Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: Barbara Turnbull

86 Centrifuge Testing to Determine the Effect of Temperature on the Adhesion Strength of Ice

Authors: Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi

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The adhesion of glaze ice on power infrastructure, ships and aerofoils cause monetary and structural damage. Here we investigate the influence of temperature as an important parameter affecting adhesion strength of ice. Two terms are defined to investigate this: 'freezing temperature', the temperature at which glaze ice forms; and 'ambient temperature', the temperature of the surrounding during the test. Using three metal surfaces, the adhesion strength of ice has been calculated as a value of shear stress at the point of detachment on a spinning centrifuge. Findings show that the ambient temperature has a greater influence than the freezing temperature on the adhesion strength of ice. This is because there exists an amorphous liquid-like layer at the ice-surface interface, whose bond with the surface increases in strength at lower ambient temperatures when the substrate conducts heat much faster than the ice and acts as a heat sink. The results will help us to measure the actual adhesion strength of ice to metal surfaces based on data from weather monitoring devices. Future tests envisaged focus on thermally non-conducting substrates and their influence on adhesion strength.

Keywords: ice adhesion, centrifuge, glaze ice, freezing temperature, ambient temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
85 Household's Willingness to Pay for Safe Non-Timber Forest Products at Morikouali-Ye Community Forest in Cameroon

Authors: Eke Balla Sophie Michelle

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Forest provides a wide range of environmental goods and services among which, biodiversity or consumption goods and constitute public goods. Despite the importance of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in sustaining livelihood and poverty smoothening in rural communities, they are highly depleted and poorly conserved. Yokadouma is a town where NTFPs is a renewable resource in active exploitation. It has been found that such exploitation is done in the same conditions as other localities that have experienced a rapid depletion of their NTFPs in destination to cities across Cameroon, Central Africa, and overseas. Given these realities, it is necessary to access the consequences of this overexploitation through negative effects on both the population and the environment. Therefore, to enhance participatory conservation initiatives, this study determines the household’s willingness to pay in community forest (CF) of Morikouali-ye, eastern region of Cameroon, for sustainable exploitation of NTFPs using contingent valuation method (CVM) through two approaches, one parametric (Logit model) and the other non-parametric (estimator of the Turnbull lower bound). The results indicate that five species are the most collected in the study area: Irvingia gabonensis, the Ricinodendron heudelotii, Gnetum, the Jujube and bark, their sale contributes significantly to 41 % of total household income. The average willingness to pay through the Logit model and the Turnbull estimator is 6845.2861 FCFA and 4940 FCFA respectively per household per year with a social cost of degradation estimated at 3237820.3253 FCFA years. The probability to pay increases with income, gender, number of women in the household, age, the commercial activity of NTFPs and decreases with the concept of sustainable development.

Keywords: non timber forest product, contingent valuation method, willingness to pay, sustainable development

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84 Large Panel Technology Apartments of Yesterday and Today: Quality Aspects

Authors: Barbara Gronostajska

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Currently, housing conditions of buildings executed in large panel technology are deteriorating. The article presents modernization solutions implemented throughout the variety of architectural activities (adding of balconies and staircases, connecting apartments) which guarantee very intriguing results that meet the needs and expectations of the modern society.

Keywords: housing estate, apartments, flats, modernization, plate blocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
83 Supporting Women's Economic Development in Rural Papua New Guinea

Authors: Katja Mikhailovich, Barbara Pamphilon

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Farmer training in Papua New Guinea has focused mainly on technology transfer approaches. This has primarily benefited men and often excluded women whose literacy, low education and role in subsistence crops has precluded participation in formal training. The paper discusses an approach that uses both a brokerage model of agricultural extension to link smallholders with private sector agencies and an innovative family team’s approach that aims to support the economic empowerment of women in families and encourages sustainable and gender equitable farming and business practices.

Keywords: women, economic development, agriculture, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
82 Approaches To Counseling As Done By Traditional Cultural Healers In North America

Authors: Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Barbara Mainguy

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We describe the type of counseling done by traditional cultural healers in North America. We follow an autoethnographic course development through the first author’s integration of mainstream training and Native-American heritage and study with traditional medicine people. We assemble traditional healing elders from North America and discuss with them their practices and their philosophies of healing. We draw parallels for their approaches in some European-based philosophies and religion, including the work of Heidegger, Levin, Fox, Kierkegaard, and others. An example of the treatment process with a depressed client is provided and similarities and differences with conventional psychotherapies are described.

