Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2138

Search results for: respiratory diseases

2138 Ethnobotanical Study of Spontaneous Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Viral Respiratory Diseases in the Prerif, Morocco

Authors: El Amane Salma, Rahou Abdelilah

Abstract:

Viral respiratory infections (common cold, flu, sinusitis, bronchiolitis, etc.) are among the most common infections in the world with severe symptoms. In Morocco, as everywhere in the world, especially in developing countries, the therapeutic indications of medicinal plants are very present to treat several diseases, including the respiratory system. The objective of our study is to identify and document medicinal plants used in traditional medicine to treat viral respiratory infections and alleviate their symptoms in order to generate interest for future studies in verifying the efficacy of these traditional medicines and their conservation. The information acquired from 81 questionnaires and the floristic identification allowed us to identify 19 spontaneous species belonging to 11 families, used as traditional therapies for viral respiratory diseases in the Prerif. The herbs are the most used life form. The results also showed that leaves were the most commonly used plant parts and most of the herbal medicines were prepared in the form of infusions and administered orally. Documented data was evaluated using use value (UV), family importance value (FIV) and relative frequency citation (RCF).

Keywords: medicinal plants, ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological, viral respiratory diseases, Morocco

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2137 Childhood Respiratory Diseases Related to Indoor and Outdoor Air Temperature in Shanghai, China

Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Shijie Hong, Jialing Zhang, Yuchao Guo, Zhijun Zou, Chen Huang

Abstract:

Background: Studies on associations between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases are lack in China. Objectives: We aim to analyze the relationship between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases. Methods: We conducted the on-site inspection into 454 residences and questionnaires survey. Indoor air temperature were from field inspection and outdoor air temperature were from website. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Indoor extreme hot air temperature was positively correlated with duration of a common cold (>=2 weeks), and outdoor extreme hot air temperature was also positively related with pneumonia among children. Indoor and outdoor extreme cold air temperature was a risk factor for rhinitis among children. The biggest indoor air temperature difference (indoor maximum air temperature minus indoor minimum air temperature) (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) and outdoor air temperature difference (outdoor maximum air temperature minus outdoor minimum air temperature) (Omax minus Omin) (the 4th quartile, >8oC) were positively related to pneumonia among children. Meanwhile, indoor air temperature difference (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) was positively correlated with diagnosed asthma among children. Air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor was negatively related with the most childhood respiratory diseases. This may be partly related to the avoidance behavior. Conclusions: Improper air temperature may affect the respiratory diseases among children.

Keywords: air temperature, extreme air temperature, air temperature difference, respiratory diseases, children

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2136 Particulate Pollution and Its Effect on Respiratory Symptoms of Exposed Personnel's in Three Heavy Traffic Cities (Roads), Kathmandu, Nepal

Authors: Sujen Man Shrestha, Kanchan Thapa, Tista Prasai Joshi

Abstract:

Background: The present study was carried out to determine suspended particles and respirable particles of diameter less than 1 micrometers (PM1) on road side and some distance of outside from road; and to compare the respiratory symptoms between traffic police men and shop keepers directly 'exposed' to traffic fumes and office worker stay in 'protected' enclosed environment. Methods: Semi structured questionnaire was used to collect the data among case and control after getting verbal informed consent among the convenience sample of traffic police, shopkeepers and officials in three different locations in Kathmandu. Secondary data analysis of hospital data of three hospitals of Kathmandu was also performed. The data on air Particulate Matter was taken by Haz Dust. Results: The result showed air quality of road side traffic is unhealthy and there was increasing trends of respiratory illness in hospital outpatient department (OPD). The people who were exposed found to have more risk of developing respiratory diseases symptoms. Conclusions: The study concluded that air pollution level is strong contributing factor for respiratory diseases and further recommended strong, epidemiological studies with larger sample size, less bias, and also measuring other significant physical and chemicals parameters of air pollution.

Keywords: heavy traffic cities, Kathmandu, particulate pollution, respiratory symptoms

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2135 Extra-Pulmonary Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection in a Healthy 25-Year-Old Female: A Case Report

Authors: Minna Chang

Abstract:

Introduction: M. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen, which commonly causes upper and lower respiratory infections. It primarily affects children and young adults. Respiratory symptoms are well recognized, but extrapulmonary involvement is also common. Other systems that have been implicated in the disease include: skin, mucus membranes, central, peripheral nervous systems, cardiovascular, haematological, renal, and musculoskeletal systems. Here, we report a case of an otherwise healthy, young female with M. pneumonia, who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Case presentation: a healthy 25-year-old female was referred to A&E by her general practitioner, after presenting with fever, malaise, and right upper quadrant pain. M. pneumoniae was confirmed retrospectively by serology. The patient made a full recovery after a six-day course of doxycycline 100mg. Conclusion: M. pneumonia is a well-established cause of respiratory infections in children and young adults. Febrile illness with multisystem involvement, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms, should raise suspicion of M. pneumoniae infection in healthy, young adults. Our case illustrates the multi-system involvement of M. pneumoniae, which was initially missed, due to paucity of respiratory symptoms at presentation.

