Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6558

Search results for: flame temperature

6558 Adiabatic Flame Temperature: New Calculation Methode

Authors: Muthana Abdul Mjed Jamel Al-gburi


The present paper introduces the methane-air flame and its main chemical reaction, the mass burning rate, the burning velocity, and the most important parameter, the adiabatic and its evaluation. Those major important flame parameters will be mathematically formulated and computerized using the MATLAB program. The present program established a new technique to decide the true adiabatic flame temperature. The new technique implements the trial and error procedure to obtained the calculated total internal energy of the product species then evaluate of the reactants ones, from both, we can draw two energy lines their intersection will decide the true required temperature. The obtained results show accurate evaluation for the atmospheric Stoichiometric (Φ=1.05) methane-air flame, and the value was 2136.36 K.

Keywords: 1- methane-air flame, 2-, adiabatic flame temperature, 3-, reaction model, 4- matlab program, 5-, new technique

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6557 Temperature Field Measurement of Premixed Landfill Gas Laminar Flame in a Cylindrical Slot Burner Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Bahareh Najafian Ashrafi, Hossein Zeidabadinejad, Mehdi Ashjaee


The temperature field is a key factor of flame heat transfer rate and therefore should be measured accurately. In this study, the Mach-Zehnder Interferometry method is applied to measure the temperature field of premixed air/landfill gas (LFG60:60% CH4+40% CO2) laminar flame. The three-dimensional flame of cylindrical slot burner can assume to be two-dimensional due to the high aspect ratio (L/W=10) of the rectangular slot. So, the method converts two-dimensional flame to closed isothermal curves called fringes and the outer fringes temperature is measured by thermocouples. The experiments are carried out for Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios ranging from 100 to 400 and 1.0 to 1.4, respectively. Results show that by increasing the equivalence ratio or Reynolds number, the flame height increases. The maximum flame temperature decreases by increasing the equivalence ratio but does not change considerably by changing the Reynolds number.

Keywords: landfill gas, Mach-Zehender interferometry, premix flame, slot burner, temperature filed

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6556 Experimental Investigation of Partially Premixed Laminar Methane/Air Co-Flow Flames Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Mehdi Ashjaee, Shahrokh Zandieh Vakili


In this paper, partially premixed laminar methane/air co-flow flame is studied experimentally. Methane-air flame was established on an axisymmetric coannular burner. The fuel-air jet flows from the central tube while the secondary air flows from the region between the inner and the outer tube. The aim is to investigate the flame features and to develop a nonintrusive method for temperature measurement of methane/air partially premixed flame using Mach-Zehnder interferometry method. Different equivalence ratios and Reynolds numbers are considered. Flame generic visible appearance was also investigated and its various structures were studied. Three distinguished flame regimes were seen based on its appearance. A double flame structure can be seen for the equivalence ratio in the range of 1<Φ<2.1. By adding air to the mixture up to Φ=4 the flame has the characteristics of both premixed and non-premixed flames. Finally for 4<Φ<∞ the flame mainly becomes non-premixed like and the luminous sooting region on its tip is the obvious feature of this type of flames. The Mach-Zehnder method is used to obtain temperature field of a transparent fluid by means of index of refraction. Temperature obtained from optical techniques was compared with that of obtained from thermocouples in order to validate the results. Good agreement was observed for these two methods.

Keywords: flame structure, Mach-Zehnder interferometry, partially premixed flame, temperature field

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6555 A Numerical Study on the Influence of CO2 Dilution on Combustion Characteristics of a Turbulent Diffusion Flame

Authors: Yasaman Tohidi, Rouzbeh Riazi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Masoud Mohammadi


The objective of the present study is to numerically investigate the effect of CO2 replacement of N2 in air stream on the flame characteristics of the CH4 turbulent diffusion flame. The Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) has been used as the computational tool. In this regard, laminar flamelet and modified k-ε models have been utilized as combustion and turbulence models, respectively. Results reveal that the presence of CO2 in air stream changes the flame shape and maximum flame temperature. Also, CO2 dilution causes an increment in CO mass fraction.

Keywords: CH4 diffusion flame, CO2 dilution, OpenFOAM, turbulent flame

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6554 A Numerical Study on the Effects of N2 Dilution on the Flame Structure and Temperature Distribution of Swirl Diffusion Flames

Authors: Yasaman Tohidi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Saeed Ebadi Tavallaee, Shahin Vakilipoor Takaloo, Hossein Amiri


The numerical modeling is performed to study the effects of N2 addition to the fuel stream on the flame structure and temperature distribution of methane-air swirl diffusion flames with different swirl intensities. The Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) has been utilized as the computational tool. Flamelet approach along with modified k-ε model is employed to model the flame characteristics.  The results indicate that the presence of N2 in the fuel stream leads to the flame temperature reduction. By increasing of swirl intensity, the flame structure changes significantly. The flame has a conical shape in low swirl intensity; however, it has an hour glass-shape with a shorter length in high swirl intensity. The effects of N2 dilution decrease the flame length in all swirl intensities; however, the rate of reduction is more noticeable in low swirl intensity.

