Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 177

Search results for: baby incubator

177 Temperature Distribution Control for Baby Incubator System Using Arduino AT Mega 2560

Authors: W. Widhiada, D. N. K. P. Negara, P. A. Suryawan

Abstract:

The technological advances in the field of health to be very important, especially on the safety of the baby. In this case a lot of premature infants death caused by poorly managed health facilities. Mostly the death of premature baby caused by bacteria since the temperature around the baby is not normal. Related to this, the incubator equipment needs to be important, especially in how to control the temperature in incubator. On/Off controls is used to regulate the temperature distribution in the incubator so that the desired temperature is 36 °C to stay awake and stable. The authors have been observed and analyzed the data to determine the temperature distribution in the incubator using program of MATLAB/Simulink. The output temperature distribution is obtained at 36 °C in 400 seconds using an Arduino AT 2560. This incubator is able to maintain an ambient temperature and maintain the baby's body temperature within normal limits and keep the moisture in the air in accordance with the limit values required in infant incubator.

Keywords: on/off control, distribution temperature, Arduino AT 2560, baby incubator

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
176 Culturing of Bovine Pre-Compacted Morlae in TCM-199 and Baf in a Standard 5% CO2 Laboratory Incubator and in the Vagina of a Goat Doe

Authors: Daniel M. Barry

Abstract:

Since more than half a century ago, attempts have been made to culture cells and embryos outside the body (in vitro or ex vivo). This was done with different culture media and in various “incubators”. In the present study two different culture media were used: a standard TCM-199 culture medium and first trimester amniotic fluid (BAF) collected sterilely from pregnant cows after slaughter. Two different culture conditions were also investigated, the standard laboratory CO2 incubator versus culturing bovine embryos in the vagina of a goat doe. Two experiments were done: Firstly the permeability of different receptacles to CO2 gas was analyzed for possible culture in the vagina. Four-well plates and straws were used to incubate TCM-199 and BAF for a period of 120 h in the presence or absence of 5% CO2 gas. The pH values were measured and recorded every 24 h. In the second experiment pre-compacted morula stage bovine embryos were cultured in the above culture media in sealed 0.25 mL straws in a standard laboratory incubator and in the vagina of a goat doe. Evaluation was done on (1) stage of development and (2) number of blastomeres after 96 h of culture. In the first experiment it was shown that the CO2 gas diffused out of the 4-well plate as well as through the wall of the straws in the absence of CO2 gas, while in the presence of CO2 the pH of both media stabilized between 7.3 and 7.5. This meant that the semen straws were permeable to CO2 gas and could therefore be used as receptacles for culturing early stage bovine embryos. In the second experiment no statistical differences (p>0.05) were found in the number of pre-compacted bovine embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage, or the hatched blastocyst stage, neither for the culture medium used, or the method of culturing in the two incubators. Neither was there any difference (p>0.05) in the number of blastomeres that developed at the blastocyst stage between the two types of incubators. The bovine embryos tended to develop more blastomeres when cultured in BAF than when cultured in TCM-199 in both the standard laboratory incubator and when using the vagina of a goat doe as an incubator.

Keywords: alternative culture, bovine embryos, vagina, bovine amniotic fluid, incubator

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
175 The Challenges of Business Incubations: A Case of Malaysian Incubators

Authors: Logaiswari Indiran, Zainab Khalifah, Kamariah Ismail

Abstract:

Business incubators have now been recognized as effective tools in providing business assistance to start-up firms. In both developed and developing countries, the number of incubators is growing tremendously. As the birth rate of incubators increases, so do its challenges. Malaysia, as one of the developing countries in the Asian continent, has also established a number of business incubators to breed and foster the growth and survival of start-up firms. Thus, this study discusses the incubation model applied in Malaysia and the challenges faced by these incubators using secondary data including policies, previous literature, and reports related to Malaysian incubators. The findings of this study call the government to rethink the key role of incubator managers and staffs, internal structure of the incubator concept and process, intellectual properties management, strategic alliances with universities-industries and funding supports in enhancing the support provided by the business incubators in Malaysia. The key challenges highlighted in this study signal important policy lessons for other developing countries that aim to create and map an effective business incubator ecosystem.

Keywords: business incubators, incubation challenges, funding support, incubator managers, internal structure, start-up firms

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
174 Somatosensory Detection Wristbands Applied Research of Baby

Authors: Chang Ting, Wu Chun Kuan

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Wireless sensing technology is increasingly developed, in order to avoid caregiver neglect children in poor physiological condition, so there are more and more products into the wireless sensor-related technologies, in order to reduce the risk of infants. In view of this, the study will focus on Somatosensory detection wristbands Applied Research of Baby, and to explore through observation and literature, to find design criteria which conform baby products, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of existing products. This study will focus on 0-2 years of infant research and product design, to provide 2-3 new design concepts and products to identify weaknesses through the use of the actual product, further provide future baby wristbands design reference.

Keywords: infants, observation, design criteria, wireless sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
173 Utilization of Sugar Factory Waste as an Organic Fertilizer on Growth and Production of Baby Corn

Authors: Marliana S. Palad

Abstract:

The research purpose is to view and know the influence of giving blotong against growth and production of baby corn. The research was arranged as a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The first is fertilizer type: blotong (B1), blotong+EM4 (B2) and bokashi blotong (B3), while of the blotong dose assigned as the second factor: blotong 5 ton ha -1 (D1), blotong 10 ton ha-1 (D2) and blotong 15 ton ha-1 (D3). The research result indicated that bokashi blotong gives the best influence compare to blotong+EM4 against all parameters. Interaction between fertilizers does 10 ton ha-1 to the bokashi. Blotong gives the best influence to the baby corn production 4.41 ton ha-1, bokasi blotong best anyway influence on baby corn vegetative growth, that is: plant height 113.00 cm, leaves number 8 (eight) pieces and stem diameter 6.02 cm. Results of analysis of variance showed that giving of bokashi blotong (B3) showed a better effect on the growth and production of baby corn and highly significant for plant height age of 60 days after planting, leaf number aged 60 days after planting, cob length cornhusk and without cornhusk, diameter stems and cobs, cob weight with cornhusk and without cornhusk and production are converted into ton ha-1. This is due to bokashi blotong has organic content of C, N, P, and K totalling more than the maximum treatment blotong (B1) and the blotong+EM4 (B2). Based on the research result, it can be summarised that sugar factory waste called blotong can be used to make bokashi as organic fertilizer, so the baby corn can growth and production better.

