Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: diamond

112 Property of Diamond Coated Tools for Lapping Single-Crystal Sapphire Wafer

Authors: Feng Wei, Lu Wenzhuang, Cai Wenjun, Yu Yaping, Basnet Rabin, Zuo Dunwen

Abstract:

Diamond coatings were prepared on cemented carbide by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Lapping experiment of single-crystal sapphire wafer was carried out using the prepared diamond coated tools. The diamond coatings and machined surface of the sapphire wafer were evaluated by SEM, laser confocal microscope and Raman spectrum. The results indicate that the lapping sapphire chips are small irregular debris and long thread-like debris. There is graphitization of diamond crystal during the lapping process. A low surface roughness can be obtained using a spherical grain diamond coated tool.

Keywords: lapping, nano-micro crystalline diamond coating, Raman spectrum, sapphire

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
111 Modeling and Simulation of Pad Surface Topography by Diamond Dressing in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Process

Authors: A.Chen Chao-Chang, Phong Pham-Quoc

Abstract:

Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process has been widely applied on fabricating integrated circuits (IC) with a soft polishing pad combined with slurry composed of micron or nano-scaled abrasives for generating chemical reaction to remove substrate or film materials from wafer. During CMP process, pad uniformity usually works as a datum surface of wafer planarization and pad asperities can dominate the microscopic pad-slurry-wafer interaction. However, pad topography can be changed by related mechanism factors of CMP and it needs to be re-conditioned or dressed by a diamond dresser of well-distributed diamond grits on a disc surface. It is still very complicated to analyze and understand kinematic of diamond dressing process under the effects of input variables including oscillatory of diamond dresser and rotation speed ratio between the pad and the diamond dresser. This paper has developed a generic geometric model to clarify the kinematic modeling of diamond dressing processes such as dresser/pad motion, pad cutting locus, the relative velocity of the diamond abrasive grits on pad surface, and overlap of cutting for prediction of pad surface topography. Simulation results focus on comparing and analysis kinematics of the diamond dressing on certain CMP tools. Results have shown the significant parameters for diamond dressing process and also discussed. Future study can apply on diamond dresser design and experimental verification of pad dressing process.

Keywords: kinematic modeling, diamond dresser, pad cutting locus, CMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
110 Computational Quantum Mechanics Study of Oxygen as Substitutional Atom in Diamond

Authors: K. M. Etmimi, A. A. Sghayer, A. M. Gsiea, A. M. Abutruma

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Relatively few chemical species can be incorporated into diamond during CVD growth, and until recently the uptake of oxygen was thought to be low perhaps as a consequence of a short surface residence time. Within the literature, there is speculation regarding spectroscopic evidence for O in diamond, but no direct evidence. For example, the N3 and OK1 EPR centres have been tentatively assigned models made up from complexes of substitutional N and substitutional oxygen. In this study, we report density-functional calculations regarding the stability, electronic structures, geometry and hyperfine interaction of substitutional oxygen in diamond and show that the C2v, S=1 configuration very slightly lower in energy than the other configurations (C3v, Td, and C2v with S=0). The electronic structure of O in diamond generally gives rise to two defect-related energy states in the band gap one a non-degenerate a1 state lying near the middle of the energy gap and the other a threefold-degenerate t2 state located close to the conduction band edges. The anti-bonding a1 and t2 states will be occupied by one to three electrons for O+, O and O− respectively.

Keywords: DFT, oxygen, diamond, hyperfine

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
109 Nitrogen-Doped Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Composite Films Prepared by Coaxial Arc Plasma Deposition

Authors: Abdelrahman Zkria, Tsuyoshi Yoshitake

Abstract:

Diamond is one of the most interesting semiconducting carbon materials owing to its unique physical and chemical properties, yet its application in electronic devices is limited due to the difficulty of realizing n-type conduction by nitrogen doping. In contrast Ultrananocrystalline diamond with diamond grains of about 3–5 nm in diameter have attracted much attention for device-oriented applications because they may enable the realization of n-type doping with nitrogen. In this study, nitrogen-doped Ultra-Nanocrystalline diamond films were prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition (CAPD) method, the nitrogen content was estimated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The electrical conductivity increased with increasing nitrogen contents. Heterojunction diodes with p-type Si were fabricated and evaluated based on current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics measured in dark at room temperature.

Keywords: heterojunction diodes, hopping conduction mechanism, nitrogen-doping, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
108 Carbon Nanofilms on Diamond for All-Carbon Chemical Sensors

Authors: Vivek Kumar, Alexander M. Zaitsev

Abstract:

A study on chemical sensing properties of carbon nanofilms on diamond for developing all-carbon chemical sensors is presented. The films were obtained by high temperature graphitization of diamond followed by successive plasma etchings. Characterization of the films was done by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electrical measurements. Fast and selective response to common organic vapors as seen as sensitivity of electrical conductance was observed. The phenomenological description of the chemical sensitivity is proposed as a function of the surface and bulk material properties of the films.

