Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 426

Search results for: wear

426 Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Ti3SiC2 and the Effect of TiC on Its

Authors: Bendaoudi Seif-Eddine, Bounazef Mokhtar

Abstract:

Wear behaviour of Ti3SiC2 coating in contact sliding under dry condition have been investigated on different pressures (0.1-0.8 MPa) at various speeds from 5 to 60 m/s. The ball-on-disc sliding-wear test was performed in ambient air with a relative humidity of 20%. An equation has been proposed to predict wear rates and describe sliding wear caused by Corundum ball on the studied material. The results show how the wear rate, measured by mass loss, varies in the range of (0.6 – 3.8 x E-6 mm3/Nm) with normal sliding distance under various test conditions; it increases with increasing load and rapidly with speed. The influence of TiC impurities on the wear behaviours was also investigated.

Keywords: ball-on-disc, dry-sliding, Ti3SiC2, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
425 Wear Measurement of Thermomechanical Parameters of the Metal Carbide

Authors: Riad Harouz, Brahim Mahfoud

Abstract:

The threads and the circles on reinforced concrete are obtained by process of hot rolling with pebbles finishers in metal carbide which present a way of rolling around the outside diameter. Our observation is that this throat presents geometrical wear after the end of its cycle determined in tonnage. In our study, we have determined, in a first step, experimentally measurements of the wear in terms of thermo-mechanical parameters (Speed, Load, and Temperature) and the influence of these parameters on the wear. In the second stage, we have developed a mathematical model of lifetime useful for the prognostic of the wear and their changes.

Keywords: lifetime, metal carbides, modeling, thermo-mechanical, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
424 Gear Wear Product Analysis as Applied for Tribological Maintenance Diagnostics

Authors: Surapol Raadnui

Abstract:

This paper describes an experimental investigation on a pair of gears in which wear and pitting were intentionally allowed to occur, namely, moisture corrosion pitting, acid-induced corrosion pitting, hard contaminant-related pitting and mechanical induced wear. A back-to-back spur gear test rig was used. The test samples of wear debris were collected and assessed through the utilization of an optical microscope in order to correlate and compare the debris morphology to pitting and wear degradation of the worn gears. In addition, weight loss from all test gear pairs was assessed with the utilization of the statistical design of the experiment. It can be deduced that wear debris characteristics exhibited a direct relationship with different pitting and wear modes. Thus, it should be possible to detect and diagnose gear pitting and wear utilization of worn surfaces, generated wear debris and quantitative measurement such as weight loss.

Keywords: tribology, spur gear wear, predictive maintenance, wear particle analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
423 Wet Sliding Wear and Frictional Behavior of Commercially Available Perspex

Authors: S. Reaz Ahmed, M. S. Kaiser

Abstract:

The tribological behavior of commercially used Perspex was evaluated under dry and wet sliding condition using a pin-on-disc wear tester with different applied loads ranging from 2.5 to 20 N. Experiments were conducted with varying sliding distance from 0.2 km to 4.6 km, wherein the sliding velocity was kept constant, 0.64 ms-1. The results reveal that the weight loss increases with applied load and the sliding distance. The nature of the wear rate was very similar in both the sliding environments in which initially the wear rate increased very rapidly with increasing sliding distance and then progressed to a slower rate. Moreover, the wear rate in wet sliding environment was significantly lower than that under dry sliding condition. The worn surfaces were characterized by optical microscope and SEM. It is found that surface modification has significant effect on sliding wear performance of Perspex.

Keywords: Perspex, wear, friction, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
422 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
421 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala

Abstract:

In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.

Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
420 The Influence of Cycle Index of Simulation Condition on Main Bearing Wear Prognosis of Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Ziyu Diao, Yanyan Zhang, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan

Abstract:

The update frequency of wear profile in main bearing wear prognosis of internal combustion engine plays an important role in the calculation efficiency and accuracy. In order to investigate the appropriate cycle index of the simplified working condition of wear simulation, the main bearing-crankshaft journal friction pair of a diesel engine in service was studied in this paper. The method of multi-body dynamics simulation was used, and the wear prognosis model of the main bearing was established. Several groups of cycle indexes were set up for the wear calculation, and the maximum wear depth and wear profile were compared and analyzed. The results showed that when the cycle index reaches 3, the maximum deviation rate of the maximum wear depth is about 2.8%, and the maximum deviation rate comes to 1.6% when the cycle index reaches 5. This study provides guidance and suggestions for the optimization of wear prognosis by selecting appropriate value of cycle index according to the requirement of calculation cost and accuracy of the simulation work.

Keywords: cycle index, deviation rate, wear calculation, wear profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
419 Synergetic Effects of Water and Sulfur Dioxide Treatments on Wear of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

Authors: Qian Qiao, Tongjin Xiao, Hongtu He, Jiaxin Yu

Abstract:

This study is focused on the synergetic effects of water and sulfur dioxide treatments (SO₂ treatments) on the mechanochemical wear of SLS glass. It is found that the wear behavior of SLS glass in humid air is very sensitive to the water and SO₂ treatment environments based on the wear test using a ball-on-flat reciprocation tribometer. When SLS glass is treated with SO₂-without, the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass in humid air becomes significantly higher compared to the pristine glass. However, when SLS glass is treated with SO₂ with the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass decreases remarkably with increasing in the relative humidity (RH) from 0% to 90%. Further analyses indicate that when sodium ions are leached out of SLS glass surface via the water and SO₂ treatments, the mechanochemical properties of SLS glass surface become different depending on the RH. At lower humidity, the nano hardness of the Na⁺-leached surface is higher, and it can contribute to the enhanced wear resistance of SLS glass. In contrast, at higher humidity conditions, the SLS glass surface is more hydrophilic, and substantial wear debris can be found inside the wear track of SLS glass. Those phenomena suggest that adhesive wear and abrasive wear dominate the wear mechanism of SLS glass in humid air, causing the decreased wear resistance of SLS glass with increasing the RH. These results may not only provide a deep understanding of the wear mechanism of SLS glass but also helpful for operation process of functional and engineering glasses.

Keywords: soda lime silicate glass, wear, water, SO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
418 Wear Measuring and Wear Modelling Based On Archard, ASTM, and Neural Network Models

Authors: A. Shebani, C. Pislaru

Abstract:

Wear of materials is an everyday experience and has been observed and studied for long time. The prediction of wear is a fundamental problem in the industrial field, mainly correlated to the planning of maintenance interventions and economy. Pin-on-disc test is the most common test which is used to study the wear behaviour. In this paper, the pin-on-disc (AEROTECH UNIDEX 11) is used for the investigation of the effects of normal load and hardness of material on the wear under dry and sliding conditions. In the pin-on-disc rig, two specimens were used; one, a pin which is made of steel with a tip, is positioned perpendicular to the disc, where the disc is made of aluminium. The pin wear and disc wear were measured by using the following instruments: The Talysurf instrument, a digital microscope, and the alicona instrument; where the Talysurf profilometer was used to measure the pin/disc wear scar depth, and the alicona was used to measure the volume loss for pin and disc. After that, the Archard model, American Society for Testing and Materials model (ASTM), and neural network model were used for pin/disc wear modelling and the simulation results are implemented by using the Matlab program. This paper focuses on how the alicona can be considered as a powerful tool for wear measurements and how the neural network is an effective algorithm for wear estimation.

