Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: Morteza A. Alani

71 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulfide gas, temperature, sewer pipe

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70 Monitoring CO2 and H2S Emission in Live Austrian and UK Concrete Sewer Pipes

Authors: Anna Romanova, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulfuric acid is an acknowledged problem and a ticking time-bomb to sewer operators. Whilst the chemical reaction of the corrosion process is well-understood, the indirect roles of other parameters in the corrosion process which are found in sewer environment are not highly reflected on. This paper reports on a field studies undertaken in Austria and United Kingdom, where the parameters of temperature, pH, H2S and CO2 were monitored over a period of time. The study establishes that (i) effluent temperature and pH have similar daily pattern and peak times, When examined in minutes scale, (ii) H2S and CO2 have an identical hourly pattern, (iii) H2S instant or shifted relation to effluent temperature is governed by the root mean square value of CO2.

Keywords: concrete corrosion, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, sewer pipe, sulfuric acid

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69 Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion Induced by Sulphuric Acid Environment

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Upul Chandrasekara, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulphuric acid attack is a recognised problem worldwide, which is not only an attribute of countries with hot climate conditions as thought before. The significance of this problem is by far only realised when the pipe collapses causing surface flooding and other severe consequences. To change the existing post-reactive attitude of managing companies, easy to use and robust models are required to be developed which currently lack reliable data to be correctly calibrated. This paper focuses on laboratory experiments of establishing concrete pipe corrosion rate by submerging samples in to 0.5 pH sulphuric acid solution for 56 days under 10ºC, 20ºC and 30ºC temperature regimes. The result showed that at very early stage of the corrosion process the samples gained overall mass, at 30ºC the corrosion progressed quicker than for other temperature regimes, however with time the corrosion level for 10ºC and 20ºC regimes tended towards those at 30ºC. Overall, at these conditions the corrosion rates of 10 mm/year, 13,5 mm/year, and 17 mm/year were observed.

Keywords: sewer pipes, concrete corrosion, sulphuric acid, concrete coupons, corrosion rate

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68 Synthesis and Characterisation of Bi-Substituted Magnetite Nanoparticles by Mechanochemical Processing (MCP)

Authors: Morteza Mohri Esfahani, Amir S. H. Rozatian, Morteza Mozaffari

Abstract:

Single phase magnetite nanoparticles and Bi-substituted ones were prepared by mechanochemical processing (MCP). The effects of Bi-substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and magnetometry techniques, respectively. The XRD results showed that all samples have spinel phase and by increasing Bi content, the main diffraction peaks were shifted to higher angles, which means the lattice parameter decreases from 0.843 to 0.838 nm and then increases to 0.841 nm. Also, the results revealed that increasing Bi content lead to a decrease in saturation magnetization (Ms) from 74.9 to 48.8 emu/g and an increase in coercivity (Hc) from 96.8 to 137.1 Oe.

Keywords: bi-substituted magnetite nanoparticles, mechanochemical processing, X-ray diffraction, magnetism

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67 Inequality for Doubly Warped Product Manifolds

Authors: Morteza Faghfouri

Abstract:

In this paper we establish a general inequality involving the Laplacian of the warping functions and the squared mean curvature of any doubly warped product isometrically immersed in a Riemannian manifold.

Keywords: integral submanifolds, S-space forms, doubly warped product, inequality

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66 Oil-Oil Correlation Using Polar and Non-Polar Fractions of Crude Oil: A Case Study in Iranian Oil Fields

Authors: Morteza Taherinezhad, Ahmad Reza Rabbani, Morteza Asemani, Rudy Swennen

Abstract:

