Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5598

Search results for: fatigue life

5598 Influence of Maximum Fatigue Load on Probabilistic Aspect of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life at Specified Grown Crack in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


The principal purpose of this paper is to find the influence of maximum fatigue load on the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack in magnesium alloys. The experiments of fatigue crack propagation are carried out in laboratory air under different conditions of the maximum fatigue loads to obtain the fatigue crack propagation data for the statistical analysis. In order to analyze the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life, the goodness-of fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack is implemented through Anderson-Darling test. The good probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is also verified under the conditions of the maximum fatigue loads.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load, probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
5597 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed and the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life is presented. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, load ratio, magnesium alloys, probability distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
5596 Flexural Fatigue Performance of Self-Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Surinder Pal Singh, Sanjay Goel


The paper presents results of an investigation conducted to study the flexural fatigue characteristics of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Self Compacting Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC). In total 360 flexural fatigue tests and 270 static flexural strength tests were conducted on SCC and SCFRC specimens to obtain the fatigue test data. The variability in the distribution of fatigue life of SCC and SCFRC have been analyzed and compared with that of NVC and NVFRC containing steel fibres of comparable size and shape. The experimental coefficients of fatigue equations have been estimated to represent relationship between stress level (S) and fatigue life (N) for SCC and SCFRC containing different fibre volume fractions. The probability of failure (Pf) has been incorporated in S-N relationships to obtain families of S-N-Pf relationships. A good agreement between the predicted curves and those obtained from the test data has been observed. The fatigue performance of SCC and SCFRC has been evaluated in terms of two-million cycles fatigue strength/endurance limit. The theoretic fatigue lives were also estimated using single-log fatigue equation for 10% probability of failure to estimate the enhanced extent of theoretic fatigue lives of SCFRC with reference to SCC and NVC. The reduction in variability in the fatigue life, increased endurance limit and increased theoretiac fatigue lives demonstrates an overall better fatigue performance for SCC and SCFRC.

Keywords: fatigue life, fibre, probability of failure, self-compacting concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
5595 Contribution in Fatigue Life Prediction of Composite Material

Authors: Mostefa Bendouba, Djebli Abdelkader, Abdelkrim Aid, Mohamed Benguediab


The damage evolution mechanism is one of the important focuses of fatigue behaviour investigation of composite materials and also is the foundation to predict fatigue life of composite structures for engineering application. This paper is dedicated to a damage investigation under two block loading cycle fatigue conditions submitted to composite material. The loading sequence effect and the influence of the cycle ratio of the first stage on the cumulative fatigue life were studied herein. Two loading sequences, i.e., high-to-low and low-to-high cases are considered in this paper. The proposed damage indicator is connected cycle by cycle to the S-N curve and the experimental results are in agreement with model expectations. Some experimental researches are used to validate this proposition.

Keywords: fatigue, damage acumulation, composite, evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
5594 Fatigue Life Estimation Using N-Code for Drive Shaft of Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Tae An Kim, Hyo Lim Kang, Hye Won Han, Seung Ho Han


The drive shaft of passenger vehicle has its own function such as transmitting the engine torque from the gearbox and differential gears to the wheels. It must also compensate for all variations in angle or length resulting from manoeuvring and deflection for perfect synchronization between joints. Torsional fatigue failures occur frequently at the connection parts of the spline joints in the end of the drive shaft. In this study, the fatigue life of a drive shaft of passenger vehicle was estimated by using the finite element analysis. A commercial software of n-Code was applied under twisting load conditions, i.e. 0~134kgf•m and 0~188kgf•m, in which the shear strain range-fatigue life relationship considering Signed Shear method, Smith-Watson-Topper equation, Neuber-Hoffman Seeger method, size sensitivity factor and surface roughness effect was taken into account. The estimated fatigue life was verified by a twisting load test of the real drive shaft in a test rig. (Human Resource Training Project for Industry Matched R & D, KIAT, N036200004).