Keywords: chemical sensor, carbon nanofilm, graphitization of diamond, plasma etching, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
107 Effect of Microstructure on Wear Resistance of Polycrystalline Diamond Composite Cutter of Bit

Authors: Fanyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond composite (PDC) cutter is made of diamond powder as raw material, cobalt metal or non-metallic elements as a binder, mixed with WC cemented carbide matrix assembly, through high temperature and high-pressure sintering. PDC bits with PDC cutters are widely used in oil and gas drilling because of their high hardness, good wear resistance and excellent impact toughness. And PDC cutter is the main cutting tool of bit, which seriously affects the service of the PDC bit. The wear resistance of the PDC cutter is measured by cutting granite with a vertical turret lathe (VTL). This experiment can achieve long-distance cutting to obtain the relationship between the wear resistance of the PDC cutter and cutting distance, which is more closely to the real drilling situation. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively, which can also characterize the damage and wear of the PDC cutter. PDC cutters were cut via electrical discharge machining (EDM) and then flattened and polished. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the distribution of binder cobalt and the size of diamond particles in a diamond PDC cutter. The cutting experimental results show that the wear area of the PDC cutter has a good linear relationship with the cutting distance. Simultaneously, the larger the wear area is and the greater the cutting forces are required to maintain the same cutting state. The size and distribution of diamond particles in the polycrystalline diamond layer have a great influence on the wear resistance of the diamond layer. And PDC cutter with fine diamond grains shows more wear resistance than that with coarse grains. The deep leaching process is helpful to reduce the effect of binder cobalt on the wear resistance of the polycrystalline diamond layer. The experimental study can provide an important basis for the application of PDC cutters in oil and gas drilling.

Keywords: polycrystalline diamond compact, scanning electron microscope, wear resistance, cutting distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
106 Movement of Metallic Inclusions in the Volume of Synthetic Diamonds at High Pressure and High Temperature in the Temperature Gradient Field

Authors: P. I. Yachevskaya, S. A. Terentiev, M. S. Kuznetsov

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Several synthetic HPHT diamonds with metal inclusions have been studied. To have possibility of investigate the movement and transformation of the inclusions in the volume of the diamond the samples parallele-piped like shape has been made out of diamond crystals. The calculated value of temperature gradient in the samples of diamond which was placed in high-pressure cell was about 5-10 grad/mm. Duration of the experiments was in range 2-16 hours. All samples were treated several times. It has been found that the volume (dimensions) of inclusions, temperature, temperature gradient and the crystallographic orientation of the samples in the temperature field affects the movement speed of inclusions. Maximum speed of inclusions’ movement reached a value 150 µm/h.

Keywords: diamond, inclusions, temperature gradient, HPHT

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
105 Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond

Authors: J. Mona, R. R. da Silva, C.-L.Cheng, Y. Kopelevich

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We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.

Keywords: nanodiamond, sulfur, superconductivity, Raman spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
104 Production of Metal Matrix Composites with Diamond for Abrasive Cutting Resistance by Gas Infiltration Casting

Authors: Haydar S. Al Shabbani, M. Marshall, R. Goodall

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Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been explored for many applications for many decades. Recently, this includes investigations for thermal applications associated with electronics, such as in heat sinks. Here, to promote thermal conductivity, composites of a metal matrix with diamond particles are used. However, this class of composites has not yet been extensively examined for mechanical and tribological behavior, especially for applications that require extreme mechanical and tribological strength, such as the resistance to abrasive cutting. Therefore, this research seeks to develop a composite material with metal matrix and diamond particles which resist abrasive and cutting forces. The development progresses through a series of steps, exploring methods to process the material, understanding the mechanics of abrasive behavior and optimizing the composite structure to resist abrasive cutting. In processing, infiltration casting under gas pressure has been applied to molten aluminum to obtain a significant penetration of the metal into a preform of diamond particles. Different diamond particle sizes were used with different surface modifications (coated/uncoated), and to compare resulting composites with the same particle sizes. Al-1 wt.% Mg as a matrix alloy was utilised to investigate the possible effect of Mg on bonding phases during the infiltration process. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials produced have been characterised. These tests showed that the surface modification of the diamond particles with a reactive material (Ti-coating) has an important role for enhancing the bonding between the aluminium matrix and diamond reinforcement as apparent under SEM observation. The effect of this improved bond is seen in the cutting resistance of the material.

