Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2386

Search results for: flame temperature

2386 Experimental Investigation of Partially Premixed Laminar Methane/Air Co-Flow Flames Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Mehdi Ashjaee, Shahrokh Zandieh Vakili


In this paper, partially premixed laminar methane/air co-flow flame is studied experimentally. Methane-air flame was established on an axisymmetric coannular burner. The fuel-air jet flows from the central tube while the secondary air flows from the region between the inner and the outer tube. The aim is to investigate the flame features and to develop a nonintrusive method for temperature measurement of methane/air partially premixed flame using Mach-Zehnder interferometry method. Different equivalence ratios and Reynolds numbers are considered. Flame generic visible appearance was also investigated and its various structures were studied. Three distinguished flame regimes were seen based on its appearance. A double flame structure can be seen for the equivalence ratio in the range of 1<Φ<2.1. By adding air to the mixture up to Φ=4 the flame has the characteristics of both premixed and non-premixed flames. Finally for 4<Φ<∞ the flame mainly becomes non-premixed like and the luminous sooting region on its tip is the obvious feature of this type of flames. The Mach-Zehnder method is used to obtain temperature field of a transparent fluid by means of index of refraction. Temperature obtained from optical techniques was compared with that of obtained from thermocouples in order to validate the results. Good agreement was observed for these two methods.

Keywords: flame structure, Mach-Zehnder interferometry, partially premixed flame, temperature field

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
2385 Experimental Study of LPG Diffusion Flame at Elevated Preheated Air Temperatures

Authors: Ahmed A. El-Kafy Amer, H. M. Gad, A. I. Ibrahim, S. I. Abdel-Mageed, T. M. Farag


This paper represents an experimental study of LPG diffusion flame at elevated air preheated temperatures. The flame is stabilized in a vertical water-cooled combustor by using air swirler. An experimental test rig was designed to investigate the different operating conditions. The burner head is designed so that the LPG fuel issued centrally and surrounded by the swirling air issues from an air swirler. There are three air swirlers having the same dimensions but having different blade angles to give different swirl numbers of 0.5, 0.87 and 1.5. The combustion air was heated electrically before entering the combustor up to a temperature about 500 K. Three air to fuel mass ratios of 30, 40 and 50 were also studied. The effect of air preheated temperature, swirl number and air to fuel mass ratios on the temperature maps, visible flame length, high temperature region (size) and exhaust species concentrations are studied. Some results show that as the air preheated temperature increases, the volume of high temperature region also increased but the flame length decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature, EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 increased, while EICO decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature from 300 to 500 K, for all air swirl numbers used, the highest increase in EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 are 141, 4 and 65%, respectively.

Keywords: air preheated temperature, air swirler, flame length, emission index

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
2384 Flame Retardancy of Organophosphorus Compound on Cellulose - an Eco Friendly Concern

Authors: M. A. Hannan, N. Matthias Neisius


Organophosphorus compound diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) was applied on cotton cellulose to impart eco-friendly flame retardant property to it. Here acetal linkage was introduced rather than conventionally used ester linkage to rescue from the undurability problem of flame retardant compound. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used to form acetal linkage between the base material and flame retardant compound. Inspiring limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 22.4 was found after exclusive washing treatment. A good outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 6.05 KJ/g was found possible during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. Low temperature dehydration with sufficient amount of char residue (14.89%) was experienced in case of treated sample. In addition, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) 343.061°C supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. With the consequence of pyrolysis effects, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples.

