Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: piezoelectricity

17 Solution of Some Boundary Value Problems of the Generalized Theory of Thermo-Piezoelectricity

Authors: Manana Chumburidze


We have considered a non-classical model of dynamical problems for a conjugated system of differential equations arising in thermo-piezoelectricity, which was formulated by Toupin – Mindlin. The basic concepts and the general theory of solvability for isotropic homogeneous elastic media is considered. They are worked by using the methods the Laplace integral transform, potential method and singular integral equations. Approximate solutions of mixed boundary value problems for finite domain, bounded by the some closed surface are constructed. They are solved in explicitly by using the generalized Fourier's series method.

Keywords: thermo-piezoelectricity, boundary value problems, Fourier's series, isotropic homogeneous elastic media

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16 Influence of Rotation on Rayleigh-Type Wave in Piezoelectric Plate

Authors: Soniya Chaudhary, Sanjeev Sahu


Propagation of Rayleigh-type waves in a rotating piezoelectric plate is investigated. The materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic crystals. The frequency equation have been derived for electrically open and short cases. Effect of rotation and piezoelectricity have been shown. It is also found that piezoelectric material properties have an important effect on Rayleigh wave propagation. The result is relevant to the analysis and design of various acoustic surface wave devices constructed from piezoelectric materials also in SAW devices.

Keywords: rotation, frequency equation, piezoelectricity, rayleigh-type wave

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15 Influence of BaTiO₃ on the Biological Behaviour of Hydroxyapatite: Collagen Composites

Authors: Cristina Busuioc, Georgeta Voicu, Sorin-Ion Jinga


The human bone presents in its dry form piezoelectric properties, which means that a mechanical stress results in electric polarization and an applied electric field causes strain. The immediate consequence was the revealing of piezoelectricity role in bone remodelling, as well as the integration of ceramic materials with piezoelectric behaviour in the composition of unitary or composite biomaterials. Thus, we prepared hydroxyapatite - collagen hybrid materials with barium titanate addition in order to achieve a better osseointegration. Barium titanate powder synthesized by a combined sol-gel-hydrothermal method, commercial hydroxyapatite and laboratory extracted collagen gel were employed as starting materials. Before the composites, fabrication, the powder with piezoelectric features was characterized in detail from the compositional, structural, morphological and electrical point of view. The next step was to elucidate the influence of barium titanate presence especially on the biological properties of the final materials. The biocompatibility of the hybrid supports without or with piezoelectric addition was investigated on mouse osteoblast cells through LDH cytotoxicity assay, LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay, and MTT cell proliferation assay. All results indicated that the analysed materials do not exert cytotoxic effects and present the ability to sustain cell survival and to promote their proliferation. In conclusion, barium titanate nanoparticles exhibit a good biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties, while the derived composite materials based on hydroxyapatite as oxide phase and collagen as polymeric phase can be successfully used for tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: barium titanate, hybrid composites, piezoelectricity, tissue engineering

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14 Design and Fabrication of Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor by Deposition of PVDF-TrFE with Spin-Coating Method for Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Saman Namvarrechi, Armin A. Dormeny, Javad Dargahi, Mojtaba Kahrizi


Since last two decades, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has grown significantly due to its advantages compared to the traditional open surgery like less physical pain, faster recovery time and better healing condition around incision regions; however, one of the important challenges in MIS is getting an effective sensing feedback within the patient’s body during operations. Therefore, surgeons need efficient tactile sensing like determining the hardness of contact tissue for investigating the patient’s health condition. In such a case, MIS tactile sensors are preferred to be able to provide force/pressure sensing, force position, lump detection, and softness sensing. Among different pressure sensor technologies, the piezoelectric operating principle is the fittest for MIS’s instruments, such as catheters. Using PVDF with its copolymer, TrFE, as a piezoelectric material, is a common method of design and fabrication of a tactile sensor due to its ease of implantation and biocompatibility. In this research, PVDF-TrFE polymer is deposited via spin-coating method and treated with various post-deposition processes to investigate its piezoelectricity and amount of electroactive β phase. These processes include different post thermal annealing, the effect of spin-coating speed, different layer of deposition, and the presence of additional hydrate salt. According to FTIR spectroscopy and SEM images, the amount of the β phase and porosity of each sample is determined. In addition, the optimum experimental study is established by considering every aspect of the fabrication process. This study clearly shows the effective way of deposition and fabrication of a tactile PVDF-TrFE based sensor and an enhancement methodology to have a higher β phase and piezoelectric constant in order to have a better sense of touch at the end effector of biomedical devices.

