Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9630

Search results for: surface temperature

9630 Comparative Study of the Earth Land Surface Temperature Signatures over Ota, South-West Nigeria

Authors: Moses E. Emetere, M. L. Akinyemi


Agricultural activities in the South–West Nigeria are mitigated by the global increase in temperature. The unpredictive surface temperature of the area had increased health challenges amongst other social influence. The satellite data of surface temperatures were compared with the ground station Davis weather station. The differential heating of the lower atmosphere were represented mathematically. A numerical predictive model was propounded to forecast future surface temperature.

Keywords: numerical predictive model, surface temperature, satellite date, ground data

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
9629 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee


An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: hot-surface, jet impingement, quenching, stagnation point

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
9628 An Accurate Prediction of Surface Temperature History in a Supersonic Flight

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. A. Hosseini


In the present study, the surface temperature history of the adaptor part in a two-stage supersonic launch vehicle is accurately predicted. The full Navier-Stokes equations are used to estimate the aerodynamic heat flux. The one-dimensional heat conduction in solid phase is used to compute the temperature history. The instantaneous surface temperature is used to improve the applied heat flux, to improve the accuracy of the results.

Keywords: aerodynamic heating, heat conduction, numerical simulation, supersonic flight, launch vehicle

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9627 Temperature and Substrate Orientation Effects on the Thermal Stability of Graphene Sheet Attached on the Si Surface

Authors: Wen-Jay Lee, Kuo-Ning Chiang


The graphene binding with silicon substrate has apparently Schottky barriers property, which can be used in the application of solar cell and light source. Because graphene has only one atom layer, the atomistic structure of graphene binding with the silicon surface plays an important role to affect the properties of graphene. In this work, temperature effect on the morphology of graphene sheet attached on different crystal planes of silicon substrates are investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) (LAMMPS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories). The results show that the covered graphene sheet would cause the structural deformation of the surface Si atoms of stubtrate. To achieve a stable state in the binding process, the surface Si atoms would adjust their position and fit the honeycomb structure of graphene after the graphene attaches to the Si surface. The height contour of graphene on different plane of silicon surfaces presents different pattern, leading the local residual stress at the interface. Due to the high density of dangling bond on the Si (111)7x7 surface, the surface of Si(111)7x7 is not matching with the graphene so well in contrast with Si(100)2x1and Si(111)2x1. Si(111)7x7 is found that only partial silicon adatoms are rearranged on surface after the attachment when the temperature is lower than 200K, As the temperature gradually increases, the deformation of surface structure becomes significant, as well as the residue stress. With increasing temperature till the 815K, the graphene sheet begins to destroy and mixes with the silicon atoms. For the Si(100)2x1 and Si(111)2x1, the silicon surface structure keep its structural arrangement with a higher temperature. With increasing temperature, the residual stress gradually decrease till a critical temperatures. When the temperature is higher than the critical temperature, the residual stress gradually increases and the structural deformation is found on the surface of the Si substrates.

Keywords: molecular dynamics, graphene, silicon, Schottky barriers, interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
9626 Elevated Temperature Shot Peening for M50 Steel

Authors: Xinxin Ma, Guangze Tang, Shuxin Yang, Jinguang He, Fan Zhang, Peiling Sun, Ming Liu, Minyu Sun, Liqin Wang


As a traditional surface hardening technique, shot peening is widely used in industry. By using shot peening, a residual compressive stress is formed in the surface which is beneficial for improving the fatigue life of metal materials. At the same time, very fine grains and high density defects are generated in the surface layer which enhances the surface hardness, either. However, most of the processes are carried out at room temperature. For high strength steel, such as M50, the thickness of the strengthen layer is limited. In order to obtain a thick strengthen surface layer, elevated temperature shot peening was carried out in this work by using Φ1mm cast ion balls with a speed of 80m/s. Considering the tempering temperature of M50 steel is about 550 oC, the processing temperature was in the range from 300 to 500 oC. The effect of processing temperature and processing time of shot peening on distribution of residual stress and surface hardness was investigated. As we known, the working temperature of M50 steel can be as high as 315 oC. Because the defects formed by shot peening are unstable when the working temperature goes higher, it is worthy to understand what happens during the shot peening process, and what happens when the strengthen samples were kept at a certain temperature. In our work, the shot peening time was selected from 2 to 10 min. And after the strengthening process, the samples were annealed at various temperatures from 200 to 500 oC up to 60 h. The results show that the maximum residual compressive stress is near 900 MPa. Compared with room temperature shot peening, the strengthening depth of 500 oC shot peening sample is about 2 times deep. The surface hardness increased with the processing temperature, and the saturation peening time decreases. After annealing, the residual compressive stress decreases, however, for 500 oC peening sample, even annealing at 500 oC for 20 h, the residual compressive stress is still over 600 MPa. However, it is clean to see from SEM that the grain size of surface layers is still very small.