Keywords: blotong, bokashi, organic fertilizer, sugar factory waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
172 Baby Cot’s Indoor Air Quality

Authors: Wim Zeiler

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The indoor quality of occupied space is very important for the well-being of its occupants, especially in the case of babies. The lungs of a young child are still growing and adverse conditions could affect this development. Presently little children spend a lot of their time in day care centers while parents are at work. Little is known about the effects of different indoor environmental factors present in these day care centers and the quality of air of baby cots in which the babies are accommodated in these day care centers. Therefore this research investigated the quality of the accommodation of Dutch day care centers. Besides an extensive literature research actual measurements were performed in baby cots within three-day care center. Some experiments were performed to find out the importance of the configuration and types of baby cots. This research investigated the quality of the accommodation of a Dutch day care center which led to a tool describing the quality needs (e.g., quality standard) for the accommodation of day care centers. The results of our detailed studies were compared with the results of earlier Dutch more global studies in day care centers, in which more than 60 day care centers were investigated. Also the results are compared with the outcomes of research on school ventilation. The results proved that the situation in day care centers is even worse than that of schools within the Netherlands. More attention is needed to improve the current situation.

Keywords: ventilation, baby cots, day care centers, case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
171 Constructing a Grounded Theory of Parents' Musical Engagement with Their Premature Baby Contributing to Their Emerging Parental Identity in a Neonatal Unit

Authors: Elizabeth McLean, Katrina Skewes-McFerran, Grace Thompson

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Scholarship highlights the need to further examine and better understand and foster the process of becoming a parent to a premature baby in the neonatal context to support the critical development of the parent-infant relationship. Music therapy research documents significant benefits of music therapy on neonatal physiological and neurodevelopmental function, reduced maternal anxiety and validating parents’ relationship with their premature baby, yet limited studies examine the role of music in supporting parental identity. This was a multi-site study, exploring parents’ musical engagement with their hospitalised baby and parental identity in a NU. In-depth interviews with nine parents of a premature baby across varying time points in their NU journey took place. Data collection and analysis was influenced by Constructive Grounded Theory methodology. Findings in the form of a substantive grounded theory illuminated the contribution of parents’ musical engagement on their sense of parental identity in the NU. Specifically, the significance of their baby’s level and type of response during musical interactions in influencing parents’ capacity to engage in musical dialogue with their baby emerged. Specific conditions that acted as both barriers and fosters in parents’ musical engagement across a high- risk pregnancy and NU admission also emerged. Recommendations for future research into the role of music and music therapy in supporting parental coping and transition to parenthood during a high-risk pregnancy and birth and beyond the NU will be discussed.

Keywords: grounded theory, musical engagement, music therapy, parental identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
170 An Online Questionnaire Investigating UK Mothers' Experiences of Bottle Refusal by Their Breastfed Baby

Authors: Clare Maxwell, Lorna Porcellato, Valerie Fleming, Kate Fleming

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A review of global online forums and social media reveals large numbers of mothers experiencing bottle refusal by their breastfed baby. It is difficult to determine precise numbers due to a lack of data, however, established virtual communities illustrate thousands of posts in relation to the issue. Mothers report various negative consequences of bottle refusal including delaying their return to work, time and financial outlay spent on methods to overcome it and experiencing stress, anxiety, and resentment of breastfeeding. A search of the literature revealed no studies being identified, and due to a lack of epidemiological data, a study investigating mother’s experiences of bottle refusal by their breastfed baby was undertaken. The aim of the study was to investigate UK mothers’ experiences of bottle refusal by their breastfed baby. Data were collected using an online questionnaire collecting quantitative and qualitative data. 841 UK mothers who had experienced or were experiencing bottle refusal by their breastfed baby completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric testing. The results showed 61% (516/840) of mothers reported their breastfed baby was still refusing/had never accepted a bottle, with 39% (324/840) reporting their baby had eventually accepted. The most frequently reported reason to introduce a bottle was so partner/family could feed the baby 59% (499/839). 75% (634/841) of mothers intended their baby to feed on a bottle ‘occasionally’. Babies who accepted a bottle were more likely to be older at 1st attempt to introduce one than those babies who refused (Mdn = 12 weeks v 8 weeks, n = 286) (p = <0.001). Length of time taken to acceptance was 9 weeks (Mdn = 9, IQR = 18, R = 103.9, n = 306) with the older the baby was at 1st attempt to introduce a bottle being associated with a shorter length of time to acceptance (p = < 0.002). 60% (500/841) of mothers stated that none of the methods they used had worked. 26% (222/841) of mothers reported bottle refusal had had a negative impact upon their overall breastfeeding experience. 47% (303/604) reported they would have tried to introduce a bottle earlier to prevent refusal. This study provides a unique insight into the scenario of bottle refusal by breastfed babies. It highlights that bottle refusal by breastfed babies is a significant issue, which requires recognition from those communicating breastfeeding information to mothers.