Keywords: aluminium, composites, diamond, Ti-coated, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
103 An Analysis of New Service Interchange Designs

Authors: Joseph E. Hummer

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An efficient freeway system will be essential to the development of Africa, and interchanges are a key to that efficiency. Around the world, many interchanges between freeways and surface streets, called service interchanges, are of the diamond configuration, and interchanges using roundabouts or loop ramps are also popular. However, many diamond interchanges have serious operational problems, interchanges with roundabouts fail at high demand levels, and loops use lots of expensive land. Newer service interchange designs provide other options. The most popular new interchange design in the US at the moment is the double crossover diamond (DCD), also known as the diverging diamond. The DCD has enormous potential, but also has several significant limitations. The objectives of this paper are to review new service interchange options and to highlight some of the main features of those alternatives. The paper tests four conventional and seven unconventional designs using seven measures related to efficiency, cost, and safety. The results show that there is no superior design in all measures investigated. The DCD is better than most designs tested on most measures examined. However, the DCD was only superior to all other designs for bridge width. The DCD performed relatively poorly for capacity and for serving pedestrians. Based on the results, African freeway designers are encouraged to investigate the full range of alternatives that could work at the spot of interest. Diamonds and DCDs have their niches, but some of the other designs investigated could be optimum at some spots.

Keywords: interchange, diamond, diverging diamond, capacity, safety, cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
102 Preparation and Cutting Performance of Boron-Doped Diamond Coating on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools with High Cobalt Content

Authors: Zhaozhi Liu, Feng Xu, Junhua Xu, Xiaolong Tang, Ying Liu, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the preparation technology and cutting properties of CVD diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tool with high cobalt content. The preparation technology of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating has been studied and the coated drills were prepared. BDD coating were deposited on the drills by using the optimized parameters and the SEM results show that there are no cracks or collapses in the coating. Cutting tests with the prepared drills against the silumin and aluminum base printed circuit board (PCB) have been studied. The results show that the wear amount of the coated drill is small and the machined surface has a better precision. The coating does not come off during the test, which shows good adhesion and cutting performance of the drill.

Keywords: cemented carbide with high cobalt content, CVD boron-doped diamond, cutting test, drill

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
101 Assessment of Work Postures and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Diamond Polishers in Botswana: A Case Study

Authors: Oanthata Jester Sealetsa, Richie Moalosi

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Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are reported to be amongst the leading contributing factors of low productivity in many industries across the world, and the most affected being New Emerging Economies (NEC) such as Botswana. This is due to lack of expertise and resources to deal with existing ergonomics challenges. This study was aimed to evaluate occupational postures and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among diamond polishers in a diamond company in Botswana. A case study was conducted with about 106 diamond polishers in Gaborone, Botswana. A case study was chosen because it can investigate and explore an issue thoroughly and deeply, and record behaviour over time so changes in behaviour can be identified. The Corlett and Bishop Body Map was used to determine frequency of MSDs symptoms in different body parts of the workers. This was then followed by the use of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) to evaluate the occupational postural risks of MSDs. Descriptive statistics, chi square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results of the study reveal that workers experienced pain in the upper back, lower back, shoulders, neck, and wrists with the most pain reported in the upper back (44.6%) and lower back (44.2%). However, the mean REBA score of 6.07 suggests that sawing, bruiting and polishing were the most dangerous processes in diamond polishing. The study recommends that a redesign of the diamond polishing workstations is necessary to accommodate the anthropometry characteristic of Batswana (people from Botswana) to prevent the development of MSDs.

Keywords: assessment, Botswana, diamond polishing, ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, occupational postural risks

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
100 Cutting Performance of BDD Coating on WC-Co Tools

Authors: Feng Xu, Zhaozhi Liu, Junhua Xu, Xiaolong Tang, Dunwen Zuo

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites, nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the preparation technology and cutting properties of CVD diamond coated cemented carbide cutting tool with high cobalt content. The preparation technology of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating has been studied and the coated drills were prepared. BDD coating were deposited on the drills by using the optimized parameters and the SEM results show that there are no cracks or collapses in the coating. Cutting tests with the prepared drills against the silumin and aluminum base printed circuit board (PCB) have been studied. The results show that the wear amount of the coated drill is small and the machined surface has a better precision. The coating does not come off during the test, which shows good adhesion and cutting performance of the drill.

Keywords: cemented carbide with high cobalt content, CVD boron-doped diamond, cutting test, drill

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
99 A Parasitic Resonator-Based Diamond Shape Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wide-Band Applications

Authors: M. Zulfiker Mahmud, M. Naimur Rahman, Farhad Bin Ashraf, Norbahiah Misran, Mohammad Tariqul Islam

Abstract:

This study proposes a diamond-shaped microstrip patch antenna for ultra-wideband applications. The antenna is made up of a diamond shape radiating patch, partial ground plane, and three asterisk-shaped parasitic elements. The parasitic elements are positioned above the ground plane to enhance the bandwidth and gain. The proposed antenna has a compact dimension of 30 x 25 x 1.6 mm3 and achieves an overall bandwidth (S11<-10dB) is 5.8 GHz from 2.7 GHz to 8.5 GHz. The antenna attains more than 4 dBi realized the gain and 80% efficiency over the bandwidth with omnidirectional radiation pattern. The design and simulation of the proposed antenna are performed in Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio. The observation during the analysis of the simulated data reveals that the proposed antenna is suitable for Ultra wide-band (UWB) applications where high gain is required.

