Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: centrifuge

28 Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal

Authors: Monapat Sasingha, Suttisak Soralump

Abstract:

This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.

Keywords: centrifuge test, slope failure, embankment, stability of slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
27 Centrifuge Modeling of Monopiles Subjected to Lateral Monotonic Loading

Authors: H. R. Khodaei, M. Moradi, A. H. Tajik

Abstract:

The type of foundation commonly used today for berthing dolphins is a set of tubular steel piles with large diameters, which are known as monopiles. The design of these monopiles is based on the theories related with laterally loaded piles. One of the most common methods to analyze and design the piles subjected to lateral loads is the p-y curves. In the present study, centrifuge tests are conducted in order to obtain the p-y curves. Series of tests were designed in order to investigate the scaling laws in the centrifuge for monotonic loading. Also, two important parameters, the embedded depth L of the pile in the soil and free length e of the pile, as well as their ratios were studied via five experimental tests. Finally, the p-y curves of API are presented to be compared with the curves obtained from the tests so that the differences could be demonstrated. The results show that the p-y curves proposed by API highly overestimate the lateral load bearing capacity. It suggests that these curves need correction and modification for each site as the soil conditions change.

Keywords: centrifuge modeling, monopile, lateral loading, p-y curves

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
26 Centrifuge Testing to Determine the Effect of Temperature on the Adhesion Strength of Ice

Authors: Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi

Abstract:

The adhesion of glaze ice on power infrastructure, ships and aerofoils cause monetary and structural damage. Here we investigate the influence of temperature as an important parameter affecting adhesion strength of ice. Two terms are defined to investigate this: 'freezing temperature', the temperature at which glaze ice forms; and 'ambient temperature', the temperature of the surrounding during the test. Using three metal surfaces, the adhesion strength of ice has been calculated as a value of shear stress at the point of detachment on a spinning centrifuge. Findings show that the ambient temperature has a greater influence than the freezing temperature on the adhesion strength of ice. This is because there exists an amorphous liquid-like layer at the ice-surface interface, whose bond with the surface increases in strength at lower ambient temperatures when the substrate conducts heat much faster than the ice and acts as a heat sink. The results will help us to measure the actual adhesion strength of ice to metal surfaces based on data from weather monitoring devices. Future tests envisaged focus on thermally non-conducting substrates and their influence on adhesion strength.

Keywords: ice adhesion, centrifuge, glaze ice, freezing temperature, ambient temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
25 Centrifuge Modelling Approach on Sysmic Loading Analysis of Clay: A Geotechnical Study

Authors: Anthony Quansah, Tresor Ntaryamira, Shula Mushota

Abstract:

Models for geotechnical centrifuge testing are usually made from re-formed soil, allowing for comparisons with naturally occurring soil deposits. However, there is a fundamental omission in this process because the natural soil is deposited in layers creating a unique structure. Nonlinear dynamics of clay material deposit is an essential part of changing the attributes of ground movements when subjected to solid seismic loading, particularly when diverse intensification conduct of speeding up and relocation are considered. The paper portrays a review of axis shaking table tests and numerical recreations to explore the offshore clay deposits subjected to seismic loadings. These perceptions are accurately reenacted by DEEPSOIL with appropriate soil models and parameters reviewed from noteworthy centrifuge modeling researches. At that point, precise 1-D site reaction investigations are performed on both time and recurrence spaces. The outcomes uncover that for profound delicate clay is subjected to expansive quakes, noteworthy increasing speed lessening may happen close to the highest point of store because of soil nonlinearity and even neighborhood shear disappointment; nonetheless, huge enhancement of removal at low frequencies are normal in any case the forces of base movements, which proposes that for dislodging touchy seaward establishments and structures, such intensified low-recurrence relocation reaction will assume an essential part in seismic outline. This research shows centrifuge as a tool for creating a layered sample important for modelling true soil behaviour (such as permeability) which is not identical in all directions. Currently, there are limited methods for creating layered soil samples.

Keywords: seismic analysis, layered modeling, terotechnology, finite element modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
24 Dynamic Test and Numerical Analysis of Twin Tunnel

Authors: Changwon Kwak, Innjoon Park, Dongin Jang

Abstract:

Seismic load affects the behavior of underground structure like tunnel broadly. Seismic soil-structure interaction can play an important role in the dynamic behavior of tunnel. In this research, twin tunnel with flexible joint was physically modeled and the dynamic centrifuge test was performed to investigate seismic behavior of twin tunnel. Seismic waves have different frequency were exerted and the characteristics of response were obtained from the test. Test results demonstrated the amplification of peak acceleration in the longitudinal direction in seismic waves. The effect of the flexible joint was also verified. Additionally, 3-dimensional finite difference dynamic analysis was conducted and the analysis results exhibited good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: 3-dimensional finite difference dynamic analysis, dynamic centrifuge test, flexible joint, seismic soil-structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
23 Construction of a Radial Centrifuge Pump for Agricultural Applications

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

With the evolution of the productive processes, demonstrated mainly by the presence every time larger of the irrigation and to crescent it disputes for water, accompanied by your shortage (distances every time larger), there is need to project facilities that can provide supply of water with larger speed and efficiency. Being like this, the presence of hydraulic pumps in an irrigation project or water supply for small communities, is of highest importance, and the knowledge of the fundamental parts to your good operation it deserves the due attention and care. Hydraulic pumps are machines of flow, whose function is to supply energy for the water, in order to press down her, through the conversion of mechanical energy of your originating from rotor a motor the combustion or of an electric motor. This way, the hydraulic pumps are had as generating hydraulic machines. The objective of this work was to project and to build a radial centrifugal pump for agricultural application in small communities.