Keywords: swirl diffusion flame, N2 dilution, OpenFOAM, swirl intensity

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
6553 Experimental Study of LPG Diffusion Flame at Elevated Preheated Air Temperatures

Authors: Ahmed A. El-Kafy Amer, H. M. Gad, A. I. Ibrahim, S. I. Abdel-Mageed, T. M. Farag


This paper represents an experimental study of LPG diffusion flame at elevated air preheated temperatures. The flame is stabilized in a vertical water-cooled combustor by using air swirler. An experimental test rig was designed to investigate the different operating conditions. The burner head is designed so that the LPG fuel issued centrally and surrounded by the swirling air issues from an air swirler. There are three air swirlers having the same dimensions but having different blade angles to give different swirl numbers of 0.5, 0.87 and 1.5. The combustion air was heated electrically before entering the combustor up to a temperature about 500 K. Three air to fuel mass ratios of 30, 40 and 50 were also studied. The effect of air preheated temperature, swirl number and air to fuel mass ratios on the temperature maps, visible flame length, high temperature region (size) and exhaust species concentrations are studied. Some results show that as the air preheated temperature increases, the volume of high temperature region also increased but the flame length decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature, EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 increased, while EICO decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature from 300 to 500 K, for all air swirl numbers used, the highest increase in EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 are 141, 4 and 65%, respectively.

Keywords: air preheated temperature, air swirler, flame length, emission index

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6552 Hydrogen-Fueled Micro-Thermophotovoltaic Power Generator: Flame Regimes and Flame Stability

Authors: Hosein Faramarzpour


This work presents the optimum operational conditions for a hydrogen-based micro-scale power source, using a verified mathematical model including fluid dynamics and reaction kinetics. Thereafter the stable operational flame regime is pursued as a key factor in optimizing the design of micro-combustors. The results show that with increasing velocities, four H2 flame regimes develop in the micro-combustor, namely: 1) periodic ignition-extinction regime, 2) steady symmetric regime, 3) pulsating asymmetric regime, and 4) steady asymmetric regime. The first regime that appears in 0.8 m/s inlet velocity is a periodic ignition-extinction regime which is characterized by counter flows and tulip-shape flames. For flow velocity above 0.2 m/s, the flame shifts downstream, and the combustion regime switches to a steady symmetric flame where temperature increases considerably due to the increased rate of incoming energy. Further elevation in flow velocity up to 1 m/s leads to the pulsating asymmetric flame formation, which is associated with pulses in various flame properties such as temperature and species concentration. Further elevation in flow velocity up to 1 m/s leads to the pulsating asymmetric flame formation, which is associated with pulses in various flame properties such as temperature and species concentration. Ultimately, when the inlet velocity reached 1.2 m/s, the last regime was observed, and a steady asymmetric regime appeared.

Keywords: thermophotovoltaic generator, micro combustor, micro power generator, combustion regimes, flame dynamic

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6551 Aspects Concerning Flame Propagation of Various Fuels in Combustion Chamber of Four Valve Engines

Authors: Zoran Jovanovic, Zoran Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota


In this paper, results concerning flame propagation of various fuels in a particular combustion chamber with four tilted valves were elucidated. Flame propagation was represented by the evolution of spatial distribution of temperature in various cut-planes within combustion chamber while the flame front location was determined by dint of zones with maximum temperature gradient. The results presented are only a small part of broader on-going scrutinizing activity in the field of multidimensional modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers with complicated geometries encompassing various models of turbulence, different fuels and combustion models. In the case of turbulence two different models were applied i.e. standard k-ε model of turbulence and k-ξ-f model of turbulence. In this paper flame propagation results were analyzed and presented for two different hydrocarbon fuels, such as CH4 and C8H18. In the case of combustion all differences ensuing from different turbulence models, obvious for non-reactive flows are annihilated entirely. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is invariant as regards turbulence models and fuels applied. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is entirely invariant as regards fuel variation indicating that the flame propagation through unburned mixture of CH4 and C8H18 fuels is not chemically controlled.

