Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5644

Search results for: firing temperature

5644 Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Aluminum Alloy ADC 10 Produced through Ceramic Shell Investment Casting

Authors: Balwinder Singh

Abstract:

Castings are produced by using aluminum alloy ADC 10 through the process of Ceramic Shell Investment Casting. Experiments are conducted as per the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as mould preheat temperature, preheat time, firing temperature and pouring temperature on surface roughness of ceramic shell investment castings, the Taguchi parameter design and optimization approach is used. Plots of means of significant factors and S/N ratios have been used to determine the best relationship between the responses and model parameters. It is found that the pouring temperature is the most significant factor. The best tensile strength of aluminum alloy ADC 10 is given by 150 ºC shell preheat temperature, 45 minutes preheat time, 900 ºC firing temperature, 650 ºC pouring temperature.

Keywords: investment casting, shell preheat temperature, firing temperature, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
5643 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy

Abstract:

The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 575
5642 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič

Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electro-ceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electro-ceramics, firing

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
5641 Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

Authors: Lenka Bodnárová, Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová, Iveta Nováková

Abstract:

This paper is concerning the issues of behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregates concrete exposed to high temperature. Lightweight aggregates from expanded clay are produced by firing of row material up to temperature 1050°C. Lightweight aggregates have suitable properties in terms of volume stability, when exposed to temperatures up to 1050°C, which could indicate their suitability for construction applications with higher risk of fire. The test samples were exposed to heat by using the standard temperature-time curve ISO 834. Negative changes in resulting mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength were evaluated. Also visual evaluation of the specimen was performed. On specimen exposed to excessive heat, an explosive spalling could be observed, due to evaporation of considerable amount of unbounded water from the inner structure of the concrete.

Keywords: expanded clay aggregate, explosive spalling, high temperature, lightweight concrete, temperature-time curve ISO 834

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
5640 Phosphate Tailings in View of a Better Waste Disposal And/or Valorization: Case of Tunisian Phosphates Mines

Authors: Mouna Ettoumi, Jouini Marouen, Carmen Mihaela Neculita, Salah Bouhlel, Lucie Coudert, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Y. Taha

Abstract:

In the context of sustainable development and circular economy, waste valorization is considered a promising alternative to overcome issues related to their disposal or elimination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential use of phosphate sludges (tailings) from the Kef Shfeir mine site (Gafsa, Tunisia) as an alternative material in the production of fired bricks. To do so, representative samples of raw phosphate treatment sludges were collected and characterized for their physical, chemical, mineralogical and environmental characteristics. Then, the raw materials were baked at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C, and 1100°C) for bricks making. Afterward, fired bricks were characterized for their physical (particle size distribution, density, and plasticity), chemical (XRF and digestion), mineralogical (XRD) and mechanical (flexural strength) properties as well as for their environmental behavior (TCLP, SPLP, and CTEU-9) to ensure whether they meet the required construction standards. Results showed that the raw materials had low density (2.47g/cm 3), were non-plastic and were mainly composed of fluoroapatite (15.6%), calcite (23.1%) and clays (22.2% - mainly as heulandite, vermiculite and palygorskite). With respect to the environmental behavior, all metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Ba, Cd) complied with the requirements set by the USEPA. In addition, fired bricks had varying porosity (9-13%), firing shrinking (5.2-7.5%), water absorption (12.5-17.2%) and flexural strength (3.86-13.4 MPa). Noteworthy, an improvement in the properties (porosity, firing shrinking, water absorption, and flexural strength) of manufactured fired bricks was observed with the increase of firing temperature from 900 to 1100°C. All the measured properties complied with the construction norms and requirements. Moreover, regardless of the firing temperature, the environmental behavior of metals obeyed the requirements of the USEPA standards. Finally, fired bricks could be produced at high temperatures (1000°C) based on 100% of phosphate sludge without any substitution or addition of either chemical agents or binders. This sustainable brick-making process could be a promising approach for the Phosphate Company to partially manage these wastes, which are considered “non-profitable” for the moment and preserve soils that are exploited presently.