Keywords: centrifuge pump, hydraulic energy, agricultural applications, irrigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
22 Seismic Behavior of Suction Caisson Foundations

Authors: Mohsen Saleh Asheghabadi, Alireza Jafari Jebeli

Abstract:

Increasing population growth requires more sustainable development of energy. This non-contaminated energy has an inexhaustible energy source. One of the vital parameters in such structures is the choice of foundation type. Suction caissons are now used extensively worldwide for offshore wind turbine. Considering the presence of a number of offshore wind farms in earthquake areas, the study of the seismic behavior of suction caisson is necessary for better design. In this paper, the results obtained from three suction caisson models with different diameter (D) and skirt length (L) in saturated sand were compared with centrifuge test results. All models are analyzed using 3D finite element (FE) method taking account of elasto-plastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model for soil which is available in the ABAQUS library. The earthquake load applied to the base of models with a maximum acceleration of 0.65g. The results showed that numerical method is in relative good agreement with centrifuge results. The settlement and rotation of foundation decrease by increasing the skirt length and foundation diameter. The sand soil outside the caisson is prone to liquefaction due to its low confinement.

Keywords: liquefaction, suction caisson foundation, offshore wind turbine, numerical analysis, seismic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
21 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh

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This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: two-phase, three-phase, olive mill, olive oil, waste treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation, waste plastic bottles

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
20 A Discrete Element Method Centrifuge Model of Monopile under Cyclic Lateral Loads

Authors: Nuo Duan, Yi Pik Cheng

Abstract:

This paper presents the data of a series of two-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of a large-diameter rigid monopile subjected to cyclic loading under a high gravitational force. At present, monopile foundations are widely used to support the tall and heavy wind turbines, which are also subjected to significant from wind and wave actions. A safe design must address issues such as rotations and changes in soil stiffness subject to these loadings conditions. Design guidance on the issue is limited, so are the availability of laboratory and field test data. The interpretation of these results in sand, such as the relation between loading and displacement, relies mainly on empirical correlations to pile properties. Regarding numerical models, most data from Finite Element Method (FEM) can be found. They are not comprehensive, and most of the FEM results are sensitive to input parameters. The micro scale behaviour could change the mechanism of the soil-structure interaction. A DEM model was used in this paper to study the cyclic lateral loads behaviour. A non-dimensional framework is presented and applied to interpret the simulation results. The DEM data compares well with various set of published experimental centrifuge model test data in terms of lateral deflection. The accumulated permanent pile lateral displacements induced by the cyclic lateral loads were found to be dependent on the characteristics of the applied cyclic load, such as the extent of the loading magnitudes and directions.

Keywords: cyclic loading, DEM, numerical modelling, sands

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
19 An Investigation into Why Liquefaction Charts Work: A Necessary Step toward Integrating the States of Art and Practice

Authors: Tarek Abdoun, Ricardo Dobry

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This paper is a systematic effort to clarify why field liquefaction charts based on Seed and Idriss’ Simplified Procedure work so well. This is a necessary step toward integrating the states of the art (SOA) and practice (SOP) for evaluating liquefaction and its effects. The SOA relies mostly on laboratory measurements and correlations with void ratio and relative density of the sand. The SOP is based on field measurements of penetration resistance and shear wave velocity coupled with empirical or semi-empirical correlations. This gap slows down further progress in both SOP and SOA. The paper accomplishes its objective through: a literature review of relevant aspects of the SOA including factors influencing threshold shear strain and pore pressure buildup during cyclic strain-controlled tests; a discussion of factors influencing field penetration resistance and shear wave velocity; and a discussion of the meaning of the curves in the liquefaction charts separating liquefaction from no liquefaction, helped by recent full-scale and centrifuge results. It is concluded that the charts are curves of constant cyclic strain at the lower end (Vs1 < 160 m/s), with this strain being about 0.03 to 0.05% for earthquake magnitude, Mw ≈ 7. It is also concluded, in a more speculative way, that the curves at the upper end probably correspond to a variable increasing cyclic strain and Ko, with this upper end controlled by over consolidated and preshaken sands, and with cyclic strains needed to cause liquefaction being as high as 0.1 to 0.3%. These conclusions are validated by application to case histories corresponding to Mw ≈ 7, mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area of California during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Keywords: permeability, lateral spreading, liquefaction, centrifuge modeling, shear wave velocity charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
18 Ultrasensitive Hepatitis B Virus Detection in Blood Using Nano-Porous Silicon Oxide: Towards POC Diagnostics