Keywords: wear modelling, Archard Model, ASTM Model, Neural Networks Model, Pin-on-disc Test, Talysurf, digital microscope, Alicona

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
417 The Effect of Surface Conditions on Wear of a Railway Wheel and Rail

Authors: A. Shebani, S. Iwnicki

Abstract:

Understanding the nature of wheel and rail wear in the railway field is of fundamental importance to the safe and cost effective operation of the railways. Twin disc wear testing is used extensively for studying wear of wheel and rail materials. The University of Huddersfield twin disc rig was used in this paper to examine the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear measurement under a range of wheel/rail contact conditions, with and without contaminants. This work focuses on an investigation of the effect of dry, wet, and lubricated conditions and the effect of contaminants such as sand on wheel and rail wear. The wheel and rail wear measurements were carried out by using a replica material and an optical profilometer that allows measurement of wear in difficult location with high accuracy. The results have demonstrated the rate at which both water and oil reduce wheel and rail wear. Scratches and other damage were seen on the wheel and rail surfaces after the addition of sand and consequently both wheel and rail wear damage rates increased under these conditions. This work introduced the replica material and an optical instrument as effective tools to study the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear.

Keywords: railway wheel/rail wear, surface conditions, twin disc test rig, replica material, Alicona profilometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
416 Wear Resistance of 20MnCr5 Steel Nitrided by Plasma

Authors: Okba Belahssen, Said Benramache

Abstract:

This paper presents wear behavior of the plasma-nitrided 20MnCr5 steel. Untreated and plasma nitrided samples were tested. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plasma nitriding behaviors of 20MnCr5 steel have been assessed by evaluating tribological properties and surface hardness by using a pin-on-disk wear machine and microhardness tester. Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer improve the wear resistance.

Keywords: plasma-nitriding, alloy 20mncr5, steel, friction, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
415 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
414 Predictive Modeling of Flank Wear in Hard Turning Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Suha K. Shihab, Zahid A. Khan, Aas Mohammad, Arshad Noor Siddiquee

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) on flank wear (VB) in turning of 52100 hard alloy steel using multilayer coated carbide insert under dry condition. Nine experiments were performed based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on flank wear. The results of the study revealed that the cutting speed (A) and feed rate (B) are the dominant factors affecting flank wear, while the depth of cut (C) has not a significant effect. The optimal combination of the cutting parameters for flank wear is found to be A1B1C1. The mathematical model for flank wear is found to be statistically significant. The predicted and measured values of flank wear are found to be very close to each other.

Keywords: flank wear, hard turning, Taguchi approach, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
413 Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Karuna Tuchinda, Sasithon Bland

Abstract:

This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.

Keywords: physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
412 Neural Network Monitoring Strategy of Cutting Tool Wear of Horizontal High Speed Milling

Authors: Kious Mecheri, Hadjadj Abdechafik, Ameur Aissa

Abstract:

The wear of cutting tool degrades the quality of the product in the manufacturing processes. The online monitoring of the cutting tool wear level is very necessary to prevent the deterioration of the quality of machining. Unfortunately there is not a direct manner to measure the cutting tool wear online. Consequently we must adopt an indirect method where wear will be estimated from the measurement of one or more physical parameters appearing during the machining process such as the cutting force, the vibrations, or the acoustic emission etc. In this work, a neural network system is elaborated in order to estimate the flank wear from the cutting force measurement and the cutting conditions.

Keywords: flank wear, cutting forces, high speed milling, signal processing, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
411 Tribological Study of TiC Powder Cladding on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Sin-Yu Chen, Pei-Yu Wu

Abstract:

This study reports the improvement in the wear performance of A6061 aluminum alloy clad with mixed powders of titanium carbide (TiC), copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. The wear performance of the A6061 clad layers was evaluated by performing pin-on-disc mode wear test. Experimental results clearly indicate an enhancement in the hardness of the clad layer by about two times that of the A6061 substrate without cladding. Wear test demonstrated a significant improvement in the wear performance of the clad layer when compared with the A6061 substrate without cladding. Moreover, the interface between the clad layer and the A6061 substrate exhibited superior metallurgical bonding. Due to this bonding, the clad layer did not spall during the wear test; as such, massive wear loss was prevented. Additionally, massive oxidized particulate debris was generated on the worn surface during the wear test; this resulted in three-body abrasive wear and reduced the wear behavior of the clad surface.