Oil-oil correlation is one of the most important issues in geochemical studies that enables to classify oils genetically. Oil-oil correlation is generally estimated based on non-polar fractions of crude oil (e.g., saturate and aromatic compounds). Despite several advantages, the drawback of using these compounds is their susceptibility of being affected by secondary processes. The polar fraction of crude oil (e.g., asphaltenes) has similar characteristics to kerogen, and this structural similarity is preserved during migration, thermal maturation, biodegradation, and water washing. Therefore, these structural characteristics can be considered as a useful correlation parameter, and it can be concluded that asphaltenes from different reservoirs with the same genetic signatures have a similar origin. Hence in this contribution, an integrated study by using both non-polar and polar fractions of oil was performed to use the merits of both fractions. Therefore, five oil samples from oil fields in the Persian Gulf were studied. Structural characteristics of extracted asphaltenes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Graphs based on aliphatic and aromatic compounds (predominant compounds in asphaltenes structure) and sulphoxide and carbonyl functional groups (which are representatives of sulphur and oxygen abundance in asphaltenes) were used for comparison of asphaltenes structures in different samples. Non-polar fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of asphaltenes showed the studied oil samples comprise two oil families with distinct genetic characteristics. The first oil family consists of Salman and Reshadat oil samples, and the second oil family consists of Resalat, Siri E, and Siri D oil samples. To validate our results, biomarker parameters were employed, and this approach completely confirmed previous results. Based on biomarker analyses, both oil families have a marine source rock, whereby marl and carbonate source rocks are the source rock for the first and the second oil family, respectively.

Keywords: biomarker, non-polar fraction, oil-oil correlation, petroleum geochemistry, polar fraction

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65 Theoretical Investigation of Proton-Bore Fusion in Hot Spots

Authors: Morteza Habibi

Abstract:

As an alternative to D–T fuel, one can consider advanced fuels like D3-He and p-11B fuels, which have potential advantages concerning availability and/or environmental impact. Hot spots are micron-sized magnetically self-contained sources observed in pinched plasma devices. In hot spots, fusion power for 120 keV < Ti < 800 keV and 32 keV < Te < 129 keV exceeds bremsstrahlung loss and fraction of fusion power to bremsstrahlung loss reaches to 1.9. In this case, gain factor for a 150 kJ typical pulsed generator as a hot spot source will be 7.8 which is considerable for a commercial pinched plasma device.

Keywords: P-B fuel, hot spot, bremmsstrahlung loss, ion temperature

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64 Effect of Adverse Pressure Gradient on a Fluctuating Velocity over the Co-Flow Jet Airfoil

Authors: Morteza Mirhosseini, Amir B. Khoshnevis

Abstract:

The boundary layer separation and new active flow control of a NACA 0025 airfoil were studied experimentally. This new flow control is sometimes known as a co-flow jet (cfj) airfoil. This paper presents the fluctuating velocity in a wall jet over the co-flow jet airfoil subjected to an adverse pressure gradient and a curved surface. In these results, the fluctuating velocity at the inner part increasing by increased the angle of attack up to 12o and this has due to the jet energized, while the angle of attack 20o has different. The airfoil cord based Reynolds number has 105.

Keywords: adverse pressure gradient, fluctuating velocity, wall jet, co-flow jet airfoil

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63 Compressive and Torsional Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Moosa Mazloom, Morteza Mehrvand

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of silica fume and super plasticizer dosages on compressive and torsional properties of SCC. This work concentrated on concrete mixes having water/binder ratios of 0.45 and 0.35, which contained constant total binder contents of 400 kg/m3 and 500 kg/m3, respectively. The percentages of silica fume that replaced cement were 0 % and 10 %. The super plasticizer dosages utilized in the mixtures were 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2 % and 1.6 % of the weight of cement. Prism dimensions used in this test were 10 × 10 × 40 cm3. The results of this research indicated that torsional strength of SCC prisms can be calculated using the equations presented in Canadian and American concrete building codes.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, rectangular prism, torsional strength

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62 The Relationship between Value-Added and Energy Consumption in Iran’s Industry Sector

Authors: Morteza Raei Dehaghi, Mojtaba Molaahmadi, Seyed Mohammad Mirhashemi

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This study aimed to explore the relationship between energy consumption and value-added in Iran’s industry sector during the time period 1973-2011. Annual data related to energy consumption and value added in the industry sector were used. The results of the study revealed a positive relationship between energy consumption and value-added of the industry sector. Similarly, the results showed that there is one-way causality between energy consumption and value-added in the industry sector.

