Search results for: saturation vapor pressure
4248 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test
Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye
Abstract:Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.
Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometerProcedia PDF Downloads 335
4247 Numerical Investigation of Cavitation on Different Venturi Shapes by Computational Fluid Dynamics
Authors: Sedat Yayla, Mehmet Oruc, Shakhwan Yaseen
Abstract:Cavitation phenomena might rigorously impair machine parts such as pumps, propellers and impellers or devices as the pressure in the fluid declines under the liquid's saturation pressure. To evaluate the influence of cavitation, in this research two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) venturi models with variety of inlet pressure values, throat lengths and vapor fluid contents were applied. In this research three different vapor contents (0%, 5% 10%), four inlet pressures (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 atm) and two venturi models were employed at different throat lengths ( 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm) for discovering the impact of each parameter on the cavitation number. It is uncovered that there is a positive correlation between pressure inlet and vapor fluid content and cavitation number. Furthermore, it is unveiled that velocity remains almost constant at the inlet pressures of 6, 8,10atm, nevertheless increasing the length of throat results in the substantial escalation in the velocity of the throat at inlet pressures of 2 and 4 atm. Furthermore, velocity and cavitation number were negatively correlated. The results of the cavitation number varied between 0.092 and 0.495 depending upon the velocity values of the throat.
Keywords: cavitation number, computational fluid dynamics, mixture of fluid, two-phase flow, velocity of throatProcedia PDF Downloads 303
4246 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors
Authors: L. Parisi
Abstract:A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.
Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvementProcedia PDF Downloads 382
4245 Real-Time Monitoring of Complex Multiphase Behavior in a High Pressure and High Temperature Microfluidic Chip
Authors: Renée M. Ripken, Johannes G. E. Gardeniers, Séverine Le Gac
Abstract:Controlling the multiphase behavior of aqueous biomass mixtures is essential when working in the biomass conversion industry. Here, the vapor/liquid equilibria (VLE) of ethylene glycol, glycerol, and xylitol were studied for temperatures between 25 and 200 °C and pressures of 1 to 10 bar. These experiments were performed in a microfluidic platform, which exhibits excellent heat transfer properties so that equilibrium is reached fast. Firstly, the saturated vapor pressure as a function of the temperature and the substrate mole fraction of the substrate was calculated using AspenPlus with a Redlich-Kwong-Soave Boston-Mathias (RKS-BM) model. Secondly, we developed a high-pressure and high-temperature microfluidic set-up for experimental validation. Furthermore, we have studied the multiphase flow pattern that occurs after the saturation temperature was achieved. A glass-silicon microfluidic device containing a 0.4 or 0.2 m long meandering channel with a depth of 250 μm and a width of 250 or 500 μm was fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques. This device was placed in a dedicated chip-holder, which includes a ceramic heater on the silicon side. The temperature was controlled and monitored by three K-type thermocouples: two were located between the heater and the silicon substrate, one to set the temperature and one to measure it, and the third one was placed in a 300 μm wide and 450 μm deep groove on the glass side to determine the heat loss over the silicon. An adjustable back pressure regulator and a pressure meter were added to control and evaluate the pressure during the experiment. Aqueous biomass solutions (10 wt%) were pumped at a flow rate of 10 μL/min using a syringe pump, and the temperature was slowly increased until the theoretical saturation temperature for the pre-set pressure was reached. First and surprisingly, a significant difference was observed between our theoretical saturation temperature and the experimental results. The experimental values were 10’s of degrees higher than the calculated ones and, in some cases, saturation could not be achieved. This discrepancy can be explained in different ways. Firstly, the pressure in the microchannel is locally higher due to both the thermal expansion of the liquid and the Laplace pressure that has to be overcome before a gas bubble can be formed. Secondly, superheating effects are likely to be present. Next, once saturation was reached, the flow pattern of the gas/liquid multiphase system was recorded. In our device, the point of nucleation can be controlled by taking advantage of the pressure drop across the channel and the accurate control of the temperature. Specifically, a higher temperature resulted in nucleation further upstream in the channel. As the void fraction increases downstream, the flow regime changes along the channel from bubbly flow to Taylor flow and later to annular flow. All three flow regimes were observed simultaneously. The findings of this study are key for the development and optimization of a microreactor for hydrogen production from biomass.
Keywords: biomass conversion, high pressure and high temperature microfluidics, multiphase, phase diagrams, superheatingProcedia PDF Downloads 161
4244 A Feasibility Study of Replacing High Pressure Mercury Vapor and Sodium Vapor Lamp Street Lighting Bulbs with LEDs in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Authors: Olusola Olorunfemi Bamisile, Mustafa Dagbasi, Serkan Abbasoglu
Abstract:Feasibility of an Energy Audit program is the main aim of this paper. LEDs are used to replace Sodium Vapor lamps and High Pressured Mercury Vapor lamps that are currently used for the street lighting system in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 44% of the fossil fuels imported into Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are used for electricity generation which makes the reduction in the consumption of electricity very important. This project will save as much as 40,206,210 kWh on site annually and 121,837,000 kWh can be saved from source. The economic environmental and fossil fuels saving of this project is also evaluated.
