Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6766

Search results for: measuring air dry bulb temperature

6766 Vortex Separator for More Accurate Air Dry-Bulb Temperature Measurement

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, I. M. S. Taha, A. M. Abdel-Ghany, M. Attalla


Fog systems application for cooling and humidification is still limited, although these systems require less initial cost compared with that of other cooling systems such as pad-and-fan systems. The undesirable relative humidity and air temperature inside the space which have been cooled or humidified are the main reasons for its limited use, which results from the poor control of fog systems. Any accurate control system essentially needs air dry bulb temperature as an input parameter. Therefore, the air dry-bulb temperature in the space needs to be measured accurately. The Scope of the present work is the separation of the fog droplets from the air in a fogged space to measure the air dry bulb temperature accurately. The separation is to be done in a small device inside which the sensor of the temperature measuring instrument is positioned. Vortex separator will be designed and used. Another reference device will be used for measuring the air temperature without separation. A comparative study will be performed to reach at the best device which leads to the most accurate measurement of air dry bulb temperature. The results showed that the proposed devices improved the measured air dry bulb temperature toward the correct direction over that of the free junction. Vortex device was the best. It respectively increased the temperature measured by the free junction in the range from around 2 to around 6°C for different fog on-off duration.

Keywords: fog systems, measuring air dry bulb temperature, temperature measurement, vortex separator

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
6765 Mathematical Modeling of a Sub-Wet Bulb Temperature Evaporative Cooling Using Porous Ceramic Materials

Authors: Meryem Kanzari, Rabah Boukhanouf, Hatem G. Ibrahim


Indirect Evaporative Cooling process has the advantage of supplying cool air at constant moisture content. However, such system can only supply air at temperatures above wet bulb temperature. This paper presents a mathematical model for a sub-wet bulb temperature indirect evaporative cooling arrangement that can overcome this limitation and supply cool air at temperatures approaching dew point and without increasing its moisture content. In addition, the use of porous ceramics as wet media materials offers the advantage of integration into building elements. Results of the computer show that the proposed design is capable of cooling air to temperatures lower than the ambient wet bulb temperature and achieving wet bulb effectiveness of about 1.17.

Keywords: indirect evaporative cooling, porous ceramic, sub-wet bulb temperature, mathematical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
6764 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test

Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye


Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.

Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
6763 Effect of Environmental Changes in Working Heart Rate among Industrial Workers: An Ergonomic Interpretation

Authors: P. Mukhopadhyay, N. C. Dey


Occupational health hazard is a very common term in every emerging country. Along with the unorganized sector, most organized sectors including government industries are suffering from this affliction. In addition to workload, the seasonal changes also have some impacts on working environment. With this focus in mind, one hundred male industrial workers, who are directly involved to the task of Periodic Overhauling (POH) in a fabricating workshop in the public domain are selected for this research work. They have been studied during work periods throughout different seasons in a year. For each and every season, the participants working heart rate (WHR) is measured and compared with the standards given by different national and internationally recognized agencies i.e., World Health Organization (WHO) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) etc. The different environmental parameters i.e. dry bulb temperature (DBT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), globe temperature (GT), natural wet bulb temperature (NWB), relative humidity (RH), wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), air velocity (AV), effective temperature (ET) are recorded throughout the seasons to critically observe the effect of seasonal changes on the WHR of the workers. The effect of changes in environment to the WHR of the workers is very much surprising. It is found that the percentages of workers who belong to the ‘very heavy’ workload category are 83.33%, 66.66% and 16.66% in the summer, rainy and winter seasons, respectively. Ongoing undertaking of this type of job profile forces the worker towards occupational disorders causing absenteeism. This occurrence results in lower production rates, and on the other hand, costs due to medical claims also weaken the industry’s economic condition. In this circumstance, the authors are trying to focus on some remedial measures from the ergonomic angle by proposing a new work/ rest regimen and introducing engineering controls along with management controls which may help the worker, and consequently, the management also.

Keywords: workload, working heart rate, occupational health hazard, industrial worker

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
6762 Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Maisotsenko Cycle

Authors: Rasikh Tariq, Fatima Z. Benarab


Evaporative coolers has a minimum potential to reach the wet-bulb temperature of intake air which is not enough to handle a large cooling load; therefore, it is not a feasible option to overcome cooling requirement of a building. The invention of Maisotsenko (M) cycle has led evaporative cooling technology to reach the sub-wet-bulb temperature of the intake air; therefore, it brings an innovation in evaporative cooling techniques. In this work, we developed a mathematical model of the Maisotsenko based air cooler by applying energy and mass balance laws on different air channels. The governing ordinary differential equations are discretized and simulated on MATLAB. The temperature and the humidity plots are shown in the simulation results. A parametric study is conducted by varying working air inlet conditions (temperature and humidity), inlet air velocity, geometric parameters and water temperature. The influence of these aforementioned parameters on the cooling effectiveness of the HMX is reported.  Results have shown that the effectiveness of the M-Cycle is increased by increasing the ambient temperature and decreasing absolute humidity. An air velocity of 0.5 m/sec and a channel height of 6-8mm is recommended.