Keywords: economic growth, energy consumption, granger causality test, industry sector

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61 Mathematical and Fuzzy Logic in the Interpretation of the Quran

Authors: Morteza Khorrami

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The logic as an intellectual infrastructure plays an essential role in the Islamic sciences. Hence, there are a few of the verses of the Holy Quran that their interpretation is not possible due to lack of proper logic. In many verses in the Quran, argument and the respondent has requested from the audience that shows the logic rule is in the Quran. The paper which use a descriptive and analytic method, tries to show the role of logic in understanding of the Quran reasoning methods and display some of Quranic statements with mathematical symbols and point that we can help these symbols for interesting and interpretation and answering to some questions and doubts. In this paper, this problem has been mentioned that the Quran did not use two-valued logic (Aristotelian) in all cases, but the fuzzy logic can also be searched in the Quran.

Keywords: aristotelian logic, fuzzy logic, interpretation, Holy Quran

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60 Advanced Numerical and Analytical Methods for Assessing Concrete Sewers and Their Remaining Service Life

Authors: Amir Alani, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Anna Romanova, Asaad Faramarzi

Abstract:

Pipelines are extensively used engineering structures which convey fluid from one place to another. Most of the time, pipelines are placed underground and are encumbered by soil weight and traffic loads. Corrosion of pipe material is the most common form of pipeline deterioration and should be considered in both the strength and serviceability analysis of pipes. The study in this research focuses on concrete pipes in sewage systems (concrete sewers). This research firstly investigates how to involve the effect of corrosion as a time dependent process of deterioration in the structural and failure analysis of this type of pipe. Then three probabilistic time dependent reliability analysis methods including the first passage probability theory, the gamma distributed degradation model and the Monte Carlo simulation technique are discussed and developed. Sensitivity analysis indexes which can be used to identify the most important parameters that affect pipe failure are also discussed. The reliability analysis methods developed in this paper contribute as rational tools for decision makers with regard to the strengthening and rehabilitation of existing pipelines. The results can be used to obtain a cost-effective strategy for the management of the sewer system.

Keywords: reliability analysis, service life prediction, Monte Carlo simulation method, first passage probability theory, gamma distributed degradation model

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59 The Cracks Propagation Monitoring of a Cantilever Beam Using Modal Analysis

Authors: Morteza Raki, Abolghasem Zabihollah, Omid Askari

Abstract:

Cantilever beam is a simplified sample of a lot of mechanical components used in a wide range of applications, including many industries such as gas turbine blade. Due to the nature of the operating conditions, beams are subject to variety of damages especially crack propagates. Crack propagation may lead to catastrophic failure during operation. Therefore, online detection of crack presence and its propagation is very important and may reduce possible significant cost of the whole system failure. This paper aims to investigate the effect of cracks presence and crack propagation on one end fixed beam`s vibration. A finite element model will be developed for the blade in which the modal response of the structure with and without crack will be studied. 

Keywords: blade, crack propagation, health monitoring, modal analysis

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58 Effect of Inductance Ratio on Operating Frequencies of a Hybrid Resonant Inverter

Authors: Mojtaba Ghodsi, Hamidreza Ziaifar, Morteza Mohammadzaheri, Payam Soltani

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In this paper, the performance of a medium power (25 kW/25 kHz) hybrid inverter with a reactive transformer is investigated. To analyze the sensitivity of the inverster, the RSM technique is employed to manifest the effective factors in the inverter to minimize current passing through the Insulated Bipolar Gate Transistors (IGBTs) (current stress). It is revealed that the ratio of the axillary inductor to the effective inductance of resonant inverter (N), is the most effective parameter to minimize the current stress in this type of inverter. In practice, proper selection of N mitigates the current stress over IGBTs by five times. This reduction is very helpful to keep the IGBTs at normal temperatures.