Keywords: indigenous approaches to counseling, indigenous bodywork, indigenous healing, North American indigenous people

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81 Diagnostic Accuracy Of Core Biopsy In Patients Presenting With Axillary Lymphadenopathy And Suspected Non-Breast Malignancy

Authors: Monisha Edirisooriya, Wilma Jack, Dominique Twelves, Jennifer Royds, Fiona Scott, Nicola Mason, Arran Turnbull, J. Michael Dixon

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Introduction: Excision biopsy has been the investigation of choice for patients presenting with pathological axillary lymphadenopathy without a breast abnormality. Core biopsy of nodes can provide sufficient tissue for diagnosis and has advantages in terms of morbidity and speed of diagnosis. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of core biopsy in patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy. Methods: Between 2009 and 2019, 165 patients referred to the Edinburgh Breast Unit had a total of 179 axillary lymph node core biopsies. Results: 152 (92%) of the 165 initial core biopsies were deemed to contain adequate nodal tissue. Core biopsy correctly established malignancy in 75 of the 78 patients with haematological malignancy (96%) and in all 28 patients with metastatic carcinoma (100%) and correctly diagnosed benign changes in 49 of 57 (86%) patients with benign conditions. There were no false positives and no false negatives. In 67 (85.9%) of the 78 patients with hematological malignancy, there was sufficient material in the first core biopsy to allow the pathologist to make an actionable diagnosis and not ask for more tissue sampling prior to treatment. There were no complications of core biopsy. On follow up, none of the patients with benign cores has been shown to have malignancy in the axilla and none with lymphoma had their initial disease incorrectly classified. Conclusions: This study shows that core biopsy is now the investigation of choice for patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy even in those suspected as having lymphoma.

Keywords: core biopsy, excision biopsy, axillary lymphadenopathy, non-breast malignancy

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80 Defending the Right to Send Children with Disabilities to the Local School in New Zealand

Authors: Barbara A. Fogarty-Perry

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This paper draws on one to one interviews with parents of children with high and complex needs conducted in 2019. Those interviewed were asked questions around various areas of well-being, and these were transcribed and then thematically analysed. Results were plotted to identify strategies that enhance resilience in parents of children with physical disabilities. The parents were asked to highlight challenges in the support systems they utilized, and all of those interviewed identified difficulties in the New Zealand education system. Legally in New Zealand, children have the right to attend their local primary school, but for 100% of those interviewed, this was an issue. This paper will discuss the way these parents navigated the New Zealand education system in order to defend this right for their children. The New Zealand education system is having to become more inclusive through parental actions despite precarious times of counter-movement by the New Zealand government.

Keywords: autoethnography, human rights, inclusion, parents voice in disability

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79 Attachment as a Predictor for Cognitive Rigidity

Authors: Barbara Gawda

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Attachment model formed in childhood has an important impact on emotional development, personality, and social relationships. Attachment is also thought to have an impact on construction of affective-cognitive schemas and cognitive functioning. The aim of the current study was to verify whether there is an association between attachment and cognitive rigidity defined as dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The analysis of 180 participants (persons of a similar age and education level, number of men and women was equal) was conducted. To test the attachment styles, the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR-R) was used. To examine cognitive rigidity, the Rokeach and Budner questionnaires were used. A multiple regression model was employed to examine whether attachment styles are predictors for dogmatism. The results confirmed that fearful-ambivalent attachment is the main predictor for dogmatism but not for intolerance of ambiguity.

