Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 756

Search results for: hydrogen sulfide gas

756 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulfide gas, temperature, sewer pipe

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755 Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds

Authors: Retno A. S. Lestari, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Siti Syamsiah, Sarto

Abstract:

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated and then grown on snakefruits seeds forming biofilm. Their performance in sulfide removal were experimentally observed. Snakefruit seeds were then used as packing material in a cylindrical tube. Biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide from biogas was investigated using biofilm on packed bed of snakefruits seeds. Biogas containing 27,9512 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was flown through the bed. Then the hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the outlet at various times were analyzed. A set of simple kinetics model for the rate of the sulfide removal and the bacterial growth was proposed. The axial sulfide concentration gradient in the flowing liquid are assumed to be steady-state. Mean while the biofilm grows on the surface of the seeds and the oxidation takes place in the biofilm. Since the biofilm is very thin, the sulfide concentration in the biofilm is assumed to be uniform. The simultaneous ordinary differential equations obtained were then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The acuracy of the model proposed was tested by comparing the calcultion results using the model with the experimental data obtained. It turned out that the model proposed can be applied to describe the removal of sulfide liquid using bio-filter in packed bed. The values of the parameters were also obtained by curve-fitting. The biofilter could remove 89,83 % of the inlet of hydrogen sulfide from biogas for 2.5 h, and optimum loading of 8.33 ml/h.

Keywords: Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, snakefruits seeds, biofilm, packing material, biogas

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754 Kinetics of Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds

Authors: Retno A. S. Lestari, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Siti Syamsiah, Sarto

Abstract:

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated and then grown on salak fruit seeds forming a biofilm on the surface. Their performances in sulfide removal were experimentally observed. In doing so, the salak fruit seeds containing biofilm were then used as packing material in a cylinder. Biogas obtained from biological treatment, which contains 27.95 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was flown through the packed bed. The hydrogen sulfide from the biogas was absorbed in the biofilm and then degraded by the microbes in the biofilm. The hydrogen sulfide concentrations at a various axial position and various times were analyzed. A set of simple kinetics model for the rate of the sulfide removal and the bacterial growth was proposed. Since the biofilm is very thin, the sulfide concentration in the Biofilm at a certain axial position is assumed to be uniform. The simultaneous ordinary differential equations obtained were then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta method. The values of the parameters were also obtained by curve-fitting. The accuracy of the model proposed was tested by comparing the calculation results using the model with the experimental data obtained. It turned out that the model proposed can describe the removal of sulfide liquid using bio-filter in the packed bed. The biofilter could remove 89,83 % of the hydrogen sulfide in the feed at 2.5 hr of operation and biogas flow rate of 30 L/hr.

Keywords: sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, salak fruit seeds, biofilm, packing material, biogas

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753 Green Synthesis of Spinach Derived Carbon Dots for Photocatalytic Generation of Hydrogen from Sulfide Wastewater

Authors: Priya Ruban, Thirunavoukkarasu Manikkannan, Sakthivel Ramasamy

Abstract:

Sulfide is one of the major pollutants of tannery effluent which is mainly generated during the process of unhairing. Recovery of Hydrogen green fuel from sulfide wastewater using photocatalysis is a ‘Cleaner Production Method’, since renewable solar energy is utilized. It has triple advantages of the generation of H2, waste minimization and odor or pollution control. Designing of safe and green photocatalysts and developing suitable solar photoreactor is important for promoting this technology to large-scale application. In this study, green photocatalyst i.e., spinach derived carbon dots (SCDs 5 wt % and 10 wt %)/TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized for generation of H2 from sulfide wastewater using lab-scale solar photocatalytic reactor. The physical characterization of the synthesized solar light responsive nanocomposites were studied by using DRS UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR and FESEM analysis. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles is extended to visible region by the incorporation of SCDs, which was used for converting noxious pollutant sulfide into eco-friendly solar fuel H2. The SCDs (10 wt%)-TiO2 nanocomposite exhibits enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production i.e. ~27 mL of H2 (180 min) from simulated sulfide wastewater under LED visible light irradiation which is higher as compared to SCDs. The enhancement in the photocatalytic generation of H2 is attributed to combining of SCDs which increased the charge mobility. This work may provide new insights to usage of naturally available and cheap materials to design novel nanocomposite as a visible light active photocatalyst for the generation of H2 from sulfide containing wastewater.

Keywords: carbon dots, hydrogen fuel, hydrogen sulfide, photocatalysis, sulfide wastewater

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752 Screening of Ionic Liquids for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Using COSMO-RS

Authors: Zulaika Mohd Khasiran

Abstract:

The capability of ionic liquids in various applications makes them attracted by many researchers. They have potential to be developed as “green” solvents for gas separation, especially H2S gas. In this work, it is attempted to predict the solubility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ILs by COSMO-RS method. Since H2S is a toxic pollutant, it is difficult to work on it in the laboratory, therefore an appropriate model will be necessary in prior work. The COSMO-RS method is implemented to predict the Henry’s law constants and activity coefficient of H2S in 140 ILs with various combinations of cations and anions. It is found by the screening that more H2S can be absorbed in ILs with [Cl] and [Ac] anion. The solubility of H2S in ILs with different alkyl chain at the cations not much affected and with different type of cations are slightly influence H2S capture capacities. Even though the cations do not affect much in solubility of H2S, we still need to consider the effectiveness of cation in different way. The prediction results only show their physical absorption ability, but the absorption of H2S need to be consider chemically to get high capacity of absorption of H2S.