Keywords: phosphate treatment sludge, mine waste, backed bricks, waste valorization

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5639 Establishing Combustion Behaviour for Refuse Derived Fuel Firing at Kiln Inlet through Computational Fluid Dynamics at a Cement Plant in India

Authors: Prateek Sharma, Venkata Ramachandrarao Maddali, Kapil Kukreja, B. N. Mohapatra

Abstract:

Waste management is one of the pressing issues of India. Several initiatives by the Indian Government, including the recent one “Swachhata hi Seva” campaign launched by Prime Minister on 15th August 2018, can be one of the game changers to waste disposal. Under this initiative, the government, cement industry and other stakeholders are working hand in hand to dispose of single-use plastics in cement plants in rotary kilns. This is an exemplary effort and a move that establishes the Indian Cement industry as one of the key players in a circular economy. One of the cement plants in Southern India has been mandated by the state government to co-process shredded plastic and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) available in nearby regions as an alternative fuel in their cement plant. The plant has set a target of 25 % thermal substitution rate (TSR) by RDF in the next five years. Most of the cement plants in India and abroad have achieved high TSR through pre calciner firing. But the cement plant doesn’t have the precalciner and has to achieve this daunting task of 25 % TSR by firing through the main kiln burner. Since RDF is a heterogeneous waste with the change in fuel quality, it is difficult to achieve this task; hence plant has to resort to firing some portion of RDF/plastics at kiln inlet. But kiln inlet has reducing conditions as observed during measurements) under baseline condition. The combustion behavior of RDF of different sizes at different firing locations in riser was studied with the help of a computational fluid dynamics tool. It has been concluded that RDF above 50 mm size results in incomplete combustion leading to CO formation. Moreover, best firing location appears to be in the bottom portion of the kiln riser.

Keywords: kiln inlet, plastics, refuse derived fuel, thermal substitution rate

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5638 Torrefaction of Biomass Pellets: Modeling of the Process in a Fixed Bed Reactor

Authors: Ekaterina Artiukhina, Panagiotis Grammelis

Abstract:

Torrefaction of biomass pellets is considered as a useful pretreatment technology in order to convert them into a high quality solid biofuel that is more suitable for pyrolysis, gasification, combustion and co-firing applications. In the course of torrefaction the temperature varies across the pellet, and therefore chemical reactions proceed unevenly within the pellet. However, the uniformity of the thermal distribution along the pellet is generally assumed. The torrefaction process of a single cylindrical pellet is modeled here, accounting for heat transfer coupled with chemical kinetics. The drying sub-model was also introduced. The non-stationary process of wood pellet decomposition is described by the system of non-linear partial differential equations over the temperature and mass. The model captures well the main features of the experimental data.

Keywords: torrefaction, biomass pellets, model, heat, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
5637 Time Lag Analysis for Readiness Potential by a Firing Pattern Controller Model of a Motor Nerve System Considered Innervation and Jitter

Authors: Yuko Ishiwaka, Tomohiro Yoshida, Tadateru Itoh

Abstract:

Human makes preparation called readiness potential unconsciously (RP) before awareness of their own decision. For example, when recognizing a button and pressing the button, the RP peaks are observed 200 ms before the initiation of the movement. It has been known that the preparatory movements are acquired before actual movements, but it has not been still well understood how humans can obtain the RP during their growth. On the proposition of why the brain must respond earlier, we assume that humans have to adopt the dangerous environment to survive and then obtain the behavior to cover the various time lags distributed in the body. Without RP, humans cannot take action quickly to avoid dangerous situations. In taking action, the brain makes decisions, and signals are transmitted through the Spinal Cord to the muscles to the body moves according to the laws of physics. Our research focuses on the time lag of the neuron signal transmitting from a brain to muscle via a spinal cord. This time lag is one of the essential factors for readiness potential. We propose a firing pattern controller model of a motor nerve system considered innervation and jitter, which produces time lag. In our simulation, we adopt innervation and jitter in our proposed muscle-skeleton model, because these two factors can create infinitesimal time lag. Q10 Hodgkin Huxley model to calculate action potentials is also adopted because the refractory period produces a more significant time lag for continuous firing. Keeping constant power of muscle requires cooperation firing of motor neurons because a refractory period stifles the continuous firing of a neuron. One more factor in producing time lag is slow or fast-twitch. The Expanded Hill Type model is adopted to calculate power and time lag. We will simulate our model of muscle skeleton model by controlling the firing pattern and discuss the relationship between the time lag of physics and neurons. For our discussion, we analyze the time lag with our simulation for knee bending. The law of inertia caused the most influential time lag. The next most crucial time lag was the time to generate the action potential induced by innervation and jitter. In our simulation, the time lag at the beginning of the knee movement is 202ms to 203.5ms. It means that readiness potential should be prepared more than 200ms before decision making.