Keywords: β phase, minimally invasive surgery, piezoelectricity, PVDF-TrFE, tactile sensor

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13 Static Study of Piezoelectric Bimorph Beams with Delamination Zone

Authors: Zemirline Adel, Ouali Mohammed, Mahieddine Ali


The FOSDT (First Order Shear Deformation Theory) is taking into consideration to study the static behavior of a bimorph beam, with a delamination zone between the upper and the lower layer. The effect of limit conditions and lengths of the delamination zone are presented in this paper, with a PVDF piezoelectric material application. A FEM “Finite Element Method” is used to discretize the beam. In the axial displacement, a displacement field appears in the debonded zone with inverse effect between the upper and the lower layer was observed.

Keywords: static, piezoelectricity, beam, delamination

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12 Harvesting of Kinetic Energy of the Raindrops

Authors: K. C. R.Perera, V. P. C Dassanayake, B. M. Hapuwatte, B. G. Smapath


This paper presents a methodology to harvest the kinetic energy of the raindrops using piezoelectric devices. In the study 1m×1m PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) piezoelectric membrane, which is fixed by the four edges, is considered for the numerical simulation on deformation of the membrane due to the impact of the raindrops. Then according to the drop size of the rain, the simulation is performed classifying the rainfall types into three categories as light stratiform rain, moderate stratiform rain and heavy thundershower. The impact force of the raindrop is dependent on the terminal velocity of the raindrop, which is a function of raindrop diameter. The results were then analyzed to calculate the harvestable energy from the deformation of the piezoelectric membrane.

Keywords: raindrop, piezoelectricity, deformation, terminal velocity

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11 Numerical Modelling of Laminated Shells Made of Functionally Graded Elastic and Piezoelectric Materials

Authors: Gennady M. Kulikov, Svetlana V. Plotnikova


This paper focuses on implementation of the sampling surfaces (SaS) method for the three-dimensional (3D) stress analysis of functionally graded (FG) laminated elastic and piezoelectric shells. The SaS formulation is based on choosing inside the nth layer In not equally spaced SaS parallel to the middle surface of the shell in order to introduce the electric potentials and displacements of these surfaces as basic shell variables. Such choice of unknowns permits the presentation of the proposed FG piezoelectric shell formulation in a very compact form. The SaS are located inside each layer at Chebyshev polynomial nodes that improves the convergence of the SaS method significantly. As a result, the SaS formulation can be applied efficiently to 3D solutions for FG piezoelectric laminated shells, which asymptotically approach the exact solutions of piezoelectricity as the number of SaS In goes to infinity.

Keywords: electroelasticity, functionally graded material, laminated piezoelectric shell, sampling surfaces method

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10 Flexible Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposites Filled with Ternary Nanofillers for Energy Harvesting

Authors: D. Ponnamma, E. Alper, P. Sharma, M. A. AlMaadeed


Integrating efficient energy harvesting materials into soft, flexible and eco-friendly substrates could yield significant breakthroughs in wearable and flexible electronics. Here we present a tri phasic filler combination of one-dimensional titanium dioxide nanotubes, two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide, and three-dimensional strontium titanate, introduced into a semi crystalline polymer, Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). Simple mixing method is adopted for the composite fabrication after ensuring a high interaction among the various fillers. The films prepared were mainly tested for the piezoelectric responses and the mechanical stretchability. The results show that the piezoelectric constant has increased while changing the total filler concentration. We propose an integration of these materials in fabricating energy conversion devices useful in flexible and wearable electronics.

Keywords: dielectric property, hydrothermal growth, piezoelectricity, polymer nanocomposites

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9 Synergistic Effect of Carbon Nanostructures and Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes on the Piezoelectric Property of Polyvinylidene Fluoride

Authors: Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Erturk Alper, Pradeep Sharma, Mariam Al Ali AlMaadeed


Integrating efficient energy harvesting materials into soft, flexible and eco-friendly substrates could yield significant breakthroughs in wearable and flexible electronics. Here we present a hybrid filler combination of titanium dioxide nanotubes and the carbon nanostructures-carbon nanotubes and reduced graphene oxide- synthesized by hydrothermal method and then introduced into a semi crystalline polymer, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Simple mixing method is adopted for the PVDF nanocomposite fabrication after ensuring a high interaction among the fillers. The films prepared were mainly tested for the piezoelectric responses and for the mechanical stretchability. The results show that the piezoelectric constant has increased while changing the total filler concentration. We propose integration of these materials in fabricating energy conversion devices useful in flexible and wearable electronics.