Keywords: infectious diseases, mycoplasma pneumoniae, respiratory infections, extra-pulmonary manifestations

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2134 Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) by PCR Technique in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) in Babylon City

Authors: Amal Raqib Shameran, Ghanim Aboud Al-Mola

Abstract:

Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the major pathogens of respiratory tract infections (RTI) among infants and children in the world. They are classified in family Paramyxoviridae and sub-family Pneumovirinae. The current work aimed to detect the role of RSV in the lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in Hilla, Iraq. The samples were collected from 50 children who were admitted to hospital suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). 50 nasal and pharyngeal swabs were taken from patients at the period from January 2010 till April 2011, hospitalized in Hilla Maternity and Children Hospital. The results showed that the proportion of children infected with hRSV accounted for 24% 12/50 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) when they tested by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus, respiratory tract infections, infants, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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2133 Numerical Simulation on Airflow Structure in the Human Upper Respiratory Tract Model

Authors: Xiuguo Zhao, Xudong Ren, Chen Su, Xinxi Xu, Fu Niu, Lingshuai Meng

Abstract:

The respiratory diseases such as asthma, emphysema and bronchitis are connected with the air pollution and the number of these diseases tends to increase, which may attribute to the toxic aerosol deposition in human upper respiratory tract or in the bifurcation of human lung. The therapy of these diseases mostly uses pharmaceuticals in the form of aerosol delivered into the human upper respiratory tract or the lung. Understanding of airflow structures in human upper respiratory tract plays a very important role in the analysis of the “filtering” effect in the pharynx/larynx and for obtaining correct air-particle inlet conditions to the lung. However, numerical simulation based CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) technology has its own advantage on studying airflow structure in human upper respiratory tract. In this paper, a representative human upper respiratory tract is built and the CFD technology was used to investigate the air movement characteristic in the human upper respiratory tract. The airflow movement characteristic, the effect of the airflow movement on the shear stress distribution and the probability of the wall injury caused by the shear stress are discussed. Experimentally validated computational fluid-aerosol dynamics results showed the following: the phenomenon of airflow separation appears near the outer wall of the pharynx and the trachea. The high velocity zone is created near the inner wall of the trachea. The airflow splits at the divider and a new boundary layer is generated at the inner wall of the downstream from the bifurcation with the high velocity near the inner wall of the trachea. The maximum velocity appears at the exterior of the boundary layer. The secondary swirls and axial velocity distribution result in the high shear stress acting on the inner wall of the trachea and bifurcation, finally lead to the inner wall injury. The enhancement of breathing intensity enhances the intensity of the shear stress acting on the inner wall of the trachea and the bifurcation. If human keep the high breathing intensity for long time, not only the ability for the transportation and regulation of the gas through the trachea and the bifurcation fall, but also result in the increase of the probability of the wall strain and tissue injury.

Keywords: airflow structure, computational fluid dynamics, human upper respiratory tract, wall shear stress, numerical simulation

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2132 Respiratory Indices and Sports Performance: A Comparision between Different Levels Basketballers

Authors: Ranjan Chakravarty, Satpal Yadav, Biswajit Basumatary, Arvind S. Sajwan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to compare the basketball players of different level on selected respiratory indices. Ninety male basketball players from different universities those who participated in intercollegiate and inter- varsity championship. Selected respiratory indices were resting pulse rate, resting blood pressure, vital capacity and resting respiratory rate. Mean and standard deviation of selected respiratory indices were calculated and three different levels i.e. beginners, intermediate and advanced were compared by using analysis of variance. In order to test the hypothesis, level of significance was set at 0.05. It was concluded that variability does not exist among the basketball players of different groups with respect to their selected respiratory indices i.e. resting pulse rate, resting blood pressure, vital capacity and resting respiratory rate.

Keywords: respiratory indices, sports performance, basketball players, intervarsity level

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2131 Accumulation of PM10 and Associated Metals Due to Opencast Coal Mining Activities and Their Impact on Human Health

Authors: Arundhuti Devi, Gitumani Devi, Krishna G. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to assess the characteristics of the airborne dust created by opencast coal mining and its relation to population hospitalization risk for skin and lung diseases in Margherita Coalfield, Assam, India. Air samples were collected for 24 h in three 8-h periods. For the collection of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples, respiratory dust samplers with glass microfiber filter papers were used. PM10 was analyzed for Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Fe and Pb with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). SPM and PM10 concentrations were respectively found to be as high as 1,035 and 265.85 μg/m³ in work zone air. The concentration of metals associated with PM10 showed values higher than the permissible limits. It was observed that the average concentrations of the metals Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu were very high during the winter month of December, those of Cd and Cr were high during the month of May and Mn was high during February. The morphology of the particles studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave significant results. Due to opencast coal mining, the air in the work zone, as well as the general ambient air, was found to be highly polluted with respect to dust. More than 8000 patient records maintained by the hospital authority were collected from three hospitals in the area. The highest percentage of people suffering from lung diseases are found in Margherita Civil Hospital (~26.77%) whereas most people suffering from skin diseases reported for treatment in the ESIC hospital (47.47%). Both PM10 and SPM were alarmingly high, and the results were in conformity with the high incidence of lung and other respiratory diseases in the study area.