Authors: N. Das, N. Samanta, L. Pandey, C. Roy Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Early diagnosis of infection like Hep-B virus in blood is important for low cost medical treatment. For this purpose, it is desirable to develop a point of care device which should be able to detect trace quantities of the target molecule in blood. In this paper, we report a nanoporous silicon oxide sensor which is capable of detecting down to 1fM concentration of Hep-B surface antigen in blood without the requirement of any centrifuge or pre-concentration. This has been made possible by the presence of resonant peak in the sensitivity characteristics. This peak is observed to be dependent only on the concentration of the specific antigen and not on the interfering species in blood serum. The occurrence of opposite impedance change within the pores and at the bottom of the pore is responsible for this effect. An electronic interface has also been designed to provide a display of the virus concentration.

Keywords: impedance spectroscopy, ultrasensitive detection in blood, peak frequency, electronic interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
17 Numerical Modeling to Validate Theoretical Models of Toppling Failure in Rock Slopes

Authors: Hooman Dabirmanesh, Attila M. Zsaki

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Traditionally, rock slope stability is carried out using limit equilibrium analysis when investigating toppling failure. In these equilibrium methods, internal forces exerted between columns are not clearly defined, and to the authors’ best knowledge, there is no consensus in literature with respect to the results of analysis. A discrete element method-based numerical model was developed and applied to simulate the behavior of rock layers subjected to toppling failure. Based on this calibrated numerical model, a study of the location and distribution of internal forces that result in equilibrium was carried out. The sum of side forces was applied at a point on a block which properly represents the force to determine the inter-column force distribution. In terms of the side force distribution coefficient, the result was compared to those obtained from laboratory centrifuge tests. The results of the simulation show the suitable criteria to select the correct position for the internal exerted force between rock layers. In addition, the numerical method demonstrates how a theoretical method could be reliable by considering the interaction between the rock layers.

Keywords: contact bond, discrete element, force distribution, limit equilibrium, tensile stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
16 Numerical Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Caissons Subjected to Inclined Loads

Authors: Hooman Dabirmanesh, Mahmoud Ghazavi, Kazem Barkhordari

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A finite element modeling for determination of the bearing capacity of caissons subjected to inclined loads is presented in this paper. The model investigates the uplift capacity of the caisson with varying cross sectional area. To this aim, the behavior of the soil is assumed to be elasto-plastic, and its failure is controlled by Modified Cam-Clay failure criterion. The simulation takes into account the couple analysis. The approach is verified using available data from other research work especially centrifuge data. Parametric studies are subsequently performed to investigate the effect of contributing parameters such as aspect ratio of the caisson, the loading rate, the loading direction angle, and points where the external load is applied. In addition, the influence of the caisson geometry is taken into account. The results show the bearing capacity of the caisson increases with increasing the taper angle. Hence, the pullout capacity will increase using the same material. In addition, the bearing capacity of caissons strongly depends on the suction that is generated at tip and in sealed surface on top of caisson. Other results concerning the influencing factors will be presented.

Keywords: aspect ratio, finite element method, inclined load, modified Cam clay, taper angle, undrained condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
15 Influence of P-Y Curves on Buckling Capacity of Pile Foundation

Authors: Praveen Huded, Suresh Dash

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Pile foundations are one of the most preferred deep foundation system for high rise or heavily loaded structures. In many instances, the failure of the pile founded structures in liquefiable soils had been observed even in many recent earthquakes. Recent centrifuge and shake table experiments on two layered soil system have credibly shown that failure of pile foundation can occur because of buckling, as the pile behaves as an unsupported slender structural element once the surrounding soil liquefies. However the buckling capacity depends on largely on the depth of soil liquefied and its residual strength. Hence it is essential to check the pile against the possible buckling failure. Beam on non-linear Winkler Foundation is one of the efficient method to model the pile-soil behavior in liquefiable soil. The pile-soil interaction is modelled through p-y springs, different author have proposed different types of p-y curves for the liquefiable soil. In the present paper the influence two such p-y curves on the buckling capacity of pile foundation is studied considering initial geometric and non-linear behavior of pile foundation. The proposed method is validated against experimental results. Significant difference in the buckling capacity is observed for the two p-y curves used in the analysis. A parametric study is conducted to understand the influence of pile diameter, pile flexural rigidity, different initial geometric imperfections, and different soil relative densities on buckling capacity of pile foundation.

