Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 823

Search results for: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

823 Effect of Austenitization Temperature on Wear Behavior of Carbidic Austempered Ductile Iron (CADI)

Authors: Ajay Likhite, Prashant Parhad, D. R. Peshwe, S. U. Pathak

Abstract:

Chromium bearing Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) has been recently in the news for its improved wear performance over the ADI. The work presented below was taken up to study the effect of different austenitisation temperatures on the microstructure and wear performance of the Carbidic Austempered Ductile Iron (CADI). In this investigation Cr bearing ductile iron was subjected to austempering treatment to obtain an ausferritic microstructure. Two different austenitisation temperatures were selected whereas, the austempering temperature and time was kept unchanged. Microstructure and wear performance of this alloy, austenitized at two different temperatures was studied.

Keywords: austempered ductile iron, carbidic austempered ductile iron, austenitization temperature, wear behavior

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822 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel

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The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

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821 Machining Responce of Austempered Ductile Iron with Varying Cutting Speed and Depth of Cut

Authors: Prashant Parhad, Vinayak Dakre, Ajay Likhite, Jatin Bhatt

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This work mainly focuses on machinability studies of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI). The Ductile Iron (DI) was austempered at 250 oC for different durations and the process window for austempering was established by studying the microstructure. The microstructural characterization of the material was done using optical microscopy, SEM and XRD. The samples austempered as per the process window were then subjected to turning using a TiAlN-coated tungsten carbide insert to study the effect of cutting parameters, namely the cutting speed and the depth of cut. The effect was investigated in terms of cutting forces required as well as the surface roughness obtained. The turning was conducted on a CNC turning machine and primary (Fx), radial (Fy) and feed (Fz) cutting forces were quantified with a three-component dynamometer. It was observed that the magnitude of radial force was more than that of primary cutting force for all cutting speed and for various depths of cut studied. It has also been seen that increasing the cutting speed improves the surface quality. The observed machinability behaviour was investigated in light of the microstructure of the material obtained under the given austempering conditions and a structure-property- co-relation was established between the two. For all cutting speed and depth of cut, the best machining response in terms of cutting forces and surface quality was obtained towards the centre of process window.

Keywords: process window, cutting speed, depth of cut, surface roughness

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820 Analysis of Lift Arm Failure and Its Improvement for the Use in Farm Tractor

Authors: Japinder Wadhawan, Pradeep Rajan, Alok K. Saran, Navdeep S. Sidhu, Daanvir K. Dhir

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Currently, research focus in the development of agricultural equipment and tractor parts in India is innovation and use of alternate materials like austempered ductile iron (ADI). Three-point linkage mechanism of the tractor is susceptible to unpredictable load conditions in the field, and one of the critical components vulnerable to failure is lift arm. Conventionally, lift arm is manufactured either by forging or casting (SG Iron) and main objective of the present work is to reduce the failure occurrences in the lift arm, which is achieved by changing the manufacturing material, i.e ADI, without changing existing design. Effect of four pertinent variables of manufacturing ADI, viz. austenitizing temperature, austenitizing time, austempering temperature, austempering time, was investigated using Taguchi method for design of experiments. To analyze the effect of parameters on the mechanical properties, mean average and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was calculated based on the design of experiments with L9 orthogonal array and the linear graph. The best combination for achieving the desired mechanical properties of lift arm is austenitization at 860°C for 90 minutes and austempering at 350°C for 60 minutes. Results showed that the developed component is having 925 MPA tensile strength, 7.8 per cent elongation and 120 joules toughness making it more suitable material for lift arm manufacturing. The confirmatory experiment has been performed and found a good agreement between predicted and experimental value. Also, the CAD model of the existing design was developed in computer aided design software, and structural loading calculations were performed by a commercial finite element analysis package. An optimized shape of the lift arm has also been proposed resulting in light weight and cheaper product than the existing design, which can withstand the same loading conditions effectively.

Keywords: austempered ductile iron, design of experiment, finite element analysis, lift arm

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819 Model of Elastic Fracture Toughness for Ductile Metal Pipes with External Longitudinal Cracks

Authors: Guoyang Fu, Wei Yang, Chun-Qing Li

Abstract:

The most common type of cracks that appear on metal pipes is longitudinal cracks. For ductile metal pipes, the existence of plasticity eases the stress intensity at the crack front and consequently increases the fracture resistance. It should be noted that linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) has been widely accepted by engineers. In order to make the LEFM applicable to ductile metal materials, the increase of fracture toughness due to plasticity should be excluded from the total fracture toughness of the ductile metal. This paper aims to develop a model of elastic fracture toughness for ductile metal pipes with external longitudinal cracks. The derived elastic fracture toughness is a function of crack geometry and material properties of the cracked pipe. The significance of the derived model is that the well-established LEFM can be used for ductile metal material in predicting the fracture failure.