Keywords: attachment styles, cognitive rigidity, dogmatism, intolerance of ambiguity

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78 Contemporary Materialities

Authors: Fabian Saptouw

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In the past decade there was a resurgence of interest in the value of ‘process’ and ‘craft’ within the social and artistic community. Theorist like Barbara Bolt and Paul Carter have eloquently argued for the importance of ‘theorizing out of practice’ and ‘material thinking’ in response to this trend. Time and labour intensive artistic production processes are however not generally included in this bracket and often labelled as either obsessive or absurd. Neither of these terms adequately conveys the conceptual importance of labour in relation to ‘process’ as manifested through this production method. This issue will be addressed by critically assessing the work of eight South African artists through the lens of contemporary process-based production. This will result in a more integrated view of the art-object, its art-historical trajectory, its materialisation as well as its production process. This paper will conclude by tying the characteristics of these artworks to international trends and provide a platform for the overall reconsideration of unalienated artistic labour.

Keywords: materiality, process art, practice-led research, unalienated labour

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77 The Role of Biosecurity in Sustainable Aquaculture

Authors: Barbara Montwill

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The last three decades of continuing increase in the farming of aquatic animals worldwide placed a biosecurity in a different perspective. An introduction of new countries, technologies, species to aquaculture, increased movement of animals are a few factors the might be associated with biosecurity risks. Most farms depend on trade for various inputs such as broodstock, post-larvae/fingerlings and feed. These inputs represent potential pathways by which pathogens can enter farming operations and create conditions for emergence of new or reoccurrence of diseases and production loses. Farm biosecurity should be considered an essential component of a national aquatic animal biosecurity program and together with adequate import and export controls can lead to the development of successful aquaculture industry as a reliable source of safe seafood product. This presentation would describe some biosecurity management approaches to minimize the negative impact of aquatic diseases on production and preserve the power of antibiotics.

Keywords: aquaculture, biosecurity, antibiotics, antibiotics residues

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76 Women Academics' Insecure Identity at Work: A Millennials Phenomenon

Authors: Emmanouil Papavasileiou, Nikos Bozionelos, Liza Howe-Walsh, Sarah Turnbull

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Purpose: The research focuses on women academics’ insecure identity at work and examines its link with generational identity. The aim is to enrich understanding of identities at work as a crucial attribute of managing academics in the context of the proliferation of managerialist controls of audit, accountability, monitoring, and performativity. Methodology: Positivist quantitative methodology was utilized. Data were collected from the Scientific Women's Academic Network (SWAN) Charter. Responses from 155 women academics based in the British Higher Education system were analysed. Findings: Analysis showed high prevalence of strong imposter feelings among participants, suggesting high insecurity at work among women academics in the United Kingdom. Generational identity was related to imposter feelings. In particular, Millennials scored significantly higher than the other generational groups. Research implications: The study shows that imposter feelings are variously manifested among the prevalent generations of women academics, while generational identity is a significant antecedent of such feelings. Research limitations: Caution should be exercised in generalizing the findings to national cultural contexts beyond the United Kingdom. Practical and social implications: Contrary to popular depictions of Millennials as self-centered, narcissistic, materialistic and demanding, women academics who are members of this generational group appear significantly more insecure than the preceding generations. Value: The study provides insightful understandings into women academics’ identity at work as a function of generational identity, and provides a fruitful avenue for further research within and beyond this gender group and profession.

Keywords: academics, generational diversity, imposter feelings, United Kingdom, women, work identity

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75 Influence of Some Parameters on Embryonic Mortality of Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding

Authors: H. Idouhar-Saadi, A. Smaï, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, M. Aissi, S. Doumandji

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During the period of reproduction, the collection of eggs of the Barbary gambra partridge is made only once a week in the morning, considering the sensibility in the stress of this native species. The number of considered samples is 33 eggs. The duration of the incubation is of 18 days. Unhatched eggs and eggs eliminated previously at the time of the mirage are collected and forwarded to the laboratories of microbiology and parasitology. The average weight of the eggs of the Barbary Partridge vary much [20.08 ± 1.81 g. (2006) < Pm < 20.82 ± 2,11g. (2008)]. The percentage of unhatched eggs varies between 9.3% in 2005 and 15.55% in 2007. It appears that the rate of embryonic mortality is slightly higher compared to that of infertile eggs. Microbiological analysis of unhatched eggs showed the presence of pathogenic germs such as lute Chryseomonas luteola. Chryseomonas ola and Escherichia coli. As against the parasites research is negative.