Keywords: H2S, hydrogen sulfide, ionic liquids, COSMO-RS

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751 Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide

Authors: Indra Gonzalez Ojeda, Tatiana Quinones, Manuel Rosario, Igor Lednev, Juan Lopez Garriga

Abstract:

Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, hydrogen sulfide, protein folding, raman spectroscopy

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750 Screening of Metal Chloride Anion-based Ionic Liquids for Direct Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide by COSMO-RS

Authors: Muhammad Syahir Aminuddin, Zakaria Man, Mohamad Azmi Bustam Khalil

Abstract:

In order to identify the best possible reaction media for performing H₂S conversion, a total number of 300 different ILs from a combination of 20 cations and 15 anions were screened via COSMO-RS model simulations. By COSMO-RS method, thermodynamic and physicochemical properties of 300 ILs, such as Henry's law constants, activity coefficient, selectivity, capacity, and performance index, are obtained and analyzed. Thus, by comparing the performance of ILs via COSMO-RS, a series of TSILs containing cation of [P66614] with metal chloride anions such as Fe, Ga, and Al were chosen and selected for synthesis based on their performance predicted by COSMO-RS and their economic values. Consequently, the physiochemical properties such as density, viscosity, thermal properties, as well as H₂S absorptive oxidation performances in those TSILs will be systematically investigated.

Keywords: conversion of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, H₂S, sour natural gas, task specific ionic liquids

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749 In-Situ Synthesis of Zinc-Containing MCM-41 and Investigation of Its Capacity for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide from Crude Oil

Authors: Nastaran Hazrati, Ali Akbar Miran Beigi, Majid Abdouss, Amir Vahid

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulfide is the most toxic gas of crude oil. Adsorption is an energy-efficient process used to remove undesirable compounds such as H2S in gas or liquid streams by passing the stream through a media bed composed of an adsorbent. In this study, H2S of Iran crude oil was separated via cold stripping then zinc incorporated MCM-41 was synthesized via an in-situ method. ZnO functionalized mesoporous silica samples were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption and TEM. The obtained results of adsorption of H2S showed superior ability of all the materials and with an increase in ZnO amount adsorption was increased.

Keywords: MCM-41, ZnO, H2S removal, adsorption

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748 A Review on Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Controlling Its Produced Hydrogen Sulfide Effects on Reservoir and Transporting Pipelines

Authors: Ali Haratian, Soroosh Emami Meybodi

Abstract:

Using viable microbial cultures within hydrocarbon reservoirs so as to the enhancement of oil recovery through metabolic activities is exactly what we recognize as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). In similar to many other processes in industries, there are some cons and pros following with MEOR. The creation of sulfides such as hydrogen sulfide as a result of injecting the sulfate-containing seawater into hydrocarbon reservoirs in order to maintain the required reservoir pressure leads to production and growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) approximately near the injection wells, turning the reservoir into sour; however, SRB is not considered as the only microbial process stimulating the formation of sulfides. Along with SRB, thermochemical sulfate reduction or thermal redox reaction (TSR) is also known to be highly effective at resulting in having extremely concentrated zones of 𝐻2S in the reservoir fluids eligible to cause corrosion. Owing to extent of the topic, more information on the formation of 𝐻₂S is going to be put finger on. Besides, confronting the undesirable production of sulfide species in the reservoirs can lead to serious operational, environmental, and financial problems, in particular the transporting pipelines. Consequently, conjuring up reservoir souring control strategies on the way production of oil and gas is the only way to prevent possible damages in terms of environment, finance, and manpower which requires determining the compound’s reactivity, origin, and partitioning behavior. This article is going to provide a comprehensive review of progress made in this field and the possible advent of new strategies in this technologically advanced world of the petroleum industry.

Keywords: corrosion, hydrogen sulfide, NRB, reservoir souring, SRB

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747 A Synthetic Strategy to Attach 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol onto Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Application for Electrocatalytic Determination of Sulfide

Authors: Alireza Mohadesi, Ashraf Salmanipour

Abstract:

A chemically modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic determination of sulfide was developed using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) covalently immobilized with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP). The immobilization of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol with MWCNTs was performed with a new synthetic strategy and characterized by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammetric response of DPIP grafted onto MWCNTs indicated that it promotes the low potential, sensitive and stable determination of sulfide. The dependence of response currents on the concentration of sulfide was examined and was linear in the range of 10 - 1100 µM. The detection limit of sulfide was 5 µM and RSD for 100 and 500 µM sulfides were 1.8 and 1.3 %. Many interfering species had little or no effect on the determination of sulfide. The procedure was applied to determination of sulfide in waters samples.