Keywords: energy conservation management, LEDs, sodium vapor, high pressure mercury vapor, life cycle costingProcedia PDF Downloads 410
4243 Behavior of Clay effect on Electrical Parameter of Reservoir Rock Using Global Hydraulic Elements (GHEs) Approach
Authors: Noreddin Mousa
Abstract:The main objective of this study is to estimate which type of clay minerals that more effect on saturation exponent using Global Hydraulic Elements (GHEs) approach to estimating the distribution of saturation exponent factor. Two wells and seven core samples have been selected from various (GHEs) for detailed study. There are many factors affecting saturation exponent such as wettability, grain pattern pressure of certain authigenic clays, which may promote oil wet characteristics of history of fluid displacement. The saturation exponent is related to the texture and affected by wettability and clay minerals. Capillary pressure (mercury injection) has been used to confirm GHEs which are selected to define rock types; the porous plate method is used to derive the saturation exponent in the laboratory. The petrography is very important in order to study the mineralogy and texture. In this study the results showing excellent relation between saturation exponent and the type of clay minerals which was observed that the Global Hydraulic Elements GHE-2 and GHE-5 which are containing Chlorite is more affect on saturation exponent comparing with the other GHE’s.
Keywords: GHEs, wettability, global hydraulic elements, petrographyProcedia PDF Downloads 235
4242 Flow Boiling Heat Transfer at Low Mass and Heat Fluxes: Heat Transfer Coefficient, Flow Pattern Analysis and Correlation Assessment
Authors: Ernest Gyan Bediako, Petra Dancova, Tomas Vit
Abstract:Flow boiling heat transfer remains an important area of research due to its relevance in thermal management systems and other applications. Despite the enormous work done in the field of flow boiling heat transfer over the years to understand how flow parameters such as mass flux, heat flux, saturation conditions and tube geometries influence the characteristics of flow boiling heat transfer, there are still many contradictions and lack of agreement on the actual mechanisms controlling heat transfer and how flow parameters impact the heat transfer. This work thus seeks to experimentally investigate the heat transfer characteristics and flow patterns at low mass fluxes, low heat fluxes and low saturation pressure conditions which are of less attention in literature but prevalent in refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump applications. In this study, flow boiling experiment was conducted for R134a working fluid in a 5 mm internal diameter stainless steel horizontal smooth tube with mass flux ranging from 80- 100 kg/m2 s, heat fluxes ranging from 3.55kW/m2 - 25.23 kW/m2 and saturation pressure of 460 kPa. Vapor quality ranged from 0 to 1. A well-known flow pattern map created by Wojtan et al. was used to predict the flow patterns noticed during the study. The experimental results were correlated with well-known flow boiling heat transfer correlations in literature. The findings show that, heat transfer coefficient was influenced by both mass flux and heat fluxes. However, for an increasing heat flux, nucleate boiling was observed to be the dominant mechanism controlling the heat transfer especially at low vapor quality region. For an increasing mass flux, convective boiling was the dominant mechanism controlling the heat transfer especially in the high vapor quality region. Also, the study observed an unusual high heat transfer coefficient at low vapor qualities which could be due to periodic wetting of the walls of the tube due to slug flow pattern and stratified wavy flow patterns. The flow patterns predicted by Wojtan et al. flow pattern map were mixture of slug and stratified wavy, purely stratified wavy and dry out. Statistical assessment of the experimental data with various well-known correlations from literature showed that, none of the correlations reported in literature could predicted the experimental data with enough accuracy.
Keywords: flow boiling, heat transfer coefficient, mass flux, heat flux.Procedia PDF Downloads 46
4241 Two-Phase Flow Modelling and Numerical Simulation for Waterflooding in Enhanced Oil Recovery
Authors: Peña A. Roland R., Lozano P. Jean P.
Abstract:The waterflooding process is an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method that appears tremendously successful. This paper shows the importance of the role of the numerical modelling of waterflooding and how to provide a better description of the fluid flow during this process. The mathematical model is based on the mass conservation equations for the oil and water phases. Rock compressibility and capillary pressure equations are coupled to the mathematical model. For discretizing and linearizing the partial differential equations, we used the Finite Volume technique and the Newton-Raphson method, respectively. The results of three scenarios for waterflooding in porous media are shown. The first scenario was estimating the water saturation in the media without rock compressibility and without capillary pressure. The second scenario was estimating the front of the water considering the rock compressibility and capillary pressure. The third case is to compare different fronts of water saturation for three fluids viscosity ratios without and with rock compressibility and without and with capillary pressure. Results of the simulation indicate that the rock compressibility and the capillary pressure produce changes in the pressure profile and saturation profile during the displacement of the oil for the water.