Keywords: diamond-shaped antenna, microstrip antenna, parasitic resonator, UWB applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
98 Performance Evaluation of Diverging Diamond Interchange Compared to Single Point Diamond Interchange in Riyadh City

Authors: Maged A. Mogalli, Abdullah I. Al-Mansour, Seongkwan Mark Lee

Abstract:

In the last decades, population growth has gradually exceeded transportation infrastructure growth, and today’s transportation professionals are facing challenge on how to meet the mobility needs of a rising population especially in the absence of adequate public transport, as is the case in Saudi Arabia. The traffic movement congestion can be decreased by carrying out some appropriate alternative designs of interchanges such as diverging diamond interchange (DDI) and single diamond interchange (SPDI). In this paper, evaluation of newly implemented DDIs at the interchange of Makkah road with Prince Turki road and the interchange of King Khaled road with Prince Saud Ibn Mohammed Ibn Mugrin road in Riyadh city was carried out. The comparison between the DDI and SPDI is conducted by evaluating different measures of effectiveness (MOE) such as stop delay, average queue length, and number of stops. In this connection, each interchange type was evaluated for traffic flow at peak hours using micro-simulation program namely 'Synchro/SimTarffic' to measure its effectiveness such as stop delay, average queue length, and number of stops. The results of this study show that DDI provides a better result when compared with SPDI in terms of stope delay, average queue length, and number of stops. The stop delay for the SPDI is greater than DDI by three times. Also, the average queue length is approximately twice that of the SPDI when compared to the DDI. Furthermore, the number of stops for the SPDI is about twice as the DDI.

Keywords: single point diamond interchange, diverging diamond interchange, measures of effectiveness, simulation

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97 Effect of Hydrogen Content and Structure in Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Hydrogen Permeation Properties

Authors: Motonori Tamura

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The hydrogen barrier properties of the coatings of diamond-like carbon (DLC) were evaluated. Using plasma chemical vapor deposition and sputtering, DLC coatings were deposited on Type 316L stainless steels. The hydrogen permeation rate was reduced to 1/1000 or lower by the DLC coatings. The DLC coatings with high hydrogen content had high hydrogen barrier function. For hydrogen diffusion in coatings, the movement of atoms through hydrogen trap sites such as pores in coatings, and crystal defects such as dislocations, is important. The DLC coatings are amorphous, and there are both sp3 and sp2 bonds, and excess hydrogen could be found in the interstitial space and the hydrogen trap sites. In the DLC coatings with high hydrogen content, these hydrogen trap sites are likely already filled with hydrogen atoms, and the movement of new hydrogen atoms could be limited.

Keywords: hydrogen permeation, stainless steels, diamond-like carbon, hydrogen trap sites

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
96 Mechanical Properties of Diamond Reinforced Ni Nanocomposite Coatings Made by Co-Electrodeposition with Glycine as Additive

Authors: Yanheng Zhang, Lu Feng, Yilan Kang, Donghui Fu, Qian Zhang, Qiu Li, Wei Qiu

Abstract:

Diamond-reinforced Ni matrix composite has been widely applied in engineering for coating large-area structural parts owing to its high hardness, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance compared with those features of pure nickel. The mechanical properties of Ni-diamond composite coating can be promoted by the high incorporation and uniform distribution of diamond particles in the nickel matrix, while the distribution features of particles are affected by electrodeposition process parameters, especially the additives in the plating bath. Glycine has been utilized as an organic additive during the preparation of pure nickel coating, which can effectively increase the coating hardness. Nevertheless, to author’s best knowledge, no research about the effects of glycine on the Ni-diamond co-deposition has been reported. In this work, the diamond reinforced Ni nanocomposite coatings were fabricated by a co-electrodeposition technique from a modified Watt’s type bath in the presence of glycine. After preparation, the SEM morphology of the composite coatings was observed combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and the diamond incorporation was analyzed. The surface morphology and roughness were obtained by a three-dimensional profile instrument. 3D-Debye rings formed by XRD were analyzed to characterize the nickel grain size and orientation in the coatings. The average coating thickness was measured by a digital micrometer to deduce the deposition rate. The microhardness was tested by automatic microhardness tester. The friction coefficient and wear volume were measured by reciprocating wear tester to characterize the coating wear resistance and cutting performance. The experimental results confirmed that the presence of glycine effectively improved the surface morphology and roughness of the composite coatings. By optimizing the glycine concentration, the incorporation of diamond particles was increased, while the nickel grain size decreased with increasing glycine. The hardness of the composite coatings was increased as the glycine concentration increased. The friction and wear properties were evaluated as the glycine concentration was optimized, showing a decrease in the wear volume. The wear resistance of the composite coatings increased as the glycine content was increased to an optimum value, beyond which the wear resistance decreased. Glycine complexation contributed to the nickel grain refinement and improved the diamond dispersion in the coatings, both of which made a positive contribution to the amount and uniformity of embedded diamond particles, thus enhancing the microhardness, reducing the friction coefficient, and hence increasing the wear resistance of the composite coatings. Therefore, additive glycine can be used during the co-deposition process to improve the mechanical properties of protective coatings.