Keywords: barbary partridge, unhatched eggs, embryo mortality, pathogenic germs

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74 Riding the Crest of the Wave: Inclusive Education in New Zealand

Authors: Barbara A. Perry

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In 1996, the New Zealand government and the Ministry of Education announced that they were setting up a "world class system of inclusive education". As a parent of a son with high and complex needs, a teacher, school Principal and Disability studies Lecturer, this author will track the changes in the journey towards inclusive education over the last 20 years. Strategies for partnering with families to ensure educational success along with insights from one of those on the crest of the wave will be presented. Using a narrative methodology the author will illuminate how far New Zealand has come towards this world class system of inclusion promised and share from personal experience some of the highlights and risks in the system. This author has challenged the old structures and been part of the setting up of new structures particularly for providing parent voice and insight; this paper provides a unique view from an insider’s voice as well as a professional in the system.

Keywords: disability studies, inclusive education, special education, working with families with children with disability

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73 Graded Orientation of the Linear Polymers

Authors: Levan Nadareishvili, Roland Bakuradze, Barbara Kilosanidze, Nona Topuridze, Liana Sharashidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili

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Some regularities of formation of a new structural state of the thermoplastic polymers-gradually oriented (stretched) state (GOS) are discussed. Transition into GOS is realized by the graded oriented stretching-by action of inhomogeneous mechanical field on the isotropic linear polymers or by zonal stretching that is implemented on a standard tensile-testing machine with using a specially designed zone stretching device (ZSD). Both technical approaches (especially zonal stretching method) allows to manage the such quantitative parameters of gradually oriented polymers as a range of change in relative elongation/orientation degree, length of this change and profile (linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, logarithmic, etc.). Uniaxial graded stretching method should be considered as an effective technological solution to create polymer materials with a predetermined gradient of physical properties.

Keywords: controlled graded stretching, gradually oriented state, linear polymers, zone stretching device

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72 Pathology of the Partridge Gambra Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding in the Algiers Sahel

Authors: H. Saadi-Idouhar, A. Smai, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, A. Saadi, M. Aissi, S. Doumandji

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In Algeria, the Partridge gambra is a highly sought-after game species and is appreciated for its meat. Game birds are of interest because they play an important role for hunting federations and for the economy of a country. The breeding of indigenous breeds is necessary because it is of great economic interest. However, gambra breeding in the hunting centre of Zeralda (northern west of Algiers) is not easy, several diseases affecting Perdreaux and reproducing adults have been noted. Most of the diseases observed are parasitic in origin. This study is conducted during the 2010 breeding season. It is based on the autopsy of cadavers collected at the hunting centre and parasitic coprology. Indeed, the flotation enrichment method has identified several parasites such as Eimeria spp., Capillaria spp., and Ascaridia spp. Autopsied corpses show the importance of two major diseases, syngamosis caused to Syngamus trachea and histomonosis caused to Histomonas meleagridis.

Keywords: partridge, livestock, eggs, affections pathology

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71 Overview of Resources and Tools to Bridge Language Barriers Provided by the European Union

Authors: Barbara Heinisch, Mikael Snaprud

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A common, well understood language is crucial in critical situations like landing a plane. For e-Government solutions, a clear and common language is needed to allow users to successfully complete transactions online. Misunderstandings here may not risk a safe landing but can cause delays, resubmissions and drive costs. This holds also true for higher education, where misunderstandings can also arise due to inconsistent use of terminology. Thus, language barriers are a societal challenge that needs to be tackled. The major means to bridge language barriers is translation. However, achieving high-quality translation and making texts understandable and accessible require certain framework conditions. Therefore, the EU and individual projects take (strategic) actions. These actions include the identification, collection, processing, re-use and development of language resources. These language resources may be used for the development of machine translation systems and the provision of (public) services including higher education. This paper outlines some of the existing resources and indicate directions for further development to increase the quality and usage of these resources.