Keywords: drive shaft, fatigue life estimation, passenger vehicle, shear strain range-fatigue life relationship, torsional fatigue failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
5593 The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of SCM440 Steel

Authors: C. Han, H. Kim, S. Park


The purpose of the present study is to analyze the effect of surface roughness on fatigue life of SCM440 steel. Two groups of specimens were made from SCM440 steel with and without surface polished after forging process and resulted in different values of surface roughness. The difference of the surface roughness between two groups was clearly distinguished even to the naked eye. Surface roughness of both groups of the specimens was quantitatively measured by a roughness measuring device, Talysurf series2 (Taylor-Hobson Co., USA). Average roughness (Ra) and maximum roughness depth (Rmax) values were obtained by scanning 45 mm with a speed of 0.25 mm/s. Fatigue tests were conducted using a three-point bending method with a cyclic sinusoidal profile of 5 Hz, stress ratio of R = 0.1 and reference life for fatigue limit of 1 × 106 cycles. Ra and Rmax without surface polished were 10.497 ± 1.721 μm and 87.936 ± 16.210 μm, respectively while those values with surface polished were much smaller (ongoing measurements). Fatigue lives of the surface-polished specimens achieved approximately 1 × 106 cycles under the maximum stress of 900 MPa, which was 10 times longer than those of the surface-untreated specimens with an average roughness of 10.082 μm. The results showed that an increase in surface roughness values led to a decrease in fatigue lives.

Keywords: surface roughness, fatigue test, fatigue life, SCM440 steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
5592 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy After Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Anna A. Atroshkina


Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increase in fatigue life of the material has been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
5591 Characteristics of Cumulative Distribution Function of Grown Crack Size at Specified Fatigue Crack Propagation Life under Different Maximum Fatigue Loads in AZ31

Authors: Seon Soon Choi


Magnesium alloy has been widely used in structure such as an automobile. It is necessary to consider probabilistic characteristics of a structural material because a fatigue behavior of a structure has a randomness and uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to find the characteristics of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the grown crack size at a specified fatigue crack propagation life and to investigate a statistical crack propagation in magnesium alloys. The statistical fatigue data of the grown crack size are obtained through the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) tests under different maximum fatigue load conditions conducted on the replicated specimens of magnesium alloys. The 3-parameter Weibull distribution is used to find the CDF of grown crack size. The CDF of grown crack size in case of larger maximum fatigue load has longer tail in below 10 percent and above 90 percent. The fatigue failure occurs easily as the tail of CDF of grown crack size becomes long. The fatigue behavior under the larger maximum fatigue load condition shows more rapid propagation and failure mode.

Keywords: cumulative distribution function, fatigue crack propagation, grown crack size, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
5590 Experimental Characterization of Fatigue Crack Initiation of AA320 Alloy under Combined Thermal Cycling (CTC) and Mechanical Loading (ML) during Four Point Rotating and Bending Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Rana Atta Ur Rahman, Daniel Juhre


Initiation of crack during fatigue of casting alloys are noticed mainly on the basis of experimental results. Crack initiation and strength of fatigue of AA320 are summarized here. Load sequence effect is applied to notify initiation phase life. Crack initiation at notch root and fatigue life is calculated under single & two-step mechanical loading (ML) with and without combined thermal cycling (CTC). An Experimental setup is proposed to create the working temperature as per alloy applications. S-N curves are plotted, and a comparison is made between crack initiation leading to failure under different ML with & without thermal loading (TL).

Keywords: fatigue, initiation, SN curve, alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
5589 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys: Effect of Heat Treatment Condition

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab


In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. At initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress.