Keywords: dielectric property, hydrothermal growth, piezoelectricity, polymer nanocomposite

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8 Modeling, Analysis and Control of a Smart Composite Structure

Authors: Nader H. Ghareeb, Mohamed S. Gaith, Sayed M. Soleimani


In modern engineering, weight optimization has a priority during the design of structures. However, optimizing the weight can result in lower stiffness and less internal damping, causing the structure to become excessively prone to vibration. To overcome this problem, active or smart materials are implemented. The coupled electromechanical properties of smart materials, used in the form of piezoelectric ceramics in this work, make these materials well-suited for being implemented as distributed sensors and actuators to control the structural response. The smart structure proposed in this paper is composed of a cantilevered steel beam, an adhesive or bonding layer, and a piezoelectric actuator. The static deflection of the structure is derived as function of the piezoelectric voltage, and the outcome is compared to theoretical and experimental results from literature. The relation between the voltage and the piezoelectric moment at both ends of the actuator is also investigated and a reduced finite element model of the smart structure is created and verified. Finally, a linear controller is implemented and its ability to attenuate the vibration due to the first natural frequency is demonstrated.

Keywords: active linear control, lyapunov stability theorem, piezoelectricity, smart structure, static deflection

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7 Simulation-Based Optimization of a Non-Uniform Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Stack Boundary

Authors: Alireza Keshmiri, Shahriar Bagheri, Nan Wu


This research presents an analytical model for the development of an energy harvester with piezoelectric rings stacked at the boundary of the structure based on the Adomian decomposition method. The model is applied to geometrically non-uniform beams to derive the steady-state dynamic response of the structure subjected to base motion excitation and efficiently harvest the subsequent vibrational energy. The in-plane polarization of the piezoelectric rings is employed to enhance the electrical power output. A parametric study for the proposed energy harvester with various design parameters is done to prepare the dataset required for optimization. Finally, simulation-based optimization technique helps to find the optimum structural design with maximum efficiency. To solve the optimization problem, an artificial neural network is first trained to replace the simulation model, and then, a genetic algorithm is employed to find the optimized design variables. Higher geometrical non-uniformity and length of the beam lowers the structure natural frequency and generates a larger power output.

Keywords: piezoelectricity, energy harvesting, simulation-based optimization, artificial neural network, genetic algorithm

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6 Optimization of Energy Harvesting Systems for RFID Applications

Authors: P. Chambe, B. Canova, A. Balabanian, M. Pele, N. Coeur


To avoid battery assisted tags with limited lifetime batteries, it is proposed here to replace them by energy harvesting systems, able to feed from local environment. This would allow total independence to RFID systems, very interesting for applications where tag removal from its location is not possible. Example is here described for luggage safety in airports, and is easily extendable to similar situation in terms of operation constraints. The idea is to fix RFID tag with energy harvesting system not only to identify luggage but also to supply an embedded microcontroller with a sensor delivering luggage weight making it impossible to add or to remove anything from the luggage during transit phases. The aim is to optimize the harvested energy for such RFID applications, and to study in which limits these applications are theoretically possible. Proposed energy harvester is based on two energy sources: piezoelectricity and electromagnetic waves, so that when the luggage is moving on ground transportation to airline counters, the piezo module supplies the tag and its microcontroller, while the RF module operates during luggage transit thanks to readers located along the way. Tag location on the luggage is analyzed to get best vibrations, as well as harvester better choice for optimizing the energy supply depending on applications and the amount of energy harvested during a period of time. Effects of system parameters (RFID UHF frequencies, limit distance between the tag and the antenna necessary to harvest energy, produced voltage and voltage threshold) are discussed and working conditions for such system are delimited.

Keywords: RFID tag, energy harvesting, piezoelectric, EM waves

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5 Surface Integration Effect on Mechanical and Piezoelectric Properties of ZnO

Authors: A. Khan, M. Hussain, S. Afgun


In the present work, the effect of the surface integration on the piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods were grown by using aqueous chemical growth method on two samples of graphene coated pet plastic substrate. First substrate’s surface was integrated with ZnO nanoparticles while the other substrate was used without ZnO nanoparticles. Various important parameters were analyzed, the growth density and morphological analysis were taken into account through surface scanning electron microscopy; it was observed that the growth density of nanorods on the integrated surface was much higher than the nonintegrated substrate. The crystal quality of growth orientation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique. Mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods on an integrated substrate was more appropriate than the nonintegrated substrate. The generated amount of piezoelectric potential from the integrated substrate was two times higher than the nonintegrated substrate. This shows that the layer of nanoparticles plays a crucial role in the enhancement of piezoelectric potential. Besides this, it also improves the performance of fabricated devices like its mechanical stability and piezoelectric properties. Additionally, the obtained results were compared with the other two samples used for the growth of ZnO nanorods on silver coated glass substrates for similar measurement. The consistency of the results verified the importance of surface integration effect. This study will help us to fabricate improved performance devices by using surface integrated substrates.