Keywords: bottle feeding, bottle refusal, breastfeeding, infant feeding

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
169 “Congratulations, I Am Sorry for Your Loss”. A Qualitative Study to Help Healthcare Providers Search for Words When a Baby Dies

Authors: Liesbeth Van Kelst, Jozefiene Jansens

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Background: All care providers within mother and child care are confronted, at some point in their career, with the care for parents who (will) lose or have lost a baby. Obtaining the correct attitude and communicating well during these difficult moments are aspects that many healthcare provides continue to struggle with. Parents still encounter well-intentioned but inappropriate communication from healthcare providers. Aim: To study how communication, both verbal and non-verbal, around the death of a baby during pregnancy, birth, or in the first ten days postnatal was experienced by parents and healthcare providers. Methods: A qualitative study using grounded theory principles was conducted. Data were collected through 22 individual face-to-face in-depth interviews with parents who had lost a baby (n = 12) and intramural caregivers, such as midwives, nurses, gynecologists and neonatologists (n=10). In the first phase, data were analyzed within each group separately (parents and healthcare providers) and in the second phase, findings from both groups were compared and analyzed according to meta-synthesis principles. Results: The themes that emerged from the data demonstrated congruent experiences between the group of the parents and the health care providers. Both strengths and weaknesses in current care were named and suggestions for appropriate communication were formulated. Conclusion: Since most health care providers only occasionally care for parents with a deceased baby, a communication tool can optimize communication between healthcare professionals and parents who lose a baby. This is very important as the words which are said at this difficult period last a lifetime in the heads of parents.

Keywords: communication, death, perinatal loss, stillbirth

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
168 Design and Construction of Temperature and Humidity Control Channel for a Bacteriological Incubator

Authors: Carlos R. Duharte Rodríguez, Ibrain Ceballo Acosta, Carmen B. Busoch Morlán, Angel Regueiro Gómez, Annet Martinez Hernández

Abstract:

This work shows the designing and characterization of a prototype of laboratory incubator as support of research in Microbiology, in particular during studies of bacterial growth in biological samples, with the help of optic methods (Turbidimetry) and electrometric measurements of bioimpedance. It shows the results of simulation and experimentation of the design proposed for the canals of measurement of the variables: temperature and humidity, with a high linearity from the adequate selection of sensors and analogue components of every channel, controlled with help of a microcontroller AT89C51 (ATMEL) with adequate benefits for this type of application.

Keywords: microbiology, bacterial growth, incubation station, microorganisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
167 Selection of New Business in Brazilian Companies Incubators through Hierarchical Methodology

Authors: Izabel Cristina Zattar, Gilberto Passos Lima, Guilherme Schünemann de Oliveira

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In Brazil, there are several institutions committed to the development of new businesses based on product innovation. Among them are business incubators, universities and science institutes. Business incubators can be defined as nurseries for new companies, which may be in the technology segment, discussed in this article. Business incubators provide services related to infrastructure, such as physical space and meeting rooms. Besides these services, incubators also offer assistance in the form of information and communication, access to finance, relationship networks and business monitoring and mentoring processes. Business incubators support not all technology companies. One of the business incubators tasks is to assess the nature and feasibility of new business proposals. To assist this goal, this paper proposes a methodology for evaluating new business using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This paper presents the concepts used in the assessing methodology application for new business, concepts that have been tested with positive results in practice. This study counts on three main steps: first, a hierarchy was built, based on new business manuals used by the business incubators. These books and manuals relate business selection requirements, such as the innovation status and other technological aspects. Then, a questionnaire was generated, in order to guide incubator experts in the parity comparisons at all hierarchy levels. The weights of each requirement are calculated from information obtained from the questionnaire responses. Finally, the proposed method was applied to evaluate five new business proposals, which were applying to be part of a company incubator. The main result is the classification of these new businesses, which helped the incubator experts to decide what companies were more eligible to work with. This classification may also be helpful to the decision-making process of business incubators in future selection processes.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Brazilian companies incubators, technology companies, incubator

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
166 Halal Authentication for Some Product Collected from Jordanian Market Using Real-Time PCR

Authors: Omar S. Sharaf

Abstract:

The mitochondrial 12s rRNA (mt-12s rDNA) gene for pig-specific was developed to detect material from pork species in different products collected from Jordanian market. The amplification PCR products of 359 bp and 531 bp were successfully amplified from the cyt b gene of pig the amplification product using mt-12S rDNA gene were successfully produced a single band with a molecular size of 456 bp. In the present work, the PCR amplification of mtDNA of cytochrome b has been shown as a suitable tool for rapid detection of pig DNA. 100 samples from different dairy, gelatin and chocolate based products and 50 samples from baby food formula were collected and tested to a presence of any pig derivatives. It was found that 10% of chocolate based products, 12% of gelatin and 56% from dairy products and 5.2% from baby food formula showed single band from mt-12S rDNA gene.

Keywords: halal food, baby infant formula, chocolate based products, PCR, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
165 Using Hierarchical Methodology to Assist the Selection of New Business in Brazilian Companies Incubators

Authors: Izabel Cristina Zattar, Gilberto Passos Lima, Guilherme Schünemann de Oliveira

Abstract:

In Brazil, there are several institutions committed to the development of new businesses based on product innovation. Among them are business incubators, universities and science institutes. Business incubators can be defined as nurseries for new companies, which may be in the technology segment, discussed in this article. Business incubators provide services related to infrastructure, such as physical space and meeting rooms. Besides these services, incubators also offer assistance in the form of information and communication, access to finance, relationship networks and business monitoring and mentoring processes. Business incubators support not all technology companies. One of the business incubators tasks is to assess the nature and feasibility of new business proposals. To assist in this goal, this paper proposes a methodology for evaluating new business using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This paper presents the concepts used in the assessing methodology application for new business, concepts that have been tested with positive results in practice. This study counts on three main steps: first, a hierarchy was built, based on new business manuals used by the business incubators. These books and manuals relate business selection requirements, such as the innovation status and other technological aspects. Then, a questionnaire was generated, in order to guide incubator experts in the parity comparisons at all hierarchy levels. The weights of each requirement are calculated from information obtained from the questionnaire responses. Finally, the proposed method was applied to evaluate five new business proposals, which were applying to be part of a company incubator. The main result is the classification of these new businesses, which helped the incubator experts to decide what companies were more eligible to work with. This classification may also be helpful to the decision-making process of business incubators in future selection processes.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Brazilian companies incubators, technology companies, incubator