Keywords: Ductile metal pipes, elastic fracture toughness, longitudinal crack, plasticity

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818 Austempered Compacted Graphite Irons: Influence of Austempering Temperature on Microstructure and Microscratch Behavior

Authors: Rohollah Ghasemi, Arvin Ghorbani

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This study investigates the effect of austempering temperature on microstructure and scratch behavior of the austempered heat-treated compacted graphite irons. The as-cast was used as base material for heat treatment practices. The samples were extracted from as-cast ferritic CGI pieces and were heat treated under austenitising temperature of 900°C for 60 minutes which followed by quenching in salt-bath at different austempering temperatures of 275°C, 325°C and 375°C. For all heat treatments, an austempering holding time of 30 minutes was selected for this study. Light optical microscope (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis confirmed the ausferritic matrix formed in all heat-treated samples. Microscratches were performed under the load of 200, 600 and 1000 mN using a sphero-conical diamond indenter with a tip radius of 50 μm and induced cone angle 90° at a speed of 10 μm/s at room temperature ~25°C. An instrumented nanoindentation machine was used for performing nanoindentation hardness measurement and microscratch testing. Hardness measurements and scratch resistance showed a significant increase in Brinell, Vickers, and nanoindentation hardness values as well as microscratch resistance of the heat-treated samples compared to the as-cast ferritic sample. The increase in hardness and improvement in microscratch resistance are associated with the formation of the ausferrite matrix consisted of carbon-saturated retained austenite and acicular ferrite in austempered matrix. The maximum hardness was observed for samples austempered at 275°C which resulted in the formation of very fine acicular ferrite. In addition, nanohardness values showed a quite significant variation in the matrix due to the presence of acicular ferrite and carbon-saturated retained austenite. It was also observed that the increase of austempering temperature resulted in increase of volume of the carbon-saturated retained austenite and decrease of hardness values.

Keywords: austempered CGI, austempering, scratch testing, scratch plastic deformation, scratch hardness

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817 Finite Element and Experimental Investigation of Ductile Crack Growth of Surface Cracks

Authors: Osama A. Terfas, Abdelhakim A. Hameda, Abdusalam A. Alktiwi

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An investigation on ductile crack growth of shallow semi-elliptical surface cracks with a/w=0.2, a/c=0.33 under bending was carried out, where a is the crack depth, w is the plate thickness and c is the crack length at surface. Finite element analysis and experiments were modelling and the crack growth model were verified with experimental data. The results showed that the initial crack shape was no longer maintained as the crack developed under ductile tearing. The maximum growth at the deepest point at early stages was stopped when the crack depth reached half thickness and growth occurred beneath surface. Excellent agreement in the crack shape patterns was observed between the experiments and the crack growth model.

Keywords: crack growth, ductile tearing, mean stress, surface cracks

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816 Modeling of Ductile Fracture Using Stress-Modified Critical Strain Criterion for Typical Pressure Vessel Steel

Authors: Carlos Cuenca, Diego Sarzosa

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Ductile fracture occurs by the mechanism of void nucleation, void growth and coalescence. Potential sites for initiation are second phase particles or non-metallic inclusions. Modelling of ductile damage at the microscopic level is very difficult and complex task for engineers. Therefore, conservative predictions of ductile failure using simple models are necessary during the design and optimization of critical structures like pressure vessels and pipelines. Nowadays, it is well known that the initiation phase is strongly influenced by the stress triaxiality and plastic deformation at the microscopic level. Thus, a simple model used to study the ductile failure under multiaxial stress condition is the Stress Modified Critical Strain (SMCS) approach. Ductile rupture has been study for a structural steel under different stress triaxiality conditions using the SMCS method. Experimental tests are carried out to characterize the relation between stress triaxiality and equivalent plastic strain by notched round bars. After calibration of the plasticity and damage properties, predictions are made for low constraint bending specimens with and without side grooves. Stress/strain fields evolution are compared between the different geometries. Advantages and disadvantages of the SMCS methodology are discussed.