Keywords: HMX, maisotsenko cycle, mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, parametric study

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
6761 Occupational Heat Stress Condition According to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Textile Processing Unit: A Case Study of Surat, Gujarat, India

Authors: Dharmendra Jariwala, Robin Christian


Thermal exposure is a common problem in every manufacturing industry where heat is used in the manufacturing process. In developing countries like India, a lack of awareness regarding the proper work environmental condition is observed among workers. Improper planning of factory building, arrangement of machineries, ventilation system, etc. play a vital role in the rise of temperature within the manufacturing areas. Due to the uncontrolled thermal stress, workers may be subjected to various heat illnesses from mild disorder to heat stroke. Heat stress is responsible for the health risk and reduction in production. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index and relative humidity are used to evaluate heat stress conditions. WBGT index is a weighted average of natural wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, dry bulb temperature, which are measured with standard instrument QuestTemp 36 area stress monitor. In this study textile processing units have been selected in the industrial estate in the Surat city. Based on the manufacturing process six locations were identified within the plant at which process was undertaken at 120°C to 180°C. These locations were jet dying machine area, stenter machine area, printing machine, looping machine area, washing area which generate process heat. Office area was also selected for comparision purpose as a sixth location. Present Study was conducted in the winter season and summer season for day and night shift. The results shows that average WBGT index was found above Threshold Limiting Value (TLV) during summer season for day and night shift in all three industries except office area. During summer season highest WBGT index of 32.8°C was found during day shift and 31.5°C was found during night shift at printing machine area. Also during winter season highest WBGT index of 30°C and 29.5°C was found at printing machine area during day shift and night shift respectively.

Keywords: relative humidity, textile industry, thermal stress, WBGT

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
6760 Effect of Architecture and Operating Conditions of Vehicle on Bulb Lifetime in Automotive

Authors: Hatice Özbek, Caner Çil, Ahmet Rodoplu


Automotive lighting is the leading function in the configuration of vehicle architecture. Especially headlights and taillights from external lighting functions are among the structures that determine the stylistic character of the vehicle. At the same time, the fact that lighting functions are related to many other functions brings along difficulties in design. Customers expect maximum quality from the vehicle. In these circumstances, it is necessary to make designs that aim to keep the performance of bulbs with limited working lives at the highest level. With this study, the factors that influence the working lives of filament lamps were examined and bulb explosions that can occur sooner than anticipated in the future were prevented while the vehicle was still in the design phase by determining the relations with electrical, dynamical and static variables. Especially the filaments of the bulbs used in the front lighting of the vehicle are deformed in a shorter time due to the high voltage requirement. In addition to this, rear lighting lamps vibrate as a result of the tailgate opening and closing and cause the filaments to be exposed to high stress. With this study, the findings that cause bulb explosions were evaluated. Among the most important findings: 1. The structure of the cables to the lighting functions of the vehicle and the effect of the voltage values are drawn; 2. The effect of the vibration to bulb throughout the life of the vehicle; 3 The effect of the loads carried to bulb while the vehicle doors are opened and closed. At the end of the study, the maximum performance was established in the bulb lifetimes with the optimum changes made in the vehicle architecture based on the findings obtained.

Keywords: vehicle architecture, automotive lighting functions, filament lamps, bulb lifetime

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6759 High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation

Authors: Jyoti Kumari, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, color, HPP-high pressure processing, jackfruit bulbs, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, total phenolic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
6758 Quantification of Hydrogen Sulfide and Methyl Mercaptan in Air Samples from a Waste Management Facilities

Authors: R. F. Vieira, S. A. Figueiredo, O. M. Freitas, V. F. Domingues, C. Delerue-Matos


The presence of sulphur compounds like hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans is one of the reasons for waste-water treatment and waste management being associated with odour emissions. In this context having a quantifying method for these compounds helps in the optimization of treatment with the goal of their elimination, namely biofiltration processes. The aim of this study was the development of a method for quantification of odorous gases in waste treatment plants air samples. A method based on head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography - flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) was used to analyse H2S and Metil Mercaptan (MM). The extraction was carried out with a 75-μm Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating at 22 ºC for 20 min, and analysed by a GC 2010 Plus A from Shimadzu with a sulphur filter detector: splitless mode (0.3 min), the column temperature program was from 60 ºC, increased by 15 ºC/min to 100 ºC (2 min). The injector temperature was held at 250 ºC, and the detector at 260 ºC. For calibration curve a gas diluter equipment (digital Hovagas G2 - Multi Component Gas Mixer) was used to do the standards. This unit had two input connections, one for a stream of the dilute gas and another for a stream of nitrogen and an output connected to a glass bulb. A 40 ppm H2S and a 50 ppm MM cylinders were used. The equipment was programmed to the selected concentration, and it automatically carried out the dilution to the glass bulb. The mixture was left flowing through the glass bulb for 5 min and then the extremities were closed. This method allowed the calibration between 1-20 ppm for H2S and 0.02-0.1 ppm and 1-3.5 ppm for MM. Several quantifications of air samples from inlet and outlet of a biofilter operating in a waste management facility in the north of Portugal allowed the evaluation the biofilters performance.

