Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Mariyamni Awang

21 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang

Abstract:

For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, CO₂ flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding

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20 Enhancing the Work of Art through Fashion Attire

Authors: A. N. Roslen, S. A. Syed-Sahil, A. Musavir

Abstract:

In Malaysia, there are only few fashion designers who are inspired by the work of artists when creating their collections. The researchers confirmed this statement by interviewing fashion experts in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to: 1. Investigate the acceptance of fashion inspired by the work of art among consumers. 2. Encourage more designers to use work of art as their inspirations. 3. Promote Malaysian Artists through fashion. Thus, the researchers interviewed Malaysian fashion designers, image consultants, and one famous Malaysian Artist (Awang Damit). All of them had agreed that the fashion inspired by the work of art in Malaysia has a long way to go. Therefore, the researchers’ aim is to attract more fashion designers to use the work of local artists in their creations. The researchers had used interview, survey and experimentation as methods of this study. In the experimentation procedure, paintings of local artist, Awang Damit was used as a source of inspiration in creating a design Line. The result of this study had shown that fashion inspired by work of art is acknowledged and accepted by the designers and consumers.

Keywords: art, fashion, inspiration, local artist

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19 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glass, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000 kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4 %. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: foamed concrete, fibres, durability, construction, geological engineering

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18 Utilising Unground Oil Palm Ash in Producing Foamed Concrete and Its Implementation as an Interlocking Mortar-Less Block

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Mohammed Zuhear Al-Mulali

Abstract:

In this study, the possibility of using unground oil palm ash (UOPA) for producing foamed concrete is investigated. The UOPA used in this study is produced by incinerating palm oil biomass at a temperature exceeding 1000ºC. A semi-structural density of 1300kg/m3 was used with filler to binder ratio of 1.5 and preliminary water to binder ratio of 0.45. Cement was replaced by UOPA at replacement levels of 0, 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65% by weight of binder. Properties such as density, compressive strength, drying shrinkage and water absorption were investigated to the age of 90 days. The mix with a 35% of UOPA content was chosen to be used as the base material of a newly designed interlocking, mortar-less block system.

Keywords: foamed concrete, oil palm ash, strength, interlocking block

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17 Measuring Multi-Class Linear Classifier for Image Classification

Authors: Fatma Susilawati Mohamad, Azizah Abdul Manaf, Fadhillah Ahmad, Zarina Mohamad, Wan Suryani Wan Awang

Abstract:

A simple and robust multi-class linear classifier is proposed and implemented. For a pair of classes of the linear boundary, a collection of segments of hyper planes created as perpendicular bisectors of line segments linking centroids of the classes or part of classes. Nearest Neighbor and Linear Discriminant Analysis are compared in the experiments to see the performances of each classifier in discriminating ripeness of oil palm. This paper proposes a multi-class linear classifier using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) for image identification. Result proves that LDA is well capable in separating multi-class features for ripeness identification.

Keywords: multi-class, linear classifier, nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis

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16 The Relationship between Brand Recall and Brand Attitude in Advergame

Authors: Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis, Hyung Jun Kim, Mohamad Rizwan Abdul Majid, Zaiton Osman, Izyanti Awang Razli

Abstract:

The increase of online advertising, specifically advergame has become a popular method of strengthening consumer brand recognition by inserting attractive characters and enhancing entertainment value. There have been several remarkable studies on spokes-characters in advertising effectiveness. However, few studies have examined the link between character presence and consumers' brand recall and attitude in advergame. Moreover, how the entertainment value of an advergame influences brand recall and brand attitude and the mediating role of brand recall in influencing character presence and entertainment on brand attitude are still lacking in the advergaming literature. An online survey was conducted with 366 Malaysian gamers. Using structural equation modeling, the results showed that character presence had no influence but entertainment value had a positive influence on brand recall and brand attitude. This study confirmed the role of brand recall as a mediator of the effect of between entertainment and brand attitude in advergame.