Keywords: firing patterns, innervation, jitter, motor nerve system, readiness potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
5636 On the Thermal Behavior of the Slab in a Reheating Furnace with Radiation

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace has been developed by considering the nongray thermal radiation with given furnace environments. The furnace is modeled as radiating nongray medium with carbon dioxide and water with five-zoned gas temperature and the furnace wall is considered as a constant temperature lower than furnace gas one. The slabs are moving with constant velocity depending on the residence time through the non-firing, charging, preheating, heating, and final soaking zones. Radiative heat flux obtained by considering the radiative heat exchange inside the furnace as well as convective one from the surrounding hot gases are introduced as boundary condition of the transient heat conduction within the slab. After validating thermal radiation model adopted in this work, thermal fields in both model and real reheating furnace are investigated in terms of radiative heat flux in the furnace and temperature inside the slab. The results show that the slab in the furnace can be more heated with higher slab emissivity and residence time.

Keywords: reheating furnace, steel slab, radiative heat transfer, WSGGM, emissivity, residence time

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
5635 Reducing Total Harmonic Content of 9-Level Inverter by Use of Cuckoo Algorithm

Authors: Mahmoud Enayati, Sirous Mohammadi

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel procedure to find the firing angles of the multilevel inverters of supply voltage and, consequently, to decline the total harmonic distortion (THD), has been presented. In order to eliminate more harmonics in the multilevel inverters, its number of levels can be lessened or pulse width modulation waveform, in which more than one switching occur in each level, be used. Both cases complicate the non-algebraic equations and their solution cannot be performed by the conventional methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear equations such as Newton-Raphson method. In this paper, Cuckoo algorithm is used to compute the optimal firing angle of the pulse width modulation voltage waveform in the multilevel inverter. These angles should be calculated in such a way that the voltage amplitude of the fundamental frequency be generated while the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage be small. The simulation and theoretical results for the 9-levels inverter offer the high applicability of the proposed algorithm to identify the suitable firing angles for declining the low order harmonics and generate a waveform whose total harmonic distortion is very small and it is almost a sinusoidal waveform.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, multilevel inverters, total harmonic content, Cuckoo Algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
5634 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel

Abstract:

The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
5633 Water-Bentonite Interaction of Green Pellets through Micro-Structural Analysis

Authors: Satyananda Patra, Venugopal Rayasam

Abstract:

The quality of pellets produced is affected by quality and type of green pellets, amount of addition of binders and fluxing agents along with the provided firing conditions. The green pellet quality depends upon chemistry, mineralogy and granulometry of fines used for pellet making, the feed size, its moisture content and porosity. During firing of green pellets, ingredients present within reacts to form different phases and microstructure. So in turn, physical and metallurgical properties of pellets are influenced by amount and type of binder and flux addition, induration time and temperature. During iron making process, the metallurgical properties of fired pellets are decided by the type and amount of these phases and their chemistry. Green pelletizing and induration studies have been already carried out with magnetite and hematite ore fines but for Indian iron ores of high alumina content showing different pelletizing characters, these studies cannot be directly interpreted. The main objective of proposed research work is to understand the green pelletizing process and determine the water bentonite interaction at different levels. Swelling behavior of bentonite and microstructure of the green pellet are investigated. Conversion of iron ore fines into pellets, the key raw material and process variables that influence the pellet quality needs to be identified and a correlation should be established between them.