Keywords: biofiltration, hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans, quantification

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6757 Development of a Combustible Gas Detector with Two Sensor Modules to Enable Measuring Range of Low Concentration

Authors: Young Gyu Kim, Sangguk Ahn, Gyoutae Park, Hiesik Kim


In the gas industrial fields, there are many problems to detect extremely small amounts of combustible gas (CH₄) if a conventional semiconductor is used. Those reasons are that measuring is difficult at the low concentration level, the stabilization time is long, and an initial response time is slow. In this study, we propose a method to solve these issues using two specific sensors to overcome the circumstances of temperature and humidity. This idea is to combine a catalytic and a semiconductor type sensor and to utilize every advantage from every sensor’s characteristic. In order to achieve the goal, we reduced fluctuations of a gas sensor for temperature and humidity by applying designed circuits for sensing temperature and humidity. And we induced the best calibration line of gas sensors through adjusting a weight value corresponding to changeable patterns of temperature and humidity after their data are previously acquired and stored. We proposed and developed the gas leak detector using two sensor modules, which is first operated by a semiconductor sensor for measuring small gas quantities and second a catalytic type sensor is detected if measuring range of the first sensor is beyond. We conclusively verified characteristics of sharp sensitivity and fast response time against even at lower gas concentration level through experiments other than a conventional gas sensor. We think that our proposed idea is very useful if another gas leak is developed to enable measuring extremely small quantities of toxic and flammable gases.

Keywords: gas sensor, leak detector, lower concentration, and calibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
6756 Response of Onion to FTM and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Lateritic Soil of Konkan

Authors: Rupali Thorat, S. B. Dodake, V. N. Palsande, S. D. Patil


A field experiment was conducted to study the “Response of onion to FYM and inorganic fertilizers application on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in lateritic soil of Konkan” at the farm of Pangari block of Irrigation of Scheme, Central Experimentation Station, Wakawali during Rabi 2009-10. There were 12 treatment combinations, comprising of 3 levels of NPK fertilizers (C1 ,C2-125 kg N, 62.5 kg P205 and 62.5 kg K20 ha-1 and C3-150 kg N, 75 kg P205 and 75 kg K20 ha-1) and 4 levels of FYM (F1-10 t FYM ha-1, F2 - 15 t FYM ha-1, F3-20 t FYM ha-1, F4-25 t FYM ha-1) replicated thrice using Factorial Randomized Block Design. The observations on plant height, number of leaves, girth of plant, polar and equatorial diameter of bulb as well as dry matter yield, onion bulb yield recorded during the course of field study were subjected to statistical analysis. Similarly nutrient content and uptake, quality parameters of bulb and soil properties were also determined and their data were also analyzed statistically. It is revealed from the study that the growth attributes, dry matter yield, onion bulb yield, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, quality parameters were improved significantly due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1(C3F3). Application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1 (C3F3) registered highest onion bulb yield (t ha-1). The quality of onion as well as availability of N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the soil was improved due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 and FYM @ 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: onion, FYM, yield, nutrient uptake and fertilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
6755 The Effect of Wet Cooling Pad Thickness and Geometric Configuration to Enhance Evaporative Cooler Saturation Efficiency: A Review

Authors: Biruk Abate


Evaporative cooling occurs when air with high temperature and reduced humidity passes over a wet porous surface and a higher degree of cooling process is achieved for storage of fruits and vegetables due to greater rate of evaporation. The main objective of this reviewed study is to understand the effect of evaporative surface pad thickness and geometric configuration on the saturation efficiency of evaporative cooler and to state some related factors affecting the performance of the system. From this overview, selection of pad thickness and geometrical shape with suitable characteristics of heat and mass transfer and water holding capacity of the pads was reviewed as these parameters are important for saturation efficiency of evaporative cooling. Increasing the cooling pad thickness through increasing the face velocity increases the effectiveness of wet-bulb saturation. Increasing ambient temperature, inlet air speed and ambient air humidity decreases the wet bulb effectiveness and it increases with increasing length of the pad. Increasing the ambient temperature and inlet air velocity decreases the humidity ratio, but increases with increasing ambient air humidity and lengths of the pad. Increasing the temperature-humidity index is possible with increasing ambient temperature, inlet air velocity, ambient air humidity and pad length. Generally, all materials having a higher wetted surface area per unit volume give higher efficiency. Materials with higher thickness increase the wetted surface area for better mix-up of air and water to give higher efficiency for the same shape and this in turn helps to store fruits and vegetables.