Keywords: shot peening, M50 steel, residual compressive stress, elevated temperature

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9625 A Calibration Method for Temperature Distribution Measurement of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Based on Mathematical Morphology of Hue Image

Authors: Risti Suryantari, Flaviana


The aim of this research is to design calibration method of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal for temperature distribution measurement based on mathematical morphology of hue image A glass of water is placed on the surface of sample TLC R25C5W at certain temperature. We use scanner for image acquisition. The true images in RGB format is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) by taking of hue without saturation and value. Then the hue images is processed based on mathematical morphology using Matlab2013a software to get better images. There are differences on the final images after processing at each temperature variation based on visualization observation and the statistic value. The value of maximum and mean increase with rising temperature. It could be parameter to identify the temperature of the human body surface like hand or foot surface.

Keywords: thermochromic liquid crystal, TLC, mathematical morphology, hue image

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
9624 Surface Temperature of Asphalt Pavements with Colored Cement-Based Grouting Materials Containing Ceramic Waste Powder and Zeolite

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sano, F. Nakanishi, M. Sugiyama, M. Kawanishi, S. Tsukuma


The heat island phenomenon and extremely hot summer climate are becoming environmental problems in Japan. Cool pavements reduce the surface temperature compared to conventional asphalt pavements in the hot summer climate and improve the thermal environment in the urban area. The authors have studied cement–based grouting materials poured into voids in porous asphalt pavements to reduce the road surface temperature. For the cement–based grouting material, cement, ceramic waste powder, and natural zeolite were used. This cement–based grouting material developed reduced the road surface temperature by 20 °C or more in the hot summer season. Considering the urban landscape, this study investigates the effect of surface temperature reduction of colored cement–based grouting materials containing pigments poured into voids in porous asphalt pavements by measuring the surface temperature of asphalt pavements outdoors. The yellow color performed the same as the original cement–based grouting material containing no pigment and was thermally better performance than the other color. However, all the tested cement–based grouting materials performed well for reducing the surface temperature and for creating the urban landscape.

Keywords: ceramic waste powder, natural zeolite, road surface temperature, asphalt pavement, urban landscape

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
9623 In situ High Temperature Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

Authors: M. Rouhani, F. C. N. Hong, Y. R. Jeng


The tribological performance of DLC films is limited by graphitization at elevated temperatures. Despite of numerous studies on the thermal stability of DLC films, a comprehensive in-situ characterization at elevated temperature is still lacking. In this study, DLC films were deposited using filtered cathodic arc vacuum method. Thermal stability of the films was characterized in-situally using a synchronized technique integrating Raman spectroscopy and depth-sensing measurements. Tests were performed in a high temperature chamber coupled with feedback control to make it possible to study the temperature effects in the range of 21 – 450 ̊C. Co-located SPM and Raman microscopy maps at different temperature over a specific area on the surface of the film were prepared. The results show that the thermal stability of the DLC films depends on their sp3 content. Films with lower sp3 content endure graphitization during the temperature-course used in this study. The graphitization is accompanied with significant changes in surface roughness and Raman spectrum of the film. Surface roughness of the films start to change even before graphitization transformation could be detected using Raman spectroscopy. Depth-sensing tests (nanoindentation, nano-scratch and wear) endorse the surface roughness change seen before graphitization occurrence. This in-situ study showed that the surface of the films is more sensitive to temperature rise compared to the bulk. We presume the changes observed in films hardness, surface roughness and scratch resistance with temperature rise, before graphitization occurrence, is due to surface relaxation.