Keywords: automotive flows, flame propagation, combustion modelling, CNG

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
6550 Flame Retardancy of Organophosphorus Compound on Cellulose - an Eco Friendly Concern

Authors: M. A. Hannan, N. Matthias Neisius


Organophosphorus compound diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) was applied on cotton cellulose to impart eco-friendly flame retardant property to it. Here acetal linkage was introduced rather than conventionally used ester linkage to rescue from the undurability problem of flame retardant compound. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used to form acetal linkage between the base material and flame retardant compound. Inspiring limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 22.4 was found after exclusive washing treatment. A good outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 6.05 KJ/g was found possible during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. Low temperature dehydration with sufficient amount of char residue (14.89%) was experienced in case of treated sample. In addition, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) 343.061°C supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. With the consequence of pyrolysis effects, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples.

Keywords: acetal linkage, char residue, cotton cellulose, flame retardant, loi, low temperature pyrolysis, organophosphorus, THC, THRR

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
6549 Effect of Different Factors on Temperature Profile and Performance of an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Rice Husk Gasification

Authors: Dharminder Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, study of temperature profile in a pilot scale air bubbling fluidized bed (ABFB) gasifier for rice husk gasification was carried out. Effects of different factors such as multiple cyclones, gas cooling system, ventilate gas pipe length, and catalyst on temperature profile was examined. ABFB gasifier used in this study had two sections, one is bed section and the other is freeboard section. River sand was used as bed material with air as gasification agent, and conventional charcoal as start-up heating medium in this gasifier. Temperature of different point in both sections of ABFB gasifier was recorded at different ER value and ER value was changed by changing the feed rate of biomass (rice husk) and by keeping the air flow rate constant for long durational of gasifier operation. ABFB with double cyclone with gas coolant system and with short length ventilate gas pipe was found out to be optimal gasifier design to give temperature profile required for high gasification performance in long duration operation. This optimal design was tested with different ER values and it was found that ER of 0.33 was most favourable for long duration operation (8 hr continuous operation), giving highest carbon conversion efficiency. At optimal ER of 0.33, bed temperature was found to be stable at 700 °C, above bed temperature was found to be at 628.63 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature was found to be at 600 °C, top of freeboard temperature was found to be at 517.5 °C, gas temperature was found to be at 195 °C, and flame temperature was found to be 676 °C. Temperature at all the points showed fluctuations of 10 – 20 °C. Effect of catalyst i.e. dolomite (20% with sand bed) was also examined on temperature profile, and it was found that at optimal ER of 0.33, the bed temperature got increased to 795 °C, above bed temperature got decreased to 523 °C, bottom of freeboard temperature got decreased to 548 °C, top of freeboard got decreased to 475 °C, gas temperature got decreased to 220 °C, and flame temperature got increased to 703 °C. Increase in bed temperature leads to higher flame temperature due to presence of more hydrocarbons generated from more tar cracking at higher temperature. It was also found that the use of dolomite with sand bed eliminated the agglomeration in the reactor at such high bed temperature (795 °C).

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, bed temperature, charcoal heating, dolomite, flame temperature, rice husk

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6548 Flame Propagation Velocity of Selected Gas Mixtures Depending on the Temperature

Authors: Kaczmarzyk Piotr, Anna Dziechciarz, Wojciech Klapsa


The purpose of this paper is demonstration the test results of research influence of temperature on the velocity of flame propagation using gas and air mixtures for selected gas mixtures. The research was conducted on the test apparatus in the form of duct 2 m long. The test apparatus was funded from the project: “Development of methods to neutralize threats of explosion for determined tanks contained technical gases, including alternative sources of supply in the fire environment, taking into account needs of rescuers” number: DOB-BIO6/02/50/2014. The Project is funded by The National Centre for Research and Development. This paper presents the results of measurement of rate of pressure rise and rate in flame propagation, using test apparatus for mixtures air and methane or air and propane. This paper presents the results performed using the test apparatus in the form of duct measuring the rate of flame and overpressure wave. Studies were performed using three gas mixtures with different concentrations: Methane (3% to 8% vol), Propane (3% to 6% vol). As regard to the above concentrations, tests were carried out at temperatures 20 and 30 ̊C. The gas mixture was supplied to the inside of the duct by the partial pressure molecules. Data acquisition was made using 5 dynamic pressure transducers and 5 ionization probes, arranged along of the duct. Temperature conditions changes were performed using heater which was mounted on the duct’s bottom. During the tests, following parameters were recorded: maximum explosion pressure, maximum pressure recorded by sensors and voltage recorded by ionization probes. Performed tests, for flammable gas and air mixtures, indicate that temperature changes have an influence on overpressure velocity. It should be noted, that temperature changes do not have a major impact on the flame front velocity. In the case of propane and air mixtures (temperature 30 ̊C) was observed DDT (Deflagration to Detonation) phenomena. The velocity increased from 2 to 20 m/s. This kind of explosion could turn into a detonation, but the duct length is too short (2 m).