Keywords: acetal linkage, char residue, cotton cellulose, flame retardant, loi, low temperature pyrolysis, organophosphorus, THC, THRR

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2383 Catalytic Effect on Eco Friendly Functional Material in Flame Retardancy of Cellulose

Authors: Md. Abdul Hannan


Two organophosphorus compounds, namely diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10- phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) and diethyl (2,2-diethoxyethyl) phosphonate (DPAC) were applied on cotton cellulose to impart non-carcinogenic and durable (in alkaline washing) flame retardant property to it. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used. Synergistic acidic catalyzing effect of NaH2PO4+H3PO4 and NaH2PO4+NH4H2PO4 was also investigated. Appreciable limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 23.2% was achieved in case of the samples treated with flame retardant (FR) compound DPAC along with the combined acidic catalyzing effect. A distinguishing outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 3.27 KJ/g was revealed during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. In respect of thermal degradation, low temperature dehydration in conjugation with sufficient amount of char residue (30.5%) was obtained in case of DPAC treated sample. Consistently, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) (325°C) of DPAC treated sample supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples. Furthermore, for both of the flame retardant compounds, effect of different catalysts, considering both individual and combined, effect of solvents and overall the optimization of the process parameters were studied in detail.

Keywords: cotton cellulose, organophosphorus flame retardant, acetal linkage, THC, HRR, PHHR, char residue, LOI

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2382 Flame Retardant Study of Methylol Melamine Phosphate-Treated Cotton Fibre

Authors: Nurudeen Afolami Ayeni, Kasali Bello


Methylolmelamine with increasing degree of methylol substitution and the phosphates derivatives were used to resinate cotton fabric (CF). The resination was carried out at different curing time and curing temperature. Generally, the results show a reduction in the flame propagation rate of the treated fabrics compared to the untreated cotton fabric (CF). While the flame retardancy of methylolmelamine-treated fibre could be attributed to the degree of crosslinking of fibre-resin network which promotes stability, the methylolmelamine phosphate-treated fabrics show better retardancy due to the intumescences action of the phosphate resin upon decomposition in the resin – fabric network.

Keywords: cotton fabric, flame retardant, methylolmelamine, crosslinking, resination

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
2381 Thermal Performance of Dual Flame Impinging Normally on to a Flat Surface

Authors: Satpal Singh, Subhash Chander


An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the thermal performance of the CNG/air dual flame impinging normally on to a flat surface. The stability limits for the dual flame under both impinging and free conditions have been evaluated to select experimental operating range. Dual flame shape and structure have been explained with direct flame image and schematic diagram indicating modification in recirculation zone in presence of inner flame. Effects of various operating parameters like H/Dh, Re(o), Φ(o), and θ(o) on heat transfer characteristics have been discussed. Inner non-swirling flame Reynolds number (Re(i)) and equivalence ratio (Φ(i)) were kept constant. Heating patterns in the impingement region around the stagnation point have been altered significantly with change in the values of H/Dh, Re(o), Φ(o), and θ(o). The axial flow of inner flame has been notably effected with increase in Re(o). Heating was most favorable near stoichiometeric conditions of the outer swirling flame. However, the effect of change in swirl intensity (expressed in terms of θ(o)) on overall heat transfer efficiency was not as significant as in the case of other parameters. It has been inferred that best performance (higher uniformity and efficiency) of the dual flame impinging on a flat surface can be achieved at moderate value of separation distance (H/Dh of 2-3) and outer swirling flame Reynolds number (Re(o) of 7000-9000) under stoichiometeric conditions.

Keywords: dual flame, heat transfer, impingement, swirling insert, transmission efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
2380 An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Fuel to Air Ratio Using Flame Chemiluminescence

Authors: Sewon Kim, Chang Yeop Lee, Minjun Kwon


This study is aiming at establishing the relationship between the optical signal of flame and an equivalent ratio of flame. In this experiment, flame optical signal in a furnace is measured using photodiode. The combustion system which is composed of metal fiber burner and vertical furnace and flame chemiluminescence is measured at various experimental conditions. In this study, the flame chemiluminescence of laminar premixed flame is measured by using commercially available photodiode. It is experimentally investigated the relationship between equivalent ratio and photodiode signal. In addition, The strategy of combustion control method is proposed by using the optical signal and fuel pressure. The results showed that certain relationship between optical data of photodiode and equivalence ratio exists and this leads to the successful application of this system for instantaneous measurement of equivalence ration of the combustion system.