Keywords: heavy metals, open cast coal mining, PM10, respiratory diseases

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2130 Genome Sequencing of Infectious Bronchitis Virus QX-Like Strain Isolated in Malaysia

Authors: M. Suwaibah, S. W. Tan, I. Aiini, K. Yusoff, A. R. Omar

Abstract:

Respiratory diseases are the most important infectious diseases affecting poultry worldwide. One of the avian respiratory virus of global importance causing significant economic losses is Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). The virus causes a wide spectrum disease known as Infectious Bronchitis (IB), affecting not only the respiratory system but also the kidney and the reproductive system, depending on its strain. IB and Newcastle disease are two of the most prevalent diseases affecting poultry in Malaysia. However, a study on the molecular characterization of Malaysian IBV is lacking. In this study, an IBV strain IBS130 which was isolated in 2015 was fully sequenced using next-gene sequencing approach. Sequence analysis of IBS130 based on the complete genome, polyprotein 1ab and S1 genes were compared with other IBV sequences available in Genbank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). IBV strain IBS130 is characterised as QX-like strain based on whole genome and S1 gene sequence analysis. Comparisons of the virus with other IBV strains showed that the nucleotide identity ranged from 67% to 99.2%, depending on the region analysed. The similarity in whole genome nucleotide ranging from 84.9% to 90.7% with the least similar was from Singapore strains (84.9%) and highly similar with China QX-like strains. Meanwhile, the similarity in polyprotein 1ab ranging from 85.3% to 89.9% with the least similar to Singapore strains (85.3%) and highly similar with Mass strains from USA.

Keywords: infectious bronchitis virus, phylogenetic analysis, chicken, Malaysia

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2129 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref

Abstract:

Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: asthma, emergency department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

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2128 Histopathological Examination of Lung Surgery Camel in Iran

Authors: Ali Chitgar

Abstract:

Respiratory infections including diseases in camels are important not only because of the threat of animal health but also to reduce their production. Since that deal with respiratory problems and their treatment requires adequate knowledge of the existing respiratory problems, unfortunately, there is limited information about the species of camels. This study aimed to identify lung lesions camels slaughtered in a slaughterhouse more important was performed using histopathology. Respiratory camels (n = 477) was examined after the killing fully and tissue samples were placed in 10% formalin. The samples and histological sections using hematoxylin and eosin staining and color were evaluated. In this study 79.6 % (236 of 477 samples) of the samples was at least a lung lesion. Rate acute interstitial pneumonia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the pleura and 52.8 % respectively atelectasis (236 of 477 samples), 5.4 % (24 of 477 samples), 7.8 % (35 of 477 samples), 6.7 % (30 of 477 samples), 3.4 % (15 of 477 samples) and 15.2% (68 of 477 samples). The lung lesions, acute interstitial pneumonia and bronchopneumonia in autumn winter rather than spring and summer (p <0/05) and as a result, this study showed that high rates of lung lesions in the camel population. Waste higher results in cold seasons (fall and winter) shows.

Keywords: camel, surgery, histopathology, breathing organ

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2127 Assessment of Prevalent Diseases Caused by Mining Activities in the Northern Part of Mindanao Island, Philippines

Authors: Odinah Cuartero-Enteria, Kyla Rita Mercado, Jason Salamanes, Aian Pecasales, Sherwin Sabado

Abstract:

The northern part of Mindanao Island, Philippines has sizable reserve of mineral resources. Years ago, mining activities have been flourishing which resulted to both local economic gain but with environmental concerns. This study investigates the prevalent diseases by mining activities in these areas. The study was done using the secondary data gathered from the Rural Health Units (RHU) of the selected areas. The study further determined the prevalent diseases that existed in the three areas from years 2005, 2010 and 2015 indicating before the mining activities and when mining activities are present. The results show that areas which are far from mining activities have fewer cases of patients suffering from air-borne diseases. The top ten most common diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, influenza, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and skin diseases were caused by air-borne due to air pollution. Hence, the places where mining activities are present contribute to the prevalent diseases. Thus, addressing the air pollution caused by mining activities is very important.

Keywords: Philippines, Mindanao Island, mining activities, pollution, prevalent diseases

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2126 Characteristics of Children Heart Rhythm Regulation with Acute Respiratory Diseases

Authors: D. F. Zeynalov, T. V. Kartseva, O. V. Sorokin

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Currently, approaches to assess cardiointervalography are based on the calculation of data variance intervals RR. However, they do not allow the evaluation of features related to a period of the cardiac cycle, so how electromechanical phenomena during cardiac subphase are characterized by differently directed changes. Therefore, we have proposed a method of subphase analysis of the cardiac cycle, developed in the department of hominal physiology Novosibirsk State Medical University to identify the features of the dispersion subphase of the cardiac cycle. In the present paper we have examined the 5-minute intervals cardiointervalography (CIG) to isolate RR-, QT-, ST-ranges in healthy children and children with acute respiratory diseases (ARD) in comparison. It is known that primary school-aged children suffer at ARD 5-7 times per year. Consequently, it is one of the most relevant problems in pediatrics. It is known that the spectral indices and indices of temporal analysis of heart rate variability are highly sensitive to the degree of intoxication during immunological process. We believe that the use of subphase analysis of heart rate will allow more thoroughly evaluate responsiveness of the child organism during the course of ARD. The study involved 60 primary school-aged children (30 boys and 30 girls). In order to assess heart rhythm regulation, the record CIG was used on the "VNS-Micro" device of Neurosoft Company (Ivanovo) for 5 minutes in the supine position and 5 minutes during active orthostatic test. Subphase analysis of variance QT-interval and ST-segment was performed on the "KardioBOS" software Biokvant Company (Novosibirsk). In assessing the CIG in the supine position and in during orthostasis of children with acute respiratory diseases only RR-intervals are observed typical trend of general biological reactions through pressosensitive compensation mechanisms to lower blood pressure, but compared with healthy children the severity of the changes is different, of sick children are more pronounced indicators of heart rate regulation. But analysis CIG RR-intervals and analysis subphase ST-segment have yielded conflicting trends, which may be explained by the different nature of the intra- and extracardiac influences on regulatory mechanisms that implement the various phases of the cardiac cycle.