Keywords: Pile foundation , Liquefaction, Buckling load, non-linear py curve, Opensees

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14 Removal of Heavy Metals Pb, Zn and Cu from Sludge Waste of Paper Industries Using Biosurfactant

Authors: Nurul Hidayati

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Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as metals. Sludge waste of paper industries as toxic and hazardous material from specific source contains Pb, Zn, and Cu metal from waste soluble ink. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Soil washing is among the methods available to remove heavy metal from sediments. The purpose of this research is to study effectiveness of biosurfactant with concentration = CMC for the removal of heavy metals, lead, zinc and copper in batch washing test under four different biosurfactant production by microbial origin. Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3K, Acinetobacter sp, and Actinobacillus sp was grown on mineral salt medium that had been already added with 2% concentration of molasses that it is a low cost application. The samples were kept in a shaker 120 rpm at room temperature for 3 days. Supernatants and sediments of sludge were separated by using a centrifuge and samples from supernatants were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest removal of Pb was up to 14,04% by Acinetobacter sp. Biosurfactant of Pseudomonas putida T1(8) have the highest removal for Zn and Cu up to 6,5% and 2,01% respectively. Biosurfactants have a role for removal process of the metals, including wetting, contact of biosurfactant to the surface of the sediments and detachment of the metals from the sediment. Biosurfactant has proven its ability as a washing agent in heavy metals removal from sediments, but more research is needed to optimize the process of removal heavy metals.

Keywords: biosurfactant, removal of heavy metals, sludge waste, paper industries

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
13 Estimation of the Length and Location of Ground Surface Deformation Caused by the Reverse Faulting

Authors: Nader Khalafian, Mohsen Ghaderi

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Field observations have revealed many examples of structures which were damaged due to ground surface deformation caused by the faulting phenomena. In this paper some efforts were made in order to estimate the length and location of the ground surface where large displacements were created due to the reverse faulting. This research has conducted in two steps; (1) in the first step, a 2D explicit finite element model were developed using ABAQUS software. A subroutine for Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion with strain softening model was developed by the authors in order to properly model the stress strain behavior of the soil in the fault rapture zone. The results of the numerical analysis were verified with the results of available centrifuge experiments. Reasonable coincidence was found between the numerical and experimental data. (2) In the second step, the effects of the fault dip angle (δ), depth of soil layer (H), dilation and friction angle of sand (ψ and φ) and the amount of fault offset (d) on the soil surface displacement and fault rupture path were investigated. An artificial neural network-based model (ANN), as a powerful prediction tool, was developed to generate a general model for predicting faulting characteristics. A properly sized database was created to train and test network. It was found that the length and location of the zone of displaced ground surface can be accurately estimated using the proposed model.

Keywords: reverse faulting, surface deformation, numerical, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
12 The Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller)

Authors: R. A. Akande, M. L. Mnisi

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Introduction: Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) flowers are carried in a large candelabra-like flower-head. Aloe barbadensis miller has been known as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of many diseases and sicknesses mainly for skin conditions such as sunburns, cold sores and frostbite. It is also used as a fresh food preservative. The main objective of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of Aloe barbadensis miller. Methodology: The plant material (3g) was separately extracted with 30 mL of solvent with varying polarities (methanol and ethyl acetate)(technical grade, Merck) in 50ml polyester centrifuge tubes. The tubes was be shaken for 30 minutes on a linear shaker and left over night. The supernatant was filtered using a Whitman No. 1 filter paper before being transferred into pre-weighed glass containers. The solvent was allowed to evaporate under a fan in a room to quantify extraction efficacy. The, tin layer chromatography(TLC) plates were prepared and Pasteur pipette was used for spotting each extractant (methanol and ethyl acetate) on the TLC plates and the plate was developed in saturated TLC tank .and dipped in vanillin sulphuric acid mixture and heated at 110 to detect separate compound .and dipped in DDPH in methanol to detect antioxidant. Expected contribution to knowledge: It was observed that different compounds which interact differently with different solvent such as methanol, ethyl acetate having difference polarities were observed. The yellow spots also observed from the plate dipped in DDPH indicate that Aloe barbadensis miller has antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Aloe barbadensis miller, tin layer chromatography, DDPH

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
11 Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading

Authors: Pavan K. Emani, Shashank Kothari, V. S. Phanikanth

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The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.

Keywords: collapse load analysis, inelastic buckling, liquefaction, pile group

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
10 Flocculation and Settling Rate Studies of Clean Coal Fines at Different Flocculants Dosage, pH Values, Bulk Density and Particle Size

Authors: Patel Himeshkumar Ashokbhai, Suchit Sharma, Arvind Kumar Garg

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The results obtained from settling test of coal fines are used as an important tool to select the dewatering equipment such as thickeners, centrifuges and filters. Coal being hydrophobic in nature does not easily settle when mixed with water. Coal slurry that takes longer time to release water is highly undesirable because it poses additional challenge during sedimentation, centrifuge and filtration. If filter cake has higher than permitted moisture content then it not only creates handling problems but inflated freight costs and reduction in input and productivity for coke oven charges. It is to be noted that coal fines drastically increase moisture percentage in filter cake hence are to be minimized. To increase settling rate of coal fines in slurry chemical substances called flocculants or coagulants are added that cause coal particles to flocculate or coalesce into larger particles. These larger particles settle at faster rate and have higher settling velocity. Other important factors affecting settling rate are flocculent dosage, slurry or pulp density and particle size. Hence in this paper we tried to study the settling characteristic of clean coal fines by varying one of the four factors namely 1. Flocculant Dosage (acryl-amide) 2. pH of the water 3. Bulk density 4. Particle size of clean coal fines in settling experiment and drew important conclusions. Result of this paper will be much useful not only for coal beneficiation plant design but also for cost reduction of coke production facilities.