Keywords: DLC film, nanoindentation, Raman spectroscopy, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
9622 A Dynamic Equation for Downscaling Surface Air Temperature

Authors: Ch. Surawut, D. Sukawat


In order to utilize results from global climate models, dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques have been developed. For dynamical downscaling, usually a limited area numerical model is used, with associated high computational cost. This research proposes dynamic equation for specific space-time regional climate downscaling from the Educational Global Climate Model (EdGCM) for Southeast Asia. The equation is for surface air temperature. These equations provide downscaling values of surface air temperature at any specific location and time without running a regional climate model. In the proposed equations, surface air temperature is approximated from ground temperature, sensible heat flux and 2m wind speed. Results from the application of the equation show that the errors from the proposed equations are less than the errors for direct interpolation from EdGCM.

Keywords: dynamic equation, downscaling, inverse distance, weight interpolation

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9621 Heat Transfer of an Impinging Jet on a Plane Surface

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu


A cold, thin film of liquid impinging on an isothermal hot, horizontal surface has been investigated. An approximate solution for the velocity and temperature distributions in the flow along the horizontal surface is developed, which exploits the hydrodynamic similarity solution for thin film flow. The approximate solution may provide a valuable basis for assessing flow and heat transfer in more complex settings.

Keywords: flux, free impinging jet, solid-surface, uniform wall temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
9620 Correlation of Building Density toward Land Surface Temperature 2018 in Medan City

Authors: Andi Syahputra, R. H. Jatmiko, D. R. Hizbaron


Land surface temperature (LST) in an area is influenced by conditions of vegetation density, building density, and the number of inhabitants who live in the area. Medan City is one of the largest cities in Indonesia, with a high rate of change from vegetation to developed land. This study aims to identify the relationship between the percentage of building density and land surface temperature in Medan City. Pixel image analysis method is carried out to obtain the value of building density in pixel images of Landsat 8 images with the help of WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The results showed the highest land surface temperature in 2018 of 35, 4°C was found in Medan Perjuangan District, and the lowest was 22.5°C in Medan Belawan District. Building density samples with a density level of 889.17 m were also found in Medan Perjuangan District, while the lowest building density sample was found in Medan Timur District. Linear regression analysis of the effect of building density with land surface temperature obtained a correlation (R) was 0.64, and a coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.411 and modeling of building density based on the LST has a correlation (R), and a coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.72 with The RMSE obtained 0.853.

Keywords: land surface temperature, Landsat, imagery, building density, vegetation, density

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9619 The Preparation of High Surface Area Ni/MgAl2O4 Catalysts for Syngas Methanation

Authors: Jingyu Zhou, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying


High surface area MgAl2O4 supported Nickel catalysts with PVA loadings varying from 0% to 15% were prepared by precipitation and impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction and H2 temperature programmed reduction. Compared with Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts exhibited higher activity and selectivity in high temperature. Among the catalysts, Ni/MgAl2O4-5P with 5 wt% PVA showed the best performance, and achieved 95% CO conversion and 96% CH4 selectivity at 600°C, 2.0 MPa, and a WHSV of 12,000 mL·g⁻¹.h⁻¹. It also maintained good stability in 50h life test.

Keywords: methanation, MgAl2O4 support, PVA, high surface area

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9618 Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Rock during Temperature Drop

Authors: N. Reppas, Y. L. Gui, B. Wetenhall, C. T. Davie, J. Ma


A theoretical constitutive model describing the stress-strain behavior of rock subjected to different confining pressures is presented. A bounding surface plastic model with hardening effects is proposed which includes the effect of temperature drop. The bounding surface is based on a mapping rule and the temperature effect on rock is controlled by Poisson’s ratio. Validation of the results against available experimental data is also presented. The relation of deviatoric stress and axial strain is illustrated at different temperatures to analyze the effect of temperature decrease in terms of stiffness of the material.

Keywords: bounding surface, cooling of rock, plasticity model, rock deformation, elasto-plastic behavior

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9617 Identification of Thermally Critical Zones Based on Inter Seasonal Variation in Temperature

Authors: Sakti Mandal


Varying distribution of land surface temperature in an urbanized environment is a globally addressed phenomenon. Usually has been noticed that criticality of surface temperature increases from the periphery to the urban centre. As the centre experiences maximum severity of heat throughout the year, it also represents most critical zone in terms of thermal condition. In this present study, an attempt has been taken to propose a quantitative approach of thermal critical zonation (TCZ) on the basis of seasonal temperature variation. Here the zonation is done by calculating thermal critical value (TCV). From the Landsat 8 thermal digital data of summer and winter seasons for the year 2014, the land surface temperature maps and thermally critical zonation has been prepared, and corresponding dataset has been computed to conduct the overall study of that particular study area. It is shown that TCZ can be clearly identified and analyzed by the help of inter-seasonal temperature range. The results of this study can be utilized effectively in future urban development and planning projects as well as a framework for implementing rules and regulations by the authorities for a sustainable urban development through an environmentally affable approach.