Keywords: acute respiratory diseases, cardiointervalography, subphase analysis, cardiac cycle

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2125 The Impact of Total Dust (LGS) and Mineral Dust (PM 10) in Cardio Vascular and Respiratory System, in Albania: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Canga Mimoza, Irene Malagnino, Giulia Malagnino, Vito Malagnino

Abstract:

Aim: This study aims at evaluating the impact of total dust (LGS) and mineral dust (PM10), in the cardio vascular and respiratory systems. Also proving that these air polluters are the cause of several diseases, such as bronchopneumonia, pneumonia, bronchitis, angina pectoris and cardiac insufficiency. Material and Method: The study is concentrated in the cities of Fier and Vlora. This is a clinic-epidemiological study conducted during the time period 2014-2019. Some of the data of LGS and PM10 were obtained from the database of the Institute of Public Health. The formula to measure the mean value of LGS and PM10 is ∆X=X (mean)-Xᵢ. Results: Based on the calculations made, we noticed that: The mean value of LGS in the city of Fieri was 227,33, while the mean value of LGS in the city of Vlora was 177,4. Whereas, the mean value of PM10 in the city of Fieri was 105.5 and the mean value of PM10 in the city of Vlore was 77.5. According to, our statistics the values of LGS were 1.2 times higher in Fier than in Vlora and the PM10 values were 1.36 times higher in Fier than in Vlora. Based on the data, in the city of Fier, the incidence of the bronchopneumonia was 56.53 sick patients/1000 inhabitants, but in Vlora, it was 22 sick patients/1000 inhabitants, so the number of the sick patients was 2.5 times higher in the city of Fieri compared with Vlora city, (P=0.001). The number of the patients with bronchitis, in the city of Fier, was 18 patients/1000 inhabitants, whereas, in Vlora, it was 9 patients/1000 inhabitants, (P=0.005). Based on the data, 8 patients/1000 inhabitants in the city of Fier, suffered from the pneumonia disease, while in Vlora city, were 4 patients/1000 inhabitants, (P=0.005). Another disease taken in consideration was angina pectoris. This study can claim that in the city of Fier, 9.5 patients/1000 inhabitants suffered from this disease, while in Vlora city, were only 4 patients /1000 inhabitants, (P=0.001). Findings of the present study proved that 3.7 patients/1000 inhabitants in the city of Fieri, had cardiac insufficiency, whereas in the city of Vlora, were 1.8 patients/1000 inhabitants, (P=0.05). Conclusions: LGS and PM10 have an influential impact on the cardio vascular and respiratory system; that’s why their levels should be kept under control. The pollution levels are 1.2 and 1.4 times higher in Fier than in Vlora; also the incidences of the diseases are 2 times higher in Fier than in Vlora. Recommendations: In order to prevent the cardio vascular and respiratory diseases, we should avoid places where pollution is higher than the norm. This can be achieved by frequenting places where the air pollution is lower, such as parks, gardens, top floors, etc.

Keywords: impact of total dust, LGS, mineral dust, PM 10, cardio vascular pathologies, respiratory disease

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2124 Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy

Abstract:

In recent decades, particulate matter (PM10) have received much attention due to its potential adverse health impact and the subsequent need to better control or regulate these pollutants. The aim of this paper is focused on study risk assessment of PM10 in four different districts (Shebikah, Masfalah, Aziziyah, Awali) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the period from 1 Ramadan 1434 AH - 27 Safar 1435 AH. samples was collected by using Low Volume Sampler (LVS Low Volume Sampler) device and filtration method for estimating the total concentration of PM10. The study indicated that the mean PM10 concentrations were 254.6 (186.1 - 343.2) µg/m3 in Shebikah, 184.9 (145.6 - 271.4) µg/m3 in Masfalah, 162.4 (92.4 - 253.8) µg/m3 in Aziziyah, and 56.0 (44.5 - 119.8) µg/m3 in Awali. These values did not exceed the permissible limits in PME (340 µg/m3 as daily average). Furthermore, health assessment is carried out using AirQ2.2.3 model to estimate the number of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. The cumulative number of cases per 100,000 were 1534 (18-3050 case), which lower than that recorded in the United States, Malaysia. The concentration response coefficient was 0.49 (95% CI 0.05 - 0.70) per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10.

Keywords: air pollution, respiratory diseases, airQ2.2.3, Makkah

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2123 Evaluation of Computed Tomographic Anatomy of Respiratory System in Caspian Pond Turtle (Mauremys caspica)

Authors: Saghar Karimi, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari Khafi, Amin Abolhasani Foroughi

Abstract:

In recent decades, keeping exotic species as pet animals has become widespread. Turtles are exotic species from chelonians, which are interested by many people. Caspian pond and European pond turtles from Emydidea family are commonly kept as pets in Iran. Presence of the shell in turtles makes achievement to a comprehensive clinical examination impossible. Respiratory system is one of the most important structures to be examined completely. Presence of the air in the respiratory system makes radiography the first modality to think of; however, image quality would be affected by the shell. Computed tomography (CT) as a radiography-based and non-invasive technique provides cross-sectional scans with little superimposition. The aim of this study was to depict normal computed tomographic anatomy of the respiratory system in Caspian Pond Turtle. Five adult Caspian pond turtle were scanned using a 16-detector CT machine. Our results showed that computed tomography is able to well illustrated different parts of respiratory system in turtle and can be used for detecting abnormalities and disorders.