Keywords: fatigue crack initiation, al-alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
5588 Fatigue Life Estimation of Tubular Joints - A Comparative Study

Authors: Jeron Maheswaran, Sudath C. Siriwardane


In fatigue analysis, the structural detail of tubular joint has taken great attention among engineers. The DNV-RP-C203 is covering this topic quite well for simple and clear joint cases. For complex joint and geometry, where joint classification isn’t available and limitation on validity range of non-dimensional geometric parameters, the challenges become a fact among engineers. The classification of joint is important to carry out through the fatigue analysis. These joint configurations are identified by the connectivity and the load distribution of tubular joints. To overcome these problems to some extent, this paper compare the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore jacket according to the stress concentration factors (SCF) in DNV-RP-C203 and finite element method employed Abaqus/CAE. The paper presents the geometric details, material properties and considered load history of the jacket structure. Describe the global structural analysis and identification of critical tubular joints for fatigue life estimation. Hence fatigue life is determined based on the guidelines provided by design codes. Fatigue analysis of tubular joints is conducted using finite element employed Abaqus/CAE [4] as next major step. Finally, obtained SCFs and fatigue lives are compared and their significances are discussed.

Keywords: fatigue life, stress-concentration factor, finite element analysis, offshore jacket structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
5587 Optimization of Tolerance Grades of a Bearing and Shaft Assembly in a Washing Machine with Regard to Fatigue Life

Authors: M. Cangi, T. Dolar, C. Ersoy, Y. E. Aydogdu, A. I. Aydeniz, A. Mugan


The drum is one of the critical parts in a washing machine in which the clothes are washed and spin by the rotational movement. It is activated by the drum shaft which is attached to an electric motor and subjected to dynamic loading. Being one of the critical components, failures of the drum require costly repairs of dynamic components. In this study, tolerance bands between the drum shaft and its two bearings were examined to develop a relationship between the fatigue life of the shaft and the interaction tolerances. Optimization of tolerance bands was completed in consideration of the fatigue life of the shaft as the cost function. The following methodology is followed: multibody dynamic model of a washing machine was constructed and used to calculate dynamic loading on the components. Then, these forces were used in finite element analyses to calculate the stress field in critical components which was used for fatigue life predictions. The factors affecting the fatigue life were examined to find optimum tolerance grade for a given test condition. Numerical results were verified by experimental observations.

Keywords: fatigue life, finite element analysis, tolerance analysis, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
5586 Failure Analysis and Fatigue Life Estimation of a Shaft of a Rotary Draw Bending Machine

Authors: B. Engel, Sara Salman Hassan Al-Maeeni


Human consumption of the Earth's resources increases the need for a sustainable development as an important ecological, social, and economic theme. Re-engineering of machine tools, in terms of design and failure analysis, is defined as steps performed on an obsolete machine to return it to a new machine with the warranty that matches the customer requirement. To understand the future fatigue behavior of the used machine components, it is important to investigate the possible causes of machine parts failure through design, surface, and material inspections. In this study, the failure modes of the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine are inspected. Furthermore, stress and deflection analysis of the shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending loads are carried out by an analytical method and compared with a finite element analysis method. The theoretical fatigue strength, correction factors, and fatigue life sustained by the shaft before damaged are estimated by creating a stress-cycle (S-N) diagram. In conclusion, it is seen that the shaft can work in the second life, but it needs some surface treatments to increase the reliability and fatigue life.

Keywords: failure analysis, fatigue life, FEM analysis, shaft, stress analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
5585 Fatigue Strength of S275 Mild Steel under Cyclic Loading

Authors: T. Aldeeb, M. Abduelmula


This study examines the fatigue life of S275 mild steel at room temperature. Mechanical components can fail under cyclic loading during period of time, known as the fatigue phenomenon. In order to prevent fatigue induced failures, material behavior should be investigated to determine the endurance limit of the material for safe design and infinite life, thus leading to reducing the economic cost and loss in human lives. The fatigue behavior of S275 mild steel was studied and investigated. Specimens were prepared in accordance with ASTM E3-11, and fatigue tests of the specimen were conducted in accordance with ASTM E466-07 on a smooth plate, with a continuous radius between ends (hourglass-shaped plate). The method of fatigue testing was applied with constant load amplitude and constant frequency of 4 Hz with load ratio (Fully Reversal R= -1). Surface fractures of specimens were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The experimental results were compared with the results of a Finite Element Analysis (FEA), using simulation software. The experiment results indicated that the endurance fatigue limit of S275 mild steel was 195.47 MPa.