Keywords: analytical analysis, hybrid resonant inverter, reactive transformer, response surface method

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57 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated, characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia, Optical Emission

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56 The Use of the Matlab Software as the Best Way to Recognize Penumbra Region in Radiotherapy

Authors: Alireza Shayegan, Morteza Amirabadi

Abstract:

The y tool was developed to quantitatively compare dose distributions, either measured or calculated. Before computing ɣ, the dose and distance scales of the two distributions, referred to as evaluated and reference, are re-normalized by dose and distance criteria, respectively. The re-normalization allows the dose distribution comparison to be conducted simultaneously along dose and distance axes. Several two-dimensional images were acquired using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber EPID and Extended Dose Range (EDR2) films for regular and irregular radiation fields. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional dose maps. Transitional and rotational manipulations were performed for images using Matlab software. As evaluated dose distribution maps, they were then compared with the corresponding original dose maps as the reference dose maps.

Keywords: energetic electron, gamma function, penumbra, Matlab software

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55 Association Between Swallowing Disorders and Cognitive Disorders in Adults: Systematic Review and Metaanalysis

Authors: Shiva Ebrahimian Dehaghani, Afsaneh Doosti, Morteza Zare

Abstract:

Background: There is no consensus regarding the association between dysphagia and cognition. Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the available evidence on the direction and strength of association between dysphagia and cognition. Methodology: PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science were searched about the association between dysphagia and cognition. A random-effects model was used to determine weighted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of each individual study on the pooled results. Results: A total of 1427 participants showed that some cognitive disorders were significantly associated with dysphagia (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 2.33–4.48). Conclusion: The association between cognition and swallowing disorders suggests that multiple neuroanatomical systems are involved in these two functions.

Keywords: adult, association, cognitive impairment, dysphagia, systematic review

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54 Computing Customer Lifetime Value in E-Commerce Websites with Regard to Returned Orders and Payment Method

Authors: Morteza Giti

Abstract:

As online shopping is becoming increasingly popular, computing customer lifetime value for better knowing the customers is also gaining more importance. Two distinct factors that can affect the value of a customer in the context of online shopping is the number of returned orders and payment method. Returned orders are those which have been shipped but not collected by the customer and are returned to the store. Payment method refers to the way that customers choose to pay for the price of the order which are usually two: Pre-pay and Cash-on-delivery. In this paper, a novel model called RFMSP is presented to calculated the customer lifetime value, taking these two parameters into account. The RFMSP model is based on the common RFM model while adding two extra parameter. The S represents the order status and the P indicates the payment method. As a case study for this model, the purchase history of customers in an online shop is used to compute the customer lifetime value over a period of twenty months.

Keywords: RFMSP model, AHP, customer lifetime value, k-means clustering, e-commerce

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53 Exploring the Relationship between Computerization and Marketing Performance Case Study: Snowa Company

Authors: Mojtaba Molaahmadi, Morteza Raei Dehaghi, Abdolrahim Arghavan

Abstract:

The present study aims to explore the effect of computerization on marketing performance in Snowa Company. In other words, this study intends to respond to this question that whether or not there is a relationship between utilization of computerization in marketing activities and marketing performance. The statistical population included 60 marketing managers of Snowa Company. In order to test the research hypotheses, Pearson correlation coefficient was employed. The reliability was equal to 96.8%. In this study, computerization was the independent variable and marketing performance was the dependent variable with characteristics of market share, improving the competitive position, and sales volume. The results of testing the hypotheses revealed that there is a significant relationship between utilization of computerization and market share, sales volume and improving the competitive position

Keywords: computerization, e-marketing information, information technology, marketing performance

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52 Effect of Accelerated Ions Interacted with Al Targets Using Plasma Focus Device