Keywords: capillary pressure, numerical simulation, rock compressibility, two-phase flowProcedia PDF Downloads 56
4240 Prediction of Distillation Curve and Reid Vapor Pressure of Dual-Alcohol Gasoline Blends Using Artificial Neural Network for the Determination of Fuel Performance
Authors: Leonard D. Agana, Wendell Ace Dela Cruz, Arjan C. Lingaya, Bonifacio T. Doma Jr.
Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to study the predict the fuel performance parameters, which include drivability index (DI), vapor lock index (VLI), and vapor lock potential using distillation curve and Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of dual alcohol-gasoline fuel blends. Distillation curve and Reid vapor pressure were predicted using artificial neural networks (ANN) with macroscopic properties such as boiling points, RVP, and molecular weights as the input layers. The ANN consists of 5 hidden layers and was trained using Bayesian regularization. The training mean square error (MSE) and R-value for the ANN of RVP are 91.4113 and 0.9151, respectively, while the training MSE and R-value for the distillation curve are 33.4867 and 0.9927. Fuel performance analysis of the dual alcohol–gasoline blends indicated that highly volatile gasoline blended with dual alcohols results in non-compliant fuel blends with D4814 standard. Mixtures of low-volatile gasoline and 10% methanol or 10% ethanol can still be blended with up to 10% C3 and C4 alcohols. Intermediate volatile gasoline containing 10% methanol or 10% ethanol can still be blended with C3 and C4 alcohols that have low RVPs, such as 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and i-butanol. Biography: Graduate School of Chemical, Biological, and Materials Engineering and Sciences, Mapua University, Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, 1002, Philippines
Keywords: dual alcohol-gasoline blends, distillation curve, machine learning, reid vapor pressureProcedia PDF Downloads 32
4239 Characteristics of Pore Pressure and Effective Stress Changes in Sandstone Reservoir Due to Hydrocarbon Production
Authors: Kurniawan Adha, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff, Luluan Almanna Lubis
Abstract:Preventing hazardous events during oil and gas operation is an important contribution of accurate pore pressure data. The availability of pore pressure data also contribute in reducing the operation cost. Suggested methods in pore pressure estimation were mostly complex by the many assumptions and hypothesis used. Basic properties which may have significant impact on estimation model are somehow being neglected. To date, most of pore pressure determinations are estimated by data model analysis and rarely include laboratory analysis, stratigraphy study or core check measurement. Basically, this study developed a model that might be applied to investigate the changes of pore pressure and effective stress due to hydrocarbon production. In general, this paper focused velocity model effect of pore pressure and effective stress changes due to hydrocarbon production with illustrated by changes in saturation. The core samples from Miri field from Sarawak Malaysia ware used in this study, where the formation consists of sandstone reservoir. The study area is divided into sixteen (16) layers and encompassed six facies (A-F) from the outcrop that is used for stratigraphy sequence model. The experimental work was firstly involving data collection through field study and developing stratigraphy sequence model based on outcrop study. Porosity and permeability measurements were then performed after samples were cut into 1.5 inch diameter core samples. Next, velocity was analyzed using SONIC OYO and AutoLab 500. Three (3) scenarios of saturation were also conducted to exhibit the production history of the samples used. Results from this study show the alterations of velocity for different saturation with different actions of effective stress and pore pressure. It was observed that sample with water saturation has the highest velocity while dry sample has the lowest value. In comparison with oil to samples with oil saturation, water saturated sample still leads with the highest value since water has higher fluid density than oil. Furthermore, water saturated sample exhibits velocity derived parameters, such as poisson’s ratio and P-wave velocity over S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) The result shows that pore pressure value ware reduced due to the decreasing of fluid content. The decreasing of pore pressure result may soften the elastic mineral frame and have tendency to possess high velocity. The alteration of pore pressure by the changes in fluid content or saturation resulted in alteration of velocity value that has proportionate trend with the effective stress.
Keywords: pore pressure, effective stress, production, miri formationProcedia PDF Downloads 226
4238 An Experimental Investigation on Explosive Phase Change of Liquefied Propane During a Bleve Event
Authors: Frederic Heymes, Michael Albrecht Birk, Roland Eyssette
Abstract:Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) has been a well know industrial accident for over 6 decades now, and yet it is still poorly predicted and avoided. BLEVE is created when a vessel containing a pressure liquefied gas (PLG) is engulfed in a fire until the tank rupture. At this time, the pressure drops suddenly, leading the liquid to be in a superheated state. The vapor expansion and the violent boiling of the liquid produce several shock waves. This works aimed at understanding the contribution of vapor ad liquid phases in the overpressure generation in the near field. An experimental work was undertaken at a small scale to reproduce realistic BLEVE explosions. Key parameters were controlled through the experiments, such as failure pressure, fluid mass in the vessel, and weakened length of the vessel. Thirty-four propane BLEVEs were then performed to collect data on scenarios similar to common industrial cases. The aerial overpressure was recorded all around the vessel, and also the internal pressure changed during the explosion and ground loading under the vessel. Several high-speed cameras were used to see the vessel explosion and the blast creation by shadowgraph. Results highlight how the pressure field is anisotropic around the cylindrical vessel and highlights a strong dependency between vapor content and maximum overpressure from the lead shock. The time chronology of events reveals that the vapor phase is the main contributor to the aerial overpressure peak. A prediction model is built upon this assumption. Secondary flow patterns are observed after the lead. A theory on how the second shock observed in experiments forms is exposed thanks to an analogy with numerical simulation. The phase change dynamics are also discussed thanks to a window in the vessel. Ground loading measurements are finally presented and discussed to give insight into the order of magnitude of the force.