Keywords: fatigue strength, fatigue life, finite element analysis(FEA), S275 mild steel, scanning electron microscope (SEM)

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5584 Fatigue Life Evaluation of Al6061/Al2O3 and Al6061/SiC Composites under Uniaxial and Multiaxial Loading Conditions

Authors: C. E. Sutton, A. Varvani-Farahani


Fatigue damage and life prediction of particle metal matrix composites (PMMCs) under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions were investigated. Three PMM composite materials of Al6061/Al2O3/20p-T6, Al6061/Al2O3/22p-T6 and Al6061/SiC/17w-T6 tested under tensile, torsion, and combined tension-torsion fatigue cycling were evaluated with various fatigue damage models. The fatigue damage models of Smith-Watson-Topper (S. W. T.), Ellyin, Brown-Miller, Fatemi-Socie, and Varvani were compared for their capability to assess the fatigue damage of materials undergoing various loading conditions. Fatigue life predication results were then evaluated by implementing material-dependent coefficients that factored in the effects of the particle reinforcement in the earlier developed Varvani model. The critical plane-energy approach incorporated the critical plane as the plane of crack initiation and early stage of crack growth. The strain energy density was calculated on the critical plane incorporating stress and strain components acting on the plane. This approach successfully evaluated fatigue damage values versus fatigue lives within a narrower band for both uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions as compared with other damage approaches studied in this paper.

Keywords: fatigue damage, life prediction, critical plane approach, energy approach, PMM composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
5583 Numerical Investigation on Optimizing Fatigue Life in a Lap Joint Structure

Authors: P. Zamani, S. Mohajerzadeh, R. Masoudinejad, K. Farhangdoost


The riveting process is one of the important ways to keep fastening the lap joints in aircraft structures. Failure of aircraft lap joints directly depends on the stress field in the joint. An important application of riveting process is in the construction of aircraft fuselage structures. In this paper, a 3D finite element method is carried out in order to optimize residual stress field in a riveted lap joint and also to estimate its fatigue life. In continue, a number of experiments are designed and analyzed using design of experiments (DOE). Then, Taguchi method is used to select an optimized case between different levels of each factor. Besides that, the factor which affects the most on residual stress field is investigated. Such optimized case provides the maximum residual stress field. Fatigue life of the optimized joint is estimated by Paris-Erdogan law. Stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated using both finite element analysis and experimental formula. In addition, the effect of residual stress field, geometry, and secondary bending are considered in SIF calculation. A good agreement is found between results of such methods. Comparison between optimized fatigue life and fatigue life of other joints has shown an improvement in the joint’s life.

Keywords: fatigue life, residual stress, riveting process, stress intensity factor, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5582 Substantial Fatigue Similarity of a New Small-Scale Test Rig to Actual Wheel-Rail System

Authors: Meysam Naeimi, Zili Li, Roumen Petrov, Rolf Dollevoet, Jilt Sietsma, Jun Wu


The substantial similarity of fatigue mechanism in a new test rig for rolling contact fatigue (RCF) has been investigated. A new reduced-scale test rig is designed to perform controlled RCF tests in wheel-rail materials. The fatigue mechanism of the rig is evaluated in this study using a combined finite element-fatigue prediction approach. The influences of loading conditions on fatigue crack initiation have been studied. Furthermore, the effects of some artificial defects (squat-shape) on fatigue lives are examined. To simulate the vehicle-track interaction by means of the test rig, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is built up. The nonlinear material behaviour of the rail steel is modelled in the contact interface. The results of FE simulations are combined with the critical plane concept to determine the material points with the greatest possibility of fatigue failure. Based on the stress-strain responses, by employing of previously postulated criteria for fatigue crack initiation (plastic shakedown and ratchetting), fatigue life analysis is carried out. The results are reported for various loading conditions and different defect sizes. Afterward, the cyclic mechanism of the test rig is evaluated from the operational viewpoint. The results of fatigue life predictions are compared with the expected number of cycles of the test rig by its cyclic nature. Finally, the estimative duration of the experiments until fatigue crack initiation is roughly determined.