Keywords: flame chemiluminescence, photo diode, equivalence ratio, combustion control

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
2379 Prediction of the Tunnel Fire Flame Length by Hybrid Model of Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Behzad Niknam, Kourosh Shahriar, Hassan Madani


This paper demonstrates the applicability of Hybrid Neural Networks that combine with back propagation networks (BPN) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for predicting the flame length of tunnel fire A hybrid neural network model has been developed to predict the flame length of tunnel fire based parameters such as Fire Heat Release rate, air velocity, tunnel width, height and cross section area. The network has been trained with experimental data obtained from experimental work. The hybrid neural network model learned the relationship for predicting the flame length in just 3000 training epochs. After successful learning, the model predicted the flame length.

Keywords: tunnel fire, flame length, ANN, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
2378 Characterization and Properties of Novel Flame Retardants Based on s-Triazine

Authors: Sameh M. Osman, El-Refaie Kenawy, Zeid A. Al-Othman, Mohamed H. El-Newehy, El-Saied A. Aly, Sherine N. Khattab, Ayman El-Faham


Recently, there has been a huge interest in using cyanuric chloride in a wide range of functional group transformations, as Cyanuric chloride has temperature-dependent differential reactivity for displacement of chlorides with various nucleophiles In the present work, some copolymers based on s-triazine Unit were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. For comparison study, the copolymers were synthesized by the conventional method. Synthesized Copolymers were characterized by MP, IR, TGA, DSC and GPC. The result indicated that copolymers are thermally stable and in good in composition and yield. Further studies that involve the test for selected removal of transition elements such as Cu (II), Zn (II) and Mn (II). Moreover, the effects of the polymeric triazine derivatives containing different functional groups which expected to have a good thermal stability and char formation ability on thermal degradation and flame retardancy.

Keywords: flame retardants, heavy metals, microwave-assisted synthesis, s-triazine

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2377 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
2376 Effect of Fuel Lean Reburning Process on NOx Reduction and CO Emission

Authors: Changyeop Lee, Sewon Kim


Reburning is a useful technology in reducing nitric oxide through injection of a secondary hydrocarbon fuel. In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of fuel lean reburning on NOx/CO reduction in LNG flame. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a co-flow swirl burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. Tests were conducted using LNG gas as the reburn fuel as well as the main fuel. The effects of reburn fuel fraction and injection manner of the reburn fuel were studied when the fuel lean reburning system was applied. The paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. At steady state, temperature distribution and emission formation in the furnace have been measured and compared. This paper makes clear that in order to decrease both NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust when the pulsated fuel lean reburning system was adapted, it is important that the control of some factors such as frequency and duty ratio. Also it shows the fuel lean reburning is also effective method to reduce NOx as much as reburning.

Keywords: fuel lean reburn, NOx, CO, LNG flame

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2375 Influence of Flame-Holder on Existence Important Parameters in a Duct Combustion Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Doustdar, Mohammad Mojtahedpoor


The effects of flame-holder position, the ratio of flame holder diameter to combustion chamber diameter and injection angle on fuel propulsive droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied by a cold flow. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the effective mass fraction. An empty cylinder as well as a flame-holder which are as a simulator for duct combustion has been considered. The airflow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done by four nozzles which are located on the entrance of cylinder. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multi phase, multi component code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

Keywords: KIVA-3V, flame-holder, duct combustion, effective mass fraction, mean diameter of droplets

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
2374 Flame Acceleration of Premixed Natural Gas/Air Explosion in Closed Pipe

Authors: H. Mat Kiah, Rafiziana M. Kasmani, Norazana Ibrahim, Roshafima R. Ali, Aziatul N.Sadikin


An experimental study has been done to investigate the flame acceleration in a closed pipe. A horizontal steel pipe, 2m long and 0.1 m in diameter (L/D of 20), was used in this work. For tests with 90 degree bends, the bend had a radius of 0.1 m and thus, the pipe was lengthened 1 m (based on the centreline length of the segment). Ignition was affected one end of the vessel while the other end was closed. Only stoichiometric concentration (Ф, = 1.0) of natural gas/air mixtures will be reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that bend pipe configuration gave three times higher in maximum over-pressure (5.5 bars) compared to straight pipe (2.0 bars). From the results, the highest flame speed of 63 m s-1 was observed in a gas explosion with bent pipe, greater by a factor of ~3 as compared with straight pipe (23 m s-1). This occurs because bending acts similar to an obstacle, in which this mechanism can induce more turbulence, initiating combustion in an unburned pocket at the corner region and causing a high mass burning rate which increases the flame speed.