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
164 An Intelligent Baby Care System Based on IoT and Deep Learning Techniques

Authors: Chinlun Lai, Lunjyh Jiang

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Due to the heavy burden and pressure of caring for infants, an integrated automatic baby watching system based on IoT smart sensing and deep learning machine vision techniques is proposed in this paper. By monitoring infant body conditions such as heartbeat, breathing, body temperature, sleeping posture, as well as the surrounding conditions such as dangerous/sharp objects, light, noise, humidity and temperature, the proposed system can analyze and predict the obvious/potential dangerous conditions according to observed data and then adopt suitable actions in real time to protect the infant from harm. Thus, reducing the burden of the caregiver and improving safety efficiency of the caring work. The experimental results show that the proposed system works successfully for the infant care work and thus can be implemented in various life fields practically.

Keywords: baby care system, Internet of Things, deep learning, machine vision

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
163 Debate between Breast Milk and Formula Milk in Nutritional Value

Authors: Nora Alkharji, Wafa Fallatah

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Introduction: One of the major issues to consider when is deciding on what to feed a baby is the quality of the food itself. Whilst commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative to breast milk, and even contain some vitamins and nutrients, most major medical organizations consider breastfeeding the best nutritional option for babies. Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is one of the first decisions expectant parents will make. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is in agreement with other organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Dietetic Association (ADA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) in recommending breastfeeding as the best nutrition for babies and best suited for a baby's digestive system. In addition, breastfeeding helps in the combatting of infections, prevention of allergies, and protection against various chronic conditions. The decision to breastfeed or formula feed one’s baby is a very personal one. However, certain points need to be clarified regarding the nutritional value of breastfeeding versus formula feeding to allow for informed decision-making. Methodology: -A formal debate about whether to breastfeed or formula feed babies as the better choice. -There will be two debaters, both lactation consultants -Arguments will be based on evidence-based medicine -Duration period of debated: 45 min Result: Clarification and heightened awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding. Conclusion: This debate will make the choice between breastfeeding or formula feeding a relatively easy one to make by both health worker and parents.

Keywords: breastmilk, formula milk, nutritional, comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
162 Baby Boomers and Millennials: Creating a Specialized Orientation Program

Authors: K. Rowan

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In this paper, the author will discuss how developing a specialized orientation has improved nursing satisfaction and decrease the incidence of incivility among staff. With the predicted shortages in nursing, we must provide an environment that reflects the needs of the current workforce while also focusing on the sustainability of nursing. Each generation has different qualities and methods in which he or she prefers to learn. The Baby Boomer has a desire to share their knowledge. They feel that the quality of undergraduate nursing education has declined. Millennials have grown up with 'helicopter parents' and expect the preceptor to behave in the same manner. This information must be shared with the Baby Boomer, as it is these staff members who are passing the torch of perioperative nursing. Currently, nurse fellows are trained with the Association of periOperative Nurse’s Periop 101 program, with a didactic and clinical observation program. There is no specialized perioperative preceptor program. In creation of a preceptor program, the concept of Novice to Expert, communication techniques, dealing with horizontal violence and generational gap education is reviewed with the preceptor. The fellows are taught communication and de-escalation skills, and generational gaps information. The groups are then brought together for introductions and teamwork exercises. At the program’s core is the knowledge of generational differences. The preceptor training has increased preceptor satisfaction, as well as the new nurse fellows. The creation of a specialized education program has significantly decreased incivility amongst our nurses, all while increasing nursing satisfaction and improving nursing retention. This model of program can translate to all nursing specialties and assist in overcoming the impending shortage.

Keywords: baby boomers, education, generational gap, millennials, nursing, perioperative

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
161 A Quadratic Model to Early Predict the Blastocyst Stage with a Time Lapse Incubator

Authors: Cecile Edel, Sandrine Giscard D'Estaing, Elsa Labrune, Jacqueline Lornage, Mehdi Benchaib

