Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1213

Search results for: musculoskeletal disorders

1213 Factors Affecting of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nurses from a Taiwan Hospital

Authors: Hsien Hua Kuo, Wen Chun Lin, Chia Chi Hsu, Hsien Wen Kuo


Objective: Despite the high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among nurses, which has been consistently observed in the studies of Western countries, very little information regarding intensity of workload and work-related quality of life (WRQOL) related to MSDs among nurses is available in Taiwan. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting musculoskeletal disorders in nurses from a hospital. Methods: 550 nurses from a hospital in Taoyuan were interviewed using a modified standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal (NMQ) questionnaire which contained the demographic information, workplace condition and musculoskeletal disorders. Results: Response rate of nurses were 92.5% from a teaching hospital. Based on medical diagnosis by physician, neck of musculoskeletal disorders had the highest percentage in nine body portions. The higher percentage of musculoskeletal disorders in nurses found from wards of internal and surgery. Severity and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders diagnosed by self-reported questionnaire significantly correlated with WRQOL, job satisfaction and intensity of workload among nurses based on the logistic regression model. Conclusion: The severity and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses showed a dose-dependent with WRQOL and workload. When work characteristics in hospital were modified, the severity of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses will be decreased and alleviated. Comment: Multifaceted ergonomic intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of MSDs among nurses was by encouraging nurses to do more physical activity which will make them more flexible and increase their strength. Therefore, the head nurse should encourage nurses to regularly physical activity and to modify unfitting ergonomic environment in order to reduce the prevalence of MSDs.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nurse, WRQOL, job satisfaction

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1212 The Study of Musculoskeletal Disorders Produced by Excess Physical Effort in Marines

Authors: R. Domínguez, A. Castro, N. Fernandez, F. Hidalgo, F. Ortiz


Aims: Study musculoskeletal disorders produced by excess physical exertion in marines Introduction: Musculoskeletal injuries during military training are an important medical problem faced by military organizations throughout the world. Military occupations are physically demanding, which represents a high risk of injury "and subsequent disability, these injuries represent important risk factors for hospitalization, disability, and discharge Methodology: This is a causal correlational study in which data were collected in order to find a cause-effect relationship between the physical effort in marines during their career in the Chilean Navy and the musculoskeletal disorders that occur in some from them. Results:100% had experienced musculoskeletal pain in some part of the body and 73.52% of the respondents had experienced limitations in the ability to work, as a consequence forced to change jobs due to musculoskeletal pain. The neck, shoulders and the lumbar dorsal region were the regions with the highest prevalence of pain, as well as pain that limit the ability to work. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal injuries and illnesses related to injuries are common in marines, both in those who operate in campus Charles, as in another operational unit due to the nature of the work. Many of these injuries occur during physical training and sports and various studies have dealt with the descriptive epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries in military personnel.

Keywords: physical effort, marines, musculoskeletal disorders produced (MSD), training

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1211 Model of MSD Risk Assessment at Workplace

Authors: K. Sekulová, M. Šimon


This article focuses on upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders risk assessment model at workplace. In this model are used risk factors that are responsible for musculoskeletal system damage. Based on statistic calculations the model is able to define what risk of MSD threatens workers who are under risk factors. The model is also able to say how MSD risk would decrease if these risk factors are eliminated.

Keywords: ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, occupational diseases, risk factors

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1210 Psychosocial Factors in Relation to Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nursing Professionals in Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Authors: Karwan Khudhir


A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and psychosocial factors associated with it, among Kurdistan nursing professionals. Simple random sampling was used to select 220 nurses and data were collected by self-administrative questionnaire. Results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of MSDs among Kurdistan nurses was 74% in different body regions and, by body regions, neck pain was reported to be the highest complaint of twelve-month MSDs (48.4%) compared to other body parts. Logistic regression analysis indicated 6 variables that are significantly associated with musculoskeletal disorders: smoking (OR=19.472, 95% CI: 5.396, 70.273), BMI (OR= 5.106, 95% CI: 1.735, 15.025), physical activity (OR=8.639, 95% CI: 3.075, 24.271), psychological demand (OR=6.685, 95% CI: 3.318, 13.468), social support (OR=3.143, 95% CI: 1.202, 4.814) and job satisfaction (OR=2.44, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.63). Prevention strategies and health education which emphasizes on psychosocial risk factors and how to improve working conditions should be introduced.

Keywords: Kurdistan Region, Iraq, musculoskeletal disorders, nurses, psycho-social factors

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1209 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Physical Therapist's Seniors versus Internship Students

Authors: A. H. Bekhet, N. Helmy


Background: Physical therapists are knowledgeable in treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries; however, they have occupational musculoskeletal injuries because Physical therapy profession requires effort that may lead to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. No previous studies among physical therapists have been reported in Egypt. We aim to assess the prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapist’s seniors versus internship students. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in faculty of physical therapy Cairo university Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries were assessed using self-administered questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Seniors therapist was defined as a physical therapist with more than 5 years of work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows. Results: The study included 106 physical therapists (Junior = 72; senior = 34), the mean age of senior therapists was 30.1 (SD 6.3) years and junior therapists were 22.8 (SD 2.4). Female subjects constituted 83.9% of the studied sample. The mean hours of contact with patients was higher among junior therapists 6.4 (SD 2.6) vs. 5.7 (SD 2.1) among senior therapists. The prevalence of a musculoskeletal injury, once or more in their lifetime, was significantly higher among senior therapists (86% vs. 66.7%; p = 0.04). The highest risk factor in increasing the symptoms of the injury among junior therapists was maintaining a position for a prolonged period of time at 28% while performing manual therapy techniques was the highest risk factor among senior therapists at 32%. 53% of senior therapists have limited their patient contact time as a result of their injury in comparison to 25% of junior therapists (p = 0.09). Conclusion: the presented study shows that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, once or more in their lifetime, is significantly higher among senior therapists.

Keywords: musculoskeletal injuries, occupational injuries, physical therapists, work related disorders

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1208 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders among School Teachers in Mangalore: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Junaid Hamid Bhat


Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main causes of occupational illness. Mechanisms and the factors like repetitive work, physical effort and posture, endangering the risk of musculoskeletal disorders would now appear to have been properly identified. Teacher’s exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorders appears to be insufficiently described in the literature. Little research has investigated the prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in teaching profession. Very few studies are available in this regard and there are no studies evident in India. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and to identify and measure the association of such risk factors responsible for developing musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers. Methodology: An observational cross sectional study was carried out. 500 school teachers from primary, middle, high and secondary schools were selected, based on eligibility criteria. A signed consent was obtained and a self-administered, validated questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics was used to compute the statistical mean and standard deviation, frequency and percentage to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers. The data analysis was done by using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Results indicated higher pain prevalence (99.6%) among school teachers during the past 12 months. Neck pain (66.1%), low back pain (61.8%) and knee pain (32.0%) were the most prevalent musculoskeletal complaints of the subjects. Prevalence of shoulder pain was also found to be high among school teachers (25.9%). 52.0% subjects reported pain as disabling in nature, causing sleep disturbance (44.8%) and pain was found to be associated with work (87.5%). A significant association was found between musculoskeletal disorders and sick leaves/absenteeism. Conclusion: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders particularly neck pain, low back pain, and knee pain, is highly prevalent and risk factors are