Keywords: ZnO nanorods, surface integration, mechanical properties, harvesting piezoelectricity

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4 Vibration Frequency Analysis of Sandwich Nano-Plate on Visco Pasternak Foundation by Using Modified Couple Stress Theory

Authors: Hamed Khani Arani, Mohammad Shariyat, Armaghan Mohammadian


In this research, the free vibration of a rectangular sandwich nano-plate (SNP) made of three smart layers in the visco Pasternak foundation is studied. The core of the sandwich is a piezo magnetic nano-plate integrated with two layers of piezoelectric materials. First-order shear deformation plate theory is utilized to derive the motion equations by using Hamilton’s principle, piezoelectricity, and modified couple stress theory. Elastic medium is modeled by visco Pasternak foundation, where the damping coefficient effect is investigated on the stability of sandwich nano-plate. These equations are solved by the differential quadrature method (DQM), considering different boundary conditions. Results indicate the effect of various parameters such as aspect ratio, thickness ratio, shear correction factor, damping coefficient, and boundary conditions on the dimensionless frequency of sandwich nano-plate. The results are also compared by those available in the literature, and these findings can be used for automotive industry, communications equipment, active noise, stability, and vibration cancellation systems and utilized for designing the magnetostrictive actuator, motor, transducer and sensors in nano and micro smart structures.

Keywords: free vibration, modified couple stress theory, sandwich nano-plate, visco Pasternak foundation

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3 Efficient Energy Extraction Circuit for Impact Harvesting from High Impedance Sources

Authors: Sherif Keddis, Mohamed Azzam, Norbert Schwesinger


Harvesting mechanical energy from footsteps or other impacts is a possibility to enable wireless autonomous sensor nodes. These can be used for a highly efficient control of connected devices such as lights, security systems, air conditioning systems or other smart home applications. They can also be used for accurate location or occupancy monitoring. Converting the mechanical energy into useful electrical energy can be achieved using the piezoelectric effect offering simple harvesting setups and low deflections. The challenge facing piezoelectric transducers is the achievable amount of energy per impact in the lower mJ range and the management of such low energies. Simple setups for energy extraction such as a full wave bridge connected directly to a capacitor are problematic due to the mismatch between high impedance sources and low impedance storage elements. Efficient energy circuits for piezoelectric harvesters are commonly designed for vibration harvesters and require periodic input energies with predictable frequencies. Due to the sporadic nature of impact harvesters, such circuits are not well suited. This paper presents a self-powered circuit that avoids the impedance mismatch during energy extraction by disconnecting the load until the source reaches its charge peak. The switch is implemented with passive components and works independent from the input frequency. Therefore, this circuit is suited for impact harvesting and sporadic inputs. For the same input energy, this circuit stores 150% of the energy in comparison to a directly connected capacitor to a bridge rectifier. The total efficiency, defined as the ratio of stored energy on a capacitor to available energy measured across a matched resistive load, is 63%. Although the resulting energy is already sufficient to power certain autonomous applications, further optimization of the circuit are still under investigation in order to improve the overall efficiency.

Keywords: autonomous sensors, circuit design, energy harvesting, energy management, impact harvester, piezoelectricity

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2 Design and Integration of an Energy Harvesting Vibration Absorber for Rotating System

Authors: F. Infante, W. Kaal, S. Perfetto, S. Herold


In the last decade the demand of wireless sensors and low-power electric devices for condition monitoring in mechanical structures has been strongly increased. Networks of wireless sensors can potentially be applied in a huge variety of applications. Due to the reduction of both size and power consumption of the electric components and the increasing complexity of mechanical systems, the interest of creating dense nodes sensor networks has become very salient. Nevertheless, with the development of large sensor networks with numerous nodes, the critical problem of powering them is drawing more and more attention. Batteries are not a valid alternative for consideration regarding lifetime, size and effort in replacing them. Between possible alternative solutions for durable power sources useable in mechanical components, vibrations represent a suitable source for the amount of power required to feed a wireless sensor network. For this purpose, energy harvesting from structural vibrations has received much attention in the past few years. Suitable vibrations can be found in numerous mechanical environments including automotive moving structures, household applications, but also civil engineering structures like buildings and bridges. Similarly, a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) is one of the most used devices to mitigate unwanted vibration of structures. This device is used to transfer the primary structural vibration to the auxiliary system. Thus, the related energy is effectively localized in the secondary less sensitive structure. Then, the additional benefit of harvesting part of the energy can be obtained by implementing dedicated components. This paper describes the design process of an energy harvesting tuned vibration absorber (EHTVA) for rotating systems using piezoelectric elements. The energy of the vibration is converted into electricity rather than dissipated. The device proposed is indeed designed to mitigate torsional vibrations as with a conventional rotational TVA, while harvesting energy as a power source for immediate use or storage. The resultant rotational multi degree of freedom (MDOF) system is initially reduced in an equivalent single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. The Den Hartog’s theory is used for evaluating the optimal mechanical parameters of the initial DVA for the SDOF systems defined. The performance of the TVA is operationally assessed and the vibration reduction at the original resonance frequency is measured. Then, the design is modified for the integration of active piezoelectric patches without detuning the TVA. In order to estimate the real power generated, a complex storage circuit is implemented. A DC-DC step-down converter is connected to the device through a rectifier to return a fixed output voltage. Introducing a big capacitor, the energy stored is measured at different frequencies. Finally, the electromechanical prototype is tested and validated achieving simultaneously reduction and harvesting functions.