Keywords: Degree of cooling, heat and mass transfer, evaporative cooling, porous surface

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6754 Noninvasive Evaluation of Acupuncture by Measuring Facial Temperature through Thermal Image

Authors: An Guo, Hieyong Jeong, Tianyi Wang, Na Li, Yuko Ohno


Acupuncture, known as sensory simulation, has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years. However, present studies had not addressed approaches for noninvasive measurement in order to evaluate therapeutic effect of acupuncture. The purpose of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to evaluate acupuncture by measuring facial temperature through thermal image. Three human subjects were recruited in this study. Each subject received acupuncture therapy for 30 mins. Acupuncture needles (Ø0.16 x 30 mm) were inserted into Baihui point (DU20), Neiguan points (PC6) and Taichong points (LR3), acupuncture needles (Ø0.18 x 39 mm) were inserted into Tanzhong point (RN17), Zusanli points (ST36) and Yinlingquan points (SP9). Facial temperature was recorded by an infrared thermometer. Acupuncture therapeutic effect was compared pre- and post-acupuncture. Experiment results demonstrated that facial temperature changed according to acupuncture therapeutic effect. It was concluded that proposed method showed high potential to evaluate acupuncture by noninvasive measurement of facial temperature.

Keywords: acupuncture, facial temperature, noninvasive evaluation, thermal image

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
6753 Approach of Measuring System Analyses for Automotive Part Manufacturing

Authors: S. Homrossukon, S. Sansureerungsigun


This work aims to introduce an efficient and to standardize the measuring system analyses for automotive industrial. The study started by literature reviewing about the management and analyses measurement system. The approach of measuring system management, then, was constructed. Such approach was validated by collecting the current measuring system data using the equipments of interest including vernier caliper and micrometer. Their accuracy and precision of measurements were analyzed. Finally, the measuring system was improved and evaluated. The study showed that vernier did not meet its measuring characteristics based on the linearity whereas all equipment were lacking of the measuring precision characteristics. Consequently, the causes of measuring variation via the equipment of interest were declared. After the improvement, it was found that their measuring performance could be accepted as the standard required. Finally, the standardized approach for analyzing the measuring system of automotive was concluded.

Keywords: automotive part manufacturing measurement, measuring accuracy, measuring precision, measurement system analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
6752 Experimental Chip/Tool Temperature FEM Model Calibration by Infrared Thermography: A Case Study

Authors: Riccardo Angiuli, Michele Giannuzzi, Rodolfo Franchi, Gabriele Papadia


Temperature knowledge in machining is fundamental to improve the numerical and FEM models used for the study of some critical process aspects, such as the behavior of the worked material and tool. The extreme conditions in which they operate make it impossible to use traditional measuring instruments; infrared thermography can be used as a valid measuring instrument for temperature measurement during metal cutting. In the study, a large experimental program on superduplex steel (ASTM A995 gr. 5A) cutting was carried out, the relevant cutting temperatures were measured by infrared thermography when certain cutting parameters changed, from traditional values to extreme ones. The values identified were used to calibrate a FEM model for the prediction of residual life of the tools. During the study, the problems related to the detection of cutting temperatures by infrared thermography were analyzed, and a dedicated procedure was developed that could be used during similar processing.

Keywords: machining, infrared thermography, FEM, temperature measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
6751 Correlation Studies and Heritability Estimates among Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Cultivars of North Western Nigeria

Authors: L. Abubakar, B. M. Sokoto, I. U. Mohammed, M. S. Na’allah, A. Mohammad, A. N. Garba, T. S. Bubuche


Onion (Allium cepa var. cepa L.), is the most important species of the Allium group belonging to family Alliaceae and genus Allium. It can be regarded as the single important vegetable species in the world after tomatoes. Despite the similarities, which bring the species together, the genus is a strikingly diverse one, with more than five hundred species, which are perennial and mostly bulbous plants. Out of these, only seven species are in cultivation, and five are the most important species of the cultivated Allium. However, Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) are the two major cultivated species grown all over the world of which the onion crop is the most important. Heritability defined as the proportion of the observed total variability that is genetic, and its estimates from variance components give more useful information of genotypic variation from the total phenotypic differences and environmental effects on the individuals or families. It therefore guide the breeder with respect to the ease with which selection of traits can be carried out. Heritability estimates guide the breeder with respect to ease of selection of traits while correlations suggest how selection among characters can be practiced. Correlations explain relationship between characters and suggest how selection among characters can be practiced in breeding programmes. Highly significant correlations have been reported, between yield, maturity, rings/bulb and storage loss in onions. Similarly significant positive correlation exists between total bulb yield and plant height, leaf number/plant, bulb diameter and bulb yield/plant. Moderate positive correlations have been observed between maturity date and yield, dry matter content was highly correlated with soluble solids, and higher correlations were also observed between storage loss and soluble solids. The objective of the study is to determine heritability estimates and correlations for characters among onion cultivars of North Western Nigeria. This is envisaged will assist in the breeding of superior onion cultivars within the zone. Thirteen onion cultivars were collected during an expedition covering north western Nigeria and Southern part of Niger Republic during 2013, which are areas noted for onion production. The cultivars were evaluated at two locations; Sokoto, in Sokoto State and Jega in Kebbi State all in Nigeria during the 2013/14 onion season (dry season) under irrigation. Combined analysis of the results revealed fresh bulb yield is highly significantly positively correlated with bulb height and cured bulb yield, and significant positive correlation with plant height and bulb diameter. It also recorded significant negative correlation with mean No. of leaves/plant and non significant negative correlation with bolting %. Cured bulb yield (marketable yield) had highly significant positive correlation with mean bulb weight and fresh bulb yield/ha, with significant positive correlation with bulb height. It also recorded highly significant negative correlation with No. of leaves/plant and significant negative correlation with bolting % and non significant positive correlation with plant height and non significant negative correlation with bulb diameter. High broad sense heritability estimates were recorded for plant height, fresh bulb yield, number of leaves/plant, bolting % and cured bulb yield. Medium to low broad sense heritabilities were also observed for mean bulb weight, plant height and bulb diameter.

