Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2013

Search results for: concrete corrosion

2013 Effect of Stirrup Corrosion on Concrete Confinement Strength

Authors: Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya


This study investigated how the concrete confinement strength and axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns are affected by corrosion damage to the stirrups. A total of small-scale 12 test specimens were cast for evaluating the effect of stirrup corrosion on confinement strength of concrete. The results of this study show that the stirrup corrosion alone dramatically decreases the axial load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete columns. Recommendations were presented for improved inspection practices which will allow estimating concrete confinement strength of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete bridge columns.

Keywords: bridge, column, concrete, corrosion, inspection, stirrup reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
2012 Corrosion Monitoring Techniques Impact on Concrete Durability: A Review

Authors: Victor A. Okenyi, Kehinde A. Alawode


Corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures remains a durability issue in structural engineering with the increasing cost of repair and maintenance. The mechanism and factors influencing reinforcement corrosion in concrete with various electrochemical monitoring techniques including non-destructive, destructive techniques and the roles of sensors have been reviewed with the aim of determining the monitoring technique that proved most effective in determining corrosion parameters and more practicable for the assessment of concrete durability. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) techniques showed great performance in evaluating corrosion kinetics and corrosion rate, respectively, while the gravimetric weight loss (GWL) technique provided accurate measurements. However, no single monitoring technique showed to be the ultimate technique, and this calls for more research work in the development of more dynamic monitoring tools capable of considering all possible corrosion factors in the corrosion monitoring process.

Keywords: corrosion, concrete structures, durability, non-destructive technique, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
2011 Investigation of the Inhibition Effect of 2,3-Diaminopyridine on Mild Steel Corrosion in Solution Simulating Water of Pores Concrete in Absence and Presence of Chloride Ions

Authors: Fatiha Benghanem, Mokhtar Berarma, Saida Keraghel, Ali Ourari


Corrosion is the result of the reaction between a material and its environment. Steel in concrete is protected from corrosion by a passive film promoted by concrete alkalinity. For the initiation of corrosion, this protective film must be destroyed and this can be mainly done in two ways: by the attack of chlorides on the steel or by carbonation of the cover concrete due the reaction with carbon dioxide, which causes reduction in the alkalinity of concrete. The literature reports several ways to decrease or to prevent reinforcement corrosion. Among them, the use of corrosion inhibitors has been an envisaged solution. Two approaches are generally used to evaluate the efficiency of inhibitors for concrete application; one uses simulated pore solution testing , and the other uses actual concrete or mortar specimens. Both methods are some times used in conjunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 2,3-diaminopyridine as a corrosion inhibitors of steel in alkaline media which simulate the electrolyte in the concrete pores. The effectiveness of this compound as corrosion inhibitor was investigated by measuring the corrosion potentials, the polarization curves and the corrosion current densities of steel with and without chlorides. The study of corrosion inhibition by this compound led to the conclusion that he has low rates of inhibition in the absence of aggressive ions and high rates in their presence. This type of organic compounds are promoting for the protection of armatures in concrete.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitors, mild steel, conjunction

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
2010 Study on Comparison Between Acoustic Emission Behavior and Strain on Concrete Surface During Rebar Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Ejazulhaq Rahimi


The development of techniques evaluating deterioration on concrete structures is vital for structural health monitoring (SHM). One of the main reasons for reinforced concrete structure's deterioration is the corroding of embedded rebars. It is a natural process that begins when the rebar starts to rust. It occurs when the protective layer on the rebar is destroyed. The rebar in concrete is usually protected against corrosion by the high pH of the surrounding cement paste. However, there are chemicals that can destroy the protective layer, making it susceptible to corrosion. It is very destructive for the lifespan and durability of the concrete structure. Corrosion products which are 3 to 6 times voluminous than the rebar stress its surrounding concrete and lead to fracture as cracks even peeling off the cover concrete over the rebar. As is clear that concrete shows limit elastic behavior in its stress strain property, so corrosion product stresses can be detected as strains from the concrete surface. It means that surface strains have a relation with the situation and amount of corrosion products and related concrete fractures inside reinforced concrete. In this paper, a comparative study of surface strains due to corrosion products detected by strain gauges and acoustic emission (AE) testing under periodic accelerated corrosion in the salty environment with 3% NaCl is reported. From the results, three different stages of strains were clearly observed based on the type and rate of strains in each corrosion situation and related fracture types. AE parameters which mostly are related to fracture and their shapes, describe the same phases. It is confirmed that there is a great agreement to the result of each other and describes three phases as generation and expansion of corrosion products and initiation and propagation of corrosion-induced cracks, and surface cracks. In addition, the strain on the concrete surface was rapidly increased before the cracks arrived at the surface of the concrete.