Keywords: character presence, entertainment, brand recall, brand attitude, advergame

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15 Factor to Elicit Spatial Presence: Calmness

Authors: Nadia Diyana Mohd Muhaiyuddin, Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli

Abstract:

The aim of our work is to identify whether user’s calmness can be a factor to elicit user’s spatial presence experience. Hence, a systematic mental model technique called repertory grid was selected to collect data because users can freely give their opinions in this approach. Three image-based virtual reality (IBVR) environments were created to satisfy the requirement of the repertory grid. Different virtual environments were necessary to allow users to compare and give feedback. Result was analyzed by using descriptive analysis through the SPSS software. The result revealed that ‘users feel calm’ is accepted as one of the factors that can elicit spatial presence. Users also highlighted five IBVR characteristics that could elicit spatial presence, namely, calm sound, calm content, calm color, calm story line, and the calm feeling of the user.

Keywords: spatial presence, presence, virtual reality, image-based virtual reality, human-computer interaction

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14 Magneto-Convective Instability in a Horizontal Power-Law Nanofluid Saturated Porous Layer

Authors: Norazuwin Najihah Mat Tahir, Fuziyah Ishak, Seripah Awang Kechil

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The onset of the convective instability in the horizontal through flow of a power-law nanofluid saturated by porous layer heated from below under the influences of magnetic field are investigated in this study. The linear stability theory is used for the transformation of the partial differential equations to system of ordinary differential equations through infinitesimal perturbations, scaling, linearization and method of normal modes with two-dimensional periodic waves. The system is solved analytically for the closed form solution of the Rayleigh number by using the Galerkin-type weighted residuals method to investigate the onset of both traveling wave and oscillatory convection. The effects of the power-law index, Lewis number and Peclet number on the stability of the system were investigated. The Lewis number stabilizes while the power-law index and Peclet number destabilize the nanofluid system. The system in the presence of magnetic field is more stable than the system in the absence of magnetic field.

Keywords: convection, instability, magnetic field, nanofluid, power-law

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13 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih

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Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

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12 The Significant Effect of Wudu’ and Zikr in the Controlling of Emotional Pressure Using Biofeedback Emwave Technique

Authors: Mohd Anuar Awang Idris, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab, Nora Yusma Mohamed Yusoff

Abstract:

Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr are amongst some of the spiritual tools which may help an individual control his mind, emotion and attitude. These tools are deemed to be able to deliver a positive impact on an individual’s psychophysiology. The main objective of this research is to determine the effects of Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr therapy using the biofeedback emWave application and technology. For this research, 13 students were selected as samples from the students’ representative body at the University Tenaga National, Malaysia. The DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) questionnaire was used to help with the assessment and measurement of each student’s ability in controlling his or her emotions before and after the therapies. The biofeedback emWave technology was utilized to monitor the student’s psychophysiology level. In addition, the data obtained from the Heart rate variability (HRV) test have also been used to affirm that Wudu’ and Zikr had had significant impacts on the student’s success in controlling his or her emotional pressure.

Keywords: biofeedback EmWave, emotion, psychophysiology, wudu’, zikr

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11 Retirement Planning and Job Satisfaction: Cushion to Avoid Bridge Employment?

Authors: Zaiton Osman, Imbarine Bujang, Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis, Grace Phang Ing, Mohd Rizwan Abdul Majid, Izyanti Awang Razli

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Retirement forces older workers to disconnect with their previous behavioural patterns and economic position. Transition and adjustment from working life to retirement places create psychological pressure and financial distress on older workers, especially those with dependent children. Bridge employment provides a solution for older workers to continue working after retirement while transitioning into retirement slowly and smoothly. As losing the job role has a significant impact on the psychological well-being of retirees, engageing in bridge employment helps to fulfill the important psychological functions of older workers by providing an adaptive style to retirement. This study investigates the influence of retirement planning and job satisfaction on bridge employment. A self-administered questionnaire was used in this study and a total of 523 samples were collected for nine major district in Sabah. Data were analysed using Partial Least Square (PLS) method wersion 2.0. The result shows a significant relationship between retirement planning and job satisfaction on bridge employment, explaining 4.7% the variance in bridge employment and job satisfaction was found to be the strongest predictor of bridge employment.