Keywords: damage, SMSC, SEB, steel, failure

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815 Influence of Iron Ore Mineralogy on Cluster Formation inside the Shaft Furnace

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. A. Hanafy, S. Lakdawala

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Clustering phenomenon of pellets was observed frequently in shaft processes operating at higher temperatures. Clustering is a result of the growth of fibrous iron precipitates (iron whiskers) that become hooked to each other and finally become crystallized during the initial stages of metallization. If the pellet clustering is pronounced, sometimes leads to blocking inside the furnace and forced shutdown takes place. This work clarifies further the relation between metallic iron whisker growth and iron ore mineralogy. Various pellet sizes (6 – 12.0 & +12.0 mm) from three different ores (A, B & C) were (completely and partially) reduced at 985 oC with H2/CO gas mixture using thermos-gravimetric technique. It was found that reducibility increases by decreasing the iron ore pellet’s size. Ore (A) has the highest reducibility than ore (B) and ore (C). Increasing the iron ore pellet’s size leads to increase the probability of metallic iron whisker formation. Ore (A) has the highest tendency for metallic iron whisker formation than ore (B) and ore (C). The reduction reactions for all iron ores A, B and C are mainly controlled by diffusion reaction mechanism.

Keywords: shaft furnace, cluster, metallic iron whisker, mineralogy, ferrous metallurgy

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814 Investigation of the Fading Time Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Vermicular Cast Iron

Authors: Mehmet Ekici

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In this study, the fading time affecting the mechanical properties and microstructures of vermicular cast iron were studied. Pig iron and steel scrap weighing about 12 kg were charged into the high-frequency induction furnace crucible and completely melted for production of vermicular cast iron. The slag was skimmed using a common flux. After fading time was set at 1. 3 and 5 minutes. In this way, three vermicular cast iron was produced that same composition but different phase structures. The microstructure of specimens was investigated, and uni-axial tensile test and the Charpy impact test were performed, and their micro-hardness measurements were done in order to characterize the mechanical behaviours of vermicular cast iron.

Keywords: vermicular cast iron, fading time, hardness, tensile test and impact test

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813 Bioavailability of Iron in Some Selected Fiji Foods using In vitro Technique

Authors: Poonam Singh, Surendra Prasad, William Aalbersberg

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Iron the most essential trace element in human nutrition. Its deficiency has serious health consequences and is a major public health threat worldwide. The common deficiencies in Fiji population reported are of Fe, Ca and Zn. It has also been reported that 40% of women in Fiji are iron deficient. Therefore, we have been studying the bioavailability of iron in commonly consumed Fiji foods. To study the bioavailability it is essential to assess the iron contents in raw foods. This paper reports the iron contents and its bioavailability in commonly consumed foods by multicultural population of Fiji. The food samples (rice, breads, wheat flour and breakfast cereals) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for total iron and its bioavailability. The white rice had the lowest total iron 0.10±0.03 mg/100g but had high bioavailability of 160.60±0.03%. The brown rice had 0.20±0.03 mg/100g total iron content but 85.00±0.03% bioavailable. The white and brown breads showed the highest iron bioavailability as 428.30±0.11 and 269.35 ±0.02%, respectively. The Weetabix and the rolled oats had the iron contents 2.89±0.27 and 1.24.±0.03 mg/100g with bioavailability of 14.19±0.04 and 12.10±0.03%, respectively. The most commonly consumed normal wheat flour had 0.65±0.00 mg/100g iron while the whole meal and the Roti flours had 2.35±0.20 and 0.62±0.17 mg/100g iron showing bioavailability of 55.38±0.05, 16.67±0.08 and 12.90±0.00%, respectively. The low bioavailability of iron in certain foods may be due to the presence of phytates/oxalates, processing/storage conditions, cooking method or interaction with other minerals present in the food samples.

Keywords: iron, bioavailability, Fiji foods, in vitro technique, human nutrition

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812 Effect of Impact Angle on Erosive Abrasive Wear of Ductile and Brittle Materials

Authors: Ergin Kosa, Ali Göksenli

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Erosion and abrasion are wear mechanisms reducing the lifetime of machine elements like valves, pump and pipe systems. Both wear mechanisms are acting at the same time, causing a “Synergy” effect, which leads to a rapid damage of the surface. Different parameters are effective on erosive abrasive wear rate. In this study effect of particle impact angle on wear rate and wear mechanism of ductile and brittle materials was investigated. A new slurry pot was designed for experimental investigation. As abrasive particle, silica sand was used. Particle size was ranking between 200-500 µm. All tests were carried out in a sand-water mixture of 20% concentration for four hours. Impact velocities of the particles were 4,76 m/s. As ductile material steel St 37 with Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) of 245 and quenched St 37 with 510 BHN was used as brittle material. After wear tests, morphology of the eroded surfaces were investigated for better understanding of the wear mechanisms acting at different impact angles by using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope. The results indicated that wear rate of ductile material was higher than brittle material. Maximum wear was observed by ductile material at a particle impact angle of 300. On the contrary wear rate increased by brittle materials by an increase in impact angle and reached maximum value at 450. High amount of craters were detected after observation on ductile material surface Also plastic deformation zones were detected, which are typical failure modes for ductile materials. Craters formed by particles were deeper according to brittle material worn surface. Amount of craters decreased on brittle material surface. Microcracks around craters were detected which are typical failure modes of brittle materials. Deformation wear was the dominant wear mechanism on brittle material. At the end it is concluded that wear rate could not be directly related to impact angle of the hard particle due to the different responses of ductile and brittle materials.