Keywords: phase change, superheated state, explosion, vapor expansion, blast, shock wave, pressure liquefied gasProcedia PDF Downloads 13
4237 Optimal Design of 3-Way Reversing Valve Considering Cavitation Effect
Authors: Myeong-Gon Lee, Yang-Gyun Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Seung-Ho Han
Abstract:The high-pressure valve uses one set of 2-way valves for the purpose of reversing fluid direction. If there is no accurate control device for the 2-way valves, lots of surging can be generated. The surging is a kind of pressure ripple that occurs in rapid changes of fluid motions under inaccurate valve control. To reduce the surging effect, a 3-way reversing valve can be applied which provides a rapid and precise change of water flow directions without any accurate valve control system. However, a cavitation occurs due to a complicated internal trim shape of the 3-way reversing valve. The cavitation causes not only noise and vibration but also decreasing the efficiency of valve-operation, in which the bubbles generated below the saturated vapor pressure are collapsed rapidly at higher pressure zone. The shape optimization of the 3-way reversing valve to minimize the cavitation effect is necessary. In this study, the cavitation index according to the international standard ISA was introduced to estimate macroscopically the occurrence of the cavitation effect. Computational fluid dynamic analysis was carried out, and the cavitation effect was quantified by means of the percent of cavitation converted from calculated results of vapor volume fraction. In addition, the shape optimization of the 3-way reversing valve was performed by taking into account of the percent of cavitation.
Keywords: 3-Way reversing valve, cavitation, shape optimization, vapor volume fractionProcedia PDF Downloads 307
4236 Factors Affecting Special Core Analysis Resistivity Parameters
Authors: Hassan Sbiga
Abstract:Laboratory measurements methods were undertaken on core samples selected from three different fields (A, B, and C) from the Nubian Sandstone Formation of the central graben reservoirs in Libya. These measurements were conducted in order to determine the factors which affect resistivity parameters, and to investigate the effect of rock heterogeneity and wettability on these parameters. This included determining the saturation exponent (n) in the laboratory at two stages. The first stage was before wettability measurements were conducted on the samples, and the second stage was after the wettability measurements in order to find any effect on the saturation exponent. Another objective of this work was to quantify experimentally pores and porosity types (macro- and micro-porosity), which have an affect on the electrical properties, by integrating capillary pressure curves with other routine and special core analysis. These experiments were made for the first time to obtain a relation between pore size distribution and saturation exponent n. Changes were observed in the formation resistivity factor and cementation exponent due to ambient conditions and changes of overburden pressure. The cementation exponent also decreased from GHE-5 to GHE-8. Changes were also observed in the saturation exponent (n) and water saturation (Sw) before and after wettability measurement. Samples with an oil-wet tendency have higher irreducible brine saturation and higher Archie saturation exponent values than samples with an uniform water-wet surface. The experimental results indicate that there is a good relation between resistivity and pore type depending on the pore size. When oil begins to penetrate micro-pore systems in measurements of resistivity index versus brine saturation (after wettability measurement), a significant change in slope of the resistivity index relationship occurs.
Keywords: part of thesis, cementation, wettability, resistivityProcedia PDF Downloads 183
4235 Investigation of Effective Parameters on Pullout Capacity in Soil Nailing with Special Attention to International Design Codes
Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Mortezaee
Abstract:An important and influential factor in design and determining the safety factor in Soil Nailing is the ultimate pullout capacity, or, in other words, bond strength. This important parameter depends on several factors such as material and soil texture, method of implementation, excavation diameter, friction angle between the nail and the soil, grouting pressure, the nail depth (overburden pressure), the angle of drilling and the degree of saturation in soil. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), a customary regulation in the design of nailing, is considered only the effect of the soil type (or rock) and the method of implementation in determining the bond strength, which results in non-economic design. The other regulations are each of a kind, some of the parameters affecting bond resistance are not taken into account. Therefore, in the present paper, at first the relationships and tables presented by several valid regulations are presented for estimating the ultimate pullout capacity, and then the effect of several important factors affecting on ultimate Pullout capacity are studied. Finally, it was determined, the effect of overburden pressure (in method of injection with pressure), soil dilatation and roughness of the drilling surface on pullout strength is incremental, and effect of degree of soil saturation on pullout strength to a certain degree of saturation is increasing and then decreasing. therefore it is better to get help from nail pullout-strength test results and numerical modeling to evaluate the effect of parameters such as overburden pressure, dilatation, and degree of soil saturation, and so on to reach an optimal and economical design.