Keywords: ageing population, retirement planning, job satisfaction, bridge employment

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10 Magnetohydrodynamics Flow and Heat Transfer in a Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid due to a Rotating Disk with Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump

Authors: Nur Dayana Khairunnisa Rosli, Seripah Awang Kechil

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Swirling flows with velocity slip are important in nature and industrial processes. The present work considers the effects of velocity slip, temperature jump and suction/injection on the flow and heat transfer of power-law fluids due to a rotating disk in the presence of magnetic field. The system of the partial differential equations is highly non-linear. The number of independent variables is reduced by transforming the system into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The effects of suction/injection, velocity slip and temperature jump on the flow rates are investigated for various cases of shear thinning and shear thickening power law fluids. The thermal and velocity jump strongly reduce the heat transfer rate and skin friction coefficient. Suction decreases the radial and tangential skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer. It is also observed that the effects are more pronounced in the case of shear thinning fluids as compared to shear thickening fluids.

Keywords: heat transfer, power-law fluids, rotating disk, suction or injection, temperature jump, velocity slip

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9 An Evaluation of Solubility of Wax and Asphaltene in Crude Oil for Improved Flow Properties Using a Copolymer Solubilized in Organic Solvent with an Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Authors: S. M. Anisuzzaman, Sariah Abang, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, N. M. Ismail, G. B. Sandrison

Abstract:

Wax and asphaltene are high molecular weighted compounds that contribute to the stability of crude oil at a dispersed state. Transportation of crude oil along pipelines from the oil rig to the refineries causes fluctuation of temperature which will lead to the coagulation of wax and flocculation of asphaltenes. This paper focuses on the prevention of wax and asphaltene precipitate deposition on the inner surface of the pipelines by using a wax inhibitor and an asphaltene dispersant. The novelty of this prevention method is the combination of three substances; a wax inhibitor dissolved in a wax inhibitor solvent and an asphaltene solvent, namely, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer dissolved in methylcyclohexane (MCH) and toluene (TOL) to inhibit the precipitation and deposition of wax and asphaltene. The objective of this paper was to optimize the percentage composition of each component in this inhibitor which can maximize the viscosity reduction of crude oil. The optimization was divided into two stages which are the laboratory experimental stage in which the viscosity of crude oil samples containing inhibitor of different component compositions is tested at decreasing temperatures and the data optimization stage using response surface methodology (RSM) to design an optimizing model. The results of experiment proved that the combination of 50% EVA + 25% MCH + 25% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of 67% while the RSM model proved that the combination of 57% EVA + 20.5% MCH + 22.5% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of up to 61%.

Keywords: asphaltene, ethylene-vinyl acetate, methylcyclohexane, toluene, wax

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8 The Great Mimicker: A Case of Disseminated Tuberculosis

Authors: W. Ling, Mohamed Saufi Bin Awang

Abstract:

Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis post a major health problem worldwide. Central nervous system (CNS) infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most devastating complications of tuberculosis. Although with advancement in medical fields, we are yet to understand the pathophysiology of how mycobacterium tuberculosis was able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and infect the CNS. CNS TB may present with nonspecific clinical symptoms which can mimic other diseases/conditions; this is what makes the diagnosis relatively difficult and challenging. Public health has to be informed and educated about the spread of TB, and early identification of TB is important as it is a curable disease. Case Report: A young 21-year-old Malay gentleman was initially presented to us with symptoms of ear discharge, tinnitus, and right-sided headache for the past one year. Further history reveals that the symptoms have been mismanaged and neglected over the period of 1 year. Initial investigation reveals features of inflammation of the ear. Further imaging showed the feature of chronic inflammation of the otitis media and atypical right cerebral abscess, which has the same characteristic features and consistency. He further underwent a biopsy, and results reveal positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the otitis media. With the results and the available imaging, we were certain that this is likely a case of disseminated tuberculosis causing CNS TB. Conclusion: We aim to highlight the challenge and difficult face in our health care system and public health in early identification and treatment.