Keywords: acoustic emission, monitoring, rebar corrosion, reinforced concrete, strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
2009 Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion Induced by Sulphuric Acid Environment

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Upul Chandrasekara, Morteza A. Alani


Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulphuric acid attack is a recognised problem worldwide, which is not only an attribute of countries with hot climate conditions as thought before. The significance of this problem is by far only realised when the pipe collapses causing surface flooding and other severe consequences. To change the existing post-reactive attitude of managing companies, easy to use and robust models are required to be developed which currently lack reliable data to be correctly calibrated. This paper focuses on laboratory experiments of establishing concrete pipe corrosion rate by submerging samples in to 0.5 pH sulphuric acid solution for 56 days under 10ºC, 20ºC and 30ºC temperature regimes. The result showed that at very early stage of the corrosion process the samples gained overall mass, at 30ºC the corrosion progressed quicker than for other temperature regimes, however with time the corrosion level for 10ºC and 20ºC regimes tended towards those at 30ºC. Overall, at these conditions the corrosion rates of 10 mm/year, 13,5 mm/year, and 17 mm/year were observed.

Keywords: sewer pipes, concrete corrosion, sulphuric acid, concrete coupons, corrosion rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
2008 A Probabilistic Study on Time to Cover Cracking Due to Corrosion

Authors: Chun-Qing Li, Hassan Baji, Wei Yang


Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures is a major problem worldwide. The volume expansion of corrosion products causes concrete cover cracking, which could lead to delamination of concrete cover. The time to cover cracking plays a key role to the assessment of serviceability of reinforced concrete structures subjected to corrosion. Many analytical, numerical, and empirical models have been developed to predict the time to cracking initiation due to corrosion. In this study, a numerical model based on finite element modeling of corrosion-induced cracking process is used. In order to predict the service life based on time to cover initiation, the numerical approach is coupled with a probabilistic procedure. In this procedure, all the influential factors affecting time to cover cracking are modeled as random variables. The results show that the time to cover cracking is highly variables. It is also shown that rust product expansion ratio and the size of more porous concrete zone around the rebar are the most influential factors in predicting service life of corrosion-affected structures.

Keywords: corrosion, crack width, probabilistic, service life

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
2007 Study of Corrosion in Structures due to Chloride Infiltration

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai, Akku Aby Mathews


Corrosion in reinforcing steel is the leading cause for deterioration in concrete structures. It is an electrochemical process which leads to volumetric change in concrete and causes cracking, delamination and spalling. The objective of the study is to provide a rational method to estimate the probable chloride concentration at the reinforcement level for a known surface chloride concentration. The paper derives the formulation of design charts to aid engineers for quick calculation of the chloride concentration. Furthermore, the paper focuses on comparison of durability design against corrosion with American, European and Indian design standards.

Keywords: chloride infiltration, concrete, corrosion, design charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
2006 Evaluation of Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid (BSA) on the Concrete Structures of Sewerage Systems: Chemical Tests

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, O. Rojas


The research studies of the kinetics of the corrosion process that attacks concrete and occurs within sewerage systems agree on the amount of variables that interfere in the process. This study aims to check the impact of the pH levels of the corrosive environment and the concrete surface, the concentrations of chemical sulfuric acid, and in turn, measure the resistance of concrete to this attack under controlled laboratory conditions; it also aims to contribute to the development of further research related to the topic, in order to compare the impact of biogenic sulfuric acid and chemical sulfuric acid involvement on concrete structures, especially in scenarios such as sewerage systems.