Keywords: erosive wear, particle impact angle, silica sand, wear rate, ductile-brittle material

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811 Removal of Iron (II) from Wastewater in Oil Field Using 3-(P-Methyl) Phenyl-5-Thionyl-1,2,4-Triazoline Assembled on Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: E. M. S. Azzam, S. A. Ahmed, H. H. Mohamed, M. A. Adly, E. A. M. Gad

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In this work we prepared 3-(p-methyl) phenyl-5-thionyl-1,2,4-triazoline (C1). The nanostructure of the prepared C1 compound was fabricated by assembling on silver nanoparticles. The UV and TEM analyses confirm the assembling of C1 compound on silver nanoparticles. The effect of C1 compound on the removal of Iron (II) from Iron contaminated samples and industrial wastewater samples (produced water from oil processing facility) were studied before and after their assembling on silver nanoparticles. The removal of Iron was studied at different concentrations of FeSO4 solution (5, 14 and 39 mg/l) and field sample concentration (661 mg/l). In addition, the removal of Iron (II) was investigated at different times. The Prepared compound and its nanostructure with AgNPs show highly efficient in removing the Iron ions. Quantum chemical descriptors using DFT was discussed. The output of the study pronounces that the C1 molecule can act as chelating agent for Iron (II).

Keywords: triazole derivatives, silver nanoparticles, iron (II), oil field

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810 Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Modified Geopolymer and Its Resistance against Chloride and Sulphate

Authors: Noor-ul-Amin, Lubna Nawab, Sabiha Sultana

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Geopolymer with different silica to alumina ratio with iron have been synthesized using sodium silicate, aluminum, and iron salts as a source of silica, alumina and iron source, and sodium/potassium hydroxide as an alkaline medium. The iron source will be taken from iron (III) salts and laterite clay samples. Laterite has been used as a natural source of iron in modified geopolymer. The synthesized iron modified geopolymer was submitted to the different aggressive environment, including chloride and sulphate solutions in different concentration. Different experimental techniques, including XRF, XRD, and FTIR, were used to study the bonding nature and effect of aggressive environment on geopolymer. The major phases formed during geopolymerization are sodalite (Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl), albite (NaAlSi₃O₈), hematite (Fe₂O₃), and chabazite as confirmed from the XRD results. The resulting geopolymer showed greater resistance to sulphate and chloride as compared to the normal geopolymer.

Keywords: modified geopolymer, laterite, chloride, sulphate

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809 Phenomenological Ductile Fracture Criteria Applied to the Cutting Process

Authors: František Šebek, Petr Kubík, Jindřich Petruška, Jiří Hůlka

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Present study is aimed on the cutting process of circular cross-section rods where the fracture is used to separate one rod into two pieces. Incorporating the phenomenological ductile fracture model into the explicit formulation of finite element method, the process can be analyzed without the necessity of realizing too many real experiments which could be expensive in case of repetitive testing in different conditions. In the present paper, the steel AISI 1045 was examined and the tensile tests of smooth and notched cylindrical bars were conducted together with biaxial testing of the notched tube specimens to calibrate material constants of selected phenomenological ductile fracture models. These were implemented into the Abaqus/Explicit through user subroutine VUMAT and used for cutting process simulation. As the calibration process is based on variables which cannot be obtained directly from experiments, numerical simulations of fracture tests are inevitable part of the calibration. Finally, experiments regarding the cutting process were carried out and predictive capability of selected fracture models is discussed. Concluding remarks then make the summary of gained experience both with the calibration and application of particular ductile fracture criteria.