Keywords: GTAW、A6061 aluminum alloy, 、surface modification, tribological study, TiC powder cladding

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
410 Solution for Rider Ring Wear Problem in Boil off Gas Reciprocating Compressor: A Case Study

Authors: Hessam Mortezaei, Saeid Joudakian

Abstract:

In this paper, the wear problem on rider rings of boil off gas compressor has been studied. This kind of oil free double acting compressor has free floating piston (FFP) technology and as a result of that it should have the lowest possible wear on its rider rings. But a design problem had caused a complete wear of rider rings after one month of continuous operation. In this case study, the source of this problem was recognized and solved.

Keywords: piston rider, rings, gas distribution, pressure wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
409 Optimization of Wear during Dry Sliding Wear of AISI 1042 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Sukant Mehra, Parth Gupta, Varun Arora, Sarvoday Singh, Amit Kohli

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The study was emphasised on dry sliding wear behavior of AISI 1042 steel. Dry sliding wear tests were performed using pin-on-disk apparatus under normal loads of 5, 7.5 and 10 kgf and at speeds 600, 750 and 900 rpm. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized for finding optimal values of process parameter and experiment was based on rotatable, central composite design (CCD). It was found that the wear followed linear pattern with the load and rpm. The obtained optimal process parameters have been predicted and verified by confirmation experiments.

Keywords: central composite design (CCD), optimization, response surface methodology (RSM), wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
408 Wear Map for Cu-Based Friction Materials with Different Contents of Fe Reinforcement

Authors: Haibin Zhou, Pingping Yao, Kunyang Fan

Abstract:

Copper-based sintered friction materials are widely used in the brake system of different applications such as engineering machinery or high-speed train, due to the excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological performance. Considering the diversity of the working conditions of brake system, it is necessary to identify well and understand the tribological performance and wear mechanisms of friction materials for different conditions. Fe has been a preferred reinforcement for copper-based friction materials, due to its ability to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of material. Wear map is well accepted as a useful research method for evaluation of wear performances and wear mechanisms over a wider range of working conditions. Therefore, it is significantly important to construct a wear map which can give out the effects of work condition and Fe reinforcement on tribological performance of Cu-based friction materials. In this study, the copper-based sintered friction materials with the different addition of Fe reinforcement (0-20 vol. %) were studied. The tribological tests were performed against stainless steel in a ring-on-ring braking tester with varying braking energy density (0-5000 J/cm2). The linear wear and friction coefficient were measured. The worn surface, cross section and debris were analyzed to determine the dominant wear mechanisms for different testing conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the wear map and wear mechanism map were established, in terms of braking energy density and the addition of Fe. It was found that with low contents of Fe and low braking energy density, adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of friction materials. Oxidative wear and abrasive wear mainly occurred under moderate braking energy density. In the condition of high braking energy density, with both high and low addition of Fe, delamination appeared as the main wear mechanism.

Keywords: Cu-based friction materials, Fe reinforcement, wear map, wear mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
407 Dynamic Simulation for Surface Wear Prognosis of the Main Bearings in the Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: Yanyan Zhang, Ziyu Diao, Zhentao Liu, Ruidong Yan

Abstract:

The wear character of the main bearing is one of the critical indicators for the overhaul of an internal combustion engine, and the aim of this paper is to reveal the dynamic wear mechanism of the main bearings. A numerical simulation model combined multi-body dynamic equations of the engine, the average Reynolds equations of the bearing lubricant, asperity contact and wear model of the joint surfaces were established under typical operating conditions. The wear results were verified by experimental data, and then the influence of operating conditions, bearing clearance and cylinder pressure on the wear character of selected main bearings were analyzed. The results show that the contribution degree of different working conditions on the wear profile and depth of each bearing is obviously different, and the increase of joint clearance or cylinder pressure will accelerate the wear. The numerical model presented can be used to wear prognosis for joints and provide guidance for optimization design of sliding bearings.