Keywords: central nervous system tuberculosis, intracranial tuberculosis, tuberculous encephalopathy, tuberculous meningitis

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7 Broadening the Roles of Masjid: Reviving Prophetic Holistic Model in Fostering Islamic Education and Arabic Language in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Ahmad Tijani Surajudeen, Muhammad Zahiri Awang Mat, Aliy Abdulwahid Adebisi

Abstract:

With arrival of Islam in the South-Western Nigeria in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, various masājid established in different parts of the area played vital roles towards the betterment and unity of the Muslims. However, despite the fact that the masājid in the South-Western part of Nigeria contributed immensely to the spiritual and educational enhancement of the Muslims, it has not fully captured the holistic educational roles as a unique model used by the Prophet (S.A.W). Therefore, the primary objective of this paper is to investigate and broaden the roles of masjid towards its compartmentalized and holistic contributions among the Muslims in the south-western Nigeria. The findings from the paper have identified five holistic roles of masjid, namely, spiritual, intellectual, physical, social and emotional contributions which have been exemplified in the prophetic model of masjid. The paper has argued that the five factors must be unreservedly unified towards the betterment of the Muslims and enhancement of Islamic education and Arabic Language in the South-Western Nigeria. However, the challenges of masjid management in the South-Western Nigeria are the main hindrance in achieving the holistic roles of masjid. It is thereby suggested that, the management of masjid should take the identified prophetic model of masjid into account in order to positively improve the affairs of Muslims as well as promoting the teaching and learning of Islamic education and Arabic language among the Muslims in the South-Western Nigeria.

Keywords: worship, Islamic education, Arabic language, prophetic holistic model

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6 The Impact of Life Satisfaction on Substance Abuse: Delinquency as a Mediator

Authors: Mahadzirah Mohamad, Morliyati Mohammad, Nor Azman Mat Ali, Zainudin Awang

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Globally, youth substance abuse has been identified as the problem that causes substantial damage not only to individuals, but also to families and communities. In addition, substance abuse youths have become unproductive resources that would play lesser roles in the nation’s development. The increasing trend of substance abuse among youths has raised a lot of concern among various quarters in Malaysia. It has also been reported that Malay youths are the majority group involved in substance abuse. However, it was noted that life satisfaction had been found to be an important mitigating factor that addressed substance abuse. The objectives of the study were twofold: firstly, to ascertain the effect of life satisfaction on substance abuse among Malay youth. Secondly, to identify the role of delinquency on the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 500 Malay youths at the youth programmes using a two-step sampling technique: area sampling and systematic sampling. The research hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significance relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. There is a significant inverse relationship between life satisfaction and delinquency. Moreover, delinquency has a positive significant influence on substance abuse. The use of Bootstrapping analysis proved that delinquency plays a full mediating role in the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study suggested that life satisfaction has no effect on youth substance abuse. In order to reduce substance abuse, efforts should be undertaken to reduce delinquency behaviour by increasing youth life satisfaction.

Keywords: delinquency, life satisfaction, substance abuse, youth

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5 A Study of Patriotism through History Education in Primary School

Authors: Abdul Razak Bin Ahmad, Mohd Mahzan Awang

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Appreciation of patriotism value is important for every student to be able to become a quality citizen and good for the country. Realizing this situation, Malaysia has introduced history education for primary school students since 2014. One of the aims is to provide basic knowledge on patriotism as well as to promote patriotic behaviour among school pupils. In order to examine the relationship between the students’ knowledge and their behaviour, a survey study was carried out. A set of questionnaire was designed and developed based prior studies on history education and patriotism. The sample of this survey was 153 primary school students aged 12 years old (Standard Six). Data collected and analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for The Social Science 20.0). The results showed that the level of knowledge and patriotism practise at the moderate levels. Inferential statistic results revealed that there is no significant difference between genders with regards to patriotism knowledge and patriotism practice through history education subject. Results also demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and the practice of patriotism values among the students. This means that knowledge on patriotism is important for promoting patriotic behaviour and practice in primary schools. This study implies that teaching students to understand and comprehend the concept of patriotism is vital to promote patriotic behaviour among students. Therefore, teachers should master pedagogical skills and good content knowledge on patriotism as mechanisms to promote effective learning in history education subjects. creativity in teaching history education subjects is also needed.