Keywords: ductile fracture, phenomenological criteria, cutting process, explicit formulation, AISI 1045 steel

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808 Synthesis of Bimetallic Fe/Cu Nanoparticles with Different Copper Loading Ratios

Authors: May Thant Zin, Josephine Borja, Hirofumi Hinode, Winarto Kurniawan

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Nanotechnology has multiple and enormous advantages for all application. Therefore, this research is carried out to synthesize and characterize bimetallic iron with copper nano-particles. After synthesizing nano zero valent iron by reduction of ferric chloride by sodium borohydride under nitrogen purging environment, bimetallic iron with copper nanoparticles are synthesized by varying different loads of copper chloride. Due to different standard potential (E0) values of copper and iron, copper is coupled with iron at (Cu to Fe ratio of 1:5, 1:6.7, 1:10, 1:20). It is found that the resulted bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles are composing phases of iron and copper. According to the diffraction patterns indicating the state of chemical combination of the bimetallic nanoparticles, the particles are well-combined and crystalline sizes are less than 1000 Ao (or 100 nm). Specifically, particle sizes of synthesized bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles are ranging from 44.583 nm to 85.149 nm.

Keywords:

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807 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer

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The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

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806 Production of Ferroboron by SHS-Metallurgy from Iron-Containing Rolled Production Wastes for Alloying of Cast Iron

Authors: G. Zakharov, Z. Aslamazashvili, M. Chikhradze, D. Kvaskhvadze, N. Khidasheli, S. Gvazava

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Traditional technologies for processing iron-containing industrial waste, including steel-rolling production, are associated with significant energy costs, the long duration of processes, and the need to use complex and expensive equipment. Waste generated during the industrial process negatively affects the environment, but at the same time, it is a valuable raw material and can be used to produce new marketable products. The study of the effectiveness of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) methods, which are characterized by the simplicity of the necessary equipment, the purity of the final product, and the high processing speed, is under the wide scientific and practical interest to solve the set problem. The work presents technological aspects of the production of Ferro boron by the method of SHS - metallurgy from iron-containing wastes of rolled production for alloying of cast iron and results of the effect of alloying element on the degree of boron assimilation with liquid cast iron. Features of Fe-B system combustion have been investigated, and the main parameters to control the phase composition of synthesis products have been experimentally established. Effect of overloads on patterns of cast ligatures formation and mechanisms structure formation of SHS products was studied. It has been shown that an increase in the content of hematite Fe₂O₃ in iron-containing waste leads to an increase in the content of phase FeB and, accordingly, the amount of boron in the ligature. Boron content in ligature is within 3-14%, and the phase composition of obtained ligatures consists of Fe₂B and FeB phases. Depending on the initial composition of the wastes, the yield of the end product reaches 91 - 94%, and the extraction of boron is 70 - 88%. Combustion processes of high exothermic mixtures allow to obtain a wide range of boron-containing ligatures from industrial wastes. In view of the relatively low melting point of the obtained SHS-ligature, the positive dynamics of boron absorption by liquid iron is established. According to the obtained data, the degree of absorption of the ligature by alloying gray cast iron at 1450°C is 80-85%. When combined with the treatment of liquid cast iron with magnesium, followed by alloying with the developed ligature, boron losses are reduced by 5-7%. At that, uniform distribution of boron micro-additives in the volume of treated liquid metal is provided. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli Georgian National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRGNSFG) under the GENIE project (grant number № CARYS-19-802).

Keywords: self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, cast iron, industrial waste, ductile iron, structure formation

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805 Prevalence and Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Pregnant Xhosa Women

Authors: A. Abiodun, G. George, B. Longo-Mbenza, E. Blanco-Blanco

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnant Xhosa women practising geophagia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant Xhosa women from rural areas of Mthatha, South Africa, according to socio-demographic, geophagia, haematologic and iron metabolism profiles using univariate and multivariate analyses. Anaemia was defined by haemoglobin <11 g/dL and iron deficiency was defined by serum ferritin < 12 ug/L. Results: Out of 210 pregnant women (mean age =23±5.3 for geophagic and 25.6±5.3 for non-geophagic), 51.4% (n = 108) had iron deficiency anaemia (50.9% geophagic and 49.1% non-geophagic). After adjusting for confounders, only geophagia (OR=2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2; P=0.029) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration categories (< 30.5 g/dL with OR=16.6 95% CI 6.8-40.2; P < 0.0001; 30.5-31.5 g/dL with OR=2.9 95% CI 1.4-6.1; P=0.006; and ≥ 31.5 g/dL with OR=1) were identified as the most important significant and independent determinants of iron deficiency anaemia. Conclusion: The study results point to the potential harm geophagia can cause in pregnant women. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia is unacceptably high. Geophagic behaviour, low MCHC presented as particular risk factors of iron deficiency anaemia in this study. Education and counselling about appropriate diet during pregnancy and prevention of geophagic behaviour (and health consequences) are needed among pregnant Xhosa women.