Keywords: functionalized carbon nanotubes, sulfide, biological samples, 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol

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746 Evaluation of Iron Application Method to Remediate Coastal Marine Sediment

Authors: Ahmad Seiar Yasser

Abstract:

Sediment is an important habitat for organisms and act as a store house for nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. Hydrogen sulfide is produced by microorganisms in the water columns and sediments, which is highly toxic and fatal to benthic organisms. However, the irons have the capacity to regulate the formation of sulfide by poising the redox sequence and to form insoluble iron sulfide and pyrite compounds. Therefore, we conducted two experiments aimed to evaluate the remediation efficiency of iron application to organically enrich and improve sediments environment. Experiments carried out in the laboratory using intact sediment cores taken from Mikawa Bay, Japan at every month from June to September 2017 and October 2018. In Experiment 1, after cores were collected, the iron powder or iron hydroxide were applied to the surface sediment with 5 g/ m2 or 5.6 g/ m2, respectively. In Experiment 2, we experimentally investigated the removal of hydrogen sulfide using (2mm or less and 2 to 5mm) of the steelmaking slag. Experiments are conducted both in the laboratory with the same boundary conditions. The overlying water were replaced with deoxygenated filtered seawater, and cores were sealed a top cap to keep anoxic condition with a stirrer to circulate the overlying water gently. The incubation experiments have been set in three treatments included the control, and each treatment replicated and were conducted with the same temperature of the in-situ conditions. Water samples were collected to measure the dissolved sulfide concentrations in the overlying water at appropriate time intervals by the methylene blue method. Sediment quality was also analyzed after the completion of the experiment. After the 21 days incubation, experimental results using iron powder and ferric hydroxide revealed that application of these iron containing materials significantly reduced sulfide release flux from the sediment into the overlying water. The average dissolved sulfides concentration in the overlying water of the treatment group was significantly decrease (p = .0001). While no significant difference was observed between the control group after 21 day incubation. Therefore, the application of iron to the sediment is a promising method to remediate contaminated sediments in a eutrophic water body, although ferric hydroxide has better hydrogen sulfide removal effects. Experiments using the steelmaking slag also clarified the fact that capping with (2mm or less and 2 to 5mm) of slag steelmaking is an effective technique for remediation of bottom sediments enriched organic containing hydrogen sulfide because it leads to the induction of chemical reaction between Fe and sulfides occur in sediments which did not occur in conditions naturally. Although (2mm or less) of slag steelmaking has better hydrogen sulfide removal effects. Because of economic reasons, the application of steelmaking slag to the sediment is a promising method to remediate contaminated sediments in the eutrophic water body.

Keywords: sedimentary, H2S, iron, iron hydroxide

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745 Separate Production of Hydrogen and Methane from Ethanol Wastewater Using Two-Stage UASB: Micronutrient Transportation

Authors: S. Jaikeaw, S. Chavadej

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of COD loading rate on hydrogen and methane production and micronutrient transportation using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under mesophilic temperature (37°C) with a constant recycle ratio of 1:1 (final effluent flow rate: feed flow rate). The first (hydrogen) UASB unit having 4 L liquid holding volume was controlled at pH 5.5 but the second (methane) UASB unit having 24 L liquid holding volume had no pH control. The two-stage UASB system operated at different COD loading rates from 8 to 20 kg/m³d based on total UASB working volume. The results showed that, at the optimum COD loading rate of 13 kg/m³d, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit contained 1.5% H₂, 16.5% CH₄, and 82% CO₂ with H₂S of 252 ppm and also provided a hydrogen yield of 1.66 mL/g COD removed (or 0.56 mL/g COD applied) and a specific hydrogen production rate of 156.85 ml H₂/LRd (or 5.12 ml H₂/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained methane and carbon dioxide without hydrogen of 74 and 26%, respectively with hydrogen sulfide of 287 ppm and the system also provided a maximum methane yield of 407.00 mL/g COD removed (or 263.23 mL/g COD applied) and a specific methane production rate of 2081.44 ml CH₄/LRd (or 99.75 ml CH₄/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, all micronutrients markedly dropped by the sulfide precipitation reactions. The reduction of micronutrients mostly appeared in the methane UASB unit. Under the studied conditions, both Co and Ni were found to be greatly precipitated out, causing the deficiency to microbial activity. It is hypothesized that an addition of both Co and Ni can improve the methanogenic activity.