Keywords: dynamic simulation, multi-body dynamics, sliding bearing, surface wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
406 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema

Abstract:

A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
405 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun

Abstract:

This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, titanium, SEM, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
404 Wear and Fraction Behavior of Porcelain Coated with Polyurethane/SiO2 Coating Layer

Authors: Ching Yern Chee

Abstract:

Various loading of nano silica is added into polyurethane (PU) and then coated on porcelain substrate. The wear and friction properties of the porcelain substrates coated with polyurethane/nano silica nano composite coatings were investigated using the reciprocating wear testing machine. The friction and wear test of polyurethane/nano silica coated porcelain substrate was studied at different sliding speed and applied load. It was found that the optimum composition of nano silica is 3 wt% which gives the lowest friction coefficient and wear rate in all applied load ranges and sliding speeds. For 3 wt% nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate, the increment of sliding speed caused higher wear rates but lower frictions coefficient. Besides, the friction coefficient of nano silica filled PU coated porcelain substrate decreased but the wear rate increased with the applied load.

Keywords: porcelain, nanocomposite coating, morphology, friction, wear behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
403 Comparative Study of Wear and Friction Behavior of Tricalcium Phosphate-Fluorapatite Bioceramic

Authors: Rym Taktak, Achwek Elghazel, Jamel Bouaziz

Abstract:

In the present work, we explored the potential of tribological behavior of tricalcium phosphate-Fluorapatite (β Tcp-Fap) bioceramic which has attracted considerable attention for orthopedics and dental applications. The approximate representatives Fap-βTcp were respectively [{13.26 wt%, 86.74 wt%} {19.9 wt%, 80.1 wt%},{ 26.52 wt%, 73.48 wt%}, {33.16 wt%, 66.84 wt%} and {40 wt%, 60 wt%}. The effects of Fluorapatite additives on friction and wear behavior were studied and discussed. The wear test was conducted using pion-disk tribometer at room temperature under dry condition using a constant sliding speed of 0,063 m/s, and three loads 3, 5 and 8 N. The wear rate and friction coefficient of β Tcp with different additive amounts were compared. An Alumina ball specimens were used as the pin and flat surface β Tcp-Fap specimens as the antagonist counterface. The results show a huge difference between the wear rate of β TCP samples and the other β TCP-Fap composites for all normal forces applied. This result shows the beneficial effect of fluorapatite on the tribological behavior of the β TCP. Moreover, we note that β Tcp-26% Fap specimens exhibit, under dry condition, the lower friction coefficient and the smaller wear rate than other biocomposites. Thereby, the friction and wear behavior is influenced by the addition of fluorapatite, the applied normal force, and the sliding velocity. To extend the understanding of the wear process, the surface topography of β Tcp-26% Fap specimens and the wear track obtained during the wear tests were studied using a surface profilometer, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: alumina, bioceramic, friction and wear test, tricalcium phosphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
402 Friction and Wear Characteristics of Pongamia Oil Based Blended Lubricant at Different Load and Sliding Distance

Authors: Yashvir Singh

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Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non -toxic and environmental friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of Pongamia oil (PO) contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, PO was blended in the ratios 15, 30 and 50% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms were abrasive and the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 15% PO, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. With increase in load, viscosity of all the bio-lubricants increases and meets the ISO VG 100 requirement at 40 oC except PB 50. The addition of PO in the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear scar diameter during the test. It has been concluded that the PB 15 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 3.8 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: friction, load, pongamia oil, sliding velocity, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
401 Wear Performance of Stellite 21 Cladded Overlay on Aisi 304L

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhua, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Arun Kumar

Abstract:

Stellite 21 is cobalt based super alloy used in improving the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This piece of research focuses on the wear analysis of satellite 21 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiments were carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and microhardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding of AISI 304 L substrate. The wear performance was examined on pin on dics wear testing machine under room temperature conditions. The results from this study show that Stellite 21 overlays show a significant improvement in the frictional wear resistance after TIG remelting. It is also established that low dilution procedures are important in controlling the metallurgical composition of these overlays which has a consequent effect in enhancing hardness and wear resistance of these overlays.