Keywords: bending, gas explosion, bending, flame acceleration, over-pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
2373 Analysis of Syngas Combustion Characteristics in Can-Type Combustor using CFD

Authors: Norhaslina Mat Zian, Hasril Hasini, Nur Irmawati Om


This study focuses on the flow and combustion behavior inside gas turbine combustor used in thermal power plant. The combustion process takes place using synthetic gas and the baseline solution was made on gas turbine combustor firing natural gas (100% Methane) as the main source of fuel. Attention is given to the effect of the H2/CO ratio on the variation of the flame profile, temperature distribution, and emissions. The H2/CO ratio varies in the range of 10-80 % and the CH4 values are fixed 10% for each case. While keeping constant the mass flow rate and operating pressure, the preliminary result shows that the flow inside the can-combustor is highly swirling which indicates good mixing of fuel and air prior to the entrance of the mixture to the main combustion zone.

Keywords: cfd, combustion, flame, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2372 High-Speed LIF-OH Imaging of H2-Air Turbulent Premixed Flames

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Harbi


This paper presents a comparative study of effects of the repeated solid obstacles on the propagation of H2-Air premixed flames. Pressure, speed of the flame front as well as structure of reaction zones are studied for hydrogen. Two equivalence ratios are examined for different configurations of three baffle plates and two obstacles with a square cross-section having blockage ratios of either 0.24 or 0.5. Hydrogen fuel mixtures with two equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.8 are studied and this is limited by the excessive overpressures. The results show that the peak pressure and its rate of change can be increased by increasing the blockage ratio or by decreasing the space between successive baffles. As illustrated by the high speed images of LIF-OH, the degree of wrinkling and contortion in the flame front increase as the blockages increase. The images also show how the flame front relaminarises with increasing distances between obstacles, which accounts for the pressure decrease with increasing separation. It is also found that more than one obstacle is needed to achieve a turbulent flame structure with intense corrugations.

Keywords: premixed propagating flames, flame-obstacle interaction, turbulent premixed flames, overpressure, transient flames

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
2371 Preparation and Flame-Retardant Properties of Epoxy Resins Containing Organophosphorus Compounds

Authors: Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Corneliu Hamciuc, Vicente Javier Forrat Perez


The present work describes the preparation of new organophosphorus compounds with high content of phosphorus followed by the incorporation of these compounds into epoxy resin systems in order to investigate the phosphorus effect in terms of thermal stability, flame-retardant and mechanical properties of modified epoxy resins. Thus, two new organophosphorus compounds have been synthesized and fully characterized. 6-Oxido-6H-dibenz[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphorinyl-phenylcarbinol has been prepared by the addition reaction of P–H group of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide to carbonyl group of benzaldehyde. By treating the phenylcarbinol derivative with POCl3 a new phosphorus compound was obtained, having a content of 12.227% P. The organophosphorus compounds have been purified by recrystallization while their chemical structures have been confirmed by melting point measurements, FTIR and HNMR spectroscopies. In the next step various flame-retardant epoxy resins with different content of phosphorus have been prepared starting from a commercial epoxy resin and using dicyandiamide (DICY) as a latent curing agent in the presence of an accelerator. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to investigate the behavior and kinetics of curing process of thermosetting systems. The results showed that the best curing characteristic and glass transition temperature are obtained at a ratio of epoxy resin: DICY: accelerator equal to 94:5:1. The thermal stability of the phosphorus-containing epoxy resins was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air, DSC, SEM and LOI test measurements.