Keywords: hydrogen and methane production, ethanol wastewater, a two-stage upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) system, mesophillic temperature, microbial concentration (MLVSS), micronutrients

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744 Development of Adsorbents for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Using Pyrolytic Carbon Black form Waste Tires

Authors: Yang Gon Seo, Chang-Joon Kim, Dae Hyeok Kim

Abstract:

It is estimated that 1.5 billion tires are produced worldwide each year which will eventually end up as waste tires representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. Pyrolysis has been great interest in alternative treatment processes for waste tires to produce valuable oil, gas and solid products. The oil and gas products may be used directly as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. The solid produced from the pyrolysis of tires ranges typically from 30 to 45 wt% and have high carbon contents of up to 90 wt%. However, most notably the solid have high sulfur contents from 2 to 3 wt% and ash contents from 8 to 15 wt% related to the additive metals. Upgrading tire pyrolysis products to high-value products has concentrated on solid upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are one of the common malodorous compounds that can be found in emissions from many sewages treatment plants and industrial plants. Therefore, removing these harmful gasses from emissions is of significance in both life and industry because they can cause health problems to human and detrimental effects on the catalysts. In this work, pyrolytic carbon black from waste tires was used to develop adsorbent with good adsorption capacity for removal of hydrogen and ammonia. Pyrolytic carbon blacks were prepared by pyrolysis of waste tire chips ranged from 5 to 20 mm under the nitrogen atmosphere at 600℃ for 1 hour. Pellet-type adsorbents were prepared by a mixture of carbon black, metal oxide and sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid, and their adsorption capacities were estimated by using the breakthrough curve of a continuous fixed bed adsorption column at ambient condition. The adsorbent was manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, iron oxide(III), and sodium hydroxide showed the maximum working capacity of hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, maximum working capacity was obtained by the adsorbent manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, copper oxide(II), and hydrochloric acid.

Keywords: adsorbent, ammonia, pyrolytic carbon black, hydrogen sulfide, metal oxide

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743 Experimental and Simulation Results for the Removal of H2S from Biogas by Means of Sodium Hydroxide in Structured Packed Columns

Authors: Hamadi Cherif, Christophe Coquelet, Paolo Stringari, Denis Clodic, Laura Pellegrini, Stefania Moioli, Stefano Langè

Abstract:

Biogas is a promising technology which can be used as a vehicle fuel, for heat and electricity production, or injected in the national gas grid. It is storable, transportable, not intermittent and substitutable for fossil fuels. This gas produced from the wastewater treatment by degradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. To be used as a renewable fuel, biogas, whose energy comes only from methane, must be purified from carbon dioxide and other impurities such as water vapor, siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide. Purification of biogas for this application particularly requires the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which negatively affects the operation and viability of equipment especially pumps, heat exchangers and pipes, causing their corrosion. Several methods are available to eliminate hydrogen sulfide from biogas. Herein, reactive absorption in structured packed column by means of chemical absorption in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions is considered. This study is based on simulations using Aspen Plus™ V8.0, and comparisons are done with data from an industrial pilot plant treating 85 Nm3/h of biogas which contains about 30 ppm of hydrogen sulfide. The rate-based model approach has been used for simulations in order to determine the efficiencies of separation for different operating conditions. To describe vapor-liquid equilibrium, a γ/ϕ approach has been considered: the Electrolyte NRTL model has been adopted to represent non-idealities in the liquid phase, while the Redlich-Kwong equation of state has been used for the vapor phase. In order to validate the thermodynamic model, Henry’s law constants of each compound in water have been verified against experimental data. Default values available in Aspen Plus™ V8.0 for the properties of pure components properties as heat capacity, density, viscosity and surface tension have also been verified. The obtained results for physical and chemical properties are in a good agreement with experimental data. Reactions involved in the process have been studied rigorously. Equilibrium constants for equilibrium reactions and the reaction rate constant for the kinetically controlled reaction between carbon dioxide and the hydroxide ion have been checked. Results of simulations of the pilot plant purification section show the influence of low temperatures, concentration of sodium hydroxide and hydrodynamic parameters on the selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide. These results show an acceptable degree of accuracy when compared with the experimental data obtained from the pilot plant. Results show also the great efficiency of sodium hydroxide for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. The content of this compound in the gas leaving the column is under 1 ppm.

Keywords: biogas, hydrogen sulfide, reactive absorption, sodium hydroxide, structured packed column

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742 Impact of Air Pollution and Climate on the Incidence of Emergency Interventions in Slavonski Brod

Authors: Renata Josipovic, Ante Cvitkovic

Abstract:

Particulate matter belongs to pollutants that can lead to respiratory problems or premature death due to exposure (long-term, short-term) to these substances, all depending on the severity of the effects. The importance of the study is to determine whether the existing climatic conditions in the period from January 1st to August 31st, 2018 increased the number of emergency interventions in Slavonski Brod with regard to pollutants hydrogen sulfide and particles less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). Analytical data of the concentration of pollutants are collected from the Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, which monitors the operation of two meteorological stations in Slavonski Brod, as well as climatic conditions. Statistics data of emergency interventions were collected from the Emergency Medicine Department of Slavonski Brod. All data were compared (air pollution, emergency interventions) according to climatic conditions (air humidity and air temperature) and statistically processed. Statistical significance, although weak positive correlation PM2.5 (correlation coefficient 0.147; p = 0.036), determined PM10 (correlation coefficient 0.122; p = 0.048), hydrogen sulfide (correlation coefficient 0.141; p = 0.035) with max. temperature (correlation coefficient 0.202; p = 0.002) with number of interventions. The association between mean air humidity was significant but negative (correlation coefficient - 0.172; p = 0.007). The values of the influence of air pressure are not determined. As the problem of air pollution is very complex, coordinated action at many levels is needed to reduce air pollution in Slavonski Brod and consequences that can affect human health.