Keywords: soil nailing, pullout capacity, federal highway administration (FHWA), groutProcedia PDF Downloads 88
4234 Investigating Convective Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of R-1234ze and R-134a Refrigerants in a Microfin and Smooth Tube
Authors: Kaggwa Abdul, Chi-Chuan Wang
Abstract:This research is based on R-1234ze that is considered to substitute R-134a due to its low global warming potential in a microfin tube with outer diameter 9.52 mm, number of fins 70, and fin height 0.17 mm. In comparison, a smooth tube with similar geometries was used to study pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients related to the two fluids. The microfin tube was brazed inside a stainless steel tube and heated electrically. T-type thermocouples used to measure the temperature distribution during the phase change process. The experimental saturation temperatures and refrigerant mass velocities varied from 10 – 20°C and 50 – 300 kg/m2s respectively. The vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.9, and heat flux ranged from 5 – 11kW/m2. The results showed that heat transfer performance of R-134a in both microfin and smooth tube was better than R-1234ze especially at mass velocities above G = 50 kg/m2s. However, at low mass velocities below G = 100 kg/m2s R-1234ze yield better heat transfer coefficients than R-134a. The pressure gradient of R-1234ze was markedly higher than that of R-134a at all mass flow rates.
Keywords: R-1234ze and R-134a, horizontal flow boiling, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients, micro-fin and smooth tubesProcedia PDF Downloads 226
4233 Design and Optimization of Flow Field for Cavitation Reduction of Valve Sleeves
Authors: Kamal Upadhyay, Zhou Hua, Yu Rui
Abstract:This paper aims to improve the streamline linked with the flow field and cavitation on the valve sleeve. We observed that local pressure fluctuation produces a low-pressure zone, central to the formation of vapor volume fraction within the valve chamber led to air-bubbles (or cavities). Thus, it allows simultaneously to a severe negative impact on the inner surface and lifespan of the valve sleeves. Cavitation reduction is a vitally important issue to pressure control valves. The optimization of the flow field is proposed in this paper to reduce the cavitation of valve sleeves. In this method, the inner wall of the valve sleeve is changed from a cylindrical surface to the conical surface, leading to the decline of the fluid flow velocity and the rise of the outlet pressure. Besides, the streamline is distributed inside the sleeve uniformly. Thus, the bubble generation is lessened. The fluid models are built and analysis of flow field distribution, pressure, vapor volume and velocity was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and numerical technique. The results indicate that this structure can suppress the cavitation of valve sleeves effectively.
Keywords: streamline, cavitation, optimization, computational fluid dynamicsProcedia PDF Downloads 63
4232 Assessment of Petrophysical Parameters Using Well Log and Core Data
Authors: Khulud M. Rahuma, Ibrahim B. Younis
Abstract:Assessment of petrophysical parameters are very essential for reservoir engineer. Three techniques can be used to predict reservoir properties: well logging, well testing, and core analysis. Cementation factor and saturation exponent are very required for calculation, and their values role a great effect on water saturation estimation. In this study a sensitive analysis was performed to investigate the influence of cementation factor and saturation exponent variation applying logs, and core analysis. Measurements of water saturation resulted in a maximum difference around fifteen percent.
Keywords: porosity, cementation factor, saturation exponent, formation factor, water saturationProcedia PDF Downloads 623
4231 Exergetic Comparison between Three Configurations of Two Stage Vapor Compression Refrigeration Systems
Authors: Wafa Halfaoui Mbarek, Khir Tahar, Ben Brahim Ammar
Abstract:This study reports a comparison from an exergetic point of view between three configurations of vapor compression industrial refrigeration systems operating with R134a as working fluid. The performances of the different cycles are analyzed as function of several operating parameters such as condensing temperature and inter stage pressure. In addition, the contributions of component exergy destruction to the total exergy destruction are obtained for each system. The results are estimated to be used in the selection of the most advantageous configuration from an exergetic view point.
Keywords: vapor compression, exergy, destruction, efficiency, R134aProcedia PDF Downloads 307
4230 Field Saturation Flow Measurement Using Dynamic Passenger Car Unit under Mixed Traffic Condition
Authors: Ramesh Chandra Majhi
Abstract:Saturation flow is a very important input variable for the design of signalized intersections. Saturation flow measurement is well established for homogeneous traffic. However, saturation flow measurement and modeling is a challenging task in heterogeneous characterized by multiple vehicle types and non-lane based movement. Present study focuses on proposing a field procedure for Saturation flow measurement and the effect of typical mixed traffic behavior at the signal as far as non-lane based traffic movement is concerned. Data collected during peak and off-peak hour from five intersections with varying approach width is used for validating the saturation flow model. The insights from the study can be used for modeling saturation flow and delay at signalized intersection in heterogeneous traffic conditions.