Keywords: correlation, heritability, onions, North Western Nigeria

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6750 Transorbital Craniectomy for Treatment of Frontal Lobe and Olfactory Bulb Neoplasia in Two Canids

Authors: Kathryn L. Duncan, Charles A. Kuntz, James O. Simcock


A surgical approach to the cranium for treatment of frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia in dogs is described in this report, which provided excellent access for visualisation and removal of gross neoplastic tissue. An 8-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu crossbreed dog (dog 1) and a 13-year-old neutered male Miniature Fox Terrier (dog 2) were evaluated for removal of neoplasms involving both the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb. Both dogs presented with abnormal neurological clinical signs, decreased menace responses, and behavioural changes. Additionally, dog 2 presented with compulsive circling and generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity. Computed tomography was performed in both dogs, and MRI was also performed in dog 1. Imaging was consistent with frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia. A transorbital frontal bone craniectomy, with orbital ligament desmotomy and ventrolateral retraction of the globe, was performed in both cases without complication. Dog 1 had a focal area of lysis in the frontal bone adjacent to the neoplasm in the frontal lobe. The presence of the bone defect provided part of the impetus for this approach, as it would permit resection of the lytic bone. In addition, the neoplasms would be surgically accessible without encountering interposed brain parenchyma, reducing the risk of iatrogenic injury. Both dogs were discharged from the hospital within 72 hours post-operatively, both with normal mentation. Case 1 had a histopathologic diagnosis of malignant anaplastic neoplasm. The tumour recurred 101d postoperatively, and the patient was euthanized. Case 2 was diagnosed with a meningioma and was neurologically normal at 294d postoperatively. This transorbital surgical approach allowed successful removal of the intracranial frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms in 2 dogs. This approach should be considered for dogs with lateralized frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms that are closely associated with the suborbital region of the frontal bone.

Keywords: neurosurgery, small animal surgery, surgical oncology, veterinary neurology

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6749 Germination and Bulb Formation of Allium tuncelianum L. under in vitro Condition

Authors: Suleyman Kizil, Tahsin Sogut, Khalid M. Khawar


Genus Allium includes 600 to 750 species and most of these including Allium tuncelianum (Kollman) N. Ozhatay, B. Mathew & Siraneci; Syn; A. macrochaetum Boiss. and Hausskn. subsp. tuncelianum Kollman] or Tunceli garlic is endemic to Eastern Turkish Province of Tunceli and Munzur mountains. They are edible, bear attractive white-to-purple flowers and fertile black seeds with deep seed dormancy. This study aimed to break seed dormancy of Tunceli garlic and determine the conditions for induction of bulblets on these seeds and increase their diameter by culturing them on MS medium supplemented different strengths of KNO3. Tunceli garlic seeds were collected from field grown plants. They were germinated on MS medium with or without 20 g/l sucrose followed by their culture on 1 × 1900 mg/l, 2 × 1900 mg/l, 4 ×1900 mg/l and 6 × 1900 mg/l mg/l KNO3 supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose to increase bulb diameter. Improved seeds germination was noted on MS medium with and without sucrose but with variation compared to previous reports. The bulb development percentage on each of the sprouted seeds was not parallel to the percentage of seed germination. The results showed 34% and 28.5% bulb induction was noted on germinated seeds after 150 and 158 days on MS medium containing 20 g l-1 sucrose and no sucrose respectively showing a delay of 8 days on the latter compared to the former. The results emphatically noted role of cold stratification on agar solidified MS medium supplemented with sucrose to improve seed germination. The best increase in bulb diameter was noted on MS medium containing 1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3 after 178 days with bulblet diameter and bulblet weight of 0.54 cm and 0.048 g, respectively. Consequently, the bulbs induced on sucrose containing MS medium could be transferred to pots earlier. Increased (>1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3) strengths of KNO3 induced negative effect on growth and development of Tunceli garlic bulbs. The strategy of seed germination and bulblet induction reported in this study could be positively used for conservation of this endemic plant species.