Keywords: emergency interventions, human health, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter

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741 Dual Mode Mobile Based Detection of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide for Determination of Live and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Shashank Gahlaut, Chandrashekhar Sharan, J. P. Singh

Abstract:

Increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a big concern for the treatment of pathogenic diseases. The effect of treatment of patients with antibiotics often leads to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the pathogens. The detection of antibiotic or antimicrobial resistant bacteria (microbes) is quite essential as it is becoming one of the big threats globally. Here we propose a novel technique to tackle this problem. We are taking a step forward to prevent the infections and diseases due to drug resistant microbes. This detection is based on some unique features of silver (a noble metal) nanorods (AgNRs) which are fabricated by a physical deposition method called thermal glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Silver nanorods are found to be highly sensitive and selective for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. Color and water wetting (contact angle) of AgNRs are two parameters what are effected in the presence of this gas. H₂S is one of the major gaseous products evolved in the bacterial metabolic process. It is also known as gasotransmitter that transmits some biological singles in living systems. Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon mono oxide (CO) are two another members of this family. Orlowski (1895) observed the emission of H₂S by the bacteria for the first time. Most of the microorganism produce these gases. Here we are focusing on H₂S gas evolution to determine live/dead and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. AgNRs array has been used for the detection of H₂S from micro-organisms. A mobile app is also developed to make it easy, portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, hydrogen sulfide, live and dead bacteria, mobile app

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740 Effect of Hydrogen Content and Structure in Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Hydrogen Permeation Properties

Authors: Motonori Tamura

Abstract:

The hydrogen barrier properties of the coatings of diamond-like carbon (DLC) were evaluated. Using plasma chemical vapor deposition and sputtering, DLC coatings were deposited on Type 316L stainless steels. The hydrogen permeation rate was reduced to 1/1000 or lower by the DLC coatings. The DLC coatings with high hydrogen content had high hydrogen barrier function. For hydrogen diffusion in coatings, the movement of atoms through hydrogen trap sites such as pores in coatings, and crystal defects such as dislocations, is important. The DLC coatings are amorphous, and there are both sp3 and sp2 bonds, and excess hydrogen could be found in the interstitial space and the hydrogen trap sites. In the DLC coatings with high hydrogen content, these hydrogen trap sites are likely already filled with hydrogen atoms, and the movement of new hydrogen atoms could be limited.

Keywords: hydrogen permeation, stainless steels, diamond-like carbon, hydrogen trap sites

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739 Electrical Characteristics of SiON/GaAs MOS Capacitor with Various Passivations

Authors: Ming-Kwei Lee, Chih-Feng Yen

Abstract:

The electrical characteristics of liquid phase deposited silicon oxynitride film on ammonium sulfide treated p-type (100) gallium arsenide substrate were investigated. Hydrofluosilicic acid, ammonia and boric acid aqueous solutions were used as precursors. The electrical characteristics of silicon oxynitride film are much improved on gallium arsenide substrate with ammonium sulfide treatment. With post-metallization annealing, hydrogen ions can further passivate defects in SiON/GaAs film and interface. The leakage currents can reach 7.1 × 10-8 and 1.8 × 10-7 at ± 2 V. The dielectric constant and effective oxide charges are 5.6 and -5.3 × 1010 C/cm2, respectively. The hysteresis offset of hysteresis loop is merely 0.09 V.

Keywords: liquid phase deposition, SiON, GaAs, PMA, (NH4)2S

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738 Transition to Hydrogen Cities in Korea and Japan

Authors: Minhee Son, Kyung Nam Kim

Abstract:

This study explores the plan of the Korean and Japanese governments to transition into the hydrogen economy. Two motor companies, Hyundai Motor Company from Korea and Toyota from Japan, released the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle to monopolize the green energy automobile market. Although, they are the main countries which emit greenhouse gas, hydrogen energy can bring from a certain industry places, such as chemical plants and steel mills. Recent, the two countries have been focusing on the hydrogen industry including a fuel cell vehicle, a hydrogen station, a fuel cell plant, a residential fuel cell. The purpose of this paper is to find out the differences of the policies in the two countries to be hydrogen societies. We analyze the behavior of the public and private sectors in Korea and Japan about hydrogen energy and fuel cells for the transition of the hydrogen economy. Finally we show the similarities and differences of both countries in hydrogen fuel cells. And some cities have feature such as Hydrogen cities. Hydrogen energy can make impact environmental sustainability.