Keywords: epoxy resins, flame retardant properties, phosphorus-containing compounds, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
2370 Soot Formation in the Field of Combustion

Authors: Nacira Mecheri, N. Boussid


A new chemical mechanism designed to study the process of forming the first aromatic ring (benzene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a flame of acetylene (C2H2) has been developed. The mechanism developed, contains 50 chemical species involved in 268 reversible elementary reactions. The comparison between the results from modelling and experimental measurements allowed us to test the validity of the postulated mechanism in specific experimental conditions. Kinetic analysis of the flame by calculating the maximum rates for each elementary reaction, allowed us to identify key reactions pathways of consumption and formation of main precursors of soot.

Keywords: benzene, PAH, acetylene, modeling, flame, soot

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
2369 Electric Field Impact on the Biomass Gasification and Combustion Dynamics

Authors: M. Zake, I. Barmina, R. Valdmanis, A. Kolmickovs


Experimental investigations of the DC electric field effect on thermal decomposition of biomass, formation of the axial flow of volatiles (CO, H2, CxHy), mixing of volatiles with swirling airflow at low swirl intensity (S ≈ 0.2-0.35), their ignition and on formation of combustion dynamics are carried out with the aim to understand the mechanism of electric field influence on biomass gasification, combustion of volatiles and heat energy production. The DC electric field effect on combustion dynamics was studied by varying the positive bias voltage of the central electrode from 0.6 kV to 3 kV, whereas the ion current was limited to 2 mA. The results of experimental investigations confirm the field-enhanced biomass gasification with enhanced release of volatiles and the development of endothermic processes at the primary stage of thermochemical conversion of biomass determining the field-enhanced heat energy consumption with the correlating decrease of the flame temperature and heat energy production at this stage of flame formation. Further, the field-enhanced radial expansion of the flame reaction zone correlates with a more complete combustion of volatiles increasing the combustion efficiency by 3 % and decreasing the mass fraction of CO, H2 and CxHy in the products, whereas by 10 % increases the average volume fraction of CO2 and the heat energy production downstream the combustor increases by 5-10 %

Keywords: biomass, combustion, electrodynamic control, gasification

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2368 Advanced Phosphorus-Containing Polymer Materials towards Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Epoxy Thermosets

Authors: Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Corneliu Hamciuc


Nowadays, epoxy materials are extensively used in ever more areas and under ever more demanding environmental conditions due to their remarkable combination of properties, light weight and ease of processing. However, these materials greatly increase the fire risk due to their flammability and possible release of toxic by-products as a result of their chemical composition which consists mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Therefore, improving the fire retardant behaviour to prevent the loss of life and property is of particular concern among government regulatory bodies, consumers and manufacturers alike. Modification of epoxy resins with organophosphorus compounds, as reactive flame retardants or additives, is the key to achieving non-flammable advanced epoxy materials. Herein, a detailed characterization of fire behaviour for a series of phosphorus-containing epoxy thermosets is reported. A carefully designed phosphorus flame retardant additive was simply blended with a bifunctional bisphenol-A based epoxy resin. Further thermal cross-linking in the presence of various aminic hardeners led to eco-friendly flame retardant epoxy resins. The type of hardener, concentration of flame retardant additive, compatibility between the components of the mixture, char formation and morphology, thermal stability, flame retardant mechanisms were investigated. It was found that even a very low content of phosphorus introduced into the epoxy matrix increased the limiting oxygen index value to about 30%. In addition, the peak of the heat release rate value decreased up to 45% as compared to the one of the neat epoxy system. The main flame retardant mechanism was the condensed-phase one as revealed by SEM and XPS measurements.

Keywords: condensed-phase mechanism, eco-friendly phosphorus flame retardant, epoxy resin, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2367 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel


The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
2366 A FR Fire-Off with Polysilicic Acid for Pes/Co Blends

Authors: Raziye Atakan, Ebru Celebi, Gulay Ozcan, Neda Soydan, A. Sezai Sarac


In this study, a novel polymeric flame retardant chemical with phosphorous-nitrogen synergism was synthesized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydrophilic polyester resin (PR), phosphoric acid and dicyandiamide (DCDA). Polyester/Cotton (Pes/Co) blend fabrics were treated via pad-dry-cure process with this synthesized chemical. PVA (PR)-P-DCDA has shown that it is an effective flame retardant on the fabrics. In order to improve durable flame retardancy for cotton part of the blend, polysilicic acid and citric acid monohydrate auxiliaries were added in FR finishing bath at different concentrations. Flammability and characteristic properties of the sample were tested according to relevant ISO standard and procedures. To do so, ISO 6940 vertical flammability test, TGA, DTA, LOI and FTIR analysis have been performed. The obtained results showed that this new finishing formulation is a good char-forming agent for the PES/CO blends and polysilicic acid could be used for cellulosic blends with PVA (PR)-P-DCDA.

