah Delaney


A Structural Number (SN) can be calculated for a road pavement from the properties and thicknesses of the surface, base course, sub-base, and subgrade. Historically, the cost of collecting structural data has been very high. Data were initially collected using Benkelman Beams and now by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). The structural strength of pavements weakens over time due to environmental and traffic loading factors, but due to a lack of data, no structural deterioration curve for pavements has been implemented in a Pavement Management System (PMS). International Roughness Index (IRI) is a measure of the road longitudinal profile and has been used as a proxy for a pavement’s structural integrity. This paper offers two conceptual methods to develop Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves (PSDC). Firstly, structural data are grouped in sets by design Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA). An ‘Initial’ SN (ISN), Intermediate SN’s (SNI) and a Terminal SN (TSN), are used to develop the curves. Using FWD data, the ISN is the SN after the pavement is rehabilitated (Financial Accounting ‘Modern Equivalent’). Intermediate SNIs, are SNs other than the ISN and TSN. The TSN was defined as the SN of the pavement when it was approved for pavement rehabilitation. The second method is to use Traffic Speed Deflectometer data (TSD). The road network already divided into road blocks, is grouped by traffic loading. For each traffic loading group, road blocks that have had a recent pavement rehabilitation, are used to calculate the ISN and those planned for pavement rehabilitation to calculate the TSN. The remaining SNs are used to complete the age-based or if available, historical traffic loading-based SNI’s.

Keywords: conceptual, pavement structural number, pavement structural deterioration curve, pavement management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
3888 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh


This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.

Keywords: bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, rayleigh beam, underwater robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3887 Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithm Based Multi Objective Optimization Technique

Authors: Ashwini Gowda K. S, Archana M. R, Anjaneyappa V


This paper presents pavement maintenance and management system (PMMS) to obtain optimum pavement maintenance and rehabilitation strategies and maintenance scheduling for a network using a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). Optimal pavement maintenance & rehabilitation strategy is to maximize the pavement condition index of the road section in a network with minimum maintenance and rehabilitation cost during the planning period. In this paper, NSGA-II is applied to perform maintenance optimization; this maintenance approach was expected to preserve and improve the existing condition of the highway network in a cost-effective way. The proposed PMMS is applied to a network that assessed pavement based on the pavement condition index (PCI). The minimum and maximum maintenance cost for a planning period of 20 years obtained from the non-dominated solution was found to be 5.190x10¹⁰ ₹ and 4.81x10¹⁰ ₹, respectively.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, maintenance and rehabilitation, optimization technique, pavement condition index

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3886 Mechanistic Study of Composite Pavement Behavior in Heavy Duty Area

Authors: Makara Rith, Young Kyu Kim, Seung Woo Lee


In heavy duty areas, asphalt pavement constructed as entrance roadway may expose distresses such as cracking and rutting during service life. To mitigate these problems, composite pavement with a roller-compacted concrete base may be a good alternative; however, it should be initially investigated. Structural performances such as fatigue cracking and rut depth may be changed due to variation of some design factors. Therefore, this study focuses on the variation effect of material modulus, layer thickness and loading on composite pavement performances. Stress and strain at the critical location are determined and used as the input of transfer function for corresponding distresses to evaluate the pavement performance. Also, composite pavement satisfying the design criteria may be selected as a design section for heavy duty areas. Consequently, this investigation indicates that composite pavement has the ability to eliminate fatigue cracking in asphalt surfaces and significantly reduce rut depth. In addition, a thick or strong rigid base can significantly reduce rut depth and prolong fatigue life of this layer.

Keywords: composite pavement, ports, cracking, rutting

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3885 Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement

Authors: O. Zarrin, M. Ramezan Shirazi


The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.

Keywords: flexural strength, compressive strength, pavement, asphalt

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3884 Use of FWD in Determination of Bonding Condition of Semi-Rigid Asphalt Pavement

Authors: Nonde Lushinga, Jiang Xin, Danstan Chiponde, Lawrence P. Mutale


In this paper, falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to determine the bonding condition of a newly constructed semi-rigid base pavement. Using Evercal back-calculation computer programme, it was possible to quickly and accurately determine the structural condition of the pavement system of FWD test data. The bonding condition of the pavement layers was determined from calculated shear stresses and strains (relative horizontal displacements) on the interface of pavement layers from BISAR 3.0 pavement computer programmes. Thus, by using non-linear layered elastic theory, a pavement structure is analysed in the same way as other civil engineering structures. From non-destructive FWD testing, the required bonding condition of pavement layers was quantified from soundly based principles of Goodman’s constitutive models shown in equation 2, thereby producing the shear reaction modulus (Ks) which gives an indication of bonding state of pavement layers. Furthermore, a Tack coat failure Ratio (TFR) which has long being used in the USA in pavement evaluation was also used in the study in order to give validity to the study. According to research [39], the interface between two asphalt layers is determined by use of Tack Coat failure Ratio (TFR) which is the ratio of the stiffness of top layer asphalt layers over the stiffness of the second asphalt layer (E1/E2) in a slipped pavement. TFR gives an indication of the strength of the tack coat which is the main determinants of interlayer slipping. The criteria is that if the interface was in the state full bond, TFR would be greater or equals to 1 and that if the TFR was 0, meant full slip. Results of the calculations showed that TFR value was 1.81 which re-affirmed the position that the pavement under study was in the state of full bond because the value was greater than 1. It was concluded that FWD can be used to determine bonding condition of existing and newly constructed pavements.

Keywords: falling weight deflectometer (FWD), backcaluclation, semi-rigid base pavement, shear reaction modulus

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3883 Structural Evaluation of Airfield Pavement Using Finite Element Analysis Based Methodology

Authors: Richard Ji


Nondestructive deflection testing has been accepted widely as a cost-effective tool for evaluating the structural condition of airfield pavements. Backcalculation of pavement layer moduli can be used to characterize the pavement existing condition in order to compute the load bearing capacity of pavement. This paper presents an improved best-fit backcalculation methodology based on deflection predictions obtained using finite element method (FEM). The best-fit approach is based on minimizing the squared error between falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measured deflections and FEM predicted deflections. Then, concrete elastic modulus and modulus of subgrade reaction were back-calculated using Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) deflections collected at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility (NAPTF) test site. It is an alternative and more versatile method in considering concrete slab geometry and HWD testing locations compared to methods currently available.

Keywords: nondestructive testing, pavement moduli backcalculation, finite element method, concrete pavements

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