Keywords: anatomy, computed tomography, respiratory system, turtle

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2122 Assessment of the Impact of Atmospheric Air, Drinking Water and Socio-Economic Indicators on the Primary Incidence of Children in Altai Krai

Authors: A. P. Pashkov

Abstract:

The number of environmental factors that adversely affect children's health is growing every year; their combination in each territory is different. The contribution of socio-economic factors to the health status of the younger generation is increasing. It is the child’s body that is most sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, responding to this with a deterioration in health. Over the past years, scientists have determined the influence of environmental factors and the incidence of children. Currently, there is a tendency to study regional characteristics of the interaction of a combination of environmental factors with the child's body. The aim of the work was to identify trends in the primary non-infectious morbidity of the children of the Altai Territory as a unique region that combines territories with different levels of environmental quality indicators, as well as to assess the effect of atmospheric air, drinking water and socio-economic indicators on the incidence of children in the region. An unfavorable tendency has been revealed in the region for incidence of such nosological groups as neoplasms, including malignant ones, diseases of the endocrine system, including obesity and thyroid disease, diseases of the circulatory system, digestive diseases, diseases of the genitourinary system, congenital anomalies, and respiratory diseases. Between some groups of diseases revealed a pattern of geographical distribution during mapping and a significant correlation. Some nosologies have a relationship with socio-economic indicators for an integrated assessment: circulatory system diseases, respiratory diseases (direct connection), endocrine system diseases, eating disorders, and metabolic disorders (feedback). The analysis of associations of the incidence of children with average annual concentrations of substances that pollute the air and drinking water showed the existence of reliable correlation in areas of critical and intense degree of environmental quality. This fact confirms that the population living in contaminated areas is subject to the negative influence of environmental factors, which immediately affects the health status of children. The results obtained indicate the need for a detailed assessment of the influence of environmental factors on the incidence of children in the regional aspect, the formation of a database, and the development of automated programs that can predict the incidence in each specific territory. This will increase the effectiveness, including economic of preventive measures.

Keywords: incidence of children, regional features, socio-economic factors, environmental factors

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2121 Causes of Death in Neuromuscular Disease Patients: 15-Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Po-Ching Chou, Wen-Chen Liang, I. Chen Chen, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yuh-Jyh Jong

Abstract:

Background:Cardiopulmonary complications seem to cause high morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD) but so far there is no domestic data reported in Taiwan. We, therefore attempted to analyze the factors to cause the death in NMD patients from our cohort. Methods:From 1998 to 2013, we retrospectively collected the information of the NMD patients treated and followed up in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Forty-two patients with NMD who expired during these fifteen years were enrolled. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and the causes of death and the associated affecting factors were analyzed. Results:Eighteen patients with NMD (mean age=13.3, SD=12.4) with complete medical record and detailed information were finally included in this study, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (n=9, 7/9: type 1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n=6), congenital muscular dystrophy (n=1), carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency (n=1) and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD)(n=1). The place of death was in ICU (n=11, 61%), emergency room (n=3, 16.6%) or home (n=4, 22.2%). For SMA type 1 patients, most of them (71.4%, 5/7) died in emergency room or home and the other two expired during an ICU admission. The causes of death included acute respiratory failure due to pneumonia (n=13, 72.2 %), ventilator failure or dislocation (n=2, 11.1%), suffocation/choking (n=2, 11.1%), and heart failure with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=1, 5.55%). Among the 15 patients died of respiratory failure or choking, 73.3% of the patients (n=11) received no ventilator care at home. 80% of the patients (n=12) received no cough assist at home. The patient died of cardiomyopathy received no medications for heart failure until the last admission. Conclusion: Respiratory failure and choking are the leading causes of death in NMD patients. Appropriate respiratory support and airway clearance play the critical role to reduce the mortality.

Keywords: neuromuscular disease, cause of death, tertiary care hospital, medical sciences

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2120 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed

Abstract:

One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: IL36, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LRT infection, A549 cells

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2119 Mental Disorders and Physical Illness in Geriatric Population

Authors: Vinay Kumar, M. Kishor, Sathyanarayana Rao Ts

Abstract:

Background: Growth of elderly people in the general population in recent years is termed as ‘greying of the world’ where there is a shift from high mortality & fertility to low mortality and fertility, resulting in an increased proportion of older people as seen in India. Improved health care promises longevity but socio-economic factors like poverty, joint families and poor services pose a psychological threat. Epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of mental disorders in geriatric population with physical illness is required for proper health planning. Methods: Sixty consecutive elderly patients aged 60 years or above of both sexes, reporting with physical illness to general outpatient registration counter of JSS Medical College and Hospital, Mysore, India, were considered for the Study. With informed consent, they were screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and were further evaluated for diagnosing mental disorders according to WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Results: Mental disorders were detected in 48.3%, predominantly depressive disorders, nicotine dependence, generalized anxiety disorder, alcohol dependence and least was dementia. Most common physical illness was cardiovascular disease followed by metabolic, respiratory and other diseases. Depressive disorders, substance dependence and dementia were more associated with cardiovascular disease compared to metabolic disease and respiratory diseases were more associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Depression and Substance use disorders among elderly population is of concern, which needs to be further studied with larger population. Psychiatric morbidity will adversely have an impact on physical illness which needs proper assessment and management. This will enhance our understanding and prioritize our planning for future.