Keywords: energy harvesting, piezoelectricity, torsional vibration, vibration absorber

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1 Tailoring Piezoelectricity of PVDF Fibers with Voltage Polarity and Humidity in Electrospinning

Authors: Piotr K. Szewczyk, Arkadiusz Gradys, Sungkyun Kim, Luana Persano, Mateusz M. Marzec, Oleksander Kryshtal, Andrzej Bernasik, Sohini Kar-Narayan, Pawel Sajkiewicz, Urszula Stachewicz


Piezoelectric polymers have received great attention in smart textiles, wearables, and flexible electronics. Their potential applications range from devices that could operate without traditional power sources, through self-powering sensors, up to implantable biosensors. Semi-crystalline PVDF is often proposed as the main candidate for industrial-scale applications as it exhibits exceptional energy harvesting efficiency compared to other polymers combined with high mechanical strength and thermal stability. Plenty of approaches have been proposed for obtaining PVDF rich in the desired β-phase with electric polling, thermal annealing, and mechanical stretching being the most prevalent. Electrospinning is a highly tunable technique that provides a one-step process of obtaining highly piezoelectric PVDF fibers without the need for post-treatment. In this study, voltage polarity and relative humidity influence on electrospun PVDF, fibers were investigated with the main focus on piezoelectric β-phase contents and piezoelectric performance. Morphology and internal structure of fibers were investigated using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FITR), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the phase composition of electrospun PVDF. Additionally, surface chemistry was verified with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Piezoelectric performance of individual electrospun PVDF fibers was measured using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and the power output from meshes was analyzed via custom-built equipment. To prepare the solution for electrospinning, PVDF pellets were dissolved in dimethylacetamide and acetone solution in a 1:1 ratio to achieve a 24% solution. Fibers were electrospun with a constant voltage of +/-15kV applied to the stainless steel nozzle with the inner diameter of 0.8mm. The flow rate was kept constant at 6mlh⁻¹. The electrospinning of PVDF was performed at T = 25°C and relative humidity of 30 and 60% for PVDF30+/- and PVDF60+/- samples respectively in the environmental chamber. The SEM and TEM analysis of fibers produced at a lower relative humidity of 30% (PVDF30+/-) showed a smooth surface in opposition to fibers obtained at 60% relative humidity (PVDF60+/-), which had wrinkled surface and additionally internal voids. XPS results confirmed lower fluorine content at the surface of PVDF- fibers obtained by electrospinning with negative voltage polarity comparing to the PVDF+ obtained with positive voltage polarity. Changes in surface composition measured with XPS were found to influence the piezoelectric performance of obtained fibers what was further confirmed by PFM as well as by custom-built fiber-based piezoelectric generator. For PVDF60+/- samples humidity led to an increase of β-phase contents in PVDF fibers as confirmed by FTIR, WAXS, and DSC measurements, which showed almost two times higher concentrations of β-phase. A combination of negative voltage polarity with high relative humidity led to fibers with the highest β-phase contents and the best piezoelectric performance of all investigated samples. This study outlines the possibility to produce electrospun PVDF fibers with tunable piezoelectric performance in a one-step electrospinning process by controlling relative humidity and voltage polarity conditions. Acknowledgment: This research was conducted within the funding from m the Sonata Bis 5 project granted by National Science Centre, No 2015/18/E/ST5/00230, and supported by the infrastructure at International Centre of Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (IC-EM) at AGH University of Science and Technology. The PFM measurements were supported by an STSM Grant from COST Action CA17107.

Keywords: crystallinity, electrospinning, PVDF, voltage polarity

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