Keywords: acid sulfuric, concrete, corrosion, biogenic

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2005 Reinforced Concrete, Problems and Solutions: A Literature Review

Authors: Omar Alhamad, Waleed Eid


Reinforced concrete is a concrete lined with steel so that the materials work together in the resistance forces. Reinforcement rods or mesh are used for tensile, shear, and sometimes intense pressure in a concrete structure. Reinforced concrete is subject to many natural problems or industrial errors. The result of these problems is that it reduces the efficiency of the reinforced concrete or its usefulness. Some of these problems are cracks, earthquakes, high temperatures or fires, as well as corrosion of reinforced iron inside reinforced concrete. There are also factors of ancient buildings or monuments that require some techniques to preserve them. This research presents some general information about reinforced concrete, the pros and cons of reinforced concrete, and then presents a series of literary studies of some of the late published researches on the subject of reinforced concrete and how to preserve it, propose solutions or treatments for the treatment of reinforced concrete problems, raise efficiency and quality for a longer period. These studies have provided advanced and modern methods and techniques in the field of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, treatment, concrete, corrosion, seismic, cracks

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
2004 Disadvantages and Drawbacks of Concrete Blocks and Fix Their Defects

Authors: Ehsan Sadie


Today, the cost of repair and maintenance of structures is very important and by studying the behavior of reinforced concrete structures Will become specified several factors such as : Design and calculation errors, lack of proper implementation of structural changes, the damage caused by the introduction of random loads, concrete corrosion and environmental conditions reduce durability of the structures . Meanwhile building codes alteration also cause changes in the assessment and review of the design and structure rather if necessary will be improved and strengthened in the future.

Keywords: concrete building , expandable cement, honeycombed surface , reinforcement corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
2003 Evaluation of Corrosion in Steel Reinforced Concrete with Brick Waste

Authors: Julieta Daniela Chelaru, Maria Gorea


The massive demolition of old buildings in recent years has generated tons of waste, especially brick waste. Thus, a concern of recent research is the use of this waste for the production of environmentally friendly concrete. At the same time, corrosion in classical concrete is a current problem. In this context, in the present paper a study was carried out on the corrosion of metal reinforcement in cement mortars with brick waste. The corrosion process was analyzed on four compositions of mortars without and with 15 %, 25 % and 35 % bricks waste replacing the sand. The brick waste has a majority content in SiO2, Al₂O₃, FeO₃ and CaO. The grain size distribution of brick waste was close to that of the sand (dₘₐₓ = 3 mm). The preparation method of the samples was similar to ordinary mortars. The corrosion properties of concrete, at different waste bricks concentrations, on rebar, were investigated by electrochemical measurements (Tafel curves and EIS) at 1 and 6 months. The results obtained at 6 months revealed that the addition of the bricks waste in mortar are improved the anticorrosion properties, in the case of all samples compared with the sample with 0% bricks waste. The best results were obtained in the case of the sample with 15% bricks waste (the efficiency was ≈ 90 %). The corrosion intermediary layer formed on the rebar surface was determined by SEM-EDX.

Keywords: EIS, steel corrosion, steel reinforced concrete, waste materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
2002 Some Aspects of Study the Leaching and Acid Corrosion of Concrete

Authors: Alena Sicakova, Adriana Estokova


Although properly made concrete is inherently a durable material, there are many physical and chemical forces in the environment which can contribute to its deterioration. This paper deals with two aspects of concrete durability in chemical aggressive environment: degradation effect of particular aggressive exposure and role of particular mineral additives. Results of the study of leaching and acid corrosion processes in samples prepared with specific dosage of microsilica and zeolite are given in the paper. Corrosion progress after 60-day exposition is manifested by increasing rate of both Ca and Si release, what is identified by XRF method. Kind and dosage of additions used in experiment was found to be helpful for stabilization of concrete microstructure. The lowest concentration of mean elements in leachates was observed for mixture V1 (microsilica only) unlike the V2 (microsilica + zeolite). It is surprising in the terms of recommendations of zeolite application for acid exposure. Using microsilica only seems to be more effective.

Keywords: sustainability, durability, concrete, acid corrosion, leaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
2001 Methods for Mitigating Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid in Sewerage Systems: State of the Art Review

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, M. Avella


Corrosion is an imminent process in nature, which affects all types of materials. In sewerage systems, the corrosion process caused by microorganisms, also known as biogenic sulfuric acid attack, has been studied. This affects the structural integrity of the concrete drainage pipes and the sewage treatment plants. This article is a review of research which focuses on the study of how to reduce the production of hydrogen sulfide, how to improve the resistance of concrete through the use of additives and the implementation of antimicrobial techniques to reduce bacterial growth.