Keywords: Geriatric, mental disorders, physical illness, psychiatry

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2118 Physiological Responses of the Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Male) X Clarias gariepinus (Female) Hybrid (Heteroclarias) Fingerlings to Different Temperature Levels under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: A. V. Ayanwale, S. M. Tsadu, S. L. Lamai, R. J. Kolo, Y. I. Auta, A. Z. Mohammed

Abstract:

A twelve weeks experiment was carried out on Heteroclarias freshwater hybrid fish fingerlings under laboratory conditions to study the effects of different temperature levels, 26.91 (control), 28.00, 30.00, 32.00°C respectively and their physiological responses to oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and opercular respiratory beats were evaluated. The oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and opercular respiratory beats were determined weekly based on standard procedures. The findings revealed that the oxygen consumption of Heteroclarias hybrid fingerlings significantly (p<0.05) increased with increase in temperature. The ammonia excretion were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all the temperature levels. The opercular respiratory beats per minutes showed similar trend in weeks 1,2,4 and 8 but indicated significantly higher (p<0.05) opercular respiratory beats (range= 117.10±2.26 at 30oC to 142.75±3.04 opercular beat at 32oC in week 8) at highest tested temperature levels. However, there was a decreasing trend in the opercular respiratory beats per minute of the controlled fingerlings. Generally, the opercular respiratory beats per minute decreased with increase in fish size. The findings of this study confirmed that increase in water temperature affects the physiology of Heteroclarias hybrid and hence for effective rearing and for profit making, it is essential for the hybrid to be cultured in the temperature range between 26.91°C (control) and 28.00°C.

Keywords: heteroclarias, hybrid, physiological responses, temperature

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2117 Molecular and Serological Diagnosis of Newcastle and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Broiler in Chicken in Fars Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammadjavad Mehrabanpour, Maryam Ranjbar Bushehri, Dorsa Mehrabanpour

Abstract:

Respiratory diseases are the most important problems in the country’s poultry industry, particularly when it comes to broiler flocks. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a species that causes poor performance in growth rate, egg production, and mortality. This pathogen causes a respiratory infection including pulmonary alveolar inflammation, and pneumonia of birds throughout the world. Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, and also, it causes considerable losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous occurrence of ORT and ND and NDV isolation by inoculation in embryonated eggs and confirmed by RT-PCR in broiler chicken flocks in Fars province. In this study, 318 blood and 85 tissue samples (brain, trachea, liver, and cecal tonsils) were collected from 15 broiler chicken farms. Survey serum antibody titers against ORT by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit performed. Evaluation of antibody titer against ND virus is performed by hemagglutination inhibition test. Virus isolation with chick embryo eggs 9-11 and RT-PCR method were carried out. A total of 318 serum samples, 135 samples (42.5%) were positive for antibodies to ORT and titer of HI antibodies against NDV in 122 serum samples (38/4%) were 7-10 (log2) and 61 serum samples (19/2%) had occurrence antibody titer against Newcastle virus and ORT. Results of the present study indicated that 20 tissue samples were positive in embryonated egg and in rapid hemagglutination (HA) test. HI test with specific ND positive serum confirmed that 6 of 20 samples. PCR confirmed that all six samples were positive and PCR products of samples indicated 535-base pair fragments in electrophrosis. Due to the great economic importance of these two diseases in the poultry industry, it is necessary to design and implement a comprehensive plan for prevention and control of these diseases.

Keywords: ELISA, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, newcastle disease, seroprevalence

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2116 Early Biological Effects in Schoolchildren Living in an Area of Salento (Italy) with High Incidence of Chronic Respiratory Diseases: The IMP.AIR. Study

Authors: Alessandra Panico, Francesco Bagordo, Tiziana Grassi, Adele Idolo, Marcello Guido, Francesca Serio, Mattia De Giorgi, Antonella De Donno

Abstract:

In the Province of Lecce (Southeastern Italy) an area with unusual high incidence of chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, was recently identified. The causes of this health emergency are still not entirely clear. In order to determine the risk profile of children living in five municipalities included in this area an epidemiological-molecular study was performed in the years 2014-2016: the IMP.AIR. (Impact of air quality on health of residents in the Municipalities of Sternatia, Galatina, Cutrofiano, Sogliano Cavour and Soleto) study. 122 children aged 6-8 years attending primary school in the study area were enrolled to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) in their buccal exfoliated cells. The samples were collected in May 2015 by rubbing the oral mucosa with a soft bristle disposable toothbrush. At the same time, a validated questionnaire was administered to parents to obtain information about health, lifestyle and eating habits of the children. In addition, information on airborne pollutants, routinely detected by the Regional Environmental Agency (ARPA Puglia) in the study area, was acquired. A multivariate analysis was performed to detect any significant association between frequency of MNs (dependent variable) and behavioral factors (independent variables). The presence of MNs was highlighted in the buccal exfoliated cells of about 42% of recruited children with a mean frequency of 0.49 MN/1000 cells, greater than in other areas of Salento. The survey on individual characteristics and lifestyles showed that one in three children was overweight and that most of them had unhealthy eating habits with frequent consumption of foods considered ‘risky’. Moreover many parents (40% of fathers and 12% of mothers) were smokers and about 20% of them admitted to smoking in the house where the children lived. Information regarding atmospheric contaminants was poor. Of the few substances routinely detected by the only one monitoring station located in the study area (PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) only ozone showed high concentrations exceeding the limits set by the legislation for 67 times in the year 2015. The study showed that the level of early biological effect markers in children was not negligible. This critical condition could be related to some individual factors and lifestyles such as overweight, unhealthy eating habits and exposure to passive smoking. At present, no relationship with airborne pollutants can be established due to the lack of information on many substances. Therefore, it would be advisable to modify incorrect behaviors and to intensify the monitoring of airborne pollutants (e.g. including detection of PM10, heavy metals, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, benzene) given the epidemiology of chronic respiratory diseases registered in this area.

Keywords: chronic respiratory diseases, environmental pollution, lifestyle, micronuclei

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2115 Impact of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Respiratory Parameters in Interstitial Lung Disease Patients: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study

Authors: Vivek Ku, A. K. Janmeja, D. Aggarwal, R. Gupta

Abstract:

Purpose: Pulmonary rehabilitation plays a key role in management of chronic lung diseases. However, pulmonary rehabilitation is an underused modality in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). This is because limited information is available in literature and no data is available from India on this issue so far. The study was carried out to evaluate the role of pulmonary rehabilitation on respiratory parameters in ILD patients. Methods: The present study was a prospective randomized non-blind case control study. Total of 40 ILD patients were randomized into 2 groups of 20 patients each viz ‘pulmonary rehabilitation group’ and ‘control group’. Pulmonary rehabilitation group underwent 8 weeks pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) along with medical management as per guidelines and the control group was advised only medical management. Results: Mean age in case group was 59.15 ± 10.39 years and in control group was 62.10 ± 14.54 years. The case and the control groups were matched for age and sex. Mean MRC grading at the end of 8 weeks showed significant improvement in the case group as compared to control group (p= 0.011 vs p = 0.655). Similarly, mean St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score also showed significant improvement in pulmonary rehabilitation group at the end of the study (p= 0.001 vs p= 0.492). However, FEV1 and FVC had no significant change in the case and control group. Similarly, blood gases also did not show any significant difference in the group. Conclusion: Pulmonary rehabilitation improves breathlessness and thereby improves quality of life in the patients suffering from ILD. However, the pulmonary function values and blood gases are unaffected by pulmonary rehabilitation. Clinical Implications: Further large scale multicentre study is needed to ascertain the association.

Keywords: ILD, pulmonary rehabilitation, quality of life, pulmonary functions

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2114 The Population Death Model and Influencing Factors from the Data of The "Sixth Census": Zhangwan District Case Study

Authors: Zhou Shangcheng, Yi Sicen

Abstract:

Objective: To understand the mortality patterns of Zhangwan District in 2010 and provide the basis for the development of scientific and rational health policy. Methods: Data are collected from the Sixth Census of Zhangwan District and disease surveillance system. The statistical analysis include death difference between age, gender, region and time and the related factors. Methods developed for the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study by the World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO) were adapted and applied to Zhangwan District population health data. DALY rate per 1,000 was calculated for varied causes of death. SPSS 16 is used by statistic analysis. Results: From the data of death population of Zhangwan District we know the crude mortality rate was 6.03 ‰. There are significant differences of mortality rate in male and female population which was respectively 7.37 ‰ and 4.68 ‰. 0 age group population life expectancy in Zhangwan District in 2010 was 78.40 years old(Male 75.93, Female 81.03). The five leading causes of YLL in descending order were: cardiovascular diseases(42.63DALY/1000), malignant neoplasm (23.73DALY/1000), unintentional injuries (5.84DALY/1000), Respiratory diseases(5.43 DALY/1000), Respiratory infections (2.44DALY/1000). In addition, there are strong relation between the marital status , educational level and mortality in some to a certain extend. Conclusion Zhangwan District, as city level, is at lower mortality levels. The mortality of the total population of Zhangwan District has a downward trend and life expectancy is rising.

Keywords: sixth census, Zhangwan district, death level differences, influencing factors, cause of death

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2113 Air Pollution and Respiratory-Related Restricted Activity Days in Tunisia

Authors: Mokhtar Kouki Inès Rekik

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the assessment of the air pollution and morbidity relationship in Tunisia. Air pollution is measured by ozone air concentration and the morbidity is measured by the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days during the 2-week period prior to the interview. Socioeconomic data are also collected in order to adjust for any confounding covariates. Our sample is composed by 407 Tunisian respondents; 44.7% are women, the average age is 35.2, near 69% are living in a house built after the 1980, and 27.8% have reported at least one day of respiratory-related restricted activity. The model consists on the regression of the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days on the air quality measure and the socioeconomic covariates. In order to correct for zero-inflation and heterogeneity, we estimate several models (Poisson, Negative binomial, Zero inflated Poisson, Poisson hurdle, Negative binomial hurdle and finite mixture Poisson models). Bootstrapping and post-stratification techniques are used in order to correct for any sample bias. According to the Akaike information criteria, the hurdle negative binomial model has the greatest goodness of fit. The main result indicates that, after adjusting for socioeconomic data, the ozone concentration increases the probability of positive number of restricted activity days.