Keywords: flame propagation, flame propagation velocity, explosion, propane, methane

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6547 Determination of Brominated Flame Retardants In Recycled Plastic Toys Using Thermal Desorption GC/MS

Authors: Athena Nguyen, Rojin Belganeh


In recycling plastics industries, waste plastics are converted into monomers and other useful molecules by chemical reactions. Thermal energy generated by incineration is recovered when waste plastics melt. During the process, Flame retardants containing products get in, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are often used to reduce the flammability of products. Some of the originally formulated brominated flame retardants additives are restricted by the RoHS Directive, such as PBDE and PBB. The determination of BFRs other than those restricted by the RoHS directive is required. Frontier Lab developed a pyrolyzer based on the vertical micro-furnace design. The multi-mode pyrolyzer with different modes of operations, including evolve gas analysis (EGA), flash pyrolysis, thermal desorption, heart cutting, allows users to choose among the techniques for their analysis purposes. The method requires very little sample preparation. The first step is to perform an EGA using temperature programs. This technique provides information about the thermal temperature behaviors of the sample. The EGA thermogram is then used to determine the next steps in the analysis process. In this presentation, with an Optimal thermal temperature zone identified based on EGA thermogram, thermal desorption GC/MS is a chosen technique for the determination of brominated flame retardants in recycled plastic toys. Five types of general-purpose brominated flame retardants other than those restricted by the RoHS Directive are determined by the standard addition method.

Keywords: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, pyrolyzer, thermal desorption-GC/MS

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6546 Investigation of Flow Behavior inside the Single Channel Catalytic Combustor for Lean Mixture

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustor substantially reduces emission entailing fuel-air premixing at very low equivalence ratios. The catalytic combustion of natural gas has the potential to become sufficiently active at light off temperature by the convection of heat from the catalyst surface. Only one channel is selected to investigate both the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed because of the honeycomb structure of the catalytic combustor. The objective of the present study is to find the methane catalytic combustion behavior inside the catalytic combustor, where the gas phase kinetics is employed by homogeneous methane combustion and surface chemistry is described with the heterogeneous catalysis of the oxidation of methane on a platinum catalyst. The reaction of the premixed mixture in the catalytic regime improves flame stability with complete combustion for lower operating flame temperature. An overview of the flow behavior is presented inside the single channel catalytic combustor including the operation of catalytic combustion with various F/A ratios and premixed inlet temperature.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, equivalence ratios, flame temperature, heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous combustion

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6545 Flame Dynamics in Small Scale Channels

Authors: Mohammed Mahmoud Osman Ahmed, Akram Mohammad


Flame dynamics in heated quartz glass channels of various aspect ratios (2,5,10,15) were experimentally investigated. A premixed Propane-air mixture was used for the reported experiments. Regarding micro-combustion, flame quenching is considered to be the most crucial problem to overcome first. Experiments were carried out on four channels with different aspect ratios. The results show that at a very low equivalence ratio ϕ=0.4, there is no flame inside the channels. The FREI condition (Flame with repetitive extinction and ignition) was overcome by increasing velocity and by making the channels more in contact with the external heater. The flame tested inside the channels at different locations for V=0.3 m/s or higher below V=0.65 m/s. The effects of equivalence ratio and flow velocity on the characteristics of combustion in the channels were examined. Different ways of flame propagation were observed in the current investigations based on how they appear as planar, concave and convex flames.

Keywords: flame stabilization, combustion, flame dynamics, small-scale channels, external heater

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6544 Flame Spread along Fuel Cylinders in High Pressures

Authors: Yanli Zhao, Jian Chen, Shouxiang Lu


Flame spread over solid fuels in high pressure situations such as nuclear containment shells and hyperbaric oxygen chamber has potential to result in catastrophic disaster, thus requiring best knowledge. This paper reveals experimentally the flame spread behaviors over fuel cylinders in high pressures. The fuel used in this study is polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate cylinders with 4mm diameter. Ambient gas is fixed as air and total pressures are varied from naturally normal pressure (100kPa) to elevated pressure (400kPa). Flame appearance, burning rate and flame spread were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Results show that high pressure significantly affects the flame appearance, which is as the pressure increases, flame color changes from luminous yellow to orange and the orange part extends down towards the base of flame. Besides, the average flame width and height, and the burning rate are proved to increase with increasing pressure. What is more, flame spread rates become higher as pressure increases due to the enhancement of heat transfer from flame to solid surface in elevated pressure by performing a simplified heat balance analysis.