Keywords: history education, knowledge, primary school, patriotism values, teachers

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4 Planning for Brownfield Regeneration in Malaysia: An Integrated Approach in Creating Sustainable Ex-Landfill Redevelopment

Authors: Mazifah Simis, Azahan Awang, Kadir Arifin

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The brownfield regeneration is being implemented in developped countries. However, as a group 1 developing country in the South East Asia, the rapid development and increasing number of urban population in Malaysia have urged the needs to incorporate the brownfield regeneration into its physical planning development. The increasing number of urban ex-landfills is seen as a new resource that could overcome the issues of inadequate urban green space provisions. With regards to the new development approach in urban planning, this perception study aims to identify the sustainable planning approach based on what the stakeholders have in mind. Respondents consist of 375 local communities within four urban ex-landfill areas and 61 landscape architect and town planner officers in the Malaysian Local Authorities. Three main objectives are set to be achieved, which are (i) to identify ex-landfill issues that need to be overcome prior to the ex-landfill redevelopment (ii) to identify the most suitable types of ex-landfill redevelopment, and (iii) to identify the priority function for ex-landfill redevelopment as the public parks. From the data gathered through the survey method, the order of priorities based on stakeholders' perception was produced. The results show different perception among the stakeholders, but they agreed to the development of the public park as the main development. Hence, this study attempts to produce an integrated approach as a model for sustainable ex-landfill redevelopment that could be accepted by the stakeholders as a beneficial future development that could change the image of 296 ex-landfills in Malaysia into the urban public parks by the year 2020.

Keywords: brownfield regeneration, ex-landfill redevelopment, integrated approach, stakeholders' perception

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3 Smoking, Bullying, and Being Bullied among Secondary School Students: Their Associations with Attachment Styles

Authors: Ruziana Masiran, Hamidin Awang, Cheah Y. T. Jun, Nor Fauziah Hashim, Archana Premkumar, Mohd. Feizel Aisiddiq, Mohd. Fakharuddin

Abstract:

Risk behaviours among secondary school students are common and show an increasing trend over the years. Existing attachment styles between the students and their parents influence the psychosocial development of this group of population hence contributing to the adoption of risk behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between three risk behaviours; smoking, bullying and being bullied among secondary school students and their styles of attachment to parents in a district in Malaysia. Using multistage simple random sampling, a cross-sectional study was designed with the level of significance, α set at 0.05. The validated self-administered Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and Youth Risk Behaviours Surveillance Questionnaire focusing on smoking and bullying were utilized. Secondary school students aged 13 to 17 years old from ten schools in the district of Hulu Langat, Malaysia were sampled. Prevalence of smoking was 15.8%, bullying 8.5% and being bully victims 19.0%. It was found that male gender was a significant risk factor for smoking (p < 0.001), while being Chinese (OR=0.156, 95%CI=0.029-0.837, p=0.030) and having married parents (OR=0.490, 95%CI=0.302-0.796, p=0.490) are protective against smoking. Students with insecure attachment to mothers (OR=1.650, 95%CI=1.018-2.675, p=0.042) and fathers (OR=2.039, 95%CI=1.285-3.234, p=0.002) are at 1.6 and 2 times risk respectively to smoke compared to those with secure attachment. The odds of male students bullying is almost twice than that for female students (OR=2.017, 95%CI=1.416-2.873, p < 0.001), and the odds of being bullied is 1.5 times higher for male students (OR=1.519, 95%CI=1.183-1.950, p=0.001). Those who are insecurely attached to fathers are at 1.8 times higher risk to be bullies (OR=1.867, 95%CI=1.272-2.740, p < 0.001) and 1.5 times higher risk to be bullied (OR=1.546, 95%CI=1.026-2.329, p=0.037). In conclusion, insecure attachment shows a strong association with smoking, bullying and being bullied among secondary school students in Malaysia.