Keywords: Tunceli garlic, seed, dormancy, bulblets, bulb growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
6748 Performance Evaluations of Lap Spliced Joint of Decked Bulb-Tee Type Modular Bridge

Authors: Sang-Yoon Lee, Jae-Joon Song


Precast decked bulb-tee girder or precast deck generally adopts in-situ connections of loop joints. Loop joint could be an effective method to connect precast concrete members where the width of joint is not wide sufficiently to allow the lap splice length of reinforcing bars. However, the regulation for the minimum bend diameter of looped rebar gives limitation not to reduce the thickness of precast concrete member; thus, in-situ connection adopting loop joint place a constraint on improving the structural efficiency of precast concrete member. Ultra high strength concrete (UHSC) is effective on reduce the development and lap splice length of reinforcing bar. In-situ connection with UHSC gives a merit to reduce connection width. This study intends to investigate the details of the longitudinal joint to be applied in the precast modular bridge using decked bulb-tee girder that has been recently developed in Korea. This paper presents the details applying UHSC and lap splices of straight reinforcement and results of tests. Several tests were performed on flexural specimens with longitudinal joints to verify the length of the lap splices and amount of transverse reinforcement, and to examine the flexural strength of the longitudinal joint.

Keywords: precast structure, decked bulb-tee girder, in-situ connection, UHSC, modular bridge

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
6747 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo


The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
6746 Evaluation of Genetic Potentials of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Cultivars of North Western Nigeria

Authors: L. Abubakar, B. M. Sokoto, I. U. Mohammed, M. S. Na’allah, A. Mohammad, A. N. Garba, T. S. Bubuche


Onion (Allium cepa var. cepa L.) is the most important species of the Allium group belonging to family Alliaceae and genus Allium. It can be regarded as the single important vegetable species in the world after tomatoes. Despite the similarities, which bring the species together, the genus is a strikingly diverse one, with more than five hundred species, which are perennial and mostly bulbous plants. Out of these, only seven species are in cultivation, and five are the most important species of the cultivated Allium. However, Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) are the two major cultivated species grown all over the world of which the onion crop is the most important. North Western Nigeria (Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara States) constitute the major onion producing zone in Nigeria, which is primarily during the dry season. However, onion production in the zone is seriously affected by two main factors i.e. diseases and storage losses, in addition to other constraints that limits the cultivation of the crop during the rainy season which include lack of prolonged rainy season to allow for proper maturation of the crop. The major onion disease in this zone is purple blotch caused by a fungus Alternaria porri and currently efforts are on to develop onion hybrids resistant to the disease. Genetic diversity plays an important role in plant breeding either to exploit heterosis or to generate productive recombinants. Assessment of a large number of genotypes for a genetic diversity is the first step in this direction. The objective of this research therefore is to evaluate the genetic potentials of the onion cultivars of North Western Nigeria, with a view of developing new cultivars that address the major production challenges to onion cultivation in North Western, Nigeria. Thirteen onion cultivars were collected during an expedition covering North western Nigeria and Southern part of Niger Republic during 2013, which are areas noted for onion production. The cultivars were evaluated at two locations; Sokoto, in Sokoto State and Jega in Kebbi State all in Nigeria during the 2013/14 onion season (dry season) under irrigation. The objective of the research was to determine the genetic potentials of onion cultivars of north western Nigeria as a basis for breeding purposes. Combined analysis of the results revealed highly significant variation between the cultivars across the locations with respect to plant height, number of leaves/plant, bolting %, bulb height, bulb weight, mean bulb yield and cured bulb weight, with significant variation in terms of bulb diameter. Tasa from Warra Local Government Area of Kebbi State (V4) recorded the greatest mean fresh bulb yield with Jar Albasa (V8) from Illela Local Government Area of Sokoto State recording the least. Similarly Marsa (V5) from Silame Local Government Area recorded the greatest mean cured bulb yield (marketable bulb)with Kiba (V11) from Goronyo Local Government of Sokoto State recording the least. Significant variation was recorded between the locations with respect to all characters, with Sokoto being better in terms of plant height, number of leaves/plant, bolting % and bulb diameter. Jega was better in terms of bulb height, bulb yield and cured bulb weight. Significant variation was therefore observed between the cultivars.