Keywords: bootstrapping, hurdle negbin model, overdispersion, ozone concentration, respiratory-related restricted activity days

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2112 Relative Importance of Contact Constructs to Acute Respiratory Illness in General Population in Hong Kong

Authors: Kin On Kwok, Vivian Wei, Benjamin Cowling, Steven Riley, Jonathan Read

Abstract:

Background: The role of social contact behavior measured in different contact constructs in the transmission of respiratory pathogens with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remains unclear. We, therefore, aim to depict the individual pattern of ARI in the community and investigate the association between different contact dimensions and ARI in Hong Kong. Methods: Between June 2013 and September 2013, 620 subjects participated in the last two waves of recruitment of the population based longitudinal phone social contact survey. Some of the subjects in this study are from the same household. They are also provided with the symptom diaries to self-report any acute respiratory illness related symptoms between the two days of phone recruitment. Data from 491 individuals who were not infected on the day of phone recruitment and returned the symptom diaries after the last phone recruitment were used for analysis. Results: After adjusting different follow-up periods among individuals, the overall incidence rate of ARI was 1.77 per 100 person-weeks. Over 75% ARI episodes involve running nose, cough, sore throat, which are followed by headache (55%), malagia (35%) and fever (18%). Using a generalized estimating equation framework accounting for the cluster effect of subjects living in the same household, we showed that both daily number of locations visited with contacts and the number of contacts, explained the ARI incidence rate better than only one single contact construct. Conclusion: Our result suggests that it is the intertwining property of contact quantity (number of contacts) and contact intensity (ratio of subject-to-contact) that governs the infection risk by a collective set of respiratory pathogens. Our results provide empirical evidence that multiple contact constructs should be incorporated in the mathematical transmission models to feature a more realistic dynamics of respiratory disease.

Keywords: acute respiratory illness, longitudinal study, social contact, symptom diaries

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2111 Study for a Non-Invasive Method of Respiratory Resistance Measurement among Patients with Airways Obstructions

Authors: Aicha Laouani, Pascale Calabrese, Sonia Rouatbi, Saad Saguem

Abstract:

Distances between signals (S d) and between asters (A d) calculated from respiratory inductive plethysmography signals has been used in order to evaluation airways resistances (Raw) during reversibility test among 28 subject with airways obstructions. Correlations studies between these distances and Raw measured by body plethysmography (BP) showed that these RIP variables could be potentially used in airway resistance assessment in patients with airway obstruction. Significant correlation was found between ΔAd and airway resistance changes (ΔRaw) (r= 0.407, p=0.03) and not between ΔSd and ΔRaw. This assumption was supported by the high correlations found when relating the average of ΔS and of ΔA calculated on successive intervals of ΔRaw, with the ΔRaw averages calculated for each interval (r= 0.892, p= 0.006 and r= 0.857, p=0.006 respectively).

Keywords: airways obstruction, distances, respiratory inductive plethysmography, reversibility test

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2110 Airway Resistance Evaluation by Respiratory İnductive Plethysmography in Subjects with Airway Obstructions

Authors: Aicha Laouani, Sonia Rouatbi, Saad Saguem, Gila Benchetrit, Pascale calabrese

Abstract:

A new approach based on respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) signal analysis has been used for bronchoconstriction changes evaluation in 50 healthy controls and in 44 adults with moderate bronchial obstruction treated with a bronchodilatation protocol. Thoracic and abdominal motions were recorded ( 5 min) by RIP. For each recording the thoracoabdominal signals were analysed and a mean distance (D) was calculated. Airway resistance (Raw) and spirometric data were measured with a body plethysmograph. The results showed that both D and Raw were higher in subjects compared to the healthy group. Significant decreases of D and Raw were also observed after bronchodilatation in the obstructive group. There was also a positive and a significant correlation between D and Raw in subjects before and after bronchodilatation. This D calculated from RIP Signals could be used as a non invasive tool for continuous monitoring of bronchoconstriction changes.

Keywords: airway resistance, bronchoconstriction, thorax, respiratory inductive plethysmography

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2109 Mathematical Modelling of Human Cardiovascular-Respiratory System Response to Exercise in Rwanda

Authors: Jean Marie Ntaganda, Froduald Minani, Wellars Banzi, Lydie Mpinganzima, Japhet Niyobuhungiro, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Vincent Dusabejambo, Immaculate Kambutse

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a nonlinear dynamic model for the interactive mechanism of the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The model is designed and analyzed for human during physical exercises. In order to verify the adequacy of the designed model, data collected in Rwanda are used for validation. We have simulated the impact of heart rate and alveolar ventilation as controls of cardiovascular and respiratory system respectively to steady state response of the main cardiovascular hemodynamic quantities i.e., systemic arterial and venous blood pressures, arterial oxygen partial pressure and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, to the stabilised values of controls. We used data collected in Rwanda for both male and female during physical activities. We obtained a good agreement with physiological data in the literature. The model may represent an important tool to improve the understanding of exercise physiology.

Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular/respiratory, hemodynamic quantities, numerical simulation, physical activity, sportsmen in Rwanda, system

Procedia PDF Downloads 143