Keywords: language resources, machine translation, terminology, translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
70 Relationships between the Components of Love by Stenberg and Personality Disorder Traits

Authors: Barbara Gawda

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The study attempts to show the relationship between the structure of love by Sternberg and personality disorder traits. People with personality disorders experience dysfunctional emotionality. They manifest difficulties in experiencing love and closeness. Their relationships are marked by ambivalence and conflicts, e.g., as in borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. Considering love as a crucial human feeling, the study was planned to describe the associations between intimacy, passion, commitment, and personality disorder traits in a community sample. A sample of 194 participants was investigated (men and women in similar age and education levels). The following techniques were used: the SCID-II to assess personality disorders’ traits and the Triangular Love Scale by Sternberg to assess the components of love. Results show there are significant negative correlations between intimacy, commitment and personality disorders traits. Many personality disorders are associated with decreasing of intimacy and commitment, whereas passion was not associated with personality disorders’ traits. Results confirm that emotional impairments in personality disorders elicit conflicts and problems in relationships based on love and closeness.

Keywords: intimacy, commitment, love, passion, personality disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
69 The Impact of Modeling Method of Moisture Emission from the Swimming Pool on the Accuracy of Numerical Calculations of Air Parameters in Ventilated Natatorium

Authors: Piotr Ciuman, Barbara Lipska

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The aim of presented research was to improve numerical predictions of air parameters distribution in the actual natatorium by the selection of calculation formula of mass flux of moisture emitted from the pool. Selected correlation should ensure the best compliance of numerical results with the measurements' results of these parameters in the facility. The numerical model of the natatorium was developed, for which boundary conditions were prepared on the basis of measurements' results carried out in the actual facility. Numerical calculations were carried out with the use of ANSYS CFX software, with six formulas being implemented, which in various ways made the moisture emission dependent on water surface temperature and air parameters in the natatorium. The results of calculations with the use of these formulas were compared for air parameters' distributions: Specific humidity, velocity and temperature in the facility. For the selection of the best formula, numerical results of these parameters in occupied zone were validated by comparison with the measurements' results carried out at selected points of this zone.

Keywords: experimental validation, indoor swimming pool, moisture emission, natatorium, numerical calculations CFD, thermal and humidity conditions, ventilation

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68 Clonal Evaluation of Malignant Mesothelioma

Authors: Sabahattin Comertpay, Sandra Pastorino, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Mika Tanji, Oriana Strianese, Andrea Napolitano, Tracey Weigel, Joseph Friedberg, Paul Sugarbaker, Thomas Krausz, Ena Wang, Amy Powers, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I. Pass, Fatmagul Ozcelik, Barbara L. Parsons, Haining Yang, Michele Carbone

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Tumors are thought to be monoclonal in origin. This paradigm arose decades ago, primarily from the study of hematopoietic malignancies and sarcomas. The clonal origin of malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly cancer resistant to the current therapies, has not been investigated. Examination of the pleura from patients with MM shows often the presence of multiple pleural nodules, raising the question of whether they represent independent or metastatic growth processes. To investigate the clonality patterns of MM, we used the HUMARA (Human Androgen Receptor) assay to examine 14 sporadic and 2 familial Malignant Mesotheliomas (MM). Of 16 specimens studied, 15 were informative and 14/15 revealed two electrophoretically distinct methylated HUMARA alleles, indicating a polyclonal origin for these tumors. This discovery has important clinical implications, because an accurate assessment of tumor clonality is key to the design of novel molecular strategies for the treatment of MM.

Keywords: malignant mesothelioma, clonal origin, HUMARA, sarcomas

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67 Approach-Avoidance and Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation of Adolescent Computer Games Players

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska

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The period of adolescence is a time when young people are becoming more and more active and conscious users of the digital world. One of the most frequently undertaken activities by them is computer games. Young players can choose from a wide range of games, including action, adventure, strategy, and logic games. The main aim of this study is to answer the question about the motivation of teenage players. The basic question is what motivates young players to play computer games and what motivates them to play a particular game. Fifty adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire in which they determined what motivates them to play, how often they play computer games, and what type of computer games they play most often. It was found that entertainment and learning English are among the most important motives. The most important specific features related to a given game are the knowledge of its previous parts and the ability to play for free. The motives chosen by the players will be described in relation to the concepts of internal and external as well as approach and avoidance motivation. An additional purpose of this study is to present data concerning preferences regarding the type of games and the amount of time they spend playing.