Keywords: iron ore, pelletization, binders, green pellets, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
5632 Hybrid Rocket Motor Performance Parameters: Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi

Abstract:

A mathematical model to predict the performance parameters (thrusts, chamber pressures, fuel mass flow rates, mixture ratios, and regression rates during firing time) of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) is evaluated. The internal ballistic (IB) hybrid combustion model assumes that the solid fuel surface regression rate is controlled only by heat transfer (convective and radiative) from flame zone to solid fuel burning surface. A laboratory HRM is designed, manufactured, and tested for low thrust profile space missions (10-15 N) and for validating the mathematical model (computer program). The polymer material and gaseous oxidizer which are selected for this experimental work are polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene (PE) as solid fuel grain and gaseous oxygen (GO2) as oxidizer. The variation of various operational parameters with time is determined systematically and experimentally in firing of up to 20 seconds, and an average combustion efficiency of 95% of theory is achieved, which was the goal of these experiments. The comparison between recording fire data and predicting analytical parameters shows good agreement with the error that does not exceed 4.5% during all firing time. The current mathematical (computer) code can be used as a powerful tool for HRM analytical design parameters.

Keywords: hybrid combustion, internal ballistics, hybrid rocket motor, performance parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5631 A Comparative Study of Substituted Li Ferrites Sintered by the Conventional and Microwave Sintering Technique

Authors: Ibetombi Soibam

Abstract:

Li-Zn-Ni ferrite having the compositional formula Li0.4-0.5xZn0.2NixFe2.4-0.5xO4 where x = 0.02 ≤ x ≤0.1 in steps of 0.02 was fabricated by the citrate precursor method. In this method, metal nitrates and citric acid was used to prepare the gel which exhibit self-propagating combustion behavior giving the required ferrite sample. The ferrite sample was given a pre-firing at 650°C in a programmable conventional furnace for 3 hours with a heating rate of 5°C/min. A series of the sample was finally given conventional sintering (CS) at 1040°C after the pre-firing process. Another series was given microwave sintering (MS) at 1040°C in a programmable microwave furnace which uses a single magnetron operating at 2.45 GHz frequency. X- ray diffraction pattern confirmed the spinel phase structure for both the series. The theoretical and experimental density was calculated. It was observed that densification increases with the increase in Ni concentration in both the series. However, samples sintered by microwave technique was found to be denser. The microstructure of the two series of the sample was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dielectric properties have been investigated as a function of frequency and composition for both series of samples sintered by CS and MS technique. The variation of dielectric constant with frequency show dispersion for both the series. It was explained in terms of Koop’s two layer model. From the analysis of dielectric measurement, it was observed that the value of room temperature dielectric constant decreases with the increase in Ni concentration for both the series. The microwave sintered samples show a lower dielectric constant making microwave sintering suitable for high-frequency applications. The possible mechanisms contributing to all the above behavior is being discussed.

Keywords: citrate precursor, dielectric constant, ferrites, microwave sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
5630 Phosphate Sludge Ceramics: Effects of Firing Cycle Parameters on Technological Properties and Ceramic Suitability

Authors: Mohamed Loutou, Mohamed Hajjaji, Mohamed Ait Babram, Mohammed Mansori, Rachid Hakkou, Claude Favotto

Abstract:

More than 26,4 million tons of phosphates are produced by the phosphates industries in Morocco (2010), generating huge amounts of sludge by flocculation during the ore beneficiation. They way are stored at the end of the process in open air ponds. Its accumulation and storage may have an impact on several scales such as ground water and human being. For this purpose, an efficient way to use it the field of the ceramic is proposed. The as received sludge and a clay-rich sediment have been studied in terms of chemical, mineralogical and micro-structural side using various analytical methods. Several formulations have been performed by mixing the sludge with the binder shaped in the form of granules. After being dried at 105 °C, the samples were heated in the range of 900-1200 °C. As well as the ceramic properties (firing shrinkage, water absorption, total porosity and compressive strength) the micro structure has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The relations between properties and the operating factors were formulated using the design of experiments (DOE). Gehlenite was the only phase neo-formed in the sintering samples. SEM micrographs revealed the presence of nano metric stains. Based on RSM results, all factors had positive effects on Firing shrinkage, compressive strength and total porosity. However, they manifested opposite effects on density and water absorption.