Keywords: fuel cell, hydrogen city, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, hydrogen station, hydrogen energy

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737 Sulfide Removal from Liquid Using Biofilm on Packed Bed of Salak Fruit Seeds

Authors: Retno Ambarwati Sigit Lestari, Wahyudi Budi Sediawan, Sarto Sarto

Abstract:

This study focused on the removal of sulfide from liquid solution using biofilm on packed bed of salak fruit seeds. Biofilter operation of 444 hours consists of 6 phases of operation. Each phase lasted for approximately 72 hours to 82 hours and run at various inlet concentration and flow rate. The highest removal efficiency is 92.01%, at the end of phase 7 at the inlet concentration of 60 ppm and the flow rate of 30 mL min-1. Mathematic model of sulfide removal was proposed to describe the operation of biofilter. The model proposed can be applied to describe the removal of sulfide liquid using biofilter in packed bed. The simulation results the value of the parameters in process. The value of the rate maximum spesific growth is 4.15E-8 s-1, Saturation constant is 9.1E-8 g cm-3, mass transfer coefisient of liquid is 0.5 cm s-1, Henry’s constant is 0.007, and mass of microorganisms growth to mass of sulfide comsumed is 30. The value of the rate maximum spesific growth in early process is 0.00000004 s-1.

Keywords: biofilm, packed bed, removal, sulfide, salak fruit seeds.

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736 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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735 Methods for Mitigating Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid in Sewerage Systems: State of the Art Review

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, M. Avella

Abstract:

Corrosion is an imminent process in nature, which affects all types of materials. In sewerage systems, the corrosion process caused by microorganisms, also known as biogenic sulfuric acid attack, has been studied. This affects the structural integrity of the concrete drainage pipes and the sewage treatment plants. This article is a review of research which focuses on the study of how to reduce the production of hydrogen sulfide, how to improve the resistance of concrete through the use of additives and the implementation of antimicrobial techniques to reduce bacterial growth.

Keywords: bactericides, biogenic sulfuric acid, corrosion, concrete, hydrogen sulphide, nano materials, zeolites

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734 Metformin and Its Combination with Sodium Hydrosulfide Influences Plasma Galectin-3 and CSE/H₂S System in Diabetic Rat's Heart

Authors: I. V. Palamarchuk, N. V. Zaichko

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Background and Aims: Galectin-3 is a marker of subclinical cardiac injury and is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus; while hydrogen sulfide (H₂S), metabolite of sulfur-containing amino acids, is considered having antifibrogenic effects. This study was designed to investigate whether metformin and its combination with NaHS can influence plasma galectin-3 and cystathionine-γ-lyase/hydrogen sulfide (CSE/H₂S) system in diabetic rat’s heart. Methods: 32 healthy male rats (180-250 g) were divided into 4 groups. To induct diabetes, rats (group 2-4) were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg/i.p., 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Rats from 3d (STZ+Metf) and 4th (STZ+Metf+NaHS) groups were given metformin (500 mg/kg/day) orally, and rats from 4th (STZ+Metf+NaHS) group were injected sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 3 mg/kg/i.p.) once per day starting from 3 to 28 day after streptozotocin injection. Rats of first group (control) were administered the equivalent volumes of 0.9% NaCl. Plasma galectin-3 was measured by ELISA. Rats’ hearts were sampled for determination of H2S by reaction with N,N-Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Determination of CSE gene expression was performed in real time using PCR in the presence of SYBR Green I, using DT-Light detecting amplifier ('DNA-technology', Russia). Results: Induction of streptozotocin diabetes (STZ-diabetes, group 2) was followed by low myocardial H2S concentration and CSE expression (by 35%, p < 0.05 and 60.5%, p < 0.001 respectively, than that in controls), while plasma galectin-3 in this group was significantly higher than in controls (by 3.8 times, p < 0.05). Administration of metformin (group 3) resulted in significantly higher H₂S concentration (by 28.5%, p < 0.05), whereas CSE expression was only by 6% more than that in STZ-diabetes, as well as plasma galectin-3 was only by 14.8% lower in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. The inhibition of H₂S generation and CSE activity by diabetes was greatly attenuated in STZ+Metf+NaHS group. The combination of metformin with NaHS significantly stimulated H₂S production (by 48%, p < 0.05 and 15%, p < 0.05 more than STZ-diabetes and STZ+Metf respectively) and CSE gene expression (by 64.8%, p < 0.05 compared to STZ-diabetes and by 55.4%,p < 0.05 compared to STZ+Metf). Besides, plasma galectin-3 in rats receiving metformin and NaHS was significantly lower by 42%, p < 0.05 and 32.5%, p < 0.05 compared to STZ-diabetes and STZ+Metf groups respectively. Conclusions: To summarize, dysfunction of CSE/H2S system and galectin-3 stimulation was found in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Metformin and its combination with exogenous H2S effectively prevented the development of metabolic changes induced by diabetes. These findings suggest that CSE/H₂S system can be integrated into pathogenesis of diabetic complications through modulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic mediator galectin-3.

Keywords: cystathionine-γ-lyase, diabetic heart, galectin-3, hydrogen sulfide, metformin, sodium hydrosulfide

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733 Microstructure of Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings

Authors: Motonori Tamura

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Ceramics coatings consisting of fine crystal grains, with diameters of about 100 nm or less, provided superior hydrogen-permeation barriers. Applying TiN, TiC or Al₂O₃ coatings on a stainless steel substrate reduced the hydrogen permeation by a factor of about 100 to 5,000 compared with uncoated substrates. Effect of the microstructure of coatings on hydrogen-permeation behavior is studied. The test specimens coated with coatings, with columnar crystals grown vertically on the substrate, tended to exhibit higher hydrogen permeability. The grain boundaries of the coatings became trap sites for hydrogen, and microcrystalline structures with many grain boundaries are expected to provide effective hydrogen-barrier performance.