Keywords: fatigue, test rig, crack initiation, life, rail, squats

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
5581 Rolling Contact Fatigue Failure Analysis of Ball Bearing in Gear Box

Authors: Piyas Palit, Urbi Pal, Jitendra Mathur, Santanu Das


Bearing is an important machinery part in the industry. When bearings fail to meet their expected life the consequences are increased downtime, loss of revenue and missed the delivery. This article describes the failure of a gearbox bearing in rolling contact fatigue. The investigation consists of visual observation, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructures using optical microscopes and hardness test. The present study also considers bearing life as well as the operational condition of bearings. Surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue, leading to a surface failure known as pitting, is a life-limiting failure mode in many modern machine elements, particularly rolling element bearings. Metallography analysis of crack propagation, crack morphology was also described. Indication of fatigue spalling in the ferrography test was also discussed. The analysis suggested the probable reasons for such kind of failure in operation. This type of spalling occurred due to (1) heavier external loading condition or (2) exceeds its service life.

Keywords: bearing, rolling contact fatigue, bearing life

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
5580 Environmental Fatigue Analysis for Control Rod Drive Mechanisms Seal House

Authors: Xuejiao Shao, Jianguo Chen, Xiaolong Fu


In this paper, the elastoplastic strain correction factor computed by software of ANSYS was modified, and the fatigue usage factor in air was also corrected considering in water under reactor operating condition. The fatigue of key parts on control rod drive mechanisms was analyzed considering the influence of environmental fatigue caused by the coolant in the react pressure vessel. The elastoplastic strain correction factor was modified by analyzing thermal and mechanical loads separately referring the rules of RCC-M 2002. The new elastoplastic strain correction factor Ke(mix) is computed to replace the original Ke computed by the software of ANSYS when evaluating the fatigue produced by thermal and mechanical loads together. Based on the Ke(mix) and the usage cycle and fatigue design curves, the new range of primary plus secondary stresses was evaluated to obtain the final fatigue usage factor. The results show that the precision of fatigue usage factor can be elevated by using modified Ke when the amplify of the primary and secondary stress is large to some extent. One approach has been proposed for incorporating the environmental effects considering the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life in terms of an environmental correction factor Fen, which is the ratio of fatigue life in air at room. To incorporate environmental effects into the RCCM Code fatigue evaluations, the fatigue usage factor based on the current Code design curves is multiplied by the correction factor. The contribution of environmental effects to results is discussed. Fatigue life decreases logarithmically with decreasing strain rate below 10%/s, which is insensitive to strain rate when temperatures below 100°C.

Keywords: environmental fatigue, usage factor, elastoplastic strain correction factor, environmental correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
5579 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari


Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
5578 Environmental Effect on Corrosion Fatigue Behaviors of Steam Generator Forging in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Environment

Authors: Yakui Bai, Chen Sun, Ke Wang


An experimental investigation of environmental effect on fatigue behavior in SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 Steam Generator Forging CAP1400 nuclear power plant has been carried out. In order to simulate actual loading condition, a range of strain amplitude was applied in different low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests. The current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) design fatigue code does not take full account of the interactions of environmental, loading, and material's factors. A range of strain amplitude was applied in different low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests at a strain rate of 0.01%s⁻¹. A design fatigue model was constructed by taking environmentally assisted fatigue effects into account, and the corresponding design curves were given for the convenience of engineering applications. The corrosion fatigue experiment was performed in a strain control mode in 320℃ borated and lithiated water environment to evaluate the effects of a mixed environment on fatigue life. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in steam generator large forging in primary water of pressurized water reactor was also observed. In addition, it is found that the CF life of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 decreases with increasing temperature in the water environment. The relationship between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of fatigue life was found to be linear. Through experiments and subsequent analysis, the mechanisms of reduced low cycle fatigue life have been investigated for steam generator forging.