Keywords: co-electrodeposition, glycine, mechanical properties, Ni-diamond nanocomposite coatings

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95 A Novel Search Pattern for Motion Estimation in High Efficiency Video Coding

Authors: Phong Nguyen, Phap Nguyen, Thang Nguyen

Abstract:

High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) or H.265 Standard fulfills the demand of high resolution video storage and transmission since it achieves high compression ratio. However, it requires a huge amount of calculation. Since Motion Estimation (ME) block composes about 80 % of calculation load of HEVC, there are a lot of researches to reduce the computation cost. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to lower the number of Motion Estimation’s searching points. The number of computing points in search pattern is down from 77 for Diamond Pattern and 81 for Square Pattern to only 31. Meanwhile, the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and bit rate are almost equal to those of conventional patterns. The motion estimation time of new algorithm reduces by at 68.23%, 65.83%compared to the recommended search pattern of diamond pattern, square pattern, respectively.

Keywords: motion estimation, wide diamond, search pattern, H.265, test zone search, HM software

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94 Ultra-High Precision Diamond Turning of Infrared Lenses

Authors: Khaled Abou-El-Hossein

Abstract:

The presentation will address the features of two IR convex lenses that have been manufactured using an ultra-high precision machining centre based on single-point diamond turning. The lenses are made from silicon and germanium with a radius of curvature of 500 mm. Because of the brittle nature of silicon and germanium, machining parameters were selected in such a way that ductile regime was achieved. The cutting speed was 800 rpm while the feed rate and depth cut were 20 mm/min and 20 um, respectively. Although both materials comprise a mono-crystalline microstructure and are quite similar in terms of optical properties, machining of silicon was accompanied with more difficulties in terms of form accuracy compared to germanium machining. The P-V error of the silicon profile was 0.222 um while it was only 0.055 um for the germanium lens. This could be attributed to the accelerated wear that takes place on the tool edge when turning mono-crystalline silicon. Currently, we are using other ranges of the machining parameters in order to determine their optimal range that could yield satisfactory performance in terms of form accuracy when fabricating silicon lenses.

Keywords: diamond turning, optical surfaces, precision machining, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
93 Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Authors: Mengjun Zhang, Yuli Sun, Dunwen Zuo, Chunxiang Xie, Chunming Zhang

Abstract:

Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Keywords: fixed abrasive, diamond wire saw, slicing, sapphire, orthogonal experiment

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92 Texture Identification Using Vision System: A Method to Predict Functionality of a Component

Authors: Varsha Singh, Shraddha Prajapati, M. B. Kiran

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Texture identification is useful in predicting the functionality of a component. Many of the existing texture identification methods are of contact in nature, which limits its measuring speed. These contact measurement techniques use a diamond stylus and the diamond stylus being sharp going to damage the surface under inspection and hence these techniques can be used in statistical sampling. Though these contact methods are very accurate, they do not give complete information for full characterization of surface. In this context, the presented method assumes special significance. The method uses a relatively low cost vision system for image acquisition. Software is developed based on wavelet transform, for analyzing texture images. Specimens are made using different manufacturing process (shaping, grinding, milling etc.) During experimentation, the specimens are illuminated using proper lighting and texture images a capture using CCD camera connected to the vision system. The software installed in the vision system processes these images and subsequently identify the texture of manufacturing processes.

Keywords: diamond stylus, manufacturing process, texture identification, vision system

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
91 Mg and MgN₃ Cluster in Diamond: Quantum Mechanical Studies

Authors: T. S. Almutairi, Paul May, Neil Allan

Abstract:

The geometrical, electronic and magnetic properties of the neutral Mg center and MgN₃ cluster in diamond have been studied theoretically in detail by means of an HSE06 Hamiltonian that includes a fraction of the exact exchange term; this is important for a satisfactory picture of the electronic states of open-shell systems. Another batch of the calculations by GGA functionals have also been included for comparison, and these support the results from HSE06. The local perturbations in the lattice by introduced Mg defect are restricted in the first and second shell of atoms before eliminated. The formation energy calculated with HSE06 and GGA of single Mg agrees with the previous result. We found the triplet state with C₃ᵥ is the ground state of Mg center with energy lower than the singlet with C₂ᵥ by ~ 0.1 eV. The recent experimental ZPL (557.4 nm) of Mg center in diamond has been discussed in the view of present work. The analysis of the band-structure of the MgN₃ cluster confirms that the MgN₃ defect introduces a shallow donor level in the gap lying within the conduction band edge. This observation is supported by the EMM that produces n-type levels shallower than the P donor level. The formation energy of MgN₂ calculated from a 2NV defect (~ 3.6 eV) is a promising value from which to engineer MgN₃ defects inside the diamond. Ion-implantation followed by heating to about 1200-1600°C might induce migration of N related defects to the localized Mg center. Temperature control is needed for this process to restore the damage and ensure the mobilities of V and N, which demands a more precise experimental study.