Keywords: thermal critical values (TCV), thermally critical zonation (TCZ), land surface temperature (LST), Landsat 8, Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
9616 Impact of Landuse Change on Surface Temperature in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Abegunde Linda, Adedeji Oluwatola


It has become increasingly evident that large developments influence the climate within the immediate region and there are concerns that rising temperatures over developed areas could have negative impact and increase living discomfort within city boundaries. Temperature trends in Ibadan city have received minor attention, yet the area has experienced heavy urban expansion between 1972 and 2014. This research aims at examining the impact of landuse change on temperature knowing that the built environment absorbs and stores solar energy, the temperature in cities can be several degrees higher than in adjacent rural areas. This is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The Landsat imagery were used to examine the landuse change for a time period of 42years (1972-2014) and Land surface temperature (LST) was obtained by converting the thermal band to a surface temperature map and zonal statistic analyses was further used to examine the relationship between landuse and temperature emission. The results showed that the settlement area increased by 200km2 while the area covered by vegetation also reduced to about 42.6% during the study period. The spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover and the settlement area has the highest emission of land surface temperature. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Ibadan city.

Keywords: landuse, LST, remote sensing, UHI

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9615 Centrifuge Testing to Determine the Effect of Temperature on the Adhesion Strength of Ice

Authors: Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi


The adhesion of glaze ice on power infrastructure, ships and aerofoils cause monetary and structural damage. Here we investigate the influence of temperature as an important parameter affecting adhesion strength of ice. Two terms are defined to investigate this: 'freezing temperature', the temperature at which glaze ice forms; and 'ambient temperature', the temperature of the surrounding during the test. Using three metal surfaces, the adhesion strength of ice has been calculated as a value of shear stress at the point of detachment on a spinning centrifuge. Findings show that the ambient temperature has a greater influence than the freezing temperature on the adhesion strength of ice. This is because there exists an amorphous liquid-like layer at the ice-surface interface, whose bond with the surface increases in strength at lower ambient temperatures when the substrate conducts heat much faster than the ice and acts as a heat sink. The results will help us to measure the actual adhesion strength of ice to metal surfaces based on data from weather monitoring devices. Future tests envisaged focus on thermally non-conducting substrates and their influence on adhesion strength.

Keywords: ice adhesion, centrifuge, glaze ice, freezing temperature, ambient temperature

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9614 Variability of Climatic Elements in Nigeria Over Recent 100 Years

Authors: T. Salami, O. S. Idowu, N. J. Bello


Climatic variability is an essential issue when dealing with the issue of climate change. Variability of some climate parameter helps to determine how variable the climatic condition of a region will behave. The most important of these climatic variables which help to determine the climatic condition in an area are both the Temperature and Precipitation. This research deals with Longterm climatic variability in Nigeria. Variables examined in this analysis include near-surface temperature, near surface minimum temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure, precipitation, wet-day frequency and cloud cover using data ranging between 1901-2010. Analyses were carried out and the following methods were used: - Regression and EOF analysis. Results show that the annual average, minimum and maximum near-surface temperature all gradually increases from 1901 to 2010. And they are in the same case in a wet season and dry season. Minimum near-surface temperature, with its linear trends are significant for annual, wet season and dry season means. However, the diurnal temperature range decreases in the recent 100 years imply that the minimum near-surface temperature has increased more than the maximum. Both precipitation and wet day frequency decline from the analysis, demonstrating that Nigeria has become dryer than before by the way of rainfall. Temperature and precipitation variability has become very high during these periods especially in the Northern areas. Areas which had excessive rainfall were confronted with flooding and other related issues while area that had less precipitation were all confronted with drought. More practical issues will be presented.