Authors: Morteza Habibi, Reza Amrollahi

Abstract:

The Aluminum made targets were placed at the central part of a Fillipov type (90KJ) plasma focus cathode. These targets were exposed to perpendicular dense plasma stream incidence. Melt layer erosion by melt motion, surface smoothing, and bubble formation were some of different effects caused by diverse working conditions. Micro hardness of surface layer tends to decrease particularly in the central region of the sample where destruction is more intense. The most pronouced melt motion is registered in the region of the maximum gradient of pressure and the etching of aluminium surface is noticeable in the central part of target. The crater with a maximum depth of 200µm, and the diameter of about 8.5mm is observed close to the mountains. Adding Krypton admixture to the Deuterium gas lead to collapsing bubbles and greater surface damage.

Keywords: fillipov type plasma focus, al target interaction, bubbling effect, melt layer motion, surface smoothing

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51 Identity and Ethnic Conflicts in Afghanistan: Diversity as a Cultural Treasure

Authors: Morteza Azimi

Abstract:

In Afghanistan, as a multi-ethnic country, there have been ethnic conflicts, especially after 2001. These conflicts are more visible among the four main ethnicities Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, and Uzbek. In this paper, such ethnic conflicts and their roles in the political sphere will be discussed. The distribution of personal electronic ID cards, for example, has been one of the most controversial and unsuccessful projects in Afghanistan. As a result, the lack of clear population statistics has led to several corrupted and unsuccessful presidential elections since 2001. The nation-building process in post-Taliban Afghanistan, as well as the Afghan government’s failure to build a nation, are discussed. By referring to the hybridity theory of Homi Bhabha, it is argued that the process of assimilation for nation-building has not only failed but has deepened ethnic divisions. In the end, some suggestions and solutions for making the most out of ethnic diversity rather than suffering from it will be provided. It will be argued that diversity or difference improves the freedom of choices for groups and individuals; it boosts agency in comparison with life in an assimilated, coherent, and homogeneous society.

Keywords: Afghan identity, ethnicity, nation-building, political system, self and other

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50 Identifying Key Factors for Accidents’ Severity at Rail-Road Level Crossings Using Ordered Probit Models

Authors: Arefeh Lotfi, Mahdi Babaei, Ayda Mashhadizadeh, Samira Nikpour, Morteza Bagheri

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to investigate the key factors in accidents’ severity at rail-road level crossings. The data required for this study is obtained from both accident and inventory database of Iran Railways during 2009-2015. The Ordered Probit model is developed using SPSS software to identify the significant factors in the accident severity at rail-road level crossings. The results show that 'train speed', 'vehicle type' and 'weather' are the most important factors affecting the severity of the accident. The results of these studies assist to allocate resources in the right place. This paper suggests mandating the regulations to reduce train speed at rail-road level crossings in bad weather conditions to improve the safety of rail-road level crossings.

Keywords: rail-road level crossing, ordered probit model, accidents’ severity, significant factors

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49 Drug Delivery of Cyclophosphamide Functionalized Zigzag (8,0) CNT, Armchair (4,4) CNT, and Nanocone Complexes in Water

Authors: Morteza Keshavarz

Abstract:

In this work, using density functional theory (DFT) thermodynamic stability and quantum molecular descriptors of cyclophoshphamide (an anticancer drug)-functionalized zigzag (8,0) CNT, armchair (4,4) CNT and nanocone complexes in water, for two attachment namely the sidewall and tip, is considered. Calculation of the total electronic energy (Et) and binding energy (Eb) of all complexes indicates that the most thermodynamic stability belongs to the sidewall-attachment of cyclophosphamide into functional nanocone. On the other hand, results from chemical hardness show that drug-functionalized zigzag (8,0) and armchair (4,4) complexes in the tip-attachment configuration possess the smallest and greatest chemical hardness, respectively. By computing the solvation energy, it is found that the solution of the drug and all complexes are spontaneous in water. Furthermore, chirality, type of nanovector (nanotube or nanocone), or attachment configuration have no effects on solvation energy of complexes.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, drug delivery, cyclophosphamide drug, density functional theory (DFT)

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48 Does Stock Markets Asymmetric Information Affect Foreign Capital Flows?