Keywords: bulk density, coal fines, flocculants, flocculation, settling velocity, pH

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9 Carbon, Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Macro/Mesoporous Monoliths with High Visible Light Absorption for Photocatalytic Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Paolo Boscaro, Vasile Hulea, François Fajula, Francis Luck, Anne Galarneau

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TiO2 based monoliths with hierarchical macropores and mesopores have been synthesized following a novel one pot sol-gel synthesis method. Taking advantage of spinodal separation that occurs between titanium isopropoxide and an acidic solution in presence of polyethylene oxide polymer, monoliths with homogeneous interconnected macropres of 3 μm in diameter and mesopores of ca. 6 nm (surface area 150 m2/g) are obtained. Furthermore, these monoliths present some carbon and nitrogen (as shown by XPS and elemental analysis), which considerably reduce titanium oxide energy gap and enable light to be absorbed up to 700 nm wavelength. XRD shows that anatase is the dominant phase with a small amount of brookite. Enhanced light absorption and high porosity of the monoliths are responsible for a remarkable photocatalytic activity. Wastewater treatment has been performed in closed reactor under sunlight using orange G dye as target molecule. Glass reactors guarantee that most of UV radiations (to almost 300 nm) of solar spectrum are excluded. TiO2 nanoparticles P25 (usually used in photocatalysis under UV) and un-doped TiO2 monoliths with similar porosity were used as comparison. C,N-doped TiO2 monolith allowed a complete colorant degradation in less than 1 hour, whereas 10 h are necessary for 40% colorant degradation with P25 and un-doped monolith. Experiment performed in the dark shows that only 3% of molecules have been adsorbed in the C,N-doped TiO2 monolith within 1 hour. The much higher efficiency of C,N-doped TiO2 monolith in comparison to P25 and un-doped monolith, proves that doping TiO2 is an essential issue and that nitrogen and carbon are effective dopants. Monoliths offer multiples advantages in respect to nanometric powders: sample can be easily removed from batch (no needs to filter or to centrifuge). Moreover flow reactions can be set up with cylindrical or flat monoliths by simple sheathing or by locking them with O-rings.

Keywords: C-N doped, sunlight photocatalytic activity, TiO2 monolith, visible absorbance

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
8 Effect of Oil Viscosity and Brine Salinity/Viscosity on Water/Oil Relative Permeability and Residual Saturations

Authors: Sami Aboujafar

Abstract:

Oil recovery in petroleum reservoirs is greatly affected by fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. These interactions directly control rock wettability, capillary pressure and relative permeability curves. Laboratory core-floods and centrifuge experiments were conducted on sandstone and carbonate cores to study the effect of low and high brine salinity and viscosity and oil viscosity on residual saturations and relative permeability. Drainage and imbibition relative permeability in two phase system were measured, refined lab oils with different viscosities, heavy and light, and several brine salinities were used. Sensitivity analysis with different values for the salinity and viscosity of the fluids,, oil and water, were done to investigate the effect of these properties on water/oil relative permeability, residual oil saturation and oil recovery. Experiments were conducted on core material from viscous/heavy and light oil fields. History matching core flood simulator was used to study how the relative permeability curves and end point saturations were affected by different fluid properties using several correlations. Results were compared with field data and literature data. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the oil viscosity and/or brine salinity and residual oil saturation and water relative permeability end point. Increasing oil viscosity reduces the [email protected] and increases Sor. The remaining oil saturation from laboratory measurements might be too high due to experimental procedures, capillary end effect and early termination of the experiment, especially when using heavy/viscous oil. Similarly the [email protected] may be too low. The effect of wettability on the observed results is also discussed. A consistent relationship has been drawn between the fluid parameters, water/oil relative permeability and residual saturations, and a descriptor may be derived to define different flow behaviors. The results of this work will have application to producing fields and the methodologies developed could have wider application to sandstone and carbonate reservoirs worldwide.

Keywords: history matching core flood simulator, oil recovery, relative permeability, residual saturations

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7 Embolism: How Changes in Xylem Sap Surface Tension Affect the Resistance against Hydraulic Failure