Keywords: climate, variability, flooding, excessive rainfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
9613 Effect of Temperature on Adsorption of Nano Ca-DTPMP Scale Inhibitor

Authors: Radhiyatul Hikmah Binti Abu, Zukhairi Bin Md Rahim, Siti Ujila Binti Masuri, Nur Ismarrubie Binti Zahari, Mohd Zobir Hussein


This paper describes the synthesis of Calcium Diethylenetriamine-penta (Ca-DTPMP) Scale Inhibitor (SI) and the effect of temperature on its adsorption onto the mineral surfaces. Nanosized particles of Ca-DTPMP SI were synthesized and TEM result shows that the sizes of the synthesized particles are ranged from 10 nm to 30 nm. This synthesized nano SI was then used in static adsorption/precipitation test with various temperatures (37°C, 60°C and 100°C) to determine the effect of temperature on its adsorption ability. The performance of the SI was measured by their diffusion capability, which can be inferred by weighing the metal-SI that successfully adsorbed onto the kaolinite (mineral) surface. The kaolinite samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the results show the reduction of pores on kaolinite surface as temperature increases. This indicates higher adsorption of the SI particles onto the mineral surface. Furthermore, EDX analysis shows the presence of Phosphorus (P) and Magnesium (Mg2+) on kaolinite particle surface, hence reaffirming the fact that adsorption took place on the kaolinite surface.

Keywords: adsorption, diffusivity, scale, scale inhibitor

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9612 Effect on Surface Temperature Reduction of Asphalt Pavements with Cement–Based Materials Containing Ceramic Waste Powder

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sano, F. Nakanishi, M. Sugiyama, O. Takahashi, S. Tsukuma


The heat island phenomenon becomes one of the environmental problems. As countermeasures in the field of road engineering, cool pavements such as water retaining pavements and solar radiation reflective pavements have been developed to reduce the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the hot summer climate in Japan. The authors have studied on the water retaining pavements with cement–based grouting materials. The cement–based grouting materials consist of cement, ceramic waste powder, and natural zeolite. The ceramic waste powder is collected through the recycling process of electric porcelain insulators. In this study, mixing ratio between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite and a type of cement for the cement–based grouting materials is investigated to measure the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the outdoor. All of the developed cement–based grouting materials were confirmed to effectively reduce the surface temperature of the asphalt pavements. Especially, the cement–based grouting material using the ultra–rapid hardening cement with the mixing ratio of 0.7:0.3 between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite reduced mostly the surface temperature by 20 °C and more.

Keywords: ceramic waste powder, natural zeolite, road surface temperature, water retaining pavements

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
9611 Evaluation of Forming Properties on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy by Incremental Forming

Authors: A. Anbu Raj, V. Mugendiren


Sheet metal forming is a vital manufacturing process used in automobile, aerospace, agricultural industries, etc. Incremental forming is a promising process providing a short and inexpensive way of forming complex three-dimensional parts without using die. The aim of this research is to study the forming behaviour of AA 5052, Aluminium Alloy, using incremental forming and also to study the FLD of cone shape AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature. Initially the surface roughness and wall thickness through incremental forming on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy sheet at room temperature is optimized by controlling the effects of forming parameters. The central composite design (CCD) was utilized to plan the experiment. The step depth, feed rate, and spindle speed were considered as input parameters in this study. The surface roughness and wall thickness were used as output response. The process performances such as average thickness and surface roughness were evaluated. The optimized results are taken for minimum surface roughness and maximum wall thickness. The optimal results are determined based on response surface methodology and the analysis of variance. Formability Limit Diagram is constructed on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature by using optimized process parameters from the response surface methodology. The cone has higher formability than the square pyramid and higher wall thickness distribution. Finally the FLD on cone shape and square pyramid shape at room temperature and the various annealing temperature is compared experimentally and simulated with Abaqus software.

Keywords: incremental forming, response surface methodology, optimization, wall thickness, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
9610 Application of Terminal Sliding Mode Control to the Stabilization of the Indoor Temperature in Buildings

Authors: Pawel Skruch, Marek Dlugosz


The paper starts with a general model of the temperature dynamics in buildings. The modelling approach relies on thermodynamics, in particular heat transfer, principles. The model considers heat loses by conduction and ventilation and internal heat gains. The parameters of the model can be determined uniquely from the geometry of the building and from thermal properties of construction materials. The model is presented using state space notation and this form is used in the control design procedure. A sliding surface is defined by the system output and the desired trajectory. The control law is designed to force the trajectory of the system from any initial condition to the sliding surface in finite time. The trajectory of the system after reaching the sliding surface remains on it. A simulation example is included to verify the approach and to demonstrate the achievable performance improvement by the proposed solution in the temperature control in buildings.