Keywords: flame retardancy, flammability, Pes/Co blends, polysilicic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2365 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Applied to the Gas Turbine Blade According to the Thermal Gradient

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Yonseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok


The Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) prevents heat directly transferring from the high-temperature flame to the substrate. Top coat and bond coat compose the TBC and top coat consists of a ceramic and bond coat increases adhesion between the top coat and the substrate. The TBC technology drops the substrate surface temperature by about 150~200°C. In addition, the TBC system has a cooling system to lower the blade temperature by the air flow inside the blade. Then, as a result, the thermal gradient occurs inside the blade by cooling. Also, the internal stress occurs due to the difference in thermal expansion. In this paper, the finite element analyses (FEA) were performed and stress changes were derived according to the thermal gradient of the TBC system. The stress was increased due to the cooling, but difference of the stress between the top coat and bond coat was decreased. So, delamination in the interface between top coat and bond coat.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC), thermal gradient, Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
2364 Study of a Lean Premixed Combustor: A Thermo Acoustic Analysis

Authors: Minoo Ghasemzadeh, Rouzbeh Riazi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Alireza Ramezani


In this study, thermo acoustic oscillations of a lean premixed combustor has been investigated, and a mono-dimensional code was developed in this regard. The linearized equations of motion are solved for perturbations with time dependence〖 e〗^iwt. Two flame models were considered in this paper and the effect of mean flow and boundary conditions were also investigated. After manipulation of flame heat release equation together with the equations of flow perturbation within the main components of the combustor model (i.e., plenum/ premixed duct/ and combustion chamber) and by considering proper boundary conditions between the components of model, a system of eight homogeneous equations can be obtained. This simplification, for the main components of the combustor model, is convenient since low frequency acoustic waves are not affected by bends. Moreover, some elements in the combustor are smaller than the wavelength of propagated acoustic perturbations. A convection time is also assumed to characterize the required time for the acoustic velocity fluctuations to travel from the point of injection to the location of flame front in the combustion chamber. The influence of an extended flame model on the acoustic frequencies of combustor was also investigated, assuming the effect of flame speed as a function of equivalence ratio perturbation, on the rate of flame heat release. The abovementioned system of equations has a related eigenvalue equation which has complex roots. The sign of imaginary part of these roots determines whether the disturbances grow or decay and the real part of these roots would give the frequency of the modes. The results show a reasonable agreement between the predicted values of dominant frequencies in the present model and those calculated in previous related studies.

Keywords: combustion instability, dominant frequencies, flame speed, premixed combustor

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
2363 The Determination of the Zinc Sulfate, Sodium Hydroxide and Boric Acid Molar Ratio on the Production of Zinc Borates

Authors: N. Tugrul, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin


Zinc borate is an important boron compound that can be used as multi-functional flame retardant additive due to its high dehydration temperature property. In this study, the raw materials of ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH and H3BO3 were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The synthesis parameters were set to 100°C reaction temperature and 120 minutes of reaction time, with different molar ratio of starting materials (ZnSO4.7H2O:NaOH:H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the identifications of the products were conducted by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized at the molar ratios of 1:1:3, 1:1:4, 1:2:5 and 1:2:6. Among these ratios 1:2:6 had the best results.

Keywords: Zinc borate, ZnSO4.7H2O, NaOH, H3BO3, XRD, FT-IR

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2362 An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers

Authors: Ahmet Y. Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Mustafa G. Aydeniz, Yasemin Oner, Gokhan Kalkan


In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.