Keywords: surfacing, stellite 21, dilution, SMAW, frictional wear, micro-hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
400 Wear Assessment of SS316l-Al2O3 Composites for Heavy Wear Applications

Authors: Catherine Kuforiji, Michel Nganbe

Abstract:

The abrasive wear of composite materials is a major challenge in highly demanding wear applications. Therefore, this study focuses on fabricating, testing and assessing the properties of 50wt% SS316L stainless steel–50wt% Al2O3 particle composites. Composite samples were fabricated using the powder metallurgy route. The effects of the powder metallurgy processing parameters and hard particle reinforcement were studied. The microstructure, density, hardness and toughness were characterized. The wear behaviour was studied using pin-on-disc testing under dry sliding conditions. The highest hardness of 1085.2 HV, the highest theoretical density of 94.7% and the lowest wear rate of 0.00397 mm3/m were obtained at a milling speed of 720 rpm, a compaction pressure of 794.4 MPa and sintering at 1400 °C in an argon atmosphere. Compared to commercial SS316 and fabricated SS316L, the composites had 7.4 times and 11 times lower wear rate, respectively. However, the commercial 90WC-10Co showed 2.2 times lower wear rate compared to the fabricated SS316L-Al2O3 composites primarily due to the higher ceramic content of 90 wt.% in the reference WC-Co. However, eliminating the relatively high porosity of about 5 vol% using processes such as HIP and hot pressing can be expected to lead to further substantial improvements of the composites wear resistance.

Keywords: SS316L, Al2O3, powder metallurgy, wear characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
399 Investigation on Dry Sliding Wear for Laser Cladding of Stellite 6 Produced on a P91 Steel Substrate

Authors: Alain Kusmoko, Druce Dunne, Huijun Li

Abstract:

Stellite 6 was deposited by laser cladding on a chromium bearing substrate (P91) with energy inputs of 1 kW (P91-1) and 1.8 kW (P91-1.8). The chemical compositions and microstructures of these coatings were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The microhardness of the coatings was measured and the wear mechanism of the coatings was assessed using a pin-on-plate (reciprocating) wear testing machine. The results showed less cracking and pore development for Stellite 6 coatings applied to the P91 steel substrate with the lower heat input (P91-1). Further, the Stellite coating for P91-1 was significantly harder than that obtained for P91-1.8. The wear test results indicated that the weight loss for P91-1 was much lower than for P91-1.8. It is concluded that the lower hardness of the coating for P91-1.8, together with the softer underlying substrate structure, markedly reduced the wear resistance of the Stellite 6 coating.

Keywords: friction and wear, laser cladding, P91 steel, Stellite 6 coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
398 Effect of Zirconium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti on its Resistance to Wear: A Three-Dimensional Approach

Authors: S. M. A. Al-Qawabah, A. I. O. Zaid

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Aluminum and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their good and useful properties e.g. high strength to weight ratio, high thermal and electrical conductivities and good resistance to corrosion. However, against these favorable properties they have the disadvantage they solidifying large grain columnar structure which negatively affects their mechanical properties and surface quality. Aluminum alloys are normally grain refined by some alloying elements, such as Ti, Ti-B or Zr. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition to Al grain refined by Ti after extrusion on its wear resistance is investigated under different loads and sliding speeds namely at 5,10 and 20 N loads and sliding speeds ranging from m/min. and m/min. the results are presented in three-dimensional wear mode. To the best the authors' knowledge, the wear of aluminum in 3-dimensions has never been tackled before. In this work, the wear resistance of by presenting the results of wear are presented and discussed on the time, load and speed plots.

Keywords: aluminum grain refined, addition of titanium, wear resistance, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
397 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear

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