Keywords: phosphate sludge, clay, ceramic properties, granule

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
5629 Production of Amorphous Boron Powder via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Authors: Meltem Bolluk, Ismail Duman

Abstract:

Boron exhibits the properties of high melting temperature (2273K to 2573 K), high hardness (Mohs: 9,5), low density (2,340 g/cm3), high chemical resistance, high strength, and semiconductivity (band gap:1,6-2,1 eV). These superior properties enable to use it in several high-tech areas from electronics to nuclear industry and especially in high temperature metallurgy. Amorphous boron and crystalline boron have different application areas. Amorphous boron powder (directly amorphous and/or α-rhombohedral) is preferred in rocket firing, airbag inflating and in fabrication of superconducting MgB2 wires. The conventional ways to produce elemental boron with a purity of 85 pct to 95 prc are metallothermic reduction, fused salt electrolysis and mechanochemical synthesis; but the only way to produce high-purity boron powders is Chemical Vapour Deposition (Hot Surface CVD). In this study; amorphous boron powders with a minimum purity of 99,9 prc were synthesized in quartz tubes using BCl3-H2 gas mixture by CVD. Process conditions based on temperature and gas flow rate were determined. Thermodynamical interpretation of BCl3-H2 system for different temperatures and molar rates were performed using Fact Sage software. The characterization of powders was examined by using Xray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Stereo Microscope (SM), Helium gas pycnometer analysis. The purities of final products were determined by titration after lime fusion.

Keywords: amorphous boron, CVD, powder production, powder characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
5628 Temperature Profile Modelling in Flexible Pavement Design

Authors: Csaba Tóth, Éva Lakatos, László Pethő, Seoyoung Cho

Abstract:

The temperature effect on asphalt pavement structure is a crucial factor at the design stage. In this paper, by applying the German guidelines for temperature along the asphalt depth is estimated. The aim is to consider temperature profiles in different seasons in numerical modelling. The model is built with an elastic and isotropic solid element with 19 subdivisions of asphalt layers to reflect the temperature variation. Comparison with the simple three-layer pavement system (asphalt layers, base, and subgrade layers) will be followed to see the difference in result without temperature variation along with the depth. Finally, the fatigue life calculation was checked to prove the validity of the methodology of considering the temperature in the numerical modelling.

Keywords: temperature profile, flexible pavement modeling, finite element method, temperature modeling

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5627 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Development of Demand-Controlled Deep Brain Stimulation with Methods from Stochastic Phase Resetting

Authors: Mahdi Akhbardeh

Abstract:

Synchronization of neuronal firing is a hallmark of several neurological diseases. Recently, stimulation techniques have been developed which make it possible to desynchronize oscillatory neuronal activity in a mild and effective way, without suppressing the neurons' firing. As yet, these techniques are being used to establish demand-controlled deep brain stimulation (DBS) techniques for the therapy of movement disorders like severe Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. We here present a first conceptualization suggesting that the nucleus accumbens is a promising target for the standard, that is, permanent high-frequency, DBS in patients with severe and chronic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we explain how demand-controlled DBS techniques may be applied to the therapy of OCD in those cases that are refractory to behavioral therapies and pharmacological treatment.

Keywords: stereotactic neurosurgery, deep brain stimulation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phase resetting

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
5626 An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers

Authors: Ahmet Y. Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Mustafa G. Aydeniz, Yasemin Oner, Gokhan Kalkan

Abstract:

In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.

Keywords: Hot-spot temperature, monitoring system, power transformer, smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
5625 Temperature Distribution Control for Baby Incubator System Using Arduino AT Mega 2560

Authors: W. Widhiada, D. N. K. P. Negara, P. A. Suryawan

Abstract:

The technological advances in the field of health to be very important, especially on the safety of the baby. In this case a lot of premature infants death caused by poorly managed health facilities. Mostly the death of premature baby caused by bacteria since the temperature around the baby is not normal. Related to this, the incubator equipment needs to be important, especially in how to control the temperature in incubator. On/Off controls is used to regulate the temperature distribution in the incubator so that the desired temperature is 36 °C to stay awake and stable. The authors have been observed and analyzed the data to determine the temperature distribution in the incubator using program of MATLAB/Simulink. The output temperature distribution is obtained at 36 °C in 400 seconds using an Arduino AT 2560. This incubator is able to maintain an ambient temperature and maintain the baby's body temperature within normal limits and keep the moisture in the air in accordance with the limit values required in infant incubator.