Keywords: cylinder fuel, flame spread, heat transfer, high pressure

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6543 Flame Retardant Study of Methylol Melamine Phosphate-Treated Cotton Fibre

Authors: Nurudeen Afolami Ayeni, Kasali Bello


Methylolmelamine with increasing degree of methylol substitution and the phosphates derivatives were used to resinate cotton fabric (CF). The resination was carried out at different curing time and curing temperature. Generally, the results show a reduction in the flame propagation rate of the treated fabrics compared to the untreated cotton fabric (CF). While the flame retardancy of methylolmelamine-treated fibre could be attributed to the degree of crosslinking of fibre-resin network which promotes stability, the methylolmelamine phosphate-treated fabrics show better retardancy due to the intumescences action of the phosphate resin upon decomposition in the resin – fabric network.

Keywords: cotton fabric, flame retardant, methylolmelamine, crosslinking, resination

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6542 Catalytic Effect on Eco Friendly Functional Material in Flame Retardancy of Cellulose

Authors: Md. Abdul Hannan


Two organophosphorus compounds, namely diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10- phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) and diethyl (2,2-diethoxyethyl) phosphonate (DPAC) were applied on cotton cellulose to impart non-carcinogenic and durable (in alkaline washing) flame retardant property to it. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used. Synergistic acidic catalyzing effect of NaH2PO4+H3PO4 and NaH2PO4+NH4H2PO4 was also investigated. Appreciable limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 23.2% was achieved in case of the samples treated with flame retardant (FR) compound DPAC along with the combined acidic catalyzing effect. A distinguishing outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 3.27 KJ/g was revealed during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. In respect of thermal degradation, low temperature dehydration in conjugation with sufficient amount of char residue (30.5%) was obtained in case of DPAC treated sample. Consistently, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) (325°C) of DPAC treated sample supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples. Furthermore, for both of the flame retardant compounds, effect of different catalysts, considering both individual and combined, effect of solvents and overall the optimization of the process parameters were studied in detail.

Keywords: cotton cellulose, organophosphorus flame retardant, acetal linkage, THC, HRR, PHHR, char residue, LOI

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6541 Thermal Performance of Dual Flame Impinging Normally on to a Flat Surface

Authors: Satpal Singh, Subhash Chander


An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the thermal performance of the CNG/air dual flame impinging normally on to a flat surface. The stability limits for the dual flame under both impinging and free conditions have been evaluated to select experimental operating range. Dual flame shape and structure have been explained with direct flame image and schematic diagram indicating modification in recirculation zone in presence of inner flame. Effects of various operating parameters like H/Dh, Re(o), Φ(o), and θ(o) on heat transfer characteristics have been discussed. Inner non-swirling flame Reynolds number (Re(i)) and equivalence ratio (Φ(i)) were kept constant. Heating patterns in the impingement region around the stagnation point have been altered significantly with change in the values of H/Dh, Re(o), Φ(o), and θ(o). The axial flow of inner flame has been notably effected with increase in Re(o). Heating was most favorable near stoichiometeric conditions of the outer swirling flame. However, the effect of change in swirl intensity (expressed in terms of θ(o)) on overall heat transfer efficiency was not as significant as in the case of other parameters. It has been inferred that best performance (higher uniformity and efficiency) of the dual flame impinging on a flat surface can be achieved at moderate value of separation distance (H/Dh of 2-3) and outer swirling flame Reynolds number (Re(o) of 7000-9000) under stoichiometeric conditions.

Keywords: dual flame, heat transfer, impingement, swirling insert, transmission efficiency

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6540 An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Fuel to Air Ratio Using Flame Chemiluminescence

Authors: Sewon Kim, Chang Yeop Lee, Minjun Kwon


This study is aiming at establishing the relationship between the optical signal of flame and an equivalent ratio of flame. In this experiment, flame optical signal in a furnace is measured using photodiode. The combustion system which is composed of metal fiber burner and vertical furnace and flame chemiluminescence is measured at various experimental conditions. In this study, the flame chemiluminescence of laminar premixed flame is measured by using commercially available photodiode. It is experimentally investigated the relationship between equivalent ratio and photodiode signal. In addition, The strategy of combustion control method is proposed by using the optical signal and fuel pressure. The results showed that certain relationship between optical data of photodiode and equivalence ratio exists and this leads to the successful application of this system for instantaneous measurement of equivalence ration of the combustion system.