Keywords: evaluation, genetic, onions, North Western Nigeria

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6745 The Effect of Particle Temperature on the Thickness of Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H.Mohammadi Majd


In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: HVOF, temperature, thickness, velocity, WC-12Co

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6744 The Effect of Impinging WC-12Co Particles Temperature on Thickness of HVOF Thermally Sprayed Coatings

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour


In this paper, the effect of WC-12Co particle Temperature in HVOF thermal spraying process on the coating thickness has been studied. The statistical results show that the spray distance and oxygen-to-fuel ratio are more effective factors on particle characterization and thickness of HVOF thermal spraying coatings. Spray Watch diagnostic system, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and thickness measuring system were used for this purpose.

Keywords: HVOF, temperature thickness, velocity, WC-12Co

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6743 Physicochemical Properties and Toxicity Studies on a Lectin from the Bulb of Dioscorea bulbifera

Authors: Uchenna Nkiruka Umeononihu, Adenike Kuku, Oludele Odekanyin, Olubunmi Babalola, Femi Agboola, Rapheal Okonji


In this study, a lectin from the bulb of Dioscorea bulbifera was purified, characterised, and its acute and sub-acute toxicity was investigated with a view to evaluate its toxic effects in mice. The protein from the bulb was extracted by homogenising 50 g of the bulb in 500 ml of phosphate buffered saline (0.025 M) of pH 7.2, stirred for 3 hr, and centrifuged at the speed of 3000 rpm. Blood group and sugar specificity assays of the crude extract were determined. The lectin was purified in a two-step procedure- gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4-B arabinose. The degree of purity of the purified lectin was ascertained by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Detection of covalently bound carbohydrate was carried out with Periodic Acid-Schiffs (PAS) reagent staining technique. Effects of temperature, pH, and EDTA on the lectin were carried out using standard methods. This was followed by acute toxicity studies via oral and subcutaneous routes using mice. The animals were monitored for mortality and signs of toxicity. The sub-acute toxicity studies were carried out using rats. Different concentrations of the lectin were administered twice daily for 5 days via the subcutaneous route. The animals were sacrificed on the sixth day; blood samples and liver tissues were collected. Biochemical assays (determination of total protein, direct bilirubin, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out on the serum and liver homogenates. The collected organs (heart, liver, kidney, and spleen) were subjected to histopathological analysis. The results showed that lectin from the bulbs of Dioscorea bulbifera agglutinated non-specifically the erythrocytes of the human ABO system as well as rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutinating activity was strongly inhibited by arabinose and dulcitol with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.781 and 6.25, respectively. The lectin was purified to homogeneity with native and subunit molecular weights of 56,273 and 29,373 Daltons, respectively. The lectin was thermostable up to 30 0C and lost 25 %, 33.3 %, and 100 % of its heamagglutinating activity at 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C, respectively. The lectin was maximally active at pH 4 and 5 but lost its total activity at pH eight, while EDTA (10 mM) had no effect on its haemagglutinating activity. PAS reagent staining showed that the lectin was not a glycoprotein. The sub-acute studies on rats showed elevated levels of ALT, AST, serum bilirubin, total protein in serum and liver homogenates suggesting damage to liver and spleen. The study concluded that the aerial bulb of D. bulbifera lectin was non-specific in its heamagglutinating activity and dimeric in its structure. The lectin shared some physicochemical characteristics with lectins from other Dioscorecea species and was moderately toxic to the liver and spleen of treated animals.

Keywords: Dioscorea bulbifera, heamagglutinin, lectin, toxicity

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6742 Higher Relative Humidity from Pipping Increases Physical Problems in the Broiler Chicks

Authors: M. A. Nogueira, M. Thimotheo, G. C. Ripamonte, S. C. C. Aguiar, M. H. S. Ulian, J. C. Goncalves Netto, I. C. Boleli


Increasing in the relative humidity during the last incubation day is a usual practice in the commercial hatchery to facilitate hatching. This study analyzed whether higher relative humidity improves eclodibility as well as chick quality, and alters the hatch window. Fertile eggs (65- 67g) produced by 53 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®) were incubated at 37.5°C and 31°C in the wet bulb in incubators with automatic control of temperature and egg turning (1 each hour). Two-hundred ten were distributed randomly in three treatments: 31°C in the wet bulb from internal pipping (BI-31), 33°C from internal pipping (BI-33), and 33°C from external pipping (BE-33), all three hatchers maintained at 37.5°C and without egg turning. For this, eggs were checked for internal pipping by ovoscopy and external pipping by visual observation through the transparent cover of the incubators each hour from day 18 of incubation. No significant differences in the hatchability (BI-31:79.61%, BI-33:77.63%, BE-33:80.77%; by Q-square test, P > 0.05). Absence of significant effects of the treatments were also observed for incubation duration (BI-31:488.58 h, BI-33:488.30 h, BE-33:489.04 h), and chick body weight (BI-31: 49.40g, BI-33: 49.74g, BE-33: 49.34g) and quality scores (BI-31: 90.02, BI-33: 87.56, BE-33: 92.28 points), by variance analysis (P > 0.05). However, BI-33 increased the incidence of feathering and leg problems and remaining of alantoic membrane, and BE-33 increased the incidence of problems with feathering, navel and yolk sac and reduced the leg problems, compared to BI-31. In sum, the results show higher relative humidity from internal or external pipping did not influence hatchability and incubation duration, but reduced chick quality, affecting the incubation efficiency.