Keywords: attachment styles, bullied, bullying, insecure attachment, risk behaviours, smoking and attachment

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2 Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Gene with Obesity and Metabolic Traits in Malaysian Adults

Authors: Yamunah Devi Apalasamy, Sanjay Rampal, Tin Tin Su, Foong Ming Moy, Hazreen Abdul Majid, Awang Bulgiba, Zahurin Mohamed

Abstract:

Obesity is a growing global health issue. Obesity results from a combination of environmental and genetics factors. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a gene encodes the BDNF protein and the BDNF gene have been linked to regulation of body weight and appetite. Genome-wide association studies have identified the BDNF variants to be related to obesity among Caucasians, East Asians, and Filipinos. However, the role of BDNF in other ethnic groups remains inconclusive. This case control study aims to investigate the associations of BDNF gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic parameters in Malaysian Malays. BDNF rs4074134, BDNF rs10501087 and BDNF rs6265 were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY. Anthropometric, body fat, fasting lipids and glucose levels were measured. A total of 663 subjects (194 obese and 469 non-obese) were included in this study. There were no significant associations association between BDNF SNPs and obesity. The allelic and genotype frequencies of the BDNF SNPs were similar in the obese and non-obese groups. After adjustment for age and sex, the BDNF variants were not associated with obesity, body fat, fasting lipids and glucose levels. Haplotypes at the BDNF gene region, were not significantly associated with obesity. The BDNF rs4074134 was in strong LD with BDNF rs10501087 (D'=0.98) and BDNF rs6265 (D'=0.87). The BDNF rs10501087 was also in strong LD with BDNF rs6265 (D'=0.91). Our findings suggest that the BDNF variants and the haplotypes of BDNF gene were not associated with obesity and metabolic traits in this study population. Further research is needed to explore other BDNF variants with a larger sample size with gene-environment interactions in multi ethnic Malaysian population.

Keywords: genomics of obesity, SNP, BMI, haplotypes

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1 Determinants of Happiness and Its Relation towards Life Satisfaction among Adult Community of Kampung Jaya Bakti

Authors: Khairul Abid Awang

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Happiness and life satisfaction are the vital components in assessing the well-being of the societies and their social progress. These components varies and changes within communities and across time. Thus, due to low level of happiness and life satisfaction, it might affect mental health status psychologically and generally disrupt the health pattern of the individual. Hence, this present study aims to identify the happiness determinants, assessing the happiness and life satisfaction level, as well as examine the relation between happiness among Kampung Jaya Bakti adult community. Quantitative and cross-sectional study with total of 100 observations of 18 years old and above was participated in this study. The study was done in a semi-rural village which is geocentric towards river that branched from South East Asia Sea. Several happiness and life satisfaction instruments was used, inclusive of Individual Determinants of Happiness Scale (IDoHS) that had been developed in this study, in order to identify the determinants of happiness in the area based on the listed determinants. The listed determinants in IDoHS are: i) Daily activities. ii) Adaptation. iii) Goals. iv) Life Events. v) Living condition. vi) Self-confidence. vii) Personality traits. viii) Religion. The results revealed that 98% of the respondents agreed that the listed determinants in IDoHS are statistically significant in determining the happiness. The happiness level revealed that 71 percent (%) of the respondents are ‘very happy’, followed by 26% (‘moderately happy’) and 3% (‘neutral’), while life satisfaction level revealed that 70% of the respondents are ‘very highly satisfied’, followed by 29% (‘highly satisfied’) and 1% (‘moderately satisfied’). Pearson Correlation (Pearson’s r) shows that; happiness determinants listed in IDoHS are affecting happiness level (Pearson’s r: .514, p < 0.01) and life satisfaction level (Pearson’s r: .504, p < 0.01) respectively, as well as happiness that are statistically significant in affecting life satisfaction (Pearson’s r: .653, p < 0.01; Pearson’s r; .546, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the listed determinants in IDoHS are the determinants that affecting happiness and it is also noted that happiness are affecting life satisfaction and vice versa.

Keywords: adult community, determinants, happiness, life satisfaction, subjective well-being

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