Keywords: flame chemiluminescence, photo diode, equivalence ratio, combustion control

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6539 Flame Volume Prediction and Validation for Lean Blowout of Gas Turbine Combustor

Authors: Ejaz Ahmed, Huang Yong


The operation of aero engines has a critical importance in the vicinity of lean blowout (LBO) limits. Lefebvre’s model of LBO based on empirical correlation has been extended to flame volume concept by the authors. The flame volume takes into account the effects of geometric configuration, the complex spatial interaction of mixing, turbulence, heat transfer and combustion processes inside the gas turbine combustion chamber. For these reasons, flame volume based LBO predictions are more accurate. Although LBO prediction accuracy has improved, it poses a challenge associated with Vf estimation in real gas turbine combustors. This work extends the approach of flame volume prediction previously based on fuel iterative approximation with cold flow simulations to reactive flow simulations. Flame volume for 11 combustor configurations has been simulated and validated against experimental data. To make prediction methodology robust as required in the preliminary design stage, reactive flow simulations were carried out with the combination of probability density function (PDF) and discrete phase model (DPM) in FLUENT 15.0. The criterion for flame identification was defined. Two important parameters i.e. critical injection diameter (Dp,crit) and critical temperature (Tcrit) were identified, and their influence on reactive flow simulation was studied for Vf estimation. Obtained results exhibit ±15% error in Vf estimation with experimental data.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, gas turbine combustor, lean blowout

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6538 Characterization of the Ignitability and Flame Regression Behaviour of Flame Retarded Natural Fibre Composite Panel

Authors: Timine Suoware, Sylvester Edelugo, Charles Amgbari


Natural fibre composites (NFC) are becoming very attractive especially for automotive interior and non-structural building applications because they are biodegradable, low cost, lightweight and environmentally friendly. NFC are known to release high combustible products during exposure to heat atmosphere and this behaviour has raised concerns to end users. To improve on their fire response, flame retardants (FR) such as aluminium tri-hydroxide (ATH) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) are incorporated during processing to delay the start and spread of fire. In this paper, APP was modified with Gum Arabic powder (GAP) and synergized with carbon black (CB) to form new FR species. Four FR species at 0, 12, 15 and 18% loading ratio were added to oil palm fibre polyester composite (OPFC) panels as follows; OPFC12%APP-GAP, OPFC15%APP-GAP/CB, OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP and OPFC18%ATH/APPGAP/CB. The panels were produced using hand lay-up compression moulding and cured at room temperature. Specimens were cut from the panels and these were tested for ignition time (Tig), peak heat released rate (HRRp), average heat release rate (HRRavg), peak mass loss rate (MLRp), residual mass (Rm) and average smoke production rate (SPRavg) using cone calorimeter apparatus as well as the available flame energy (ɸ) in driving the flame using radiant panel flame spread apparatus. From the ignitability data obtained at 50 kW/m2 heat flux (HF), it shows that the hybrid FR modified with APP that is OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP exhibited superior flame retardancy and the improvement was based on comparison with those without FR which stood at Tig = 20 s, HRRp = 86.6 kW/m2, HRRavg = 55.8 kW/m2, MLRp =0.131 g/s, Rm = 54.6% and SPRavg = 0.05 m2/s representing respectively 17.6%, 67.4%, 62.8%, 50.9%, 565% and 62.5% improvements less than those without FR (OPFC0%). In terms of flame spread, the least flame energy (ɸ) of 0.49 kW2/s3 for OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP caused early flame regression. This was less than 39.6 kW2/s3 compared to those without FR (OPFC0%). It can be concluded that hybrid FR modified with APP could be useful in the automotive and building industries to delay the start and spread of fire.

Keywords: flame retardant, flame regression, oil palm fibre, composite panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
6537 Nanoparticle Emission Characteristics during Methane Pyrolysis in a Laminar Premixed Flame

Authors: Mohammad Javad Afroughi, Farjad Falahati, Larry W. Kostiuk, Jason S. Olfert