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Introduction: The use of incubator equipped with time-lapse technology in Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) allows a continuous surveillance. With morphocinetic parameters, algorithms are available to predict the potential outcome of an embryo. However, the different proposed time-lapse algorithms do not take account the missing data, and then some embryos could not be classified. The aim of this work is to construct a predictive model even in the case of missing data. Materials and methods: Patients: A retrospective study was performed, in biology laboratory of reproduction at the hospital ‘Femme Mère Enfant’ (Lyon, France) between 1 May 2013 and 30 April 2015. Embryos (n= 557) obtained from couples (n=108) were cultured in a time-lapse incubator (Embryoscope®, Vitrolife, Goteborg, Sweden). Time-lapse incubator: The morphocinetic parameters obtained during the three first days of embryo life were used to build the predictive model. Predictive model: A quadratic regression was performed between the number of cells and time. N = a. T² + b. T + c. N: number of cells at T time (T in hours). The regression coefficients were calculated with Excel software (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA), a program with Visual Basic for Application (VBA) (Microsoft) was written for this purpose. The quadratic equation was used to find a value that allows to predict the blastocyst formation: the synthetize value. The area under the curve (AUC) obtained from the ROC curve was used to appreciate the performance of the regression coefficients and the synthetize value. A cut-off value has been calculated for each regression coefficient and for the synthetize value to obtain two groups where the difference of blastocyst formation rate according to the cut-off values was maximal. The data were analyzed with SPSS (IBM, Il, Chicago, USA). Results: Among the 557 embryos, 79.7% had reached the blastocyst stage. The synthetize value corresponds to the value calculated with time value equal to 99, the highest AUC was then obtained. The AUC for regression coefficient ‘a’ was 0.648 (p < 0.001), 0.363 (p < 0.001) for the regression coefficient ‘b’, 0.633 (p < 0.001) for the regression coefficient ‘c’, and 0.659 (p < 0.001) for the synthetize value. The results are presented as follow: blastocyst formation rate under cut-off value versus blastocyst rate formation above cut-off value. For the regression coefficient ‘a’ the optimum cut-off value was -1.14.10-3 (61.3% versus 84.3%, p < 0.001), 0.26 for the regression coefficient ‘b’ (83.9% versus 63.1%, p < 0.001), -4.4 for the regression coefficient ‘c’ (62.2% versus 83.1%, p < 0.001) and 8.89 for the synthetize value (58.6% versus 85.0%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This quadratic regression allows to predict the outcome of an embryo even in case of missing data. Three regression coefficients and a synthetize value could represent the identity card of an embryo. ‘a’ regression coefficient represents the acceleration of cells division, ‘b’ regression coefficient represents the speed of cell division. We could hypothesize that ‘c’ regression coefficient could represent the intrinsic potential of an embryo. This intrinsic potential could be dependent from oocyte originating the embryo. These hypotheses should be confirmed by studies analyzing relationship between regression coefficients and ART parameters.

Keywords: ART procedure, blastocyst formation, time-lapse incubator, quadratic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
160 Study of the Impact of Quality Management System on Chinese Baby Dairy Product Industries

Authors: Qingxin Chen, Liben Jiang, Andrew Smith, Karim Hadjri

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Since 2007, the Chinese food industry has undergone serious food contamination in the baby dairy industry, especially milk powder contamination. One of the milk powder products was found to contain melamine and a significant number (294,000) of babies were affected by kidney stones. Due to growing concerns among consumers about food safety and protection, and high pressure from central government, companies must take radical action to ensure food quality protection through the use of an appropriate quality management system. Previously, though researchers have investigated the health and safety aspects of food industries and products, quality issues concerning food products in China have been largely over-looked. Issues associated with baby dairy products and their quality issues have not been discussed in depth. This paper investigates the impact of quality management systems on the Chinese baby dairy product industry. A literature review was carried out to analyse the use of quality management systems within the Chinese milk power market. Moreover, quality concepts, relevant standards, laws, regulations and special issues (such as Melamine, Flavacin M1 contamination) have been analysed in detail. A qualitative research approach is employed, whereby preliminary analysis was conducted by interview, and data analysis based on interview responses from four selected Chinese baby dairy product companies was carried out. Through the analysis of literature review and data findings, it has been revealed that for quality management system that has been designed by many practitioners, many theories, models, conceptualisation, and systems are present. These standards and procedures should be followed in order to provide quality products to consumers, but the implementation is lacking in the Chinese baby dairy industry. Quality management systems have been applied by the selected companies but the implementation still needs improvement. For instance, the companies have to take measures to improve their processes and procedures with relevant standards. The government need to make more interventions and take a greater supervisory role in the production process. In general, this research presents implications for the regulatory bodies, Chinese Government and dairy food companies. There are food safety laws prevalent in China but they have not been widely practiced by companies. Regulatory bodies must take a greater role in ensuring compliance with laws and regulations. The Chinese government must also play a special role in urging companies to implement relevant quality control processes. The baby dairy companies not only have to accept the interventions from the regulatory bodies and government, they also need to ensure that production, storage, distribution and other processes will follow the relevant rules and standards.

Keywords: baby dairy product, food quality, milk powder contamination, quality management system

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159 Entrepreneurial Predisposition and Intention of Students from the IFRN – Mossoró, Brazil

Authors: Giovane Gurgel, Cristina S. Rodrigues, Filipa D. Vieira

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IFRN – Mossoró is a Brazilian technical education institute that develops several activities to encourage entrepreneurship, such as a curricular discipline about enterprise management and the existence of a business incubator. Despite efforts, the business incubator does not produce the expected effects. Therefore, what predisposes students to start their own business? If literature review explores determinant factors like the family and personal characteristics, it can be sustained that entrepreneurship skills can be taught since primary level, until university level. This paper presents the results of research project “Empreende IFRN” to understand the entrepreneurial predisposition and intention of the students from technical level courses. Data from 365 students from technical level courses reveal an increased entrepreneurial intention of students during time (from a 2 years period to someday in the future). The entrepreneurial behaviour of parents affects students’ perception about starting their own business. Students also present a cautions behaviour, preferring bank deposit and investment fund instead starting a business.

Keywords: Brazil, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship, secondary technical students

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
158 Effect of Laser Ablation OTR Films on the Storability of Endive and Pak Choi by Baby Vegetables in Modified Atmosphere Condition