Keywords: hydrogen permeation, tin coating, microstructure, crystal grain, stainless steel

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732 Investigating the Effects of Hydrogen on Wet Cement for Underground Hydrogen Storage Applications in Oil and Gas Wells

Authors: Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Hossein Emadi, Athar Hussain

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Green hydrogen is quickly emerging as a new source of renewable energy for the world. Hydrogen production using water electrolysis is deemed as an environmentally friendly and safe source of energy for transportation and other industries. However, storing a high volume of hydrogen seems to be a significant challenge. Abandoned hydrocarbon reservoirs are considered as viable hydrogen storage options because of the availability of the required infrastructure such as wells and surface facilities. However, long-term wellbore integrity in these wells could be a serious challenge. Hydrogen reduces the compressive strength of a set cement if it gets in contact with the cement slurry. Also, mixing hydrogen with cement slurry slightly increases its density and rheological properties, which need to be considered to have a successful primary cementing operation.

Keywords: hydrogen, well bore integrity, clean energy, cementing

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731 Transition Metal Bis(Dicarbollide) Complexes in Design of Molecular Switches

Authors: Igor B. Sivaev

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Design of molecular machines is an extraordinary growing and very important area of research that it was recognized by awarding Sauvage, Stoddart and Feringa the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 'for the design and synthesis of molecular machines'. Based on the type of motion being performed, molecular machines can be divided into two main types: molecular motors and molecular switches. Molecular switches are molecules or supramolecular complexes having bistability, i.e., the ability to exist in two or more stable forms, among which may be reversible transitions under external influence (heating, lighting, changing the medium acidity, the action of chemicals, exposure to magnetic or electric field). Molecular switches are the main structural element of any molecular electronics devices. Therefore, the design and the study of molecules and supramolecular systems capable of performing mechanical movement is an important and urgent problem of modern chemistry. There is growing interest in molecular switches and other devices of molecular electronics based on transition metal complexes; therefore choice of suitable stable organometallic unit is of great importance. An example of such unit is bis(dicarbollide) complexes of transition metals [3,3’-M(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]ⁿ⁻. The control on the ligand rotation in such complexes can be reached by introducing substituents which could provide stabilization of certain rotamers due to specific interactions between the ligands, on the one hand, and which can participate as Lewis bases in complex formation with external metals resulting in a change in the rotation angle of the ligands, on the other hand. A series of isomeric methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes containing methyl sulfide substituents at boron atoms in different positions of the pentagonal face of the dicarbollide ligands [8,8’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻, rac-[4,4’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ and meso-[4,7’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ were synthesized by the reaction of CoCl₂ with the corresponding methyl sulfide carborane derivatives [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻ and [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻. In the case of asymmetrically substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes the corresponding rac- and meso-isomers were successfully separated by column chromatography as the tetrabutylammonium salts. The compounds obtained were studied by the methods of ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that in the solid state, the transoid- and gauche-conformations of the 8,8’- and 4,4’-isomers are stabilized by four intramolecular CH···S(Me)B hydrogen bonds each one (2.683-2.712 Å and 2.709-2.752 Å, respectively), whereas gauche-conformation of the 4,7’-isomer is stabilized by two intramolecular CH···S hydrogen bonds (2.699-2.711 Å). The existence of the intramolecular CH·S(Me)B hydrogen bonding in solutions was supported by the 1H NMR spectroscopy. These data are in a good agreement with results of the quantum chemical calculations. The corresponding iron and nickel complexes were synthesized as well. The reaction of the methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) with various labile transition metal complexes results in rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and complexation of the methyl sulfide groups with external metal. This results in stabilization of other rotational conformation of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) and can be used in design of molecular switches. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (16-13-10331).

Keywords: molecular switches, NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, transition metal bis(dicarbollide) complexes, quantum chemical calculations

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730 Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Ibuprofen Derivative Can Protect Heart After Ischemia-Reperfusion

Authors: Virag Vass, Ilona Bereczki, Erzsebet Szabo, Nora Debreczeni, Aniko Borbas, Pal Herczegh, Arpad Tosaki