This study investigates the physical characteristics of nanoparticles generated during pyrolysis of methane in hot products of a premixed propane-air flame. An inverted burner is designed to provide a laminar premixed propane-air flame (35 SLPM) then introduce methane co-flow to be pyrolyzed within a closed cylindrical chamber (20 cm in diameter and 68 cm in length). The formed products are discharged through an exhaust with a sampling branch to measure emission characteristics. Carbon particles are sampled with a preheated nitrogen dilution system, and the size distribution of particles formed by pyrolysis is measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Dilution ratio is calculated using simultaneously measured CO2 concentrations in the exhaust products and diluted samples. Results show that particle size distribution (PSD) is strongly affected by dilution ratio and preheating temperature. PSD becomes unstable at high dilution ratios (typically above 700 times) and/or low preheating temperatures (below 40° C). At a suitable dilution ratio of 55 and preheating temperature up to 70° C, the median diameter of PSD increases from 20 to 220 nm following the introduction of 0.5 SLPM of methane to the propane-air premixed flame. Furthermore, with pyrolysis of methane, total particle number concentration and estimated total mass concentration of particles in the size range of 14 to 700 nm, increase from 1.12 to 3.90 *107 cm-3 and from 0.11 to 154 µg L-1, respectively.

Keywords: laminar premixed flame, methane pyrolysis, nanoparticle physical characteristics, particle mass concentration, particle number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
6536 Prediction of the Tunnel Fire Flame Length by Hybrid Model of Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Behzad Niknam, Kourosh Shahriar, Hassan Madani


This paper demonstrates the applicability of Hybrid Neural Networks that combine with back propagation networks (BPN) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for predicting the flame length of tunnel fire A hybrid neural network model has been developed to predict the flame length of tunnel fire based parameters such as Fire Heat Release rate, air velocity, tunnel width, height and cross section area. The network has been trained with experimental data obtained from experimental work. The hybrid neural network model learned the relationship for predicting the flame length in just 3000 training epochs. After successful learning, the model predicted the flame length.

Keywords: tunnel fire, flame length, ANN, genetic algorithm

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6535 Compact LWIR Borescope Sensor for Surface Temperature of Engine Components

Authors: Andy Zhang, Awnik Roy, Trevor B. Chen, Bibik Oleksandr, Subodh Adhikari, Paul S. Hsu


The durability of a combustor in gas-turbine enginesrequiresa good control of its component temperatures. Since the temperature of combustion gases frequently exceeds the melting point of the combustion liner walls, an efficient air-cooling system is significantly important to elongatethe lifetime of liner walls. To determine the effectiveness of the air-cooling system, accurate 2D surface temperature measurement of combustor liner walls is crucial for advanced engine development. Traditional diagnostic techniques for temperature measurement, such as thermocouples, thermal wall paints, pyrometry, and phosphors, have shown disadvantages, including being intrusive and affecting local flame/flow dynamics, potential flame quenching, and physical damages to instrumentation due to harsh environments inside the combustor and strong optical interference from strong combustion emission in UV-Mid IR wavelength. To overcome these drawbacks, a compact and small borescope long-wave-infrared (LWIR) sensor is developed to achieve two-dimensional high-spatial resolution, high-fidelity thermal imaging of 2D surface temperature in gas-turbine engines, providing the desired engine component temperature distribution. The compactLWIRborescope sensor makes it feasible to promote the durability of combustor in gas-turbine engines.

Keywords: borescope, engine, long-wave-infrared, sensor

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6534 Eco-Ways to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Flame Retardant Textiles at the End of Life

Authors: Sohail Yasin, Massimo Curti, Nemeshwaree Behary, Giorgio Rovero


It is well-known that the presence of discarded textile products in municipal landfills poses environmental problems due to leaching of chemical products from the textile to the environment. Incineration of such textiles is considered to be an efficient way to produce energy and reduce environmental impacts of textile materials at their end-of life stage. However, the presence of flame retardant products on textiles would decrease the energy yield and emit toxic gases during incineration stage. While some non-durable flame retardants can be removed by wet treatments (e.g. washing), these substances pollute water and pose concerns towards environmental health. Our study shows that infrared radiation can be used efficiently to degrade flame retardant products on the textiles. This method is finalized to minimize the decrease in energy yield during the incineration or gasification processes of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

Keywords: degradation, flame retardant, infrared radiation, cotton, incineration

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6533 Characterization of Ethanol-Air Combustion in a Constant Volume Combustion Bomb Under Cellularity Conditions