Keywords: optimization, passenger car unit, saturation flow, signalized intersectionProcedia PDF Downloads 262
4229 Stability Enhancement of Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes Using Ion Gels for Gas Separation
Authors: Y. H. Hwang, J. Won, Y. S. Kang
Abstract:Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) have attracted due to the negligible vapor pressure of ionic liquids (ILs) as well as the high gas selectivity for specific gases such as CO2 or olefin. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([EMIM][TCM]), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([BMIM][TCM]), show high CO2 solubility, CO2 absorption, rapid CO2 absorption rate and negligible vapor pressure, SILMs using these ILs have been good candidates as CO2 separation membranes. However, SILM has to be operated at a low differential pressure to prevent the solvent from being expelled from the pores of supported membranes. In this paper, we improve the mechanical strength by forming ion gels which provide the stability while it retains the diffusion properties of the liquid stage which affects the gas separation properties. The ion gel was created by the addition of tri-block copolymer, poly(styrene-ethylene oxide-b-styrene) in RTIL. SILM using five different RTILs, are investigated with and without ion gels. The gas permeance were measured and the gas performance with and without the SEOS were investigated.
Keywords: ion gel, ionic liquid, membrane, nanostructureProcedia PDF Downloads 254
4228 The Evaporation Study of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride
Authors: Kirill D. Semavin, Norbert S. Chilingarov, Eugene.V. Skokan
Abstract:The ionic liquids (ILs) based on imidazolium cation are well known nowadays. The changing anions and substituents in imidazolium ring may lead to different physical and chemical properties of ILs. It is important that such ILs with halogen as anion are characterized by a low thermal stability. The data about thermal stability of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride are ambiguous. In the works of last years, thermal stability of this IL was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and obtained results are contradictory. Moreover, in the last study, it was shown that the observed temperature of the beginning of decomposition significantly depends on the experimental conditions, for example, the heating rate of the sample. The vapor pressure of this IL is not presented at the literature. In this study, the vapor pressure of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was obtained by Knudsen effusion mass-spectrometry (KEMS). The samples of [ЕMIm]Cl (purity > 98%) were supplied by Sigma–Aldrich and were additionally dried at dynamic vacuum (T = 60 0C). Preliminary procedures with Il were derived into glove box. The evaporation studies of [ЕMIm]Cl were carried out by KEMS with using original research equipment based on commercial MI1201 magnetic mass spectrometer. The stainless steel effusion cell had an effective evaporation/effusion area ratio of more than 6000. The cell temperature, measured by a Pt/Pt−Rh (10%) thermocouple, was controlled by a Termodat 128K5 device with an accuracy of ±1 K. In first step of this study, the optimal temperature of experiment and heating rate of samples were customized: 449 K and 5 K/min, respectively. In these conditions the sample is decomposed, but the experimental measurements of the vapor pressures are possible. The thermodynamic activity of [ЕMIm]Cl is close to 1 and products of decomposition don’t affect it at firstly 50 hours of experiment. Therefore, it lets to determine the saturated vapor pressure of IL. The electronic ionization mass-spectra shows that the decomposition of [ЕMIm]Cl proceeds with two ways. Nonetheless, the MALDI mass spectra of the starting sample and residue in the cell were similar. It means that the main decomposition products are gaseous under experimental conditions. This result allows us to obtain information about the kinetics of [ЕMIm]Cl decomposition. Thus, the original KEMS-based procedure made it possible to determine the IL vapor pressure under decomposition conditions. Also, the loss of sample mass due to the evaporation was obtained.
Keywords: ionic liquids, Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, thermal stability, vapor pressureProcedia PDF Downloads 121
4227 Two-Dimensional Observation of Oil Displacement by Water in a Petroleum Reservoir through Numerical Simulation and Application to a Petroleum Reservoir
Authors: Ahmad Fahim Nasiry, Shigeo Honma
Abstract:We examine two-dimensional oil displacement by water in a petroleum reservoir. The pore fluid is immiscible, and the porous media is homogenous and isotropic in the horizontal direction. Buckley-Leverett theory and a combination of Laplacian and Darcy’s law are used to study the fluid flow through porous media, and the Laplacian that defines the dispersion and diffusion of fluid in the sand using heavy oil is discussed. The reservoir is homogenous in the horizontal direction, as expressed by the partial differential equation. Two main factors which are observed are the water saturation and pressure distribution in the reservoir, and they are evaluated for predicting oil recovery in two dimensions by a physical and mathematical simulation model. We review the numerical simulation that solves difficult partial differential reservoir equations. Based on the numerical simulations, the saturation and pressure equations are calculated by the iterative alternating direction implicit method and the iterative alternating direction explicit method, respectively, according to the finite difference assumption. However, to understand the displacement of oil by water and the amount of water dispersion in the reservoir better, an interpolated contour line of the water distribution of the five-spot pattern, that provides an approximate solution which agrees well with the experimental results, is also presented. Finally, a computer program is developed to calculate the equation for pressure and water saturation and to draw the pressure contour line and water distribution contour line for the reservoir.