Keywords: chick quality, hatchability, hatcher humidity, incubation duration

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6741 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph


A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant

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6740 The Impact of Temperature on the Threshold Capillary Pressure of Fine-Grained Shales

Authors: Talal Al-Bazali, S. Mohammad


The threshold capillary pressure of shale caprocks is an important parameter in CO₂ storage modeling. A correct estimation of the threshold capillary pressure is not only essential for CO₂ storage modeling but also important to assess the overall economical and environmental impact of the design process. A standard step by step approach has to be used to measure the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluids at different temperatures. The objective of this work is to assess the impact of high temperature on the threshold capillary pressure of four different shales as they interacted with four different oil based muds, air, CO₂, N₂, and methane. This study shows that the threshold capillary pressure of shale and non-wetting fluid is highly impacted by temperature. An empirical correlation for the dependence of threshold capillary pressure on temperature when different shales interacted with oil based muds and gasses has been developed. This correlation shows that the threshold capillary pressure decreases exponentially as the temperature increases. In this correlation, an experimental constant (α) appears, and this constant may depend on the properties of shale and non-wetting fluid. The value for α factor was found to be higher for gasses than for oil based muds. This is consistent with our intuition since the interfacial tension for gasses is higher than those for oil based muds. The author believes that measured threshold capillary pressure at ambient temperature is misleading and could yield higher values than those encountered at in situ conditions. Therefore one must correct for the impact of temperature when measuring threshold capillary pressure of shale at ambient temperature.

Keywords: capillary pressure, shale, temperature, thresshold

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6739 Characterization of Pectinase from Local Microorganisms to Support Industry Based Green Chemistry

Authors: Sasangka Prasetyawan, Anna Roosdiana, Diah Mardiana, Suratmo


Pectinase are enzymes that hydrolyze pectin compounds. The use of this enzyme is primarily to reduce the viscosity of the beverage thus simplifying the purification process. Pectinase activity influenced by microbial sources . Exploration of two types of microbes that Aspergillus spp. and Bacillus spp. pectinase give different performance, but the use of local strain is still not widely studied. The aim of this research is exploration of pectinase from A. niger and B. firmus include production conditions and characterization. Bacillus firmus incubated and shaken at a speed of 200 rpm at pH variation (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) °C and incubation time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 ) hours. Media was centrifuged at 3000 rpm, pectinase enzyme activity determined. Enzyme production by A. niger determined to variations in temperature and pH were similar to B. firmus, but the variation of the incubation time was 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours. Pectinase crude extract was further purified by precipitation using ammonium sulfate saturation in fraction 0-20 %, 20-40 %, 40-60 %, 60-80 %, then dialyzed. Determination of optimum conditions pectinase activity performed by measuring the variation of enzyme activity on pH (4, 6, 7, 8, 10), temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) °C, and the incubation time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50) minutes . Determination of kinetic parameters of pectinase enzyme reaction carried out by measuring the rate of enzyme reactions at the optimum conditions, but the variation of the concentration of substrate (pectin 0.1 % , 0.2 % , 0.3 % , 0.4 % , 0.5 % ). The results showed that the optimum conditions of production of pectinase from B. firmus achieved at pH 7-8.0, 40-50 ⁰C temperature and fermentation time 18 hours. Purification of pectinase showed the highest purity in the 40-80 % ammonium sulfate fraction. Character pectinase obtained : the optimum working conditions of A. niger pectinase at pH 5 , while pectinase from B. firmus at pH 7, temperature and optimum incubation time showed the same value, namely the temperature of 50 ⁰C and incubation time of 30 minutes. The presence of metal ions can affect the activity of pectinase , the concentration of Zn 2 + , Pb 2 + , Ca 2 + and K + and 2 mM Mg 2 + above 6 mM inhibit the activity of pectinase .

Keywords: pectinase, Bacillus firmus, Aspergillus niger, green chemistry

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6738 Measuring the Cavitation Cloud by Electrical Impedance Tomography

Authors: Michal Malik, Jiri Primas, Darina Jasikova, Michal Kotek, Vaclav Kopecky


This paper is a case study dealing with the viability of using Electrical Impedance Tomography for measuring cavitation clouds in a pipe setup. The authors used a simple passive cavitation generator to cause a cavitation cloud, which was then recorded for multiple flow rates using electrodes in two measuring planes. The paper presents the results of the experiment, showing the used industrial grade tomography system ITS p2+ is able to measure the cavitation cloud and may be particularly useful for identifying the inception of cavitation in setups where other measuring tools may not be viable.

Keywords: cavitation cloud, conductivity measurement, electrical impedance tomography, mechanically induced cavitation

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6737 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel


The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

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