Keywords: failure behavior, low alloy steel, steam generator forging, stress corrosion cracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
5577 Failure of Cable Reel Flat Spring of Crane: Beyond Fatigue Life Use

Authors: Urbi Pal, Piyas Palit, Jitendra Mathur, Abhay Chaturvedi, Sandip Bhattacharya


The hot rolled slab lifting crane cable reel drum (CRD) failed due to failure of cable reel flat spring which are inside the cassette of CRD. CRD is used for the movement of tong cable. Stereoscopic observation revealed beach marks and Scanning Electron Microscopy showed striations confirming fatigue mode of failure. Chemical composition should be spring steel (Cr-Mo-V) as per IS 3431:1982 instead of C-Mn steel. To find out the reason of fatigue failure, the theoretical fatigue life of flat spiral spring has been calculated. The calculation of number of fatigue cycles included bending moment, maximum stress on the spring, ultimate tensile strength and alternative stress. The bending moment determination has been taken account with various parameters like Young’s Modulus, width, thickness, outer diameter, arbor diameter, pay out the length and angular deflection in rotations. With all the required data, the calculated fatigue life turned to be 10000 cycles, but the spring served 15000 cycles which clearly indicated beyond fatigue life usage. Different UTS values have been plotted with respect to the number of fatigue cycles and clearly showed that the increase in UTS by 40% increases fatigue life by 50%. The significance of higher UTS lied here, and higher UTS depends on modified chemistry with proper tempered martensite microstructure. This kind of failure can be easily avoided by changing the crane spring maintenance schedule from 2 years to 1.5 years considering 600 cycles per month. The plant has changed changing the schedule of cable reel spring and procured new flat reel spring made of 50CrV2 steel.

Keywords: cable reel spring, fatigue life, stress, spring steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
5576 Cancer Patients' Quality of Life and Fatigue: A Correlational Study

Authors: Abdul-Monim Batiha


Aim: The aim of this study were to correlate Jordanian cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue with selected variables (age, sex, religion, marital status, level of education, type of cancer, number of people living in the same household, type of radiotherapy, dose of radiotherapy, and hemoglobin level). Background: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain devastating agents that altered patients’ normal lives. Methods: A correlational design was used in this study to 80 cancer patients and required radiotherapy treatment using a convenience sampling procedure. Results: No significant differences were found in the relationship between quality of life scores and selected variables. A significant negative relationship was found between quality of life scores and the side effects of radiotherapy treatment. Significant positive relationships were found between fatigue scores measured by Piper Fatigue Scale and cancer complications, and radiotherapy side effects. Conclusion: Cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue are affected by radiotherapy’s side effects and cancer complications. Implications for Nursing: Nurses should try to prevent and manage the negative side effects of radiotherapy and complications of cancer. Such an initiative would serve to design specific nursing interventions that have the potential to help patients enjoy their lives and perform their activities.

Keywords: cancer patients, piper fatigue scale, fatigue, quality of life, radiotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
5575 Fatigue Life Estimation of Spiral Welded Waterworks Pipelines

Authors: Suk Woo Hong, Chang Sung Seok, Jae Mean Koo


Recently, the welding is widely used in modern industry for joining the structures. However, the waterworks pipes are exposed to the fatigue load by cars, earthquake and etc because of being buried underground. Moreover, the residual stress exists in weld zone by welding process and it is well known that the fatigue life of welded structures is degraded by residual stress. Due to such reasons, the crack can occur in the weld zone of pipeline. In this case, The ground subsidence or sinkhole can occur, if the soil and sand are washed down by fluid leaked from the crack of water pipe. These problems can lead to property damage and endangering lives. For these reasons, the estimation of fatigue characteristics for water pipeline weld zone is needed. Therefore, in this study, for fatigue characteristics estimation of spiral welded waterworks pipe, ASTM standard specimens and Curved Plate specimens were collected from the spiral welded waterworks pipe and the fatigue tests were performed. The S-N curves of each specimen were estimated, and then the fatigue life of weldment Curved Plate specimen was predicted by theoretical and analytical methods. After that, the weldment Curved Plate specimens were collected from the pipe and verification fatigue tests were performed. Finally, it was verified that the predicted S-N curve of weldment Curved Plate specimen was good agreement with fatigue test data.