Authors: Farid Habibi Tanha, Mojtaba Jahanbazi, Morteza Foroutan, Rasidah Mohd Rashid

Abstract:

This paper depicts the effects of asymmetric information in determining capital inflows to be captured through stock market microstructure. The model can explain several stylized facts regarding the capital immobility. The first phase of the research involves in collecting and refining 150,000,000 daily data of 11 stock markets over a period of one decade in an effort to minimize the impact of survivorship bias. Three micro techniques were used to measure information asymmetries. The final phase analyzes the model through panel data approach. As a unique contribution, this research will provide valuable information regarding negative effects of information asymmetries in stock markets on attracting foreign investments. The results of this study can be directly considered by policy makers to monitor and control changes of capital flow in order to keep market conditions in a healthy manner, by preventing and managing possible shocks to avoid sudden reversals and market failures.

Keywords: asymmetric information, capital inflow, market microstructure, investment

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47 The Role of Nano Glass Flakes on Morphology, Dynamic-Mechanical Properties and Crystallization Behavior of Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate)

Authors: Fatemeh Alsadat Miri, Morteza Ehsani, Hossein Ali Khonakdar, Behjat Kavyani

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of nano glass flakes on morphology, dynamic-mechanical properties, and crystallization behavior of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The concentration of nano glass flakes was varied from 0.5, 1, 2, and 3% wt of the total formulation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed the poor distribution of nano-glass flake particles in PET, as well as low adhesion of particles to the polymer matrix. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the crystallization rate and crystallization temperature of PET were increased by the addition of nano glass flakes. The crystallization rate of PET was increased from 31.41% to 34.25% by the incorporation of 1%wt of nano glass flakes. Based on the results of the dynamic-mechanical analysis, the storage modulus of PET gets increased by adding nano glass flakes, especially below glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass transition of PET did not change remarkably with the addition of nano glass flakes. Moreover, the use of nano glass flakes reduced the impact strength of PET.

Keywords: PET, nano glass flakes, morphology, crystallization

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46 Effects of Specific Essential Oil Compounds on, Feed Intake, Milk Production, and Ruminal Environment in Dairy Cows during Heat Exposure

Authors: Kamran Reza-Yazdi, Mohammad Fallah, Mahdi Khodaparast, Farshad Kateb, Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine effect of dietary essential oil (EO) compounds, which contained cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, peppermint, coriander, cumin, lemongrass, and an organic carrier on feed intake, milk composition, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows during heat exposure. Thirty-two Holstein cows (days in milk= 60 ± 5) were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a Control and EO fed. The experiment lasted 28 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was measured daily while and milk production was measured weekly. Our result showed that DMI and milk yield was decreased (P < 0.01) in control cows relative to EO cows. Furthermore, supplementation with EO was associated with a decrease in the molar proportion of propionate (P < 0.05) and increase (P < 0.05) in acetate to propionate ratio. In conclusion, EO supplementations in diets can be useful nutritional modification to alleviate for the decrease DMI and milk production during heat exposure in lactating dairy cows.

Keywords: dairy cow, feed additive, plant extract, eugenol

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45 Analysis of Soft and Hard X-Ray Intensities Using Different Shapes of Anodes in a 4kJ Mather Type Plasma Focus Facility