Keywords: computer games, motivation, game preferences, adolescence

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66 Changes in Global DNA Methylation and DNA Damage in Two Tumor Cell Lines Treated with Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Marcin Kruszewski, Barbara Sochanowicz, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Maria Wojewódzka, Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

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Metallic NPs are widely used in a number of applications in industry, science and medicine. Among metallic NPs foreseen to be widely used in medicine are gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) due to their low toxicity, and silver NPs (AgNPs) due to their strong antimicrobial activity. In this study, we compared an effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on the formation of DNA damage and global DNA methylation and in A2780 and 4T1 cell lines, widely used models of human ovarian carcinoma and murine mammary carcinoma, respectively. The cells were treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. A global DNA methylation was investigated with ELISA, whereas the formation of DNA damage was investigated by a comet +/- FPG. AgNPs decreased global DNA methylation and increased the formation of DNA lesions in both cell lines. The effect was dependent on the type of NPs used, it's coating, and cell line used. In conclusion, the epigenetic and genotoxic effects of NPs strongly depends on NP nature and cellular context. Epigenetic changes observed upon the action of AgNPs may play a crucial role in NPs-induced changes in protein expression.

Keywords: DNA damage, gold nanoparticles, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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65 Posttranslational Modifications of Histone H3 in Tumor Tissue Isolated from Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Treated Mice

Authors: Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak, Barbara Sochanowicz, Magdalena Matysiak-Kucharek, Magdalena Czajka, Krzysztof Sawicki, Marcin Kruszewski

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Due to the strong antimicrobial activity silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in various medical and general applications, among others, in cosmetics, odour resistant textiles, etc. The aim of this study was to compare effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on histones posttranslational modifications. Histone molecule posttranscriptional modifications are responsible for chromatin compaction and repackaging. In this study, BALB/c mice were inoculated with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. Thereafter the histone H3 acetylation on Lys9 and H3 methylation on Lys4, Lys9, Lys29 was investigated. All NPs tested decreased H3 methylation, while no effect was observed for H3 acetylation. Modification of histone H3 methylation dependent on type of NPs used its coating, site of methylation and treatment used. Conclusion, epigenetic effects of nanomaterials depend on nanomaterial composition, its coating, and way of application. This work was supported by National Science Centre grant No. 2014/15/B/NZ7/01036 (MK, LKS, MMK, MC, KS), statutory funding for INTC (BS).

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, histone, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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64 Biodegradability Evaluation of Polylactic Acid Composite with Natural Fiber (Sisal)

Authors: A. Bárbara Cattozatto Fortunato, D. de Lucca Soave, E. Pinheiro de Mello, M. Piasentini Oliva, V. Tavares de Moraes, G. Wolf Lebrão, D. Fernandes Parra, S. Marraccini Giampietri Lebrão

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Due to increasing environmental pressure for biodegradable products, especially in polymeric materials, in order to meet the demands of the biological cycles of the circular economy, new materials have been developed as a sustainability strategy. This study proposes a composite material developed from the biodegradable polymer PLA Ecovio® (polylactic acid - PLA) with natural sisal fibers, where the soybean ester was used as a plasticizer, which can aid in adhesion between the materials and fibers, making the most attractive final composite from an environmental point of view. The composites were obtained by extrusion. The materials tests were produced and submitted to biodegradation tests. Through the biodegradation tests, it can be seen that the biodegradable polymer composition with 5% sisal fiber presented about 12.4% more biodegradability compared to the polymer without fiber addition. It has also been found that the plasticizer was not a compatible with fibers and the polymer. Finally, fibers help to anticipate the decomposition process of the material when subjected to conditions of a landfill. Therefore, its intrinsic properties are not affected during its use, only the biodegradation process begins after its exposure to landfill conditions.