Keywords: empirical marker method, generalised gradient approximation, Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof screened hybrid functional, zero phono line

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90 Pioneer Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Containing Hard Materials

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

The first laboratory synthesis of hard materials such as diamond proceeded to attack of developing materials with high hardness to compete diamond. Boron rich solids are good candidates owing to their short interatomic bond lengths and strong covalent character. Boron containing hard material was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere by using a fuel (glycine or urea), amorphous boron and/or boric acid in appropriate molar ratio. Characterizations were done by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analyze (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric/differantial thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: boron containing materials, hard materials, microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction

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89 Theoretical Method for Full Ab-Initio Calculation of Rhenium Carbide Compound

Authors: D.Rached, M.Rabah

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First principles calculations are carried out to investigate the structural, electronic, and elastic properties of the utraincompressible materials, namely, noble metal carbide of Rhenium carbide (ReC) in four phases, the rocksalt (NaCl-B1), zinc blende (ZB-B2), the tungsten carbide(Bh) (WC), and the nickel arsenide (NiAs-B8).The ground state properties such as the equilibrium lattice constant, elastic constants, the bulk modulus its pressure derivate, and the hardness of ReC in these phases are systematically predicted by calculations from first–principles. The corresponding calculated bulk modulus is comparable with that of diamond, especially for the B8 –type rhenium carbide (ReC), the incompressibility along the c axis is demonstrated to exceed the linear incompressibility of diamond. Our calculations confirm in the nickel arsenide (B8) structure the ReC is found to be stable with a large bulk modulus B=440 GPa and the tungsten carbide (WC) structure becomes the most more favourable with to respect B3 and B1 structures, which ReC- WC is meta-stable. Furthermore, the highest bulk modulus values in the zinc blende (B3), rock salt (B1), tungsten carbide (WC), and the nickel arsenide (B8) structures (294GPa, 401GPa, 415GPa and 447 GPa, respectively) indicates that ReC is a hard material, and is superhard compound H(B8)= 36 GPa compared with the H(diamond)=96 GPa and H(c BN)=63.10 GPa.

Keywords: DFT, FP-LMTO, mechanical properties, elasticity, high pressure, thermodynamic properties, hard material

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88 Highly Conducting Ultra Nanocrystalline Diamond Nanowires Decorated ZnO Nanorods for Long Life Electronic Display and Photo-Detectors Applications

Authors: A. Saravanan, B. R. Huang, C. J. Yeh, K. C. Leou, I. N. Lin

Abstract:

A new class of ultra-nano diamond-graphite nano-hybrid (DGH) composite materials containing nano-sized diamond needles was developed at low temperature process. Such kind of diamond- graphite nano-hybrid composite nanowires exhibit high electrical conductivity and excellent electron field emission (EFE) properties. Few earlier reports mention that addition of N2 gas to the growth plasma requires high growth temperature (800°C) to trigger the dopants to generate the conductivity in the films. High growth temperature is not familiar with the Si-based device fabrications. We have used a novel process such as bias-enhanced-grown (beg) MPECVD process to grow diamond films at low substrate temperature (450°C). We observed that the beg-N/UNCD films thus obtained possess high conductivity of σ=987 S/cm, ever reported for diamond films with excellent Electron field emission (EFE) properties. TEM investigation indicated that these films contain needle-like diamond grains about 5 nm in diameter and hundreds of nanometers in length. Each of the grains was encased in graphitic layers about tens of nano-meters in thickness. These materials properties suitable for more specific applications, such as high conductivity for electron field emitters, high robustness for microplasma cathodes and high electrochemical activity for electro-chemical sensing. Subsequently, other hand, the highly conducting DGH films were coated on vertically aligned ZnO nanorods, there is no prior nucleation or seeding process needed due to the use of BEG method. Such a composite structure provides significant enhancement in the field emission characteristics of the cold cathode was observed with ultralow turn on voltage 1.78 V/μm with high EFE current density of 3.68 mA/ cm2 (at 4.06V/μm) due to decoration of DGH material on ZnO nanorods. The DGH/ZNRs based device get stable emission for longer duration of 562min than bare ZNRs (104min) without any current degradation because the diamond coating protects the ZNRs from ion bombardment when they are used as the cathode for microplasma devices. The potential application of these materials is demonstrated by the plasma illumination measurements that ignited the plasma at the minimum voltage by 290 V. The photoresponse (Iphoto/Idark) behavior of the DGH/ZNRs based photodetectors exhibits a much higher photoresponse (1202) than bare ZNRs (229). During the process the electron transport is easy from ZNRs to DGH through graphitic layers, the EFE properties of these materials comparable to other primarily used field emitters like carbon nanotubes, graphene. The DGH/ZNRs composite also providing a possibility of their use in flat panel, microplasma and vacuum microelectronic devices.