Authors: Adriano Losso, Birgit Dämon, Stefan Mayr

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In vascular plants, water flows from roots to leaves in a metastable state, and even a small perturbation of the system can lead a sudden transition from the liquid to the vapor phase, resulting in xylem embolism (cavitation). Xylem embolism, induced by drought stress and/or freezing stress is caused by the aspiration of gaseous bubbles into xylem conduits from adjacent gas-filled compartments through pit membrane pores (‘air seeding’). At water potentials less negative than the threshold for air seeding, the surface tension (γ) stabilizes the air-water interface and thus prevents air from passing the pit pores. This hold is probably also true for conifers, where this effect occurs at the edge of the sealed torus. Accordingly, it was experimentally demonstrated that γ influences air seeding, but information on the relevance of this effect under field conditions is missing. In this study, we analyzed seasonal changes in γ of the xylem sap in two conifers growing at the alpine timberline (Picea abies and Pinus mugo). In addition, cut branches were perfused (40 min perfusion at 0.004 MPa) with different γ solutions (i.e. distilled and degassed water, 2, 5 and 15% (v/v) ethanol-water solution corresponding to a γ of 74, 65, 55 and 45 mN m-1, respectively) and their vulnerability to drought-induced embolism analyzed via the centrifuge technique (Cavitron). In both species, xylem sap γ changed considerably (ca. 53-67 and ca. 50-68 mN m-1 in P. abies and P. cembra, respectively) over the season. Branches perfused with low γ solutions showed reduced resistance against drought-induced embolism in both species. A significant linear relationship (P < 0.001) between P12, P50 and P88 (i.e. water potential at 12, 50 and 88% of the loss of conductivity) and xylem sap γ was found. Based on this correlation, a variation in P50 between -3.10 and -3.83 MPa (P. abies) and between -3.21 and -4.11 MPa (P. mugo) over the season could be estimated. Results demonstrate that changes in γ of the xylem sap can considerably influence a tree´s resistance to drought-induced embolism. They indicate that vulnerability analyses, normally conducted at a γ near that of pure water, might often underestimate vulnerabilities under field conditions. For studied timberline conifers, seasonal changes in γ might be especially relevant in winter, when frost drought and freezing stress can lead to an excessive embolism.

Keywords: conifers, Picea abies, Pinus mugo, timberline

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6 Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Production from Nitritation/Denitritation: Treatment of Centrate from Pig Manure Co-Digestion as a Model

Authors: Lai Peng, Cristina Pintucci, Dries Seuntjens, José Carvajal-Arroyo, Siegfried Vlaeminck

Abstract:

Economic incentives drive the implementation of short-cut nitrogen removal processes such as nitritation/denitritation (Nit/DNit) to manage nitrogen in waste streams devoid of biodegradable organic carbon. However, as any biological nitrogen removal process, the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) could be emitted from Nit/DNit. Challenges remain in understanding the fundamental mechanisms and development of engineered mitigation strategies for N2O production. To provide answers, this work focuses on manure as a model, the biggest wasted nitrogen mass flow through our economies. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR; 4.5 L) was used treating the centrate (centrifuge supernatant; 2.0 ± 0.11 g N/L of ammonium) from an anaerobic digester processing mainly pig manure, supplemented with a co-substrate. Glycerin was used as external carbon source, a by-product of vegetable oil. Out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was targeted using a combination of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (down to 0.5 mg O2/L), high temperature (35ºC) and relatively high free ammonia (FA) (initially 10 mg NH3-N/L). After reaching steady state, the process was able to remove 100% of ammonium with minimum nitrite and nitrate in the effluent, at a reasonably high nitrogen loading rate (0.4 g N/L/d). Substantial N2O emissions (over 15% of the nitrogen loading) were observed at the baseline operational condition, which were even increased under nitrite accumulation and a low organic carbon to nitrogen ratio. Yet, higher DO (~2.2 mg O2/L) lowered aerobic N2O emissions and weakened the dependency of N2O on nitrite concentration, suggesting a shift of N2O production pathway at elevated DO levels. Limiting the greenhouse gas emissions (environmental protection) from such a system could be substantially minimized by increasing the external carbon dosage (a cost factor), but also through the implementation of an intermittent aeration and feeding strategy. Promising steps forward have been presented in this abstract, yet at the conference the insights of ongoing experiments will also be shared.

Keywords: mitigation, nitrous oxide, nitritation/denitritation, pig manure

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5 Nanoemulsion Formulation of Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis and Its Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Rachmat Mauludin, Dita Sasri Primaviri, Irda Fidrianny

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Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical, prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Previous study showed that 70% ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity. Since EEP has very small solubility in water, the extract was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). Nanoemulsion is chosen as cosmetic dosage forms according to its properties namely to decrease the risk of skin’s irritation, increase penetration, prolong its time to remain in our skin, and improve stability. Propolis was extracted using reflux methods and concentrated using rotavapor. EEP was characterized with several tests such as phytochemical screening, density, and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Optimation of total surfactant, co-surfactant, oil, and amount of EEP that can be included in NE were required to get the best NE formulation. The evaluations included to organoleptic observation, globul size, polydispersity index, morphology using TEM, viscosity, pH, centrifuge, stability, Freeze and Thaw test, radical scavenging activity using DPPH method, and primary irritation test. The yield extracts was 11.12% from raw propolis contained of steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin based on phytochemical screening. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerine; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparant, had globul size of 21.9 nm; polydispersity index of 0.338; and pH of 5.67. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25oC, centrifuged for 30 mins at 13.000 rpm, and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE Propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0. The best formulation for NE propolis contained of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerine; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP with globul size of 21.9 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. NE propolis was stable and had antioxidant activity similar to EEP.