Keywords: biocomposites, sisal, polilactic acid, Polylactic Acid (PLA)

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63 Local Community Participation and the Adoption of Agricultural Technology in Kayunga District, Uganda

Authors: Barbara Kyampeire, Gerald Karyeijja

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This study investigated the influence of local community participation on the adoption of new agricultural technology in Uganda, using the case study of Smooth Cayenne Pineapples in Kayunga District, Uganda. The mechanism of adoption of new technologies is often not fully understood and this prompted the study. The study adopted a descriptive, co relational, survey design. The researcher used questionnaire survey, focus group discussion as methods of data collection. A total of 152 respondents including adopters and non-adopters of new technology for producing pineapples were selected from 8 farmer groups in Kayunga District. The results indicated that the participation of the community in the planning, implementation and the monitoring and evaluation of the adoption of the new technology for producing pineapples was low thus reducing the adoption of the new technology in the District. The researcher concluded that community participation significantly influences the adoption of new agricultural technology by members of a particular community. The study thus recommended that: first, there is need for maximum involvement of members of the community in the planning, implementation and monitoring of any new agricultural technology; secondly, there is need for continued sharing of information about new agricultural technologies being introduced; and finally, community members must be equipped with Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) skills in order to make them monitor the progress made by the new agricultural technologies.

Keywords: adoption, community, technology, implementation

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62 The Role of Questioning Techniques in a Literature Classroom

Authors: Barbara Magallona

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Given the observations between students who were active participants in a dialogue with their teacher and students who simply answered the teacher’s questions, the researcher will investigate the relationship between student-teacher dialogue in the classroom and the development of higher level thinking skills with an emphasis on the questioning techniques used by the teacher. The study posits the main question: What is the relationship between teachers’ questioning techniques and the development of students’ higher level thinking skills in a literature class (or in literature classes) in Xavier? The following are the study’s sub-questions: a) What types of questions do literature teachers at Xavier School ask? b) What types of responses do literature students at Xavier School give to teachers' questions? c) To what extent is the development of students' higher level thinking skills shown in teacher-student classroom dialogues in Xavier School's literature classroom? Since questioning techniques and student responses in the literature classroom form the core of this paper and in order to evaluate them, the study uses Andersen and Krathwohl’s revision of Harold Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Teun van Dijk’s discourse-cognition-society triangle will be used as a theoretical framework to design and to guide the classroom interaction.

Keywords: discourse analysis, literature classroom, questioning techniques, secondary education

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61 New Method for Determining the Distribution of Birefringence and Linear Dichroism in Polymer Materials Based on Polarization-Holographic Grating

Authors: Barbara Kilosanidze, George Kakauridze, Levan Nadareishvili, Yuri Mshvenieradze

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A new method for determining the distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism in optical polymer materials is presented. The method is based on the use of polarization-holographic diffraction grating that forms an orthogonal circular basis in the process of diffraction of probing laser beam on the grating. The intensities ratio of the orders of diffraction on this grating enables the value of birefringence and linear dichroism in the sample to be determined. The distribution of birefringence in the sample is determined by scanning with a circularly polarized beam with a wavelength far from the absorption band of the material. If the scanning is carried out by probing beam with the wavelength near to a maximum of the absorption band of the chromophore then the distribution of linear dichroism can be determined. An appropriate theoretical model of this method is presented. A laboratory setup was created for the proposed method. An optical scheme of the laboratory setup is presented. The results of measurement in polymer films with two-dimensional gradient distribution of birefringence and linear dichroism are discussed.

Keywords: birefringence, linear dichroism, graded oriented polymers, optical polymers, optical anisotropy, polarization-holographic grating

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60 Manual Dexterity in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease

Authors: Magdalena Barbara Kaziuk, Ilona Hubner, Jacek Hubner, Slawomir Kroczka

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Background: The motor neuron disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease causing malfunction. Irrespective of the form of the disease and its onset always leads to the worsening of the quality of life, with patients usually depending on the family. Materials and methods: The study included 20 persons (5 females, 15 males, aged 65,5 ± 20 years) with clinically certain or probable diagnosis of the motor neuron disease. Patients were examined three times in the period of six months. The diagnosis was established based on the criteria of El Escorial. Manual dexterity was assessed using the test of the card Rene Zazzo and the test of shading in with lines Mira Stambak. Results: All patients achieved unsatisfactory results in Rene Zazzo’s test of the card and most of the patients (60%) in Mira Stambak’s test of shading with lines. Significantly higher test results were achieved for Rene Zazzo’s test and lower test results for Mira Stambak’s test in consecutive measurements. Conclusions: Impairment of manual dexterity is present already at the moment of diagnosing the disease and is growing significantly during its course. The quality of life for MND patients undergoes gradual deterioration as a result of the malfunction.