Keywords: numerical simulation, immiscible, finite difference, IADI, IDE, waterfloodingProcedia PDF Downloads 268
4226 Effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Diaphragmatic Strength Following Coronary Revascularization
Authors: Abeer Ahmed Abdelhamed
Abstract:Introduction: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are the most common complications observed and managed after abdominal or cardiothoracic surgery. Hypoxemia, atelectasis, pleural effusion, or diaphragmatic dysfunction, are often a source of morbidity in cardiac surgery patients, and are more common in patients receiving unilateral or bilateral internal mammary artery (IMT) grafts than patients receiving saphenous vein (SV) grafts alone. Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of Threshold load inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary gas exchange and maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) in patient undergoing coronary revascularization. Subject: Thirty three male patients eligible for coronary revascularization were selected to participate in the study. Method: They were divided into two groups(17 patients in the intervention group and 16 patients in the control group), the interventional group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of their maximum inspiratory pressure throughout the hospitalization period in addition to routine post operative care. Result: The results of this study showed a significant improvement on maximum inspiratory pressure(MIP), Arterial-alveolar pressure gradient (A-a gradient) and oxygen saturation in the intervention group. Conclusion: Inspiratory muscle training using threshold mode significantly improves maximum inspiratory pressure, pulmonary gas exchange tested by alveolar-arterial gradient and oxygen saturation in Patients undergoing coronary revascularization.
Keywords: coronary revascularization, inspiratory muscle training, maximum inspiratory pressure, pulmonary gas exchangeProcedia PDF Downloads 244
4225 Saturation Misbehavior and Field Activation of the Mobility in Polymer-Based OTFTs
Authors: L. Giraudet, O. Simonetti, G. de Tournadre, N. Dumelié, B. Clarenc, F. Reisdorffer
Abstract:In this paper we intend to give a comprehensive view of the saturation misbehavior of thin film transistors (TFTs) based on disordered semiconductors, such as most organic TFTs, and its link to the field activation of the mobility. Experimental evidence of the field activation of the mobility is given for disordered semiconductor based TFTs, when reducing the gate length. Saturation misbehavior is observed simultaneously. Advanced transport models have been implemented in a quasi-2D numerical TFT simulation software. From the numerical simulations it is clearly established that field activation of the mobility alone cannot explain the saturation misbehavior. Evidence is given that high longitudinal field gradient at the drain end of the channel is responsible for an excess charge accumulation, preventing saturation. The two combined effects allow reproducing the experimental output characteristics of short channel TFTs, with S-shaped characteristics and saturation failure.
Keywords: mobility field activation, numerical simulation, OTFT, saturation failureProcedia PDF Downloads 453
4224 Blood Oxygen Saturation Measurement System Using Broad-Band Light Source with LabVIEW Program
Authors: Myoung Ah Kim, Dong Ho Sin, Chul Gyu Song
Abstract:Blood oxygen saturation system is a well-established, noninvasive photoplethysmographic method to monitor vital signs. Conventional blood oxygen saturation measurements for the two LED light source is the ambiguity of the oxygen saturation measurement principle and the measurement results greatly influenced and heat and motion artifact. A high accuracy in order to solve these problems blood oxygen saturation measuring method has been proposed using a broadband light source that can be easily understood by the algorithm. The measurement of blood oxygen saturation based on broad-band light source has advantage of simple testing facility and easy understanding. Broadband light source based on blood oxygen saturation measuring program proposed in this paper is a combination of LabVIEW and MATLAB. Using the wavelength range of 450 nm-750 nm using a floating light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to measure the blood oxygen saturation. Hand movement is to fix the probe to the motor stage in order to prevent oxygen saturation measurement that affect the sample and probe kept constant interval. Experimental results show that the proposed method noticeably increases the accuracy and saves time compared with the conventional methods.
Keywords: oxygen saturation, broad-band light source, CCD, light reflectance theoryProcedia PDF Downloads 357
4223 Computational Fluids Dynamics Investigation of the Effect of Geometric Parameters on the Ejector Performance
Authors: Michel Wakim, Rodrigo Rivera Tinoco
Abstract:Supersonic ejector is an economical device that use high pressure vapor to compress a low pressure vapor without any rotating parts or external power sources. Entrainment ratio is a major characteristic of the ejector performance, so the ejector performance is highly dependent on its geometry. The aim of this paper is to design ejector geometry, based on pre-specified operating conditions, and to study the flow behavior inside the ejector by using computational fluid dynamics ‘CFD’ by using ‘ANSYS FLUENT 15.0’ software. In the first section; 1-D mathematical model is carried out to predict the ejector geometry. The second part describes the flow behavior inside the designed model. CFD is the most reliable tool to reveal the mixing process at different parts of the supersonic turbulent flow and to study the effect of the geometry on the effective ejector area. Finally, the results show the effect of the geometry on the entrainment ratio.