Keywords: spiral welded pipe, prediction fatigue life, endurance limit modifying factors, residual stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
5574 Finite Element Assessment on Bond Behaviour of FRP-to-Concrete Joints under Cyclic Loading

Authors: F. Atheer, Al-Saoudi, Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


Over the last two decades, externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites bonded to concrete substrates has become a popular method for strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) highway and railway bridges. Such structures are exposed to severe cyclic loading throughout their lifetime often resulting in fatigue damage to structural components and a reduction in the service life of the structure. Since experimental and numerical results on the fatigue performance of FRP-to-concrete joints are still limited, the current research focuses on assessing the fatigue performance of externally bonded FRP-to-concrete joints using a direct shear test. Some early results indicate that the stress ratio and the applied cyclic stress level have a direct influence on the fatigue life of the externally bonded FRP. In addition, a calibrated finite element model is developed to provide further insight into the influence of certain parameters such as: concrete strength, FRP thickness, number of cycles, frequency and stiffness on the fatigue life of the FRP-to-concrete joints.

Keywords: FRP, concrete bond, control, fatigue, finite element model

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
5573 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature

Authors: Sung-Uk Wee, Chang-Sung Seok, Jae-Mean Koo, Jeong-Min Lee


Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, tensile test, fatigue life, stress-strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
5572 Effect of Inclusions in the Ultrasonic Fatigue Endurance of Maraging 300 Steel

Authors: G. M. Dominguez Almaraz, J. A. Ruiz Vilchez, M. A. Sanchez Miranda


Ultrasonic fatigue tests have been carried out in the maraging 300 steel. Experimental results show that fatigue endurance under this modality of testing is closely related to the nature and geometrical properties of inclusions present in this alloy. A model was proposed to correlate the ultrasonic fatigue endurance with the nature and geometrical properties of the crack initiation inclusion. Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were obtained on the fracture surfaces, in order to assess the crack initiation inclusion and to introduce these parameters in the proposed model, with good agreement for the fatigue life prediction.

Keywords: inclusions, ultrasonic fatigue, maraging 300 steel, crack initiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
5571 S-N-Pf Relationship for Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Made with Cement Additives

Authors: Gurbir Kaur, Surinder Pal Singh


The present study is a part of the research work on the effect of limestone powder (LP), silica fume (SF) and metakaolin (MK), on the flexural fatigue performance of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). Corrugated rectangular steel fibres of size 0.6x2.0x35 mm at a constant volume fraction of 1.0% have been incorporated in all mix combinations as the reinforcing material. Three mix combinations were prepared by replacing 30% of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) by weight with these cement additives in binary and ternary fashion to demonstrate their contribution. An experimental programme was conducted to obtain the fatigue lives of all mix combinations at various stress levels. The fatigue life data have been analysed as an attempt to determine the relationship between stress level ‘S’, number of cycles to failure ‘N’ and probability of failure ‘Pf’ for all mix combinations. The experimental coefficients of the fatigue equation have also been obtained from the fatigue data to represent the S-N-Pf curves analytically.

Keywords: cement additives, fatigue life, probability of failure, steel fibre reinforced concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
5570 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

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5569 Effect of Single Overload Ratio and Stress Ratio on Fatigue Crack Growth

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab


In this investigation, variation of cyclic loading effect on fatigue crack growth is studied. This study is performed on 2024 T351 and 7050-T74 aluminum alloys, used in aeronautical structures. The propagation model used in this study is NASGRO model. In constant amplitude loading (CA), the effect of stress ratio has been investigated. Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate were affected by this factor. Results showed an increasing in fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) with increasing stress ratio. Variable amplitude loading (VAL) can take many forms i.e with a single overload, overload band etc. The shape of these loads affects strongly the fracture life and FCGRs. The application of a single overload (ORL) decrease the FCGR and increase the delay crack length caused by the formation of a larger plastic zone compared to the plastic zone due without VAL. The fatigue behavior of the both material under single overload has been compared.

Keywords: fatigue crack growth, overload ratio, stress ratio, generalized willenborg model, retardation, al-alloys

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