Keywords: Hot-spot temperature, monitoring system, power transformer, smart grid

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
2361 Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test

Authors: Gisele C. A. Martins, Leonardo A. Marcolin, Laurenn B. de Macedo, Francisco A. Rocco Lahr, Carlito Calil Jr


The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use since it could be considered a potential risk in a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for research aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant products produced by a Brazilian industry. Tests were performed on plywood panels of Pinus spp previously immersed, varying the products concentrations and compared with untreated samples. The test used to evaluate the flame spread in a panel was the modified Schlyter test. The product in question was proved efficient, before and after shutting off the burner. Comparing panels with the panels without treatment, there was a decrease of 400% of the height of the flame spread on the treated ones.

Keywords: fire retardant, flame spread, plywood, wood-based material

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
2360 Combustion and Emissions Performance of Syngas Fuels Derived from Palm Kernel Shell and Polyethylene (PE) Waste via Catalytic Steam Gasification

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the burning of syngas fuels derived from biomass and plastic solid waste mixture through gasification process is presented in this paper. The syngas fuel is burned in gas turbine can combustor. Gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The main objective is to test the impact of the alternative syngas fuel compositions and lower heating value on the combustion performance and emissions. The syngas fuel is produced by blending Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) with Polyethylene (PE) waste via catalytic steam gasification (fluidized bed reactor). High hydrogen content syngas fuel was obtained by mixing 30% PE waste with PKS. The syngas composition obtained through the gasification process is 76.2% H2, 8.53% CO, 4.39% CO2 and 10.90% CH4. The lower heating value of the syngas fuel is LHV = 15.98 MJ/m3. Three fuels were tested in this study natural gas (100%CH4), syngas fuel and pure hydrogen (100% H2). The power from the combustor was kept constant for all the fuels tested in this study. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results show an increase of the peak flame temperature and NO mass fractions for the syngas and hydrogen fuels compared to natural gas fuel combustion. Lower average CO2 emissions at the exit of the combustor are obtained for the syngas compared to the natural gas fuel.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, emissions, gas turbine combustor, gasification, solid waste, syngas, waste to energy

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2359 Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

Authors: P. Lestinsky, D. Jecha, V. Brummer, P. Stehlik


Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing). The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor. Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150 °C was processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from 150 °C to 40 °C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of a liquid-gas ratio, but not as much as for the common venturi scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %. The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.

Keywords: desulphurization, absorption, flue gas, modeling

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2358 Comparison between FEM Simulation and Experiment of Temperature Rise in Power Transformer Inner Steel Plate

Authors: Byung hyun Bae


In power transformer, leakage magnetic flux generate temperature rise of inner steel plate. Sometimes, this temperature rise can be serious problem. If temperature of steel plate is over critical point, harmful gas will be generated in the tank. And this gas can be a reason of fire, explosion and life decrease. So, temperature rise forecasting of steel plate is very important at the design stage of power transformer. To improve accuracy of forecasting of temperature rise, comparison between simulation and experiment achieved in this paper.

Keywords: power transformer, steel plate, temperature rise, experiment, simulation

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2357 A New Approach on the Synthesis of Zinc Borates by Ultrasonic Method and Determination of the Zinc Oxide and Boric Acid Optimum Molar Ratio

Authors: A. Ersan, A. S. Kipcak, M. Yildirim, A. M. Erayvaz, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borates are used as a multi-functional flame retardant additive for its high dehydration temperature. In this study, a new method of ultrasonic mixing was used in the synthesis of zinc borates. The reactants of zinc oxide (ZnO) and boric acid (H3BO3) were used at the constant reaction parameters of 90°C reaction temperature and 55 min of reaction time. Several molar ratios of ZnO:H3BO3 (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5) were conducted for the determination of the optimum reaction ratio. Prior to the synthesis, the characterization of the synthesized zinc borates were made by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). From the results Zinc Oxide Borate Hydrate [Zn3B6O12.3.5H2O], were synthesized optimum at the molar ratio of 1:3, with a reaction efficiency of 95.2%.

Keywords: zinc borates, ultrasonic mixing, XRD, FT-IR, reaction efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 205