Keywords: geophagia, pregnancy, iron deficiency anaemia, Xhosa

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804 Micromechanical Modelling of Ductile Damage with a Cohesive-Volumetric Approach

Authors: Noe Brice Nkoumbou Kaptchouang, Pierre-Guy Vincent, Yann Monerie

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The present work addresses the modelling and the simulation of crack initiation and propagation in ductile materials which failed by void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. One of the current research frameworks on crack propagation is the use of cohesive-volumetric approach where the crack growth is modelled as a decohesion of two surfaces in a continuum material. In this framework, the material behavior is characterized by two constitutive relations, the volumetric constitutive law relating stress and strain, and a traction-separation law across a two-dimensional surface embedded in the three-dimensional continuum. Several cohesive models have been proposed for the simulation of crack growth in brittle materials. On the other hand, the application of cohesive models in modelling crack growth in ductile material is still a relatively open field. One idea developed in the literature is to identify the traction separation for ductile material based on the behavior of a continuously-deforming unit cell failing by void growth and coalescence. Following this method, the present study proposed a semi-analytical cohesive model for ductile material based on a micromechanical approach. The strain localization band prior to ductile failure is modelled as a cohesive band, and the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman plasticity model (GTN) is used to model the behavior of the cohesive band and derived a corresponding traction separation law. The numerical implementation of the model is realized using the non-smooth contact method (NSCD) where cohesive models are introduced as mixed boundary conditions between each volumetric finite element. The present approach is applied to the simulation of crack growth in nuclear ferritic steel. The model provides an alternative way to simulate crack propagation using the numerical efficiency of cohesive model with a traction separation law directly derived from porous continuous model.

Keywords: ductile failure, cohesive model, GTN model, numerical simulation

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803 Protein-Thiocyanate Composite as a Sensor for Iron III Cations

Authors: Hosam El-Sayed, Amira Abou El-Kheir, Salwa Mowafi, Marwa Abou Taleb

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Two proteinic biopolymers; namely keratin and sericin, were extracted from their respective natural resources by simple appropriate methods. The said proteins were dissolved in the appropriate solvents followed by regeneration in a form of film polyvinyl alcohol. Proteinium thiocyanate (PTC) composite was prepared by reaction of a regenerated film with potassium thiocyanate in acid medium. In another experiment, the said acidified proteins were reacted with potassium thiocyante before dissolution and regeneration in a form of PTC composite. The possibility of using PTC composite for determination of the concentration of iron III ions in domestic as well as industrial water was examined. The concentration of iron III cations in water was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the intensity of blood red colour of iron III thiocyanate obtained by interaction of PTC with iron III cation in the tested water sample.

Keywords: iron III cations, protein, sensor, thiocyanate, water

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802 Prevalence of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Women of Childbearing Age in the North-West of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila, Basma Nuri Kajruba, Hanan Elhadi, Rehab Ramadan Wali

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Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by a decrease of Hb (hemoglobin), serum iron, ferritin, and RBC (red blood cells) (shape and size). Also, it is characterized by an increase in total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Red blood cells become microctytic and hypochromic due to a decrease in iron content. This study was conducted in the north west of Libya and included 210 women in childbearing age (18-45 years) who were visiting women clinic. After filling the questionnaire, blood samples were taken and analyzed for hematological and biochemical profiles. Biochemical tests included measurement of serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). Among the total sample (210 women), there were 87 (41.42%) pregnant and 123 (58.57%) non-pregnant women (includes married and single). Pregnant women (87) were classified according to the gestational age into first, second, and third trimesters. The means of biochemical and hematological parameters in the studied samples were: Hb = 10.37± 2.02 g/dl, RBC = 3.78± 1.037 m/m3, serum iron 61.86± 40.28 µg/dl, and TIBC = 386.01 ± 94.91 µg/dl. In this study, we considered that any women have hemoglobin below 11.5 g/dl is anemic. 89.1%, 69.5%, and 47.8% of pregnant women who belong to third trimester had low (below normal value) Hb, serum iron, and ferritin, i.e. iron deficiency anemia was more common in third trimester among the first and the second trimesters. Third trimester pregnant women also had high TIBC more than first and second trimesters.

Keywords: red blood cells, hemoglobin, total iron binding capacity, ferritin

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801 Effect of Blast Furnace Iron Slag on the Mechanical Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

Authors: Ayman M. Othman, Hassan Y. Ahmed

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This paper discusses the effect of using blast furnace iron slag as a part of fine aggregate on the mechanical performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA). The mechanical performance was evaluated based on various mechanical properties that include; Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength. The effect of iron slag content on the mechanical properties of the mixtures was also investigated. Four HMA with various iron slag contents, namely; 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight of total mixture were studied. Laboratory testing has revealed an enhancement in the compressive strength of HMA when iron slag was used. Within the tested range of iron slag content, a considerable increase in the compressive strength of the mixtures was observed with the increase of slag content. No significant improvement on Marshall/stiffness and indirect tensile strength of the mixtures was observed when slag was used. Even so, blast furnace iron slag can still be used in asphalt paving for environmental advantages.