Keywords: on/off control, distribution temperature, Arduino AT 2560, baby incubator

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
5624 Childhood Respiratory Diseases Related to Indoor and Outdoor Air Temperature in Shanghai, China

Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Shijie Hong, Jialing Zhang, Yuchao Guo, Zhijun Zou, Chen Huang

Abstract:

Background: Studies on associations between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases are lack in China. Objectives: We aim to analyze the relationship between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases. Methods: We conducted the on-site inspection into 454 residences and questionnaires survey. Indoor air temperature were from field inspection and outdoor air temperature were from website. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Indoor extreme hot air temperature was positively correlated with duration of a common cold (>=2 weeks), and outdoor extreme hot air temperature was also positively related with pneumonia among children. Indoor and outdoor extreme cold air temperature was a risk factor for rhinitis among children. The biggest indoor air temperature difference (indoor maximum air temperature minus indoor minimum air temperature) (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) and outdoor air temperature difference (outdoor maximum air temperature minus outdoor minimum air temperature) (Omax minus Omin) (the 4th quartile, >8oC) were positively related to pneumonia among children. Meanwhile, indoor air temperature difference (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) was positively correlated with diagnosed asthma among children. Air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor was negatively related with the most childhood respiratory diseases. This may be partly related to the avoidance behavior. Conclusions: Improper air temperature may affect the respiratory diseases among children.

Keywords: air temperature, extreme air temperature, air temperature difference, respiratory diseases, children

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5623 Particle Swarm Optimization Based Method for Minimum Initial Marking in Labeled Petri Nets

Authors: Hichem Kmimech, Achref Jabeur Telmoudi, Lotfi Nabli

Abstract:

The estimation of the initial marking minimum (MIM) is a crucial problem in labeled Petri nets. In the case of multiple choices, the search for the initial marking leads to a problem of optimization of the minimum allocation of resources with two constraints. The first concerns the firing sequence that could be legal on the initial marking with respect to the firing vector. The second deals with the total number of tokens that can be minimal. In this article, the MIM problem is solved by the meta-heuristic particle swarm optimization (PSO). The proposed approach presents the advantages of PSO to satisfy the two previous constraints and find all possible combinations of minimum initial marking with the best computing time. This method, more efficient than conventional ones, has an excellent impact on the resolution of the MIM problem. We prove through a set of definitions, lemmas, and examples, the effectiveness of our approach.

Keywords: marking, production system, labeled Petri nets, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
5622 Solar Liquid Desiccant Regenerator for Two Stage KCOOH Based Fresh Air Dehumidifier

Authors: M. V. Rane, Tareke Tekia

Abstract:

Liquid desiccant based fresh air dehumidifiers can be gainfully deployed for air-conditioning, agro-produce drying and in many industrial processes. Regeneration of liquid desiccant can be done using direct firing, high temperature waste heat or solar energy. Solar energy is clean and available in abundance; however, it is costly to collect. A two stage liquid desiccant fresh air dehumidification system can offer Coefficient of Performance (COP), in the range of 1.6 to 2 for comfort air conditioning applications. High COP helps reduce the size and cost of collectors required. Performance tests on high temperature regenerator of a two stage liquid desiccant fresh air dehumidifier coupled with seasonally tracked flat plate like solar collector will be presented in this paper. The two stage fresh air dehumidifier has four major components: High Temperature Regenerator (HTR), Low Temperature Regenerator (LTR), High and Low Temperature Solution Heat Exchangers and Fresh Air Dehumidifier (FAD). This open system can operate at near atmospheric pressure in all the components. These systems can be simple, maintenance-free and scalable. Environmentally benign, non-corrosive, moderately priced Potassium Formate, KCOOH, is used as a liquid desiccant. Typical KCOOH concentration in the system is expected to vary between 65 and 75%. Dilute liquid desiccant at 65% concentration exiting the fresh air dehumidifier will be pumped and preheated in solution heat exchangers before entering the high temperature solar regenerator. In the solar collector, solution will be regenerated to intermediate concentration of 70%. Steam and saturated solution exiting the solar collector array will be separated. Steam at near atmospheric pressure will then be used to regenerate the intermediate concentration solution up to a concentration of 75% in a low temperature regenerator where moisture vaporized be released in to atmosphere. Condensed steam can be used as potable water after adding a pinch of salt and some nutrient. Warm concentrated liquid desiccant will be routed to solution heat exchanger to recycle its heat to preheat the weak liquid desiccant solution. Evacuated glass tube based seasonally tracked solar collector is used for regeneration of liquid desiccant at high temperature. Temperature of regeneration for KCOOH is 133°C at 70% concentration. The medium temperature collector was designed for temperature range of 100 to 150°C. Double wall polycarbonate top cover helps reduce top losses. Absorber integrated heat storage helps stabilize the temperature of liquid desiccant exiting the collectors during intermittent cloudy conditions, and extends the operation of the system by couple of hours beyond the sunshine hours. This solar collector is light in weight, 12 kg/m2 without absorber integrated heat storage material, and 27 kg/m2 with heat storage material. Cost of the collector is estimated to be 10,000 INR/m2. Theoretical modeling of the collector has shown that the optical efficiency is 62%. Performance test of regeneration of KCOOH will be reported.