Authors: In-Lee Choi, Min Jae Jeong, Jun Pill Baek, Ho-Min Kang

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As the consumption trends of vegetables become different from the past, it is increased using vegetable more convenience such as fresh-cut vegetables, sprouts, baby vegetables rather than an existing hole piece of vegetables. Selected baby vegetables have various functional materials but they have short shelf life. This study was conducted to improve storability by using suitable laser ablation OTR (oxygen transmission rate) films. Baby vegetable of endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and pak choi (Brassica rapa chinensis) for this research, around 10 cm height, cultivated in glass greenhouse during 3 weeks. Harvested endive and pak choi were stored at 8 ℃ for 5 days and were packed by PP (Polypropylene) container and covered different types of laser ablation OTR film (DaeRyung Co., Ltd.) such as 1,300 cc, 10,000 cc, 20,000 cc, 40,000 cc /m2•day•atm, and control (perforated film) with heat sealing machine (SC200-IP, Kumkang, Korea). All the samples conducted 5 times replication. Statistical analysis was carried out using a Microsoft Excel 2010 program and results were expressed as standard deviations. The fresh weight loss rate of both baby vegetables were less than 0.3 % in treated films as maximum weight loss rate. On the other hands, control in the final storage day had around 3.0 % weight loss rate and it followed decreasing quantity. Endive had less 2.0 % carbon dioxide contents as maximum contents in 20,000 cc and 40,000 cc. Oxygen contents was maintained between 17 and 20 % in endive, 19 and 20 % in pak choi. Ethylene concentration of both vegetables maintained little lower contents in 20,000 cc treatments than others at final storage day without statistical significance. In the case of hardness, 40,000 cc film was shown little higher value at both baby vegetables without statistical significance. Visual quality was good at 10,000 cc and 20,000 cc in endive and pak choi, and off-flavor was not appeard any off-flavor in both vegetables. Chlorophyll (SPAD-502, Minolta, Japan) value of endive was shown as similar result with initial in all treatments except 20,000 cc as little lower. And chlorophyll value of pak choi decreased in all treatments compared with initial value but was not shown significantly difference each other. Color of leaves (CR-400, Minolta, Japan) changed significantly in 40,000 cc at endive. In an event of pak choi, all the treatments started yellowing by increasing hunter b value, among them control increased substantially. As above the result, 10,000 cc film was most reasonable packaging film for storing at endive and 20,000 cc at pak choi with good quality.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, shelf-life, visual quality, pak choi

Procedia PDF Downloads 560
157 Nursing Experience of Helping the Mother of a Dying Baby by Applying Watson's Theory of Human Caring

Authors: Ya-Ping Chang

Abstract:

Starting from the early stages of pregnancy, parents begin to form hopes and dreams about the future of their child. They will think about the appearance and personality of their child and may even develop many expectations. The patient in this study experienced a successful pregnancy following multiple attempts at artificial insemination. However, due to arrested embryonic development, and based on the physician’s evaluation, a caesarean section was performed at week 25. However, the baby suffered from infections and subsequently died from multiple organ failures. This study collected and analyzed objective and subjective data through observation, interviews, recording, and interactions with the patient. The following nursing issues of the patient were identified: anxiety, anticipatory grief, and adjustment disorder. The psychology of caring as proposed in Watson’s theory was applied to address these nursing issues. Comprehensive and continuous care was provided to the patient on the basis of mutual trust and individual nursing guidelines in order to alleviate the patient’s anxiety, help her to cope with grief, and prepare her for the eventual death of her child. The author helped the patient to say goodbye to her child and accept the child’s death calmly, such that she had no regrets about the experience. This nursing experience may serve as a reference to nurses managing similar cases in the future.

Keywords: dying baby, mother, grief, Watson’s theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
156 A Case of Iatrogenic Esophageal Perforation in an Extremely Low Birth Weight Neonate

Authors: Ya-Ching Fu, An-Kuo Chou, Boon-Fatt Tan, Chi-Nien Chen, Wen-Chien Yang, Pou-Leng Cheong

Abstract:

Blind oro-/naso-pharyngeal suction and feeding tube placement are very common practices in neonatal intensive care unit. Though esophageal perforation is a rare complication of these instrumentations, its prevalence is highest in extremely premature neonates. Due to its association with significant morbidity (including respiratory deterioration, pneumothorax, and sepsis) and even mortality, it is an important issue to prevent this iatrogenic complication in the field of premature care. We demonstrate an esophageal perforation in an extreme-low-birth-weight neonate after oro-gastric tube placement. This female baby weighing 680 grams was delivered by caesarean section at 25 weeks of gestational age. She initially received oro-tracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation which was smoothly weaned to non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation at 7-day-old. However, after insertion of a 5-French oro-gastric tube, the baby’s condition suddenly worsened with apnea requiring mechanical ventilation. Her chest radiogram showed the oro-gastric tube in right pleural space, and thus another oro-gastric tube was replaced, and its position was radiographically confirmed. The malpositioned tube was then removed. The baby received 2-week course of intravenous antibiotics for her esophageal perforation. Feeding was then reintroduced and increased to full feeds in a smooth course. She was discharged at 107-day-old. Esophageal perforation in newborn is very rare. Sudden respiratory deterioration in a neonate after naso-/oro-gastric tube placement should alarm us to consider esophageal perforation, and further radiological investigation is required for the diagnosis. Tube materials, patient condition, and age are major risk factors of esophageal perforation. The use of softer tube material, such as silicone, in extreme premature baby might prevent this fetal complication.

Keywords: esophageal perforation, preterm, newborn, feeding tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
155 Maternal and Neonatal Outcome Analysis in Preterm Abdominal Delivery Underwent Umbilical Cord Milking Compared to Early Cord Clamping

Authors: Herlangga Pramaditya, Agus Sulistyono, Risa Etika, Budiono Budiono, Alvin Saputra

Abstract:

Preterm birth and anemia of prematurity are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, and anemia of the preterm neonates has become a major issue. The timing of umbilical cord clamping after a baby is born determines the amount of blood transferred from the placenta to fetus, Delayed Cord Clamping (DCC) has proven to prevent anemia in the neonates but it is constrained concern regarding the delayed in neonatal resuscitation. Umbilical Cord Milking (UCM) could be an alternative method for clamping the umbilical cord due to the active blood transfer from the placenta to the fetus. The aim of this study was to analyze the difference between maternal and neonatal outcome in preterm abdominal delivery who underwent UCM compared to ECC. This was an experimental study with randomized post-test only control design. Analyzed maternal and neonatal outcomes, significant P values (P <0.05). Statistical comparison was carried out using Paired Samples t-test (α two tailed 0,05). The result was the mean of preoperative mother’s hemoglobin in UCM group compared to ECC (10,9 + 0,9 g/dL vs 10,4 + 0,9 g/dL) and postoperative (11,1 + 1,1 g/dL vs 10,5 + 0,7 g/dL), the delta was (0,2 + 0,7 vs 0,1 + 0,6.). It showed no significant difference (P=0,395 vs 0,627). The mean of 3rd phase labor duration in UCM group vs ECC was (20,5 + 3,5 second vs 21,1 + 3,3 second), showed insignificant difference (P=0,634). The amount of bleeding after delivery in UCM group compared to ECC has the median of 190 cc (100-280cc) vs 210 cc (150-330 cc) showed insignificant difference (P=0,083) so the incidence of post-partum bleeding was not found. The mean of the neonates hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocytes of UCM group compared to ECC was (19,3 + 0,7 vs 15,9 + 0,8 g/dl), (57,1 + 3,6 % vs 47,2 + 2,8 %), and (5,4 + 0,4 g/dl vs 4,5 + 0,3 g/dl) showed significant difference (P<0,0001). There was no baby in UCM group received blood transfusion and one baby in the control ECC group received blood transfusion was found. Umbilical Cord Milking has shown to increase the baby’s blood component such as hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocytes 6 hours after birth as well as lowering the incidence of blood transfusions. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were not found. Umbilical Cord Milking was the act of clamping the umbilical cord that was more beneficial to the baby and no adverse or negative effects on the mother.

Keywords: umbilical cord milking, early cord clamping, maternal and neonatal outcome, preterm, abdominal delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
154 Anticataract Activity of Betulinic Acid in Chick Embryo Lens Model

Authors: Surendra Bodakhe

Abstract:

In this investigation, anticataract activity was determined using cataract formation in developing chick embryo by hydrocortisone. Lenses were evaluated firstly for the extent of opacity and secondly, for lens glutathione (GSH) levels. Betulinic acid was isolated from the chloroform fraction of the crude ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata bark (SBE). Fourteen days old Australorp fertilized eggs were divided into different groups of six eggs each. After 24 hrs incubation in a humidified incubator (37οC), at 15 days of age; hydrocortisone (0.25µM/0.2ml/egg) was administered to the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos through a small hole in the egg shell on the air sack. Ascorbic acid (standard) or Betulinic acid (test) were administered at 3, 10 and 20 hr after hydrocortisone administration at a specified dose. The puncture was sealed with a cellophane tape and eggs were incubated for 48 hrs in a humidified incubator at 37οC. After 48 hrs, the lenses were isolated for the determination of the extent of opacity and Glutathione level. The betulinic acid prevented the opacification of the chick embryo lenses induced by hydrocortisone. The betulinic acid also prevented the decline of GSH content caused by hydrocortisone. The results indicate that betulinic acid protect the cataract formation in chick embryo lenses induced by hydrocortisone.

Keywords: betulinic acid, cataract, cloudiness, ovine

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
153 Laser Based Microfabrication of a Microheater Chip for Cell Culture

Authors: Daniel Nieto, Ramiro Couceiro

Abstract:

Microfluidic chips have demonstrated their significant application potentials in microbiological processing and chemical reactions, with the goal of developing monolithic and compact chip-sized multifunctional systems. Heat generation and thermal control are critical in some of the biochemical processes. The paper presents a laser direct-write technique for rapid prototyping and manufacturing of microheater chips and its applicability for perfusion cell culture outside a cell incubator. The aim of the microheater is to take the role of conventional incubators for cell culture for facilitating microscopic observation or other online monitoring activities during cell culture and provides portability of cell culture operation. Microheaters (5 mm × 5 mm) have been successfully fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates covered with aluminum layer of thickness 120 nm. Experimental results show that the microheaters exhibit good performance in temperature rise and decay characteristics, with localized heating at targeted spatial domains. These microheaters were suitable for a maximum long-term operation temperature of 120ºC and validated for long-time operation at 37ºC. for 24 hours. Results demonstrated that the physiology of the cultured SW480 adenocarcinoma of the colon cell line on the developed microheater chip was consistent with that of an incubator.

Keywords: laser microfabrication, microheater, bioengineering, cell culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
152 Concentration of Zinc Micronutrients in Breast Milk Based on Determinant of Mother and Baby in Kassi-Kassi Health Center

Authors: Andi Tenri Ayu Rahman, Citrakesumasari, Devintha Virani

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Breast milk is the complex biological fluid mix of macronutrient and micronutrient that are considered as perfect food for babies. Zinc has a role in various biological functions and physical growth. This research aims to know the average zinc (Zn) micronutrients content of breast milk by determinants of infant (birth weight) and mother (nutritional status and food intake) and description of the pattern of mothers breastfeeding. The type of research used is observational analytic with cross-sectional study design. The population was 41 mothers in Kassi-Kassi health center within one month. Sample research is mothers who gave birth at term and breastfed her baby. Sampling was done with random sampling technique involving 37 people. Samples of breast milk were analyzed in the laboratory by using the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrofotometry (AAS). This research find that from the samples (n=37) the average contents of zinc in the breast milk is 0,88±0,54 mg/L with the highest value on the group of low birth weight babies (1,13 ± 0,67mg/L), mothers who had normal nutritional status (0,981 ± 0,514 mg/L) and intake low zinc (0,94 ± 0,54 mg/L). Regarding breastfeeding pattern, 67,6% of the samples had had breastfeeding experience and 81,1% of breastfed more than eight times a day. In summary, the highest average value of the zinc content of breast milk was in the group of low birth weight babies, mother with normal nutritional status, and mothers having relatively low intake pattern.