Keywords: bactericides, biogenic sulfuric acid, corrosion, concrete, hydrogen sulphide, nano materials, zeolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
2000 Axial, Bending Interaction Diagrams of Reinforced Concrete Columns Exposed to Chloride Attack

Authors: Rita Greco, Giuseppe Carlo Marano


Chloride induced reinforcement corrosion is widely accepted to be the most frequent mechanism causing premature degradation of reinforced concrete members, whose economic and social consequences are growing up continuously. Prevention of these phenomena has a great importance in structural design, and modern Codes and Standard impose prescriptions concerning design details and concrete mix proportion for structures exposed to different external aggressive conditions, grouped in environmental classes. This paper focuses on reinforced concrete columns load carrying capacity degradation over time due to chloride induced steel pitting corrosion. The structural element is considered to be exposed to marine environment and the effects of corrosion are described by the time degradation of the axial-bending interaction diagram. Because chlorides ingress and consequent pitting corrosion propagation are both time-dependent mechanisms, the study adopts a time-variant predictive approach to evaluate the residual strength of corroded reinforced concrete columns at different lifetimes. Corrosion initiation and propagation process is modelled by taking into account all the parameters, such as external environmental conditions, concrete mix proportion, concrete cover and so on, which influence the time evolution of the corrosion phenomenon and its effects on the residual strength of RC columns.

Keywords: pitting corrosion, strength deterioration, diffusion coefficient, surface chloride concentration, concrete structures, marine environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1999 Monitoring CO2 and H2S Emission in Live Austrian and UK Concrete Sewer Pipes

Authors: Anna Romanova, Morteza A. Alani


Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulfuric acid is an acknowledged problem and a ticking time-bomb to sewer operators. Whilst the chemical reaction of the corrosion process is well-understood, the indirect roles of other parameters in the corrosion process which are found in sewer environment are not highly reflected on. This paper reports on a field studies undertaken in Austria and United Kingdom, where the parameters of temperature, pH, H2S and CO2 were monitored over a period of time. The study establishes that (i) effluent temperature and pH have similar daily pattern and peak times, When examined in minutes scale, (ii) H2S and CO2 have an identical hourly pattern, (iii) H2S instant or shifted relation to effluent temperature is governed by the root mean square value of CO2.

Keywords: concrete corrosion, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, sewer pipe, sulfuric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1998 The Performance and the Induced Rebar Corrosion of Acrylic Resins for Injection Systems in Concrete Structures

Authors: C. S. Paglia, E. Pesenti, A. Krattiger


Commercially available methacrylate and acrylamide-based acrylic resins for injection in concrete systems have been tested with respect to the sealing performance and the rebar corrosion. Among the different resins, a methacrylate-based type of acrylic resin significantly inhibited the rebar corrosion. This was mainly caused by the relatively high pH of the resin and the resin aqueous solution. This resin also exhibited a relatively high sealing performance, in particular after exposing the resin to durability tests. The corrosion inhibition behaviour and the sealing properties after the exposition to durability tests were maintained up to one year. The other resins either promoted the corrosion of the rebar and/or exhibited relatively low sealing properties.

Keywords: acrylic resin, sealing performance, rebar corrosion, materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
1997 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas


Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, slurry infiltrated fiber concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
1996 Evaluation of Corrosion by Impedance Spectroscopy of Embedded Steel in an Alternative Concrete Exposed a Chloride Ion

Authors: E. Ruíz, W. Aperador


In this article evaluates the protective effect of the concrete alternative obtained from the fly ash and iron and steel slag mixed in binary form and were placed on structural steel ASTM A 706. The study was conducted comparatively with specimens exposed to natural conditions free of chloride ion. The effect of chloride ion on the specimens was generated of form accelerated under controlled conditions (3.5% NaCl and 25 ° C temperature). The Impedance data were acquired over a range of 1 mHz to 100 kHz. At frequencies high is found the response of the interface means of the exposure-concrete and to frequency low the response of the interface corresponding to concrete-steel.

Keywords: alternative concrete, corrosion, alkaline activation, impedance spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1995 Piezo-Extracted Model Based Chloride/ Carbonation Induced Corrosion Assessment in Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Gupta. Ashok, V. talakokula, S. bhalla


Rebar corrosion is one of the main causes of damage and premature failure of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures worldwide, causing enormous costs for inspection, maintenance, restoration and replacement. Therefore, early detection of corrosion and timely remedial action on the affected portion can facilitate an optimum utilization of the structure, imparting longevity to it. The recent advent of the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique using piezo sensors (PZT) for structural health monitoring (SHM) has provided a new paradigm to the maintenance engineers to diagnose the onset of the damage at the incipient stage itself. This paper presents a model based approach for corrosion assessment based on the equivalent parameters extracted from the impedance spectrum of concrete-rebar system using the EMI technique via the PZT sensors.