Keywords: bias-enhanced nucleation and growth, ZnO nanorods, electrical conductivity, electron field emission, photo-detectors

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87 Synchrotron Based Techniques for the Characterization of Chemical Vapour Deposition Overgrowth Diamond Layers on High Pressure, High Temperature Substrates

Authors: T. N. Tran Thi, J. Morse, C. Detlefs, P. K. Cook, C. Yıldırım, A. C. Jakobsen, T. Zhou, J. Hartwig, V. Zurbig, D. Caliste, B. Fernandez, D. Eon, O. Loto, M. L. Hicks, A. Pakpour-Tabrizi, J. Baruchel

Abstract:

The ability to grow boron-doped diamond epilayers of high crystalline quality is a prerequisite for the fabrication of diamond power electronic devices, in particular high voltage diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors. Boron and intrinsic diamond layers are homoepitaxially overgrown by microwave assisted chemical vapour deposition (MWCVD) on single crystal high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) grown bulk diamond substrates. Various epilayer thicknesses were grown, with dopant concentrations ranging from 1021 atom/cm³ at nanometer thickness in the case of 'delta doping', up 1016 atom/cm³ and 50µm thickness or high electric field drift regions. The crystalline quality of these overgrown layers as regards defects, strain, distortion… is critical for the device performance through its relation to the final electrical properties (Hall mobility, breakdown voltage...). In addition to the optimization of the epilayer growth conditions in the MWCVD reactor, other important questions related to the crystalline quality of the overgrown layer(s) are: 1) what is the dependence on the bulk quality and surface preparation methods of the HPHT diamond substrate? 2) how do defects already present in the substrate crystal propagate into the overgrown layer; 3) what types of new defects are created during overgrowth, what are their growth mechanisms, and how can these defects be avoided? 4) how can we relate in a quantitative manner parameters related to the measured crystalline quality of the boron doped layer to the electronic properties of final processed devices? We describe synchrotron-based techniques developed to address these questions. These techniques allow the visualization of local defects and crystal distortion which complements the data obtained by other well-established analysis methods such as AFM, SIMS, Hall conductivity…. We have used Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) at the ID01 beamline of the ESRF to study lattice parameters and damage (strain, tilt and mosaic spread) both in diamond substrate near surface layers and in thick (10–50 µm) overgrown boron doped diamond epi-layers. Micro- and nano-section topography have been carried out at both the BM05 and ID06-ESRF) beamlines using rocking curve imaging techniques to study defects which have propagated from the substrate into the overgrown layer(s) and their influence on final electronic device performance. These studies were performed using various commercially sourced HPHT grown diamond substrates, with the MWCVD overgrowth carried out at the Fraunhofer IAF-Germany. The synchrotron results are in good agreement with low-temperature (5°K) cathodoluminescence spectroscopy carried out on the grown samples using an Inspect F5O FESEM fitted with an IHR spectrometer.

Keywords: synchrotron X-ray diffaction, crystalline quality, defects, diamond overgrowth, rocking curve imaging

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86 Dairy Wastewater Remediation Using Electrochemical Oxidation on Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) Anode

Authors: Arwa Abdelhay, Inshad Jum’h, Abeer Albsoul, Khalideh Alrawashdeh, Dina Al Tarazi

Abstract:

Treated wastewater reuse has been considered recently as one of the successful management strategies to overcome water shortage in countries suffering from water scarcity. The non-readily biodegradable and recalcitrant pollutants in wastewater cannot be destructed by conventional treatment methods. This paper deals with the electrochemical treatment of dairy wastewater using a promising non-conventional Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) anode. During the electrochemical process, different operating parameters were investigated, such as electrolysis time, current density, supporting electrolyte, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity as well as absorbance/color. The experimental work revealed that electrochemical oxidation carried out with no added electrolyte has significantly reduced the COD, turbidity, and color (absorbance) by 72%, 76%, and 78% respectively. Results also showed that raising the current density from 5.1 mA/cm² to 7.7 mA/cm² has boosted COD, and color removal to 82.5%, and 83% respectively. However, the current density did not show any significant effect on the turbidity. Interestingly, it was observed that adding Na₂SO₄ and FeCl₃ as supporting electrolytes brought the COD removal to 91% and 97% respectively. Likewise, turbidity and color removal has been enhanced by the addition of the same supporting electrolytes.