Keywords: solar, liquid desiccant, dehumidification, air conditioning, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
5621 Comparison between FEM Simulation and Experiment of Temperature Rise in Power Transformer Inner Steel Plate

Authors: Byung hyun Bae

Abstract:

In power transformer, leakage magnetic flux generate temperature rise of inner steel plate. Sometimes, this temperature rise can be serious problem. If temperature of steel plate is over critical point, harmful gas will be generated in the tank. And this gas can be a reason of fire, explosion and life decrease. So, temperature rise forecasting of steel plate is very important at the design stage of power transformer. To improve accuracy of forecasting of temperature rise, comparison between simulation and experiment achieved in this paper.

Keywords: power transformer, steel plate, temperature rise, experiment, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
5620 Combustion Characteristics of Wet Woody Biomass in a Grate Furnace: Including Measurements within the Bed

Authors: Narges Razmjoo, Hamid Sefidari, Michael Strand

Abstract:

Biomass combustion is a growing technique for heat and power production due to the increasing stringent regulations with CO2 emissions. Grate-fired systems have been regarded as a common and popular combustion technology for burning woody biomass. However, some grate furnaces are not well optimized and may emit significant amount of unwanted compounds such as dust, NOx, CO, and unburned gaseous components. The combustion characteristics inside the fuel bed are of practical interest, as they are directly related to the release of volatiles and affect the stability and the efficiency of the fuel bed combustion. Although numerous studies have been presented on the grate firing of biomass, to the author’s knowledge, none of them have conducted a detailed experimental study within the fuel bed. It is difficult to conduct measurements of temperature and gas species inside the burning bed of the fuel in full-scale boilers. Results from such inside bed measurements can also be applied by the numerical experts for modeling the fuel bed combustion. The current work presents an experimental investigation into the combustion behavior of wet woody biomass (53 %) in a 4 MW reciprocating grate boiler, by focusing on the gas species distribution along the height of the fuel bed. The local concentrations of gases (CO, CO2, CH4, NO, and O2) inside the fuel bed were measured through a glass port situated on the side wall of the furnace. The measurements were carried out at five different heights of the fuel bed, by means of a bent stainless steel probe containing a type-k thermocouple. The sample gas extracted from the fuel bed, through the probe, was filtered and dried and then was analyzed using two infrared spectrometers. Temperatures of about 200-1100 °C were measured close to the grate, indicating that char combustion is occurring at the bottom of the fuel bed and propagates upward. The CO and CO2 concentration varied in the range of 15-35 vol % and 3-16 vol %, respectively, and NO concentration varied between 10-140 ppm. The profile of the gas concentrations distribution along the bed height provided a good overview of the combustion sub-processes in the fuel bed.

Keywords: experimental, fuel bed, grate firing, wood combustion

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5619 Analysis of Syngas Combustion Characteristics in Can-Type Combustor using CFD

Authors: Norhaslina Mat Zian, Hasril Hasini, Nur Irmawati Om

Abstract:

This study focuses on the flow and combustion behavior inside gas turbine combustor used in thermal power plant. The combustion process takes place using synthetic gas and the baseline solution was made on gas turbine combustor firing natural gas (100% Methane) as the main source of fuel. Attention is given to the effect of the H2/CO ratio on the variation of the flame profile, temperature distribution, and emissions. The H2/CO ratio varies in the range of 10-80 % and the CH4 values are fixed 10% for each case. While keeping constant the mass flow rate and operating pressure, the preliminary result shows that the flow inside the can-combustor is highly swirling which indicates good mixing of fuel and air prior to the entrance of the mixture to the main combustion zone.