Authors: M. Reyes, R. Sastre, P. Gabana, F. V. Tinaut


In this work, an optical characterization of the ethanol-air laminar combustion is presented in order to investigate the origin of the instabilities developed during the combustion, the onset of the cellular structure and the laminar burning velocity. Experimental tests of ethanol-air have been developed in an optical cylindrical constant volume combustion bomb equipped with a Schlieren technique to record the flame development and the flame front surface wrinkling. With this procedure, it is possible to obtain the flame radius and characterize the time when the instabilities are visible through the cell's apparition and the cellular structure development. Ethanol is an aliphatic alcohol with interesting characteristics to be used as a fuel in Internal Combustion Engines and can be biologically synthesized from biomass. Laminar burning velocity is an important parameter used in simulations to obtain the turbulent flame speed, whereas the flame front structure and the instabilities developed during the combustion are important to understand the transition to turbulent combustion and characterize the increment in the flame propagation speed in premixed flames. The cellular structure is spontaneously generated by volume forces, diffusional-thermal and hydrodynamic instabilities. Many authors have studied the combustion of ethanol air and mixtures of ethanol with other fuels. However, there is a lack of works that investigate the instabilities and the development of a cellular structure in ethanol flames, a few works as characterized the ethanol-air combustion instabilities in spherical flames. In the present work, a parametrical study is made by varying the fuel/air equivalence ratio (0.8-1.4), initial pressure (0.15-0.3 MPa) and initial temperature (343-373K), using a design of experiments type I-optimal. In reach mixtures, it is possible to distinguish the cellular structure formed by the hydrodynamic effect and by from the thermo-diffusive. Results show that ethanol-air flames tend to stabilize as the equivalence ratio decreases in lean mixtures and develop a cellular structure with the increment of initial pressure and temperature.

Keywords: ethanol, instabilities, premixed combustion, schlieren technique, cellularity

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6532 Characterization and Properties of Novel Flame Retardants Based on s-Triazine

Authors: Sameh M. Osman, El-Refaie Kenawy, Zeid A. Al-Othman, Mohamed H. El-Newehy, El-Saied A. Aly, Sherine N. Khattab, Ayman El-Faham


Recently, there has been a huge interest in using cyanuric chloride in a wide range of functional group transformations, as Cyanuric chloride has temperature-dependent differential reactivity for displacement of chlorides with various nucleophiles In the present work, some copolymers based on s-triazine Unit were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. For comparison study, the copolymers were synthesized by the conventional method. Synthesized Copolymers were characterized by MP, IR, TGA, DSC and GPC. The result indicated that copolymers are thermally stable and in good in composition and yield. Further studies that involve the test for selected removal of transition elements such as Cu (II), Zn (II) and Mn (II). Moreover, the effects of the polymeric triazine derivatives containing different functional groups which expected to have a good thermal stability and char formation ability on thermal degradation and flame retardancy.

Keywords: flame retardants, heavy metals, microwave-assisted synthesis, s-triazine

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6531 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul


Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis

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6530 Influence of Flame-Holder on Existence Important Parameters in a Duct Combustion Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Doustdar, Mohammad Mojtahedpoor


The effects of flame-holder position, the ratio of flame holder diameter to combustion chamber diameter and injection angle on fuel propulsive droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied by a cold flow. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the effective mass fraction. An empty cylinder as well as a flame-holder which are as a simulator for duct combustion has been considered. The airflow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done by four nozzles which are located on the entrance of cylinder. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multi phase, multi component code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

Keywords: KIVA-3V, flame-holder, duct combustion, effective mass fraction, mean diameter of droplets

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6529 Numerical Assessment of Fire Characteristics with Bodies Engulfed in Hydrocarbon Pool Fire

Authors: Siva Kumar Bathina, Sudheer Siddapureddy


Fires accident becomes even worse when the hazardous equipment like reactors or radioactive waste packages are engulfed in fire. In this work, large-eddy numerical fire simulations are performed using fire dynamic simulator to predict the thermal behavior of such bodies engulfed in hydrocarbon pool fires. A radiatively dominated 0.3 m circular burner with n-heptane as the fuel is considered in this work. The fire numerical simulation results without anybody inside the fire are validated with the reported experimental data. The comparison is in good agreement for different flame properties like predicted mass burning rate, flame height, time-averaged center-line temperature, time-averaged center-line velocity, puffing frequency, the irradiance at the surroundings, and the radiative heat feedback to the pool surface. Cask of different sizes is simulated with SS304L material. The results are independent of the material of the cask simulated as the adiabatic surface temperature concept is employed in this study. It is observed that the mass burning rate increases with the blockage ratio (3% ≤ B ≤ 32%). However, the change in this increment is reduced at higher blockage ratios (B > 14%). This is because the radiative heat feedback to the fuel surface is not only from the flame but also from the cask volume. As B increases, the volume of the cask increases and thereby increases the radiative contribution to the fuel surface. The radiative heat feedback in the case of the cask engulfed in the fire is increased by 2.5% to 31% compared to the fire without cask.

Keywords: adiabatic surface temperature, fire accidents, fire dynamic simulator, radiative heat feedback

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