Keywords: propolis, antioxidant, nanoemulsion, irritation test

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4 Green Synthesis of Nanosilver-Loaded Hydrogel Nanocomposites for Antibacterial Application

Authors: D. Berdous, H. Ferfera-Harrar

Abstract:

Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) or hydrogels with three-dimensional hydrophilic network structure are high-performance water absorbent and retention materials. The in situ synthesis of metal nanoparticles within polymeric network as antibacterial agents for bio-applications is an approach that takes advantage of the existing free-space into networks, which not only acts as a template for nucleation of nanoparticles, but also provides long term stability and reduces their toxicity by delaying their oxidation and release. In this work, SAP/nanosilver nanocomposites were successfully developed by a unique green process at room temperature, which involves in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within hydrogels as a template. The aim of this study is to investigate whether these AgNPs-loaded hydrogels are potential candidates for antimicrobial applications. Firstly, the superabsorbents were prepared through radical copolymerization via grafting and crosslinking of acrylamide (AAm) onto chitosan backbone (Cs) using potassium persulfate as initiator and N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide as the crosslinker. Then, they were hydrolyzed to achieve superabsorbents with ampholytic properties and uppermost swelling capacity. Lastly, the AgNPs were biosynthesized and entrapped into hydrogels through a simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective method using aqueous silver nitrate as a silver precursor and curcuma longa tuber-powder extracts as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The formed superabsorbents nanocomposites (Cs-g-PAAm)/AgNPs were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-visible Spectroscopy, Attenuated Total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Microscopic surface structure analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has showed spherical shapes of AgNPs with size in the range of 3-15 nm. The extent of nanosilver loading was decreased by increasing Cs content into network. The silver-loaded hydrogel was thermally more stable than the unloaded dry hydrogel counterpart. The swelling equilibrium degree (Q) and centrifuge retention capacity (CRC) in deionized water were affected by both contents of Cs and the entrapped AgNPs. The nanosilver-embedded hydrogels exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These comprehensive results suggest that the elaborated AgNPs-loaded nanomaterials could be used to produce valuable wound dressing.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles, superabsorbent Hydrogel

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3 Applicability and Reusability of Fly Ash and Base Treated Fly Ash for Adsorption of Catechol from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Thermodynamics and Modeling

Authors: S. Agarwal, A. Rani

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Catechol is a natural polyphenolic compound that widely exists in higher plants such as teas, vegetables, fruits, tobaccos, and some traditional Chinese medicines. The fly ash-based zeolites are capable of absorbing a wide range of pollutants. But the process of zeolite synthesis is time-consuming and requires technical setups by the industries. The marketed costs of zeolites are quite high restricting its use by small-scale industries for the removal of phenolic compounds. The present research proposes a simple method of alkaline treatment of FA to produce an effective adsorbent for catechol removal from wastewater. The experimental parameter such as pH, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on the removal of catechol were studied in batch reactor. For this purpose the adsorbent materials were mixed with aqueous solutions containing catechol ranging in 50 – 200 mg/L initial concentrations and then shaken continuously in a thermostatic Orbital Incubator Shaker at 30 ± 0.1 °C for 24 h. The samples were withdrawn from the shaker at predetermined time interval and separated by centrifugation (Centrifuge machine MBL-20) at 2000 rpm for 4 min. to yield a clear supernatant for analysis of the equilibrium concentrations of the solutes. The concentrations were measured with Double Beam UV/Visible spectrophotometer (model Spectrscan UV 2600/02) at the wavelength of 275 nm for catechol. In the present study, the use of low-cost adsorbent (BTFA) derived from coal fly ash (FA), has been investigated as a substitute of expensive methods for the sequestration of catechol. The FA and BTFA adsorbents were well characterized by XRF, FE-SEM with EDX, FTIR, and surface area and porosity measurement which proves the chemical constituents, functional groups and morphology of the adsorbents. The catechol adsorption capacities of synthesized BTFA and native material were determined. The adsorption was slightly increased with an increase in pH value. The monolayer adsorption capacities of FA and BTFA for catechol were 100 mg g⁻¹ and 333.33 mg g⁻¹ respectively, and maximum adsorption occurs within 60 minutes for both adsorbents used in this test. The equilibrium data are fitted by Freundlich isotherm found on the basis of error analysis (RMSE, SSE, and χ²). Adsorption was found to be spontaneous and exothermic on the basis of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔS°, and ΔH°). Pseudo-second-order kinetic model better fitted the data for both FA and BTFA. BTFA showed large adsorptive characteristics, high separation selectivity, and excellent recyclability than FA. These findings indicate that BTFA could be employed as an effective and inexpensive adsorbent for the removal of catechol from wastewater.