Authors: Mahsa Mahtab, Morteza Habibi

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The effect of different anode tip geometries on the intensity of soft and hard x-ray emitted from a 4 kJ plasma focus device is investigated. For this purpose, 5 different anode tips are used. The shapes of the uppermost region of these anodes have been cylindrical-flat, cylindrical-hollow, spherical-convex, cone-flat and cone-hollow. Analyzed data have shown that cone-flat, spherical-convex and cone-hollow anodes significantly increase X-ray intensity respectively in comparison with cylindrical-flat anode; while the cylindrical-hollow tip decreases. Anode radius reduction at its end in conic or spherical anodes enhance SXR by increasing plasma density through collecting a greater mass of gas and more gradual transition phase to form a more stable dense plasma pinch. Also, HXR is enhanced by increasing the energy of electrons colliding with the anode surface through raise of induced electrical field. Finally, the cone-flat anode is introduced to use in cases in which the plasma focus device is used as an X-ray source due to its highest yield of X-ray emissions.

Keywords: plasma focus, anode tip, HXR, SXR, pinched plasma

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44 Conceptualizing IoT Based Framework for Enhancing Environmental Accounting By ERP Systems

Authors: Amin Ebrahimi Ghadi, Morteza Moalagh

Abstract:

This research is carried out to find how a perfect combination of IoT architecture (Internet of Things) and ERP system can strengthen environmental accounting to incorporate both economic and environmental information. IoT (e.g., sensors, software, and other technologies) can be used in the company’s value chain from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacturing products, distribution, use, repair, maintenance, and disposal or recycling products (Cradle to Grave model). The desired ERP software then will have the capability to track both midpoint and endpoint environmental impacts on a green supply chain system for the whole life cycle of a product. All these enable environmental accounting to calculate, and real-time analyze the operation environmental impacts, control costs, prepare for environmental legislation and enhance the decision-making process. In this study, we have developed a model on how to use IoT devices in life cycle assessment (LCA) to gather emissions, energy consumption, hazards, and wastes information to be processed in different modules of ERP systems in an integrated way for using in environmental accounting to achieve sustainability.

Keywords: ERP, environmental accounting, green supply chain, IOT, life cycle assessment, sustainability

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43 A Joint Possibilistic-Probabilistic Tool for Load Flow Uncertainty Assessment-Part I: Formulation

Authors: Morteza Aien, Masoud Rashidinejad, Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad

Abstract:

As energetic and environmental issues are getting more and more attention all around the world, the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) mainly those harvesting renewable energies (REs) ascends with an unprecedented rate. This matter causes more uncertainties to appear in the power system context; ergo, the uncertainty analysis of the system performance is an obligation. The uncertainties of any system can be represented probabilistically or possibilistically. Since sufficient historical data about all the system variables is not available, therefore, they do not have a probability density function (PDF) and must be represented possibilistiacally. When some of system uncertain variables are probabilistic and some are possibilistic, neither the conventional pure probabilistic nor pure possibilistic methods can be implemented. Hence, a combined solution is appealed. The first of this two-paper series formulates a new possibilistic-probabilistic tool for the load flow uncertainty assessment. The proposed methodology is based on the evidence theory and joint propagation of possibilistic and probabilistic uncertainties. This possibilistic- probabilistic formulation is solved in the second companion paper in an uncertain load flow (ULF) study problem.

Keywords: probabilistic uncertainty modeling, possibilistic uncertainty modeling, uncertain load flow, wind turbine generator

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42 Effects of External and Internal Focus of Attention in Motor Learning of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Morteza Pourazar, Fatemeh Mirakhori, Fazlolah Bagherzadeh, Rasool Hemayattalab

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to examine the effects of external and internal focus of attention in the motor learning of children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 30 boys (7 to 12 years old) with CP type 1 who practiced throwing beanbags. The participants were randomly assigned to the internal focus, external focus, and control groups, and performed six blocks of 10-trial with attentional focus reminders during a practice phase and no reminders during retention and transfer tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The results show that significant main effects were found for time and group. However, the interaction of time and group was not significant. Retention scores were significantly higher for the external focus group. The external focus group performed better than other groups; however, the internal focus and control groups’ performance did not differ. The study concluded that motor skills in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) children could be enhanced by external attention.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, external attention, internal attention, throwing task

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