Keywords: boron doped-diamond anode, dairy wastewater, electrochemical oxidation, supporting electrolytes

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85 Experimental Optimization in Diamond Lapping of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

Authors: S. Gowri, K. Narayanasamy, R. Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

Plasma spraying, from the point of value engineering, is considered as a cost-effective technique to deposit high performance ceramic coatings on ferrous substrates for use in the aero,automobile,electronics and semiconductor industries. High-performance ceramics such as Alumina, Zirconia, and titania-based ceramics have become a key part of turbine blades,automotive cylinder liners,microelectronic and semiconductor components due to their ability to insulate and distribute heat. However, as the industries continue to advance, improved methods are needed to increase both the flexibility and speed of ceramic processing in these applications. The ceramics mentioned were individually coated on structural steel substrate with NiCr bond coat of 50-70 micron thickness with the final thickness in the range of 150 to 200 microns. Optimal spray parameters were selected based on bond strength and porosity. The 'optimal' processed specimens were super finished by lapping using diamond and green SiC abrasives. Interesting results could be observed as follows: The green SiC could improve the surface finish of lapped surfaces almost as that by diamond in case of alumina and titania based ceramics but the diamond abrasives could improve the surface finish of PSZ better than that by green SiC. The conventional random scratches could be absent in alumina and titania ceramics but in PS those marks were found to be less. However, the flatness accuracy could be improved unto 60 to 85%. The surface finish and geometrical accuracy were measured and modeled. The abrasives in the midrange of their particle size could improve the surface quality faster and better than the particles of size in low and high ranges. From the experimental investigations after lapping process, the optimal lapping time, abrasive size, lapping pressure etc could be evaluated.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma spraying, ceramics, lapping, surface qulaity, optimization

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84 Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Boron-Doped Diamond Paste Electrode on Paper-Based Analytical Device for Simultaneous Determination of Norepinephrine and Serotonin

Authors: Siriwan Nantaphol, Robert B. Channon, Takeshi Kondo, Weena Siangproh, Orawon Chailapakul, Charles S. Henry

Abstract:

In this work, we demonstrate a novel electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified boron-doped diamond paste (BDDP) electrode on paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for simultaneous determination of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT). The BDD paste electrode was easily constructed by filling BDD paste in small channels, which made in transparency film sheets using a CO₂ laser etching 
system. The counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on paper by in-house screen-printing and then combined with BDD paste microelectrode. The electrochemical characterization of the device was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed for the simultaneous determination of NE and 5-HT. The ERGO-modified BDDP electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of NE and 5-HT and strong function for resolving the overlapping voltammetric responses of NE and 5-HT into two well-defined voltammetric peaks. This device was capable of simultaneously detecting NE and 5-HT in wide concentration ranges and with a low limit of detections. In addition, it has the advantages in terms of ease of use, low cost, and disposability.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond paste electrode, electrochemically reduced graphene oxide, norepinephrine, paper-based analytical device, serotonin

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83 Bioreactor for Cell-Based Impedance Measuring with Diamond Coated Gold Interdigitated Electrodes

Authors: Roman Matejka, Vaclav Prochazka, Tibor Izak, Jana Stepanovska, Martina Travnickova, Alexander Kromka

Abstract:

Cell-based impedance spectroscopy is suitable method for electrical monitoring of cell activity especially on substrates that cannot be easily inspected by optical microscope (without fluorescent markers) like decellularized tissues, nano-fibrous scaffold etc. Special sensor for this measurement was developed. This sensor consists of corning glass substrate with gold interdigitated electrodes covered with diamond layer. This diamond layer provides biocompatible non-conductive surface for cells. Also, a special PPFC flow cultivation chamber was developed. This chamber is able to fix sensor in place. The spring contacts are connecting sensor pads with external measuring device. Construction allows real-time live cell imaging. Combining with perfusion system allows medium circulation and generating shear stress stimulation. Experimental evaluation consist of several setups, including pure sensor without any coating and also collagen and fibrin coating was done. The Adipose derived stem cells (ASC) and Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were seeded onto sensor in cultivation chamber. Then the chamber was installed into microscope system for live-cell imaging. The impedance measurement was utilized by vector impedance analyzer. The measured range was from 10 Hz to 40 kHz. These impedance measurements were correlated with live-cell microscopic imaging and immunofluorescent staining. Data analysis of measured signals showed response to cell adhesion of substrates, their proliferation and also change after shear stress stimulation which are important parameters during cultivation. Further experiments plan to use decellularized tissue as scaffold fixed on sensor. This kind of impedance sensor can provide feedback about cell culture conditions on opaque surfaces and scaffolds that can be used in tissue engineering in development artificial prostheses. This work was supported by the Ministry of Health, grants No. 15-29153A and 15-33018A.

Keywords: bio-impedance measuring, bioreactor, cell cultivation, diamond layer, gold interdigitated electrodes, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 189