Keywords: zinc, breastmilk, mother, baby

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
151 A Study of Evaporative Heat Loss from the Skin of Baby Elephants (Elephas maximus maximus) at Elephant Transit Home

Authors: G .D. B. N. Kulasaooriya, H. B. S. Ariyarathne, I. Abeygunawardene, A. A. J. Rafarathne, B. V. Perera

Abstract:

Elephant is the largest resident of the wild and has small surface to volume ratio as well as less number of sweat glands which cause challenges to the thermoregulation of this mammal. However, this megaherbivore has adopted specialised meachanisms to maintain its thermal balance through behavioral adaptations, ear flapping and well anastomosed arterioles and venules of the ear. Nevertheless, little is known on the involvement of the skin in the process of thermoregulation. The present study was undertaken to monitor the water evaporation rate from the skin of unrestrained wild elephant calves throughout the day and to understand its importance in the thermoregulation. Seven baby elephants housed in the elephant transit home, Udawalawe were used. Ambient temparature, relative humidity (RH) and radiation heat load was monitored throughout the day of the study period. Similarly, surface temparature of the skin was taken at six points including lateral ear pinna, lateral body and the rump during the same period. The skin water evaporation was also measured from the same sites using cobolt chloride method. The surface are of the skin was determined by assigning geometrical shapes to each body part. The results showed that the ambient temperature gradually increased with the day reaching maximum around 3.00 pm. The relative humidity was lowest early in the morning. The radiation heat load did not show any significant change in the study period. The skin temperature was different among lateral ear pinna, lateral body and the rump where the highest temperature was on the rump and the lowest on the lateral ear pinna. The skin temperature gradually increase with increasing ambient temperature but there was not a strong correlation (R2 =53.53) between these two. The skin temperature had strong correlation with RH (p<0.05 R2 =70.84% ) but a significant relationship was not considered since the radiation heat load was not varying in large scale. The skin evaporative water loss had a weak negative correlation with ambient temperature (correlation coefficient= -0.01) whereas strong positive correlation with RH (correlation coefficient= 25.275 ) and no corelation with radiation heat load. It also appeared that skin water loss increases as the skin temperature increased. In the present study, it was observed that on average, skin of the baby elephant looses 403 g/m2/h of water. Based on these observations it can be concluded that a large volume of water is evaporated from the skin of baby elephants and evaporative heat loss may be contributing significantly to the thermoregulation. However, further investigation on the influence of environmental factors on evaporative heat loss has to be conducted to understand the thermoregulatory mechanisms of the baby elephant.

Keywords: thermoregulation, behavioral adaptations, evaporation, elephant

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
150 Mercury Removal Using Pseudomonas putida (ATTC 49128): Effect of Acclimatization Time, Speed, and Temperature of Incubator Shaker

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, R. M. Yunus, N. M. Sulaiman, A. B. Bustary, K. Sabar

Abstract:

Microbes have been used to solve environmental problems for many years. The use microorganism to sequester, precipitate or alter the oxidation state of various heavy metals has been extensively studied. Processes by which microorganism interacts with toxic metal are very diverse. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using Pseudomonas putida, pure culture ATTC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as techniques of culture, acclimatization time and speed of incubator shaker. Thus, in this study, the optimum growth parameters of P.putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Based on the optimum parameters of Pseudomonas putida for specific growth rate, the removal of two different mercury concentration, 1 ppm and 4 ppm were studied. A mercury-resistant bacterial strain which is able to reduce ionic mercury to metallic mercury was used to reduce ionic mercury from mercury nitrate solution. The overall levels of mercury removal in this study were between 80% and 90%. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental for understanding of the survival of P.putida ATTC 49128 in mercury solution. Thus, microbial mercury environmental pollutants removal is a potential biological treatment for waste water treatment especially in petrochemical industries in Malaysia.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, growth kinetic, biosorption, mercury, petrochemical waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 501
149 The Study of Consumer Behavior towards Online Travel Agents in Purchasing Tourism Related Products and Services

Authors: Punrapha Praditpong, Surangkana Pipatchokchaiyo

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The objectives of this study were to study the consumer behavior of the Baby boomers, the X & the Y generation towards Online Travel Agents in purchasing tourism-related products and services. The research methodology of this research used the quantitative study and the sample size consisted of 400 questionnaires in five districts of Bangkok. The data was analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean and SD. Moreover, all the hypotheses were tested by One-Way ANOVA and Pearson-Correlation statistics. The research findings were as follows: 1) There were significant effects to the purchasing decision making process towards purchasing tourism related products and services via OTAs; 2) There were different consumer behaviors from the Baby boomers, the X generation and the Y generation towards purchasing tourism related products and services via OTAs, which are explained in detail in finding. The research offers a discussion and presents some recommendations for the OTA websites.

Keywords: consumer behavior, online travel agent, x generations, y generations

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
148 An Under-Recognized Factor in the Development of Postpartum Depression: Infertility

Authors: Memnun Seven, Aygül Akyüz

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Having a baby, giving birth and being a mother are generally considered happy events, especially for women who have had a history of infertility and may have suffered emotionally, physically and financially. Although the transition from the prenatal period to the postnatal period is usually desired and planned, it is a developmental and cognitive transition period full of complex emotional reactions. During this period, common mood disorders for women include maternity blues, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. Postpartum depression is a common and serious mood disorder which can jeopardize the health of the mother, baby and family within the first year of delivery. Knowing the risks factors is an important issue for the early detection and early intervention of postpartum depression. However, knowing that a history of infertility may contribute to the development of postpartum depression, there are few studies assessing the effects of infertility during the diagnosis and treatment of depression. In this review, the effects of infertility on the development of postpartum depression and nurse/midwives’ roles in this issue are discussed in light with the literature.

Keywords: infertility, postpartum depression, risk factors, mood disorder

Procedia PDF Downloads 148