Keywords: blast furnace iron slag, compressive strength, HMA, indirect tensile strength, marshall/stiffness, mechanical performance, mechanical properties

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800 Influence of Pouring Temperature on the Formation of Spheroidal and Lamellar Graphite in Cast Iron

Authors: Mehmet Ekici

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of pouring temperature on the microstructure of the cast iron. The pattern was designed with 300 mm of width, and the thickness variations are 1.25 mm and poured at five different temperatures; 1300, 1325, 1350, 1375 and 1400°C. Several cast irons, prepared with different chemical compositions and microstructures (three lamellar and three spheroidal structures) have been examined by extensive mechanical testing and optical microscopy. The fluidity of spheroidal and lamellar graphite in cast iron increases with the pouring temperature. The numbers of nodules were decreased by increasing pouring temperature for spheroidal structures. Whereas, the numbers of flakes of lamellar structures changed by both pouring temperature and chemical composition. In general, with increasing pouring temperature, the amount of pearlite in the internal structure of both lamellar and spheroidal graphite cast iron materials were increased.

Keywords: spheroidal graphite cast iron, lamellar graphite in cast iron, pouring temperature, tensile test and impact test

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799 Iron Extraction from Bog Iron Ore in Early French Colonial America

Authors: Yves Monette, Brad Loewen, Louise Pothier

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This study explores the first bog iron ore extraction activities which took place in colonial New France. Archaeological excavations carried on the founding site of Montreal in the last ten years have revealed the remains of Fort Ville-Marie erected in 1642. In a level related to the fort occupation between 1660 and 1680, kilos of scories, a dozen of half-finished iron artefacts and a light yellow clayey ore material have recovered that point to extractive metallurgy activities at the fort. Examples of scories, artefacts and of a possible bog iron ore were submitted to SEM-EDS analysis. The results clearly indicate that iron was extracted from local limonite ores in a bloomery. We discovered that the gangue material could be traced from the ore to the scories. However, some lime silicates and some accessory minerals found in the scories, like barite and celestine for example, were absent from the ore but present in dolomite fragments found in the same archaeological context. The tracing of accessory minerals suggests that the ironmaster introduced a lime flux in the bloomery charge to maximize the separation of the iron ore. Before the introduction of the blast furnace in Western Europe during the first half of the 18th Century, the use of fluxes in iron bloomery was not a common practice.

Keywords: bog iron ore, extractive metallurgy, French colonial America, Montreal, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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798 Synthesis of Nano Iron Copper Core-Shell by Using K-M Reactor

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed AbdelKawy, A. H. El-Shazly

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In this study, Nano iron-copper core-shell was synthesized by using Kinetic energy micro reactor ( K-M reactor). The reaction between nano-pure iron with copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) beside NaCMC as a stabilizer at K-M reactor gives many advantages in comparison with the traditional chemical method for production of nano iron-Copper core-shell in batch reactor. Many factors were investigated for its effect on the process performance such as initial concentrations of nano iron and copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. Different techniques were used for investigation and characterization of the produced nano iron particles such as SEM, XRD, UV-Vis, XPS, TEM and PSD. The produced Nano iron-copper core-shell particle using micro mixer showed better characteristics than those produced using batch reactor in different aspects such as homogeneity of the produced particles, particle size distribution and size, as core diameter 10nm particle size were obtained. The results showed that 10 nm core diameter were obtained using Micro mixer as compared to 80 nm core diameter in one-fourth the time required by using traditional batch reactor and high thickness of copper shell and good stability.

Keywords: nano iron, core-shell, reduction reaction, K-M reactor

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797 Enhanced Iron Accumulation in Chickpea Though Expression of Iron-Regulated Transport and Ferritin Genes

Authors: T. M. L. Hoang, G. Tan, S. D. Bhowmik, B. Williams, A. Johnson, M. R. Karbaschi, Y. Cheng, H. Long, S. G. Mundree

Abstract:

Iron deficiency is a worldwide problem affecting both developed and developing countries. Currently, two major approaches namely iron supplementation and food fortification have been used to combat this issue. These measures, however, are limited by the economic status of the targeted demographics. Iron biofortification through genetic modification to enhance the inherent iron content and bioavailability of crops has been employed recently. Several important crops such as rice, wheat, and banana were reported successfully improved iron content via this method, but there is no known study in legumes. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important leguminous crop that is widely consumed, particularly in India where iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent. Chickpea is also an ideal pulse in the formulation of complementary food between pulses and cereals to improve micronutrient contents. This project aims at generating enhanced ion accumulation and bioavailability chickpea through the exogenous expression of genes related to iron transport and iron homeostasis in chickpea plants. Iron-Regulated Transport (IRT) and Ferritin genes in combination were transformed into chickpea half-embryonic axis by agrobacterium–mediated transformation. Transgenic independent event was confirmed by Southern Blot analysis. T3 leaves and seeds of transgenic chickpea were assessed for iron contents using LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry). The correlation between transgene expression levels and iron content in T3 plants and seeds was assessed using qPCR. Results show that iron content in transgenic chickpea expressing the above genes significantly increased compared to that in non-transgenic controls.

Keywords: iron biofortification, chickpea, IRT, ferritin, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, LA-ICP-MS, ICP-OES

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796 A Comparison of the Adsorption Mechanism of Arsenic on Iron-Modified Nanoclays

Authors: Michael Leo L. Dela Cruz, Khryslyn G. Arano, Eden May B. Dela Pena, Leslie Joy Diaz

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Arsenic adsorbents were continuously being researched to ease the detrimental impact of arsenic to human health. A comparative study on the adsorption mechanism of arsenic on iron modified nanoclays was undertaken. Iron intercalated montmorillonite (Fe-MMT) and montmorillonite supported zero-valent iron (ZVI-MMT) were the adsorbents investigated in this study. Fe-MMT was produced through ion-exchange by replacing the sodium intercalated ions in montmorillonite with iron (III) ions. The iron (III) in Fe-MMT was later reduced to zero valent iron producing ZVI-MMT. Adsorption study was performed by batch technique. Obtained data were fitted to intra-particle diffusion, pseudo-first order, and pseudo-second-order models and the Elovich equation to determine the kinetics of adsorption. The adsorption of arsenic on Fe-MMT followed the intra-particle diffusion model with intra-particle rate constant of 0.27 mg/g-min0.5. Arsenic was found to be chemically bound on ZVI-MMT as suggested by the pseudo-second order and Elovich equation. The derived pseudo-second order rate constant was 0.0027 g/mg-min with initial adsorption rate computed from the Elovich equation was 113 mg/g-min.

Keywords: adsorption mechanism, arsenic, montmorillonite, zero valent iron

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795 Wasteless Solid-Phase Method for Conversion of Iron Ores Contaminated with Silicon and Phosphorus Compounds

Authors: А. V. Panko, Е. V. Ablets, I. G. Kovzun, М. А. Ilyashov

Abstract:

Based upon generalized analysis of modern know-how in the sphere of processing, concentration and purification of iron-ore raw materials (IORM), in particular, the most widespread ferrioxide-silicate materials (FOSM), containing impurities of phosphorus and other elements compounds, noted special role of nano technological initiatives in improvement of such processes. Considered ideas of role of nano particles in processes of FOSM carbonization with subsequent direct reduction of ferric oxides contained in them to metal phase, as well as in processes of alkali treatment and separation of powered iron from phosphorus compounds. Using the obtained results the wasteless solid-phase processing, concentration and purification of IORM and FOSM from compounds of phosphorus, silicon and other impurities excelling known methods of direct iron reduction from iron ores and metallurgical slimes.

Keywords: iron ores, solid-phase reduction, nanoparticles in reduction and purification of iron from silicon and phosphorus, wasteless method of ores processing

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794 Adsorption of Reactive Dye Using Entrapped nZVI

Authors: P. Gomathi Priya, M. E. Thenmozhi

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Iron nanoparticles were used to cleanup effluents. This paper involves synthesis of iron nanoparticles chemically by sodium borohydride reduction of ammonium ferrous sulfate solution (FAS). Iron oxide nanoparticles have lesser efficiency of adsorption than Zero Valent Iron nanoparticles (nZVI). Glucosamine acts as a stabilizing agent and chelating agent to prevent Iron nanoparticles from oxidation. nZVI particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thus, the synthesized nZVI was subjected to entrapment in biopolymer, viz. barium (Ba)-alginate beads. The beads were characterized using SEM. Batch dye degradation studies were conducted using Reactive black Water soluble Nontoxic Natural substances (WNN) dye which is one of the most hazardous dyes used in textile industries. Effect of contact time, effect of pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, isotherm and kinetic studies were carried out.

Keywords: ammonium ferrous sulfate solution, barium, alginate beads, reactive black WNN dye, zero valent iron nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 186