Keywords: modelling, building, temperature dynamics, sliding-mode control, sliding surface

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9609 The Utilization of Tea Residues for Activated Carbon Preparation

Authors: Jiazhen Zhou, Youcai Zhao


Waste tea is commonly generated in certain areas of China and its utilization has drawn a lot of concern nowadays. In this paper, highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea by physical activation in the presence of water vapor in a tubular furnace. The effect of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of produced activated carbon are studied. The yield decreased with the increase of activation temperature. According to the Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the micropore and mesopore are both developed in the activated carbon. The specific surface area and the mesopore volume fractions of the activated carbon increased with the raise of activation temperature. The maximum specific surface area attained 756 m²/g produced at activation temperature 900°C. The results showed that the activation temperature had a significant effect on the micro and mesopore volumes as well as the specific surface area.

Keywords: activated carbon, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, physical activation, waste tea

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9608 Optimization of Temperature for Crystal Violet Dye Adsorption Using Castor Leaf Powder by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal


Temperature effect on the adsorption of crystal violet dye (CVD) was investigated using a castor leaf powder (CLP) that was prepared from the mature leaves of castor trees, through chemical reaction. The optimum values of pH (8), adsorbent dose (10g/L), initial dye concentration (10g/L), time (2hrs), and stirrer speed (120 rpm) were fixed to investigate the influence of temperature on adsorption capacity, percentage of removal of dye and free energy. A central composite design (CCD) was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The combined effect of temperature, absorbance, and concentration on the dye adsorption was studied and optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum values of adsorption capacity, percentage of removal of dye and free energy were found to be 0.965(mg/g), 93.38 %, -8202.7(J/mol) at temperature 55.97 °C having desirability > 90% for removal of crystal violet dye respectively. The experimental values were in good agreement with predicted values.

Keywords: crystal violet dye, CVD, castor leaf powder, CLP, response surface methodology, temperature, optimization

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9607 [Keynote Talk]: Machining Parameters Optimization with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Dejan Tanikić, Miodrag Manić, Jelena Đoković, Saša Kalinović


This paper deals with the determination of the optimum machining parameters, according to the measured and modelled data of the cutting temperature and surface roughness, during the turning of the AISI 4140 steel. The high cutting temperatures are unwanted occurences in the metal cutting process. They impact negatively on the quality of the machined part. The machining experiments were performed using different cutting regimes (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut), with different values of the workpiece hardness, which causes different values of the measured cutting temperature as well as the measured surface roughness. The temperature and surface roughness data were modelled after that using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The obtained RSM models are used in the process of optimization of the cutting regimes using the Genetic Algorithms (GA) tool, which enables the metal cutting process in the optimum conditions.

Keywords: genetic algorithms, machining parameters, response surface methodology, turning process

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9606 Effect of Post Treatment Temperature on Ni-20Cr Wire Arc Spray Coating to Thermal Resistance

Authors: Ken Ninez Nurpramesti Prinindya, Yuli Setiyorini


Crown enclosure high temperature flares damaged and reduced dimensions crown. Generally crown on EHTF could have a life time up to twenty years. Therefore, this study aims to increase the value of thermal resistance with the effect post treatment on NiCr coated arc spray method. The variation of post treatment temperature, was at 650°C, 750°C, and 850°C. Morphology on the surface and the adhesion strength was analyzed by SEM-EDX, Surface Roughness and Pull - off test. XRD testing was conducted to determine the contained in NiCr coated. Thermal stability of NiCr coated was tested by DSC-TGA. The most optimal results was owned by NiCr coating with post treated at 850°C. It has good thermal stability until 1000°C because of Cr2O3 formation in coated specimen. The higher temperature of post treatment coating was showed better result on porosity and roughness surface value.

Keywords: Arc spray process, NiCr wire, post-treatment coating, high temperature-corrosion resistance

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9605 Fabrication of Highly Roughened Zirconia Surface by a Room Temperature Spray Coating

Authors: Hyeong-Jin Kim, Jong Kook Lee


Zirconia has biological, mechanical and optical properties, so, it used as a dental implant material in human body. But, it is difficult to form directly bonding with living tissues after the procedure and induces the falling away from implanted parts of the body. To improve this phenomenon, it is essential to increase the surface roughness of zirconia implants and induce a forming-ability of strong bonds. In this study, we performed a room temperature spray coating on zirconia specimen to obtain a highly roughened zirconia surface. To get optimal surface roughness, we controlled the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, coating times and powder condition. Bonding microstructure, surface roughness, and chemical composition of the coating layer were observed by SEM, XRD and roughness tester.