Keywords: manual dexterity, motor neuron disease, quality of life, malfunction

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59 The Impact of Childhood Cancer on the Quality of Life of Survivor: A Qualitative Analysis of Functionality and Participation

Authors: Catarina Grande, Barbara Mota

Abstract:

The main goal of the present study was to understand the impact of childhood cancer on the quality of life of survivors and the extent to which oncologic disease affects the functionality and participation of survivors at the present time, compared to the time of diagnosis. Six survivors of pediatric cancer participated in the study. Participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview, adapted from two instruments present in the literature - QALY and QLACS - and piloted through a previous study. This study is based on a qualitative approach using content analysis, allowing the identification of categories and subcategories. Subsequently, the correspondence between the units of meaning and the codes in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Young, which contributed to a more detailed analysis of the impact on the quality of life of survivors in relation to the domains under study. The results showed significant changes between the moment of diagnosis and the present moment, concretely at the microsystem of the survivor. Regarding functionality and participation, the results show that the functions of the body are the most affected domain, emphasizing the emotional component that currently has a greater impact on the quality of life of survivors. The present study allowed identifying a set of codes for the development of a CIF-CJ core set for pediatric cancer survivors. He also indicated the need for future studies to validate and deepen these issues.

Keywords: cancer, participation, quality of life, survivor

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58 Adolescent Gamers: The Relationship between Berzonsky’s Style of Identity and Immersion: Pilot Study

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska

Abstract:

Adolescence is a developmental period, covering the period from 10 to 20 years of age, in which young people face many challenges. One of the most important tasks of the adolescence period is getting a structured identity. The development of identity is possible by undertaking various activities. Nowadays, virtual activities are very common among young people. One of the main adolescents’ activities in the online environment is playing computer games. The main aim of this work is to answer the question about the relationship between the identity style of adolescents and immersion, -a phenomenon often observed while playing computer games. The concept of identity created by Berzonsky is considered as one of the best-defined concepts of identity. He defines identity as both a structure and a process and distinguishes three styles of identity: informational, normative, and diffuse/avoidant. Immersion is a concept that can be applied in a broad context, but in the game environment, it is a specific psychological experience of being involved in a computer game. It refers to the relocation of the attention resources to the game world, with a limited or impossible perception of stimuli from reality. Considering how much time adolescents spend playing computer games, the question about the relationship between their identity and the immersion in the game seems to be extremely interesting. Fifty adolescents aged 15-17 participated in the study. They played a computer game and completed the Identity Style Inventory and the Immersion Questionaire.

Keywords: identity, immersion, computer games, adolescence

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57 Arbitration in Foreign Investment: The Need for Equitable Treatment between the Investor and the Host State

Authors: Maria João Mimoso, Bárbara Magalhães Bravo

Abstract:

This study aims to analyse the phenomenon of arbitration as a paradigm in solving emerging controversies of foreign investment. We will present their benefits and demonstrate their contribution to greater legal certainty in economic relations. This article explores the legal relevant concepts under a strictly conceptual methodology, preparing future research to be developed under more developed comparative law methodologies. The review of national and international literature and jurisprudence will reveal the importance of arbitration in the field of international economic relations, presenting it as an alternative dispute resolution. Globalization imposes new forms of investment protection and appeals to other forms of dispute settlement, primarily to prevent, among other problems, the possible bias of the recipient country's investment tribunals. Characterization of foreign investment, its regulatory sources, their characteristics and the need for intervention of an entity capable of resolving disputes between the parties involved: State investor reception; Investor (of a nationality other than the latter); State of the investor's nationality, and sometimes a ‘subsidiary’ local foreign investor. The ICSID (International Settlement of Investment Disputes) arbitration as a means of resolving investment litigations covered by bilateral treaties (BIT) and investment contracts calls for a delimitation of these two figures in order to clarify the scope of the arbitration under the aegis of the World Bank and to make it more secure in the view of the sovereign power of the States.

Keywords: arbitration, contract, foreign, investment, disputes

Procedia PDF Downloads 142