Keywords: impedance, electro-mechanical, stiffness, mass, damping, equivalent parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
1994 Investigation of Bending Behavior of Ultra High Performance Concrete with Steel and Glass Fiber Polymer Reinforcement

Authors: Can Otuzbir


It is one of the most difficult areas of civil engineering to provide long-lasting structures with the rapid development of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. Concrete is a living material, and the structure where the concrete is located is constantly exposed to external influences. One of these effects is reinforcement corrosion. Reinforcement corrosion of reinforced concrete structures leads to a significant decrease in the carrying capacity of the structural elements, as well as reduced service life. It is undesirable that the service life should be completed sooner than expected. In recent years, advances in glass fiber technology and its use with concrete have developed rapidly. As a result of inability to protect steel reinforcements against corrosion, fiberglass reinforcements have started to be investigated as an alternative material to steel reinforcements, and researches and experimental studies are still continuing. Glass fiber reinforcements have become an alternative material to steel reinforcement because they are resistant to corrosion, lightweight and simple to install compared to steel reinforcement. Glass fiber reinforcements are not corroded and have higher tensile strength, longer life, lighter and insulating properties compared to steel reinforcement. In experimental studies, glass fiber reinforcements have been shown to show superior mechanical properties similar to beams produced with steel reinforcement. The performance of long-term use of glass fiber fibers continues with accelerated experimental studies.

Keywords: glass fiber polymer reinforcement, steel fiber concrete, ultra high performance concrete, bending, GFRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
1993 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Morteza A. Alani


Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulfide gas, temperature, sewer pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
1992 Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders

Authors: Jeon Chi-Ho, Lee Jae-Bin, Shim Chang-Su


National bridge inventory in Korea shows that the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issues in the maintenance of PSC bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of PSC girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.

Keywords: prestressed concrete bridge, tendon, corrosion, strength, ductility

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1991 Mechanical Behavior of Corroded RC Beams Strengthened by NSM CFRP Rods

Authors: Belal Almassri, Amjad Kreit, Firas Al Mahmoud, Raoul François


Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete leads to several major defects. Firstly, a reduction in the crosssectional area of the reinforcement and in its ductility results in premature bar failure. Secondly, the expansion of the corrosion products causes concrete cracking and steel–concrete bond deterioration and also affects the bending stiffness of the reinforced concrete members, causing a reduction in the overall load-bearing capacity of the reinforced concrete beams. This paper investigates the validity of a repair technique using Near Surface Mounted (NSM) carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) rods to restore the mechanical performance of corrosion-damaged RC beams. In the NSM technique, the CFRP rods are placed inside pre-cut grooves and are bonded to the concrete with epoxy adhesive. Experimental results were obtained on two beams: a corroded beam that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 25 years and a control beam, (both are 3 m long) repaired in bending only. Each beam was repaired with one 6-mm-diameter NSM CFRP rod. The beams were tested in a three-point bending test up to failure. Overall stiffness and crack maps were studied before and after the repair. Ultimate capacity, ductility and failure mode were also reviewed. Finally some comparisons were made between repaired and non-repaired beams in order to assess the effectiveness of the NSM technique. The experimental results showed that the NSM technique improved the overall characteristics (ultimate load capacity and stiffness) of the control and corroded beams and allowed sufficient ductility to be restored to the repaired corroded elements, thus restoring the safety margin, despite the non-classical mode of failure that occurred in the corroded beam, with the separation of the concrete cover due to corrosion products.

Keywords: carbon fibre, corrosion, strength, mechanical testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
1990 Experimental Studies on the Corrosion Effects of the Concrete Made with Tannery Effluent

Authors: K. Nirmalkumar


An acute water scarcity is prevailing in the dry season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India) where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was made to use the effluent from the tannery industry for construction purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and the special properties such as chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack were studied by casting various concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams, etc. It was observed that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory. In this research study the corrosion results of specimens prepared by using treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed that by the addition of admixtures, the adverse effects due to the usage of the treated and untreated tannery effluent are counteracted.