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Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a toxic gas, but it is produced by certain tissues in a small quantity. According to earlier studies, ibuprofen and H₂S has a protective effect against damaging heart tissue caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Recently, we have been investigating the effect of a new water-soluble H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule administered after artificially generated ischemia-reperfusion on isolated rat hearts. The H₂S releasing property of the new ibuprofen derivative was investigated in vitro in medium derived from heart endothelial cell isolation at two concentrations. The ex vivo examinations were carried out on rat hearts. Rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine, xylazine, and heparin. After thoracotomy, hearts were excised and placed into ice-cold perfusion buffer. Perfusion of hearts was conducted in Langendorff mode via the cannulated aorta. In our experiments, we studied the dose-effect of the H₂S releasing molecule in Langendorff-perfused hearts with the application of gradually increasing concentration of the compound (0- 20 µM). The H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative was applied before the ischemia for 10 minutes. H₂S concentration was measured with an H₂S detecting electrochemical sensor from the coronary effluent solution. The 10 µM concentration was chosen for further experiments when the treatment with this solution was occurred after the ischemia. The release of H₂S is occurred by the hydrolyzing enzymes that are present in the heart endothelial cells. The protective effect of the new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule can be confirmed by the infarct sizes of hearts using the Triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method. Furthermore, we aimed to define the effect of the H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative on autophagic and apoptotic processes in damaged hearts after investigating the molecular markers of these events by western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Our further studies will include the examination of LC3I/II, p62, Beclin1, caspase-3, and other apoptotic molecules. We hope that confirming the protective effect of new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule will open a new possibility for the development of more effective cardioprotective agents with exerting fewer side effects. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the grants of NKFIH- K-124719 and the European Union and the State of Hungary co- financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00043.

Keywords: autophagy, hydrogen sulfide, ibuprofen, ischemia, reperfusion

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729 Photoelectrochemical Study of Nanostructured Acropora-Like Lead Sulfide Thin Films

Authors: S. Kaci, A. Keffous, O. Fellahi, I. Bozetine, H. Menari

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In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of Acropora-like lead sulfide nanostructured thin films using chemical bath deposition. The method has the strong points of low temperature and no surfactant, comparing with the other method. The preferential growth directions of the broad branches were indexed as along (200) directions. The photoelectrochemical property of the as-deposited thin films was also investigated. Photoelectrochemical characterization was performed in the aim to determine the flat band potential (Vfb) and to confirm the n-type character of PbS, elucidated from the J(V) curves both in the dark and under illumination. The apparition of the photocurrent Jph started at a potential VON of −0.41 V/ECS and increased towards the anodic direction, which is typical of n-type behavior. The near infrared absorbance spectrum displayed an absorbance edge at 1959 nm, showing blue shift comparing to bulk PbS (3020 nm). These nanostructured lead sulfide thin films may have potential application as dispersed photoelectrode capable of generating H2 under visible light.

Keywords: lead sulfide, nanostructures, photo-conversion, thin films

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728 Preparation of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle-Modified 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-Functionalized Indium Tin Oxide Electrode for Electrochemical Sulfide Detection

Authors: Md. Abdul Aziz

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Sulfide ion is water soluble, highly corrosive, toxic and harmful to the human beings. As a result, knowing the exact concentration of sulfide in water is very important. However, the existing detection and quantification methods have several shortcomings, such as high cost, low sensitivity, and massive instrumentation. Consequently, the development of novel sulfide sensor is relevant. Nevertheless, electrochemical methods gained enormous popularity due to a vast improvement in the technique and instrumentation, portability, low cost, rapid analysis and simplicity of design. Successful field application of electrochemical devices still requires vast improvement, which depends on the physical, chemical and electrochemical aspects of the working electrode. The working electrode made of bulk gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) are quite common, being very robust and endowed with good electrocatalytic properties. High cost, and electrode poisoning, however, have so far hindered their practical application in many industries. To overcome these obstacles, we developed a sulfide sensor based on an indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITONP)-modified ITO electrode. To prepare ITONP-modified ITO, various methods were tested. Drop-drying of ITONPs (aq.) on aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-functionalized ITO (APTMS/ITO) was found to be the best method on the basis of voltammetric analysis of the sulfide ion. ITONP-modified APTMS/ITO (ITONP/APTMS/ITO) yielded much better electrocatalytic properties toward sulfide electro-οxidation than did bare or APTMS/ITO electrodes. The ITONPs and ITONP-modified ITO were also characterized using transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Optimization of the type of inert electrolyte and pH yielded an ITONP/APTMS/ITO detector whose amperometrically and chronocoulοmetrically determined limits of detection for sulfide in aqueous solution were 3.0 µM and 0.90 µM, respectively. ITONP/APTMS/ITO electrodes which displayed reproducible performances were highly stable and were not susceptible to interference by common contaminants. Thus, the developed electrode can be considered as a promising tool for sensing sulfide.

Keywords: amperometry, chronocoulometry, electrocatalytic properties, ITO-nanoparticle-modified ITO, sulfide sensor

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727 Hydrogen Storage in Carbonized Coconut Meat (Kernel)

Authors: Viney Dixit, Rohit R. Shahi, Ashish Bhatnagar, P. Jain, T. P. Yadav, O. N. Srivastava

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Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen absorption kinetics and low cost. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to synthesize carbon based material which shows moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of natural precursor coconut kernel is studied in this work. The hydrogen storage measurement reveals that the as-synthesized materials have good hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with fast kinetics. The synthesized material absorbs 8 wt.% of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature and 2.3 wt.% at room temperature. This could be due to the presence of certain elements (KCl, Mg, Ca) which are confirmed by TEM.

Keywords: coconut kernel, carbonization, hydrogenation, KCl, Mg, Ca

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