Keywords: implant, aerosoldeposition, zirconia, dental

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9604 Combining ASTER Thermal Data and Spatial-Based Insolation Model for Identification of Geothermal Active Areas

Authors: Khalid Hussein, Waleed Abdalati, Pakorn Petchprayoon, Khaula Alkaabi


In this study, we integrated ASTER thermal data with an area-based spatial insolation model to identify and delineate geothermally active areas in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Two pairs of L1B ASTER day- and nighttime scenes were used to calculate land surface temperature. We employed the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm which separates temperature from emissivity to calculate surface temperature. We calculated the incoming solar radiation for the area covered by each of the four ASTER scenes using an insolation model and used this information to compute temperature due to solar radiation. We then identified the statistical thermal anomalies using land surface temperature and the residuals calculated from modeled temperatures and ASTER-derived surface temperatures. Areas that had temperatures or temperature residuals greater than 2σ and between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER-modeled thermal anomalies. The areas identified as thermal anomalies were in strong agreement with the thermal areas obtained from the YNP GIS database. Also the YNP hot springs and geysers were located within areas identified as anomalous thermal areas. The consistency between our results and known geothermally active areas indicate that thermal remote sensing data, integrated with a spatial-based insolation model, provides an effective means for identifying and locating areas of geothermal activities over large areas and rough terrain.

Keywords: thermal remote sensing, insolation model, land surface temperature, geothermal anomalies

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9603 Hot Air Flow Annealing of MAPbI₃ Perovskite: Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Mouad Ouafi, Lahoucine Atourki, Larbi Laanab, Erika Vega, Miguel Mollar, Bernabe Marib, Boujemaa Jaber


Despite the astonishing emergence of the methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite as a promising light harvester for solar cells, their physical properties in solution-processed MAPbI₃ are still crucial and need to be improved. The objective of this work is to investigate the hot airflow effect during the growth of MAPbI₃ films using the spin-coating process on their structural, optical and morphological proprieties. The experimental results show that many physical proprieties of the perovskite strongly depend on the air flow temperature and the optimization which has a beneficial effect on the perovskite quality. In fact, a clear improvement of the crystallinity and the crystallite size of MAPbI₃ perovskite is demonstrated by the XRD analyses, when the airflow temperature is increased up to 100°C. Alternatively, as far as the surface morphology is concerned, SEM micrographs show that significant homogenous nucleation, uniform surface distribution and pin holes free with highest surface coverture of 98% are achieved when the airflow temperature reaches 100°C. At this temperature, the improvement is also observed when considering the optical properties of the films. By contrast, a remarkable degradation of the MAPbI₃ perovskites associated to the PbI₂ phase formation is noticed, when the hot airflow temperature is higher than 100°C, especially 300°C.

Keywords: hot air flow, crystallinity, surface coverage, perovskite morphology

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9602 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes

Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.

Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphology

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9601 Spatially Downscaling Land Surface Temperature with a Non-Linear Model

Authors: Kai Liu


Remote sensing-derived land surface temperature (LST) can provide an indication of the temporal and spatial patterns of surface evapotranspiration (ET). However, the spatial resolution achieved by existing commonly satellite products is ~1 km, which remains too coarse for ET estimations. This paper proposed a model that can disaggregate coarse resolution MODIS LST at 1 km scale to fine spatial resolutions at the scale of 250 m. Our approach attempted to weaken the impacts of soil moisture and growing statues on LST variations. The proposed model spatially disaggregates the coarse thermal data by using a non-linear model involving Bowen ratio, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photochemical reflectance index (PRI). This LST disaggregation model was tested on two heterogeneous landscapes in central Iowa, USA and Heihe River, China, during the growing seasons. Statistical results demonstrated that our model achieved better than the two classical methods (DisTrad and TsHARP). Furthermore, using the surface energy balance model, it was observed that the estimated ETs using the disaggregated LST from our model were more accurate than those using the disaggregated LST from DisTrad and TsHARP.

Keywords: Bowen ration, downscaling, evapotranspiration, land surface temperature

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