Keywords: corrosion, calcium nitrite, concrete, fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
1989 Corrosion of Concrete Reinforcing Steel Bars Tested and Compared Between Various Protection Methods

Authors: P van Tonder, U Bagdadi, BMD Lario, Z Masina, TR Motshwari


This paper analyses how concrete reinforcing steel bars corrode and how it can be minimised through the use of various protection methods against corrosion, such as metal-based paint, alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating. Samples of carbon steel bars were protected, using these four methods. Tests performed on the samples included durability, electrical resistivity and bond strength. Durability results indicated relatively low corrosion rates for alloying, cathodic protection, electroplating and metal-based paint. The resistivity results indicate all samples experienced a downward trend, despite erratic fluctuations in the data, indicating an inverse relationship between electrical resistivity and corrosion rate. The results indicated lowered bond strengths when the reinforced concrete was cured in seawater compared to being cured in normal water. It also showed that higher design compressive strengths lead to higher bond strengths which can be used to compensate for the loss of bond strength due to corrosion in a real-world application. In terms of implications, all protection methods have the potential to be effective at resisting corrosion in real-world applications, especially the alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating methods. The metal-based paint underperformed by comparison, most likely due to the nature of paint in general which can fade and chip away, revealing the steel samples and exposing them to corrosion. For alloying, stainless steel is the suggested material of choice, where Y-bars are highly recommended as smooth bars have a much-lowered bond strength. Cathodic protection performed the best of all in protecting the sample from corrosion, however, its real-world application would require significant evaluation into the feasibility of such a method.

Keywords: protection methods, corrosion, concrete, reinforcing steel bars

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1988 A Finite Element Model to Study the Behaviour of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams Repaired with near Surface Mounted Technique

Authors: B. Almassri, F. Almahmoud, R. Francois


Near surface mounted reinforcement (NSM) technique is one of the promising techniques used nowadays to strengthen reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In the NSM technique, the Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) rods are placed inside pre-cut grooves and are bonded to the concrete with epoxy adhesive. This paper studies the non-classical mode of failure ‘the separation of concrete cover’ according to experimental and numerical FE modelling results. Experimental results and numerical modelling results of a 3D finite element (FE) model using the commercial software Abaqus and 2D FE model FEMIX were obtained on two beams, one corroded (25 years of corrosion procedure) and one control (A1CL3-R and A1T-R) were each repaired in bending using NSM CFRP rod and were then tested up to failure. The results showed that the NSM technique increased the overall capacity of control and corroded beams despite a non-classical mode of failure with separation of the concrete cover occurring in the corroded beam due to damage induced by corrosion. Another FE model used external steel stirrups around the repaired corroded beam A1CL3-R which failed with the separation of concrete cover, this model showed a change in the mode of failure form a non-classical mode of failure by the separation of concrete cover to the same mode of failure of the repaired control beam by the crushing of compressed concrete.

Keywords: corrosion, repair, Reinforced Concrete, FEM, CFRP, FEMIX

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
1987 Performance Evaluation of Composite Beam under Uniform Corrosion

Authors: Ririt Aprilin Sumarsono


Composite member (concrete and steel) has been widely advanced for structural utilization due to its best performance in resisting load, reducing the total weight of the structure, increasing stiffness, and other available advantages. On the other hand, the environment load such as corrosion (e.g. chloride ingress) creates significant time-dependent degradation for steel. Analysis performed in this paper is mainly considered uniform corrosion for evaluating the composite beam without examining the pit corrosion as the initial corrosion formed. Corrosion level in terms of weight loss is modified in yield stress and modulus elasticity of steel. Those two mechanical properties are utilized in this paper for observing the stresses due to corrosion attacked. As corrosion level increases, the effective width of the composite beam in the concrete section will be wider. The position of a neutral axis of composite section will indicate the composite action due to corrosion of composite beam so that numerous shear connectors provided must be reconsidered. Flexure capacity quantification provides stresses, and shear capacity calculation derives connectors needed in overcoming the shear problem for composite beam under corrosion. A model of simply supported composite beam examined in this paper under uniform corrosion where the stresses as the focus of the evaluation. Principal stress at the first stage of composite construction decline as the corrosion level incline, parallel for the second stage stress analysis where the tension region held by the steel undergoes lower capacity due to corrosion. Total stresses of the composite section for steel to be born significantly decreases particularly in the outermost fiber of tension side. Whereas, the available compression side is smaller as the corrosion level increases so that the stress occurs on the compression side shows reduction as well. As a conclusion, the increment of corrosion level will degrade both compression and tension side of stresses.