Keywords: catechol, fly ash, isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic parameters

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2 A Study on the Chemical Composition of Kolkheti's Sphagnum Peat Peloids to Evaluate the Perspective of Use in Medical Practice

Authors: Al. Tsertsvadze. L. Ebralidze, I. Matchutadze. D. Berashvili, A. Bakuridze

Abstract:

Peatlands are landscape elements, they are formed over a very long period by physical, chemical, biologic, and geologic processes. In the moderate zone of Caucasus, the Kolkheti lowlands are distinguished by the diversity of relictual plants, a high degree of endemism, orographic, climate, landscape, and other characteristics of high levels of biodiversity. The unique properties of the Kolkheti region lead to the formation of special, so-called, endemic peat peloids. The composition and properties of peloids strongly depend on peat-forming plants. Peat is considered a unique complex of raw materials, which can be used in different fields of the industry: agriculture, metallurgy, energy, biotechnology, chemical industry, health care. They are formed in permanent wetland areas. As a result of decay, higher plants remain in the anaerobic area, with the participation of microorganisms. Peat mass absorbs soil and groundwater. Peloids are predominantly rich with humic substances, which are characterized by high biological activity. Humic acids stimulate enzymatic activity, regenerative processes, and have anti-inflammatory activity. Objects of the research were Kolkheti peat peloids (Ispani, Anaklia, Churia, Chirukhi, Peranga) possessing different formation phases. Due to specific physical and chemical properties of research objects, the aim of the research was to develop analytical methods in order to study the chemical composition of the objects. The research was held using modern instrumental methods of analysis: Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Centrifuge, dry oven, Ultraturax, pH meter, fluorescence spectrometer, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), Gas chromatography. Based on the research ration between organic and inorganic substances, the spectrum of micro and macro elements, also the content of minerals was determined. The content of organic nitrogen was determined using the Kjeldahl method. The total composition of amino acids was studied by a spectrophotometric method using standard solutions of glutamic and aspartic acids. Fatty acid was determined using GC (Gas chromatography). Based on the obtained results, we can conclude that the method is valid to identify fatty acids in the research objects. The content of organic substances in the research objects was held using GC-MS. Using modern instrumental methods of analysis, the chemical composition of research objects was studied. Each research object is predominantly reached with a broad spectrum of organic (fatty acids, amino acids, carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds, organic acids and their esters, steroids) and inorganic (micro and macro elements, minerals) substances. Modified methods used in the presented research may be utilized for the evaluation of cosmetological balneological and pharmaceutical means prepared on the base of Kolkheti's Sphagnum Peat Peloids.

Keywords: modern analytical methods, natural resources, peat, chemistry

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1 A Low-Cost Disposable PDMS Microfluidic Cartridge with Reagent Storage Silicone Blisters for Isothermal DNA Amplification

Authors: L. Ereku, R. E. Mackay, A. Naveenathayalan, K. Ajayi, W. Balachandran

Abstract:

Over the past decade the increase of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) especially in the developing world due to high cost and lack of sufficient medical testing have given rise to the need for a rapid, low cost point of care medical diagnostic that is disposable and most significantly reproduces equivocal results achieved within centralised laboratories. This paper present the development of a disposable PDMS microfluidic cartridge incorporating blisters filled with reagents required for isothermal DNA amplification in clinical diagnostics and point-of-care testing. In view of circumventing the necessity for external complex microfluidic pumps, designing on-chip pressurised fluid reservoirs is embraced using finger actuation and blister storage. The fabrication of the blisters takes into consideration three proponents that include: material characteristics, fluid volume and structural design. Silicone rubber is the chosen material due to its good chemical stability, considerable tear resistance and moderate tension/compression strength. The case of fluid capacity and structural form go hand in hand as the reagent need for the experimental analysis determines the volume size of the blisters, whereas the structural form has to be designed to provide low compression stress when deformed for fluid expulsion. Furthermore, the top and bottom section of the blisters are embedded with miniature polar opposite magnets at a defined parallel distance. These magnets are needed to lock or restrain the blisters when fully compressed so as to prevent unneeded backflow as a result of elasticity. The integrated chip is bonded onto a large microscope glass slide (50mm x 75mm). Each part is manufactured using a 3D printed mould designed using Solidworks software. Die-casting is employed, using 3D printed moulds, to form the deformable blisters by forcing a proprietary liquid silicone rubber through the positive mould cavity. The set silicone rubber is removed from the cast and prefilled with liquid reagent and then sealed with a thin (0.3mm) burstable layer of recast silicone rubber. The main microfluidic cartridge is fabricated using classical soft lithographic techniques. The cartridge incorporates microchannel circuitry, mixing chamber, inlet port, outlet port, reaction chamber and waste chamber. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, QSil 216) is mixed and degassed using a centrifuge (ratio 10:1) is then poured after the prefilled blisters are correctly positioned on the negative mould. Heat treatment of about 50C to 60C in the oven for about 3hours is needed to achieve curing. The latter chip production stage involves bonding the cured PDMS to the glass slide. A plasma coroner treater device BD20-AC (Electro-Technic Products Inc., US) is used to activate the PDMS and glass slide before they are both joined and adequately compressed together, then left in the oven over the night to ensure bonding. There are two blisters in total needed for experimentation; the first will be used as a wash buffer to remove any remaining cell debris and unbound DNA while the second will contain 100uL amplification reagents. This paper will present results of chemical cell lysis, extraction using a biopolymer paper membrane and isothermal amplification on a low-cost platform using the finger actuated blisters for reagent storage. The platform has been shown to detect 1x105 copies of Chlamydia trachomatis using Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA).

Keywords: finger actuation, point of care, reagent storage, silicone blisters

Procedia PDF Downloads 275