Keywords: computational fluids dynamics, ejector, entrainment ratio, geometry optimization, performanceProcedia PDF Downloads 207
4222 Effect of Traffic Composition on Delay and Saturation Flow at Signal Controlled Intersections
Authors: Arpita Saha, Apoorv Jain, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh
Abstract:Level of service at a signal controlled intersection is directly measured from the delay. Similarly, saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity. The present study calculates vehicle arrival rate, departure rate, and queue length for every five seconds interval in each cycle. Based on the queue lengths, the total delay of the cycle has been calculated using Simpson’s 1/3rd rule. Saturation flow has been estimated in terms of veh/hr of green/lane for every five seconds interval of the green period until at least three vehicles are left to cross the stop line. Vehicle composition shows an immense effect on total delay and saturation flow rate. The increase in two-wheeler proportion increases the saturation flow rate and reduces the total delay per vehicle significantly. Additionally, an increase in the heavy vehicle proportion reduces the saturation flow rate and increases the total delay for each vehicle.
Keywords: delay, saturation flow, signalised intersection, vehicle compositionProcedia PDF Downloads 296
4221 Assessment of Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Percentage Oxygen Saturation in Young Habitual Shisha Smokers in Kano, Nigeria
Authors: B. I. Waziri, M. A. Yahaya
Abstract:Background: Practice of shisha smoking involves the use of a multi-stemmed instrument to smoke tobacco or non-tobacco herbal mixture where the smoke is designed to pass through water or other liquid before reaching the smoker. The presence of tobacco content and the use of charcoal when burning the ingredients in this popular practice necessitate for investigation of many physiological parameters of habitual shisha smokers in our environment. Methods: 103 young shisha smokers, regular in the practice for more than three years living in Nasarawa, Kano state, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. The controls were 100 university students (nonsmokers) match for age (18 - 30 years), sex and BMI (20 - 24) with the smokers. Participants with known history of cigarette smoking, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases were excluded. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Kano Nigeria. Hear rate, blood pressure and percentage oxygen saturation (SPO₂) were measured using stethoscope, sphygmomanometer and pulse oximeter respectively. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 and mean values of the measured parameters were compared between the smokers and controls using independent sample t-test. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean Heart rate was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the shisha smokers (91.32 ± 0.84) compared to controls (79.19 ± 1.18). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also higher (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (128.75 ± 1.11 and 85.85 ± 0.78 respectively) compared to controls with the systolic and diastolic pressure of 116.64 ± 0.82 and 80.39 ± 0.83 respectively. SPO₂ was significantly lower (p = 0.00) in the shisha smokers (91.98% ± 0.42%) compared to the controls (97.98 ± 0.18). Conclusion: Habitual Shisha Smoking caused a significant increase in Heart rate, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a significant decrease in SPO2 among youth in Kano State, Nigeria.
Keywords: blood pressure, heart rate, shisha, youthProcedia PDF Downloads 87
4220 Effect of Compaction and Degree of Saturation on the Unconsolidated Undrained Shear Strength of Sandy Clay
Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq, Rabeea Bakhtawer
Abstract:For geotechnical engineers, one of the most important properties of soil to consider in various stability analyses is its shear strength which is governed by a number of factors. The objective of this research is to ascertain the effect of compaction and degree of saturation on the shear strength of fine-grained soil. For this purpose, three different dry densities such as in-situ, maximum standard proctor, and maximum modified proctor, were determined for the sandy clay soil. The soil samples were then prepared to keep dry density constant and varying degrees of saturation. These samples were tested for (UU) unconsolidated undrained shear strength in triaxial compression tests. The decrease in shear strength was observed with the decrease in density and increase in the saturation. The values of the angle of internal friction followed the same trend. However, the change in cohesion with the increase in saturation showed a different behavior, analogous to the compaction curve.
Keywords: compaction, degree of saturation, dry density, geotechnical investigation, laboratory testing, shear strengthProcedia PDF Downloads 69
4219 Modeling of Full Range Flow Boiling Phenomenon in 23m Long Vertical Steam Generator Tube
Authors: Chaitanya R. Mali, V. Vinod, Ashwin W. Patwardhan
Abstract:Design of long vertical steam generator (SG) tubes in nuclear power plant involves an understanding of different aspects of flow boiling phenomenon such as flow instabilities, flow regimes, dry out, critical heat flux, pressure drop, etc. The knowledge of the prediction of local thermal hydraulic characteristics is necessary to understand these aspects. For this purpose, the methodology has been developed which covers all the flow boiling regimes to model full range flow boiling phenomenon. In this methodology, the vertical tube is divided into four sections based on vapor fraction value at the end of each section. Different modeling strategies have been applied to the different sections of the vertical tube. Computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed on a vertical SG tube of 0.0126 m inner diameter and 23 m length. The thermal hydraulic parameters such as vapor fraction, liquid temperature, heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, heat flux distribution have been analyzed for different designed heat duties (1.1 MW (20%) to 3.3 MW (60%)) and flow conditions (10 % to 80 %). The sensitivity of different boiling parameters such as bubble departure diameter, nucleation site density, bubble departure frequency on the thermal hydraulic parameters was also studied. Flow instability has been observed at 20 % designed heat duty and 20 % flow conditions.
Keywords: thermal hydraulics, boiling, vapor fraction, sensitivityProcedia PDF Downloads 70