Keywords: composite beam, modulus of elasticity, stress analysis, yield strength, uniform corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
1986 Bond Strength of Nano Silica Concrete Subjected to Corrosive Environments

Authors: Muhammad S. El-Feky, Mohamed I. Serag, Ahmed M. Yasien, Hala Elkady


Reinforced concrete requires steel bars in order to provide the tensile strength that is needed in structural concrete. However, when steel bars corrode, a loss in bond between the concrete and the steel bars occurs due to the formation of rust on the bars surface. Permeability of concrete is a fundamental property in perspective of the durability of concrete as it represents the ease with which water or other fluids can move through concrete, subsequently transporting corrosive agents. Nanotechnology is a standout amongst active research zones that envelops varies disciplines including construction materials. The application of nanotechnology in the corrosion protection of metal has lately gained momentum as nano scale particles have ultimate physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, which may enhance the corrosion protection in comparison to large size materials. The presented research aims to study the bond performance of concrete containing relatively high volume nano silica (up to 4.5%) exposed to corrosive conditions. This was extensively studied through tensile, bond strengths as well as the permeability of nano silica concrete. In addition micro-structural analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of nano silica on the properties of concrete at both; the micro and nano levels. The results revealed that by the addition of nano silica, the permeability of concrete mixes decreased significantly to reach about 50% of the control mix by the addition of 4.5% nano silica. As for the corrosion resistance, the nano silica concrete is comparatively higher resistance than ordinary concrete. Increasing Nano Silica percentage increased significantly the critical time corresponding to a metal loss (equal to 50 ϻm) which usually corresponding to the first concrete cracking due to the corrosion of reinforcement to reach about 49 years instead of 40 years as for the normal concrete. Finally, increasing nano Silica percentage increased significantly the residual bond strength of concrete after being subjected to corrosive environment. After being subjected to corrosive environment, the pullout behavior was observed for the bars embedded in all of the mixes instead of the splitting behavior that was observed before being corroded. Adding 4.5% nano silica in concrete increased the residual bond strength to reach 79% instead of 27% only as compared to control mix (0%W) before the subjection of the corrosive environment. From the conducted study we can conclude that the Nano silica proved to be a significant pore blocker material.

Keywords: bond strength, concrete, corrosion resistance, nano silica, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1985 Zamzam Water as Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel Rebar in Rainwater and Simulated Acid Rain

Authors: Ahmed A. Elshami, Stephanie Bonnet, Abdelhafid Khelidj


Corrosion inhibitors are widely used in concrete industry to reduce the corrosion rate of steel rebar which is present in contact with aggressive environments. The present work aims to using Zamzam water from well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam as corrosion inhibitor for steel in rain water and simulated acid rain. The effect of Zamzam water was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Potentiodynamic polarization techniques in Department of Civil Engineering - IUT Saint-Nazaire, Nantes University, France. Zamzam water is considered to be one of the most important steel corrosion inhibitor which is frequently used in different industrial applications. Results showed that zamzam water gave a very good inhibition for steel corrosion in rain water and simulated acid rain.

Keywords: Zamzam water, corrosion inhibitor, rain water, simulated acid rain

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1984 Strength of Fine Concrete Used in Textile Reinforced Concrete by Changing Water-Binder Ratio

Authors: Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sun-Kyu Park


Recently, the abnormal climate phenomenon has enlarged due to the global warming. As a result, temperature variation is increasing and the term is being prolonged, frequency of high and low temperature is increasing by heat wave and severe cold. Especially for reinforced concrete structure, the corrosion of reinforcement has occurred by concrete crack due to temperature change and the durability of the structure that has decreased by concrete crack. Accordingly, the textile reinforced concrete (TRC) which does not corrode due to using textile is getting the interest and the investigation of TRC is proceeding. The study of TRC structure behavior has proceeded, but the characteristic study of the concrete used in TRC is insufficient. Therefore, characteristic of the concrete by changing mixing ratio is studied in this paper. As a result, mixing ratio with different water-binder ratio has influenced to the strength of concrete. Also, as the water-binder ratio has decreased, strength of concrete has increased.

Keywords: concrete, mixing ratio, textile, TRC

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