Keywords: cfd, combustion, flame, syngas

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5618 Reference Intensity Ratio Semi-Quantitative Analysis of Cordierite-Mullite Synthesis by a Solid State Method

Authors: D. Wattanasiriwech, S. Wattanasiriwech

Abstract:

In this paper, attempt to synthesize designed cordierite-mullite system with various ratios was performed using a solid-state method. Alumina, quartz, magnesia, and talc were used as starting materials for the synthesis. Talc was added for two purposes; to assist the reaction progress and to be the Mg source. The raw materials were mixed and fired at 1350°C for 2 h and 1400°C for 2 and 4 h. The resulting phase compositions were analysed using the Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) semi-quantitative analysis method. The highest amount of cordierite up to Cordierite phase 96% could be obtained at the firing scheme of 1400°C for 4 h in the C100-M0. Mullite could not be formed at the selected scheme if talc did not present so no pure mullite was observed in the selected firing regime. The highest amount of mullite co-existed with cordierite and other phases were 74%.

Keywords: RIR semi-quantitative analysis, cordierite-mullite system, solid state synthesis, X-Ray diffraction

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5617 A Statistical Analysis on Relationship between Temperature Variations with Latitude and Altitude regarding Total Amount of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Iran

Authors: Masoumeh Moghbel

Abstract:

Nowadays, carbon dioxide which is produced by human activities is considered as the main effective factor in the global warming occurrence. Regarding to the role of CO2 and its ability in trapping the heat, the main objective of this research is study the effect of atmospheric CO2 (which is recorded in Manaloa) on variations of temperature parameters (daily mean temperature, minimum temperature and maximum temperature) in 5 meteorological stations in Iran which were selected according to the latitude and altitude in 40 years statistical period. Firstly, the trend of temperature parameters was studied by Regression and none-graphical Man-Kendal methods. Then, relation between temperature variations and CO2 were studied by Correlation technique. Also, the impact of CO2 amount on temperature in different atmospheric levels (850 and 500 hpa) was analyzed. The results illustrated that correlation coefficient between temperature variations and CO2 in low latitudes and high altitudes is more significant rather than other regions. it is important to note that altitude as the one of the main geographic factor has limitation in affecting the temperature variations, so that correlation coefficient between these two parameters in 850 hpa (r=0.86) is more significant than 500 hpa (r = 0.62).

Keywords: altitude, atmospheric carbon dioxide, latitude, temperature variations

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5616 Influence of Temperature on Properties of MOSFETs

Authors: Azizi Cherifa, O. Benzaoui

Abstract:

The thermal aspects in the design of power circuits often deserve as much attention as pure electric components aspects as the operating temperature has a direct influence on their static and dynamic characteristics. MOSFET is fundamental in the circuits, it is the most widely used device in the current production of semiconductor components using their honorable performance. The aim of this contribution is devoted to the effect of the temperature on the properties of MOSFETs. The study enables us to calculate the drain current as function of bias in both linear and saturated modes. The effect of temperature is evaluated using a numerical simulation, using the laws of mobility and saturation velocity of carriers as a function of temperature.

Keywords: temperature, MOSFET, mobility, transistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
5615 Using of Cavitational Disperser for Porous Ceramic and Concrete Material Preparation

Authors: Andrei Shishkin, Aleksandrs Korjakins, Viktors Mironovs

Abstract:

Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) and foam concrete (FC), by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). Three foaming agents (FA) are compared for the FC and CCF production: SCHÄUMUNGSMITTEL W 53 FLÜSSIG (Zschimmer & Schwarz Gmbh, Germany), SCF-1245 (Sika, test sample, Latvia) and FAB-12 (Elade, Latvija). CCF were obtained at 950, 1000°C, 1150°C and 1150°C firing temperature and have mechanical compressive strength 1.2, 2.55, and 4.3 MPa and porosity 79.4, 75.1, 71.6%, respectively. Obtained FC has 6-14 MPa compressive strength and porosity 44-55%. The goal of this work was the development of a sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using HSMD.

Keywords: ceramic foam, foam concrete, clay foam, open cell, close cell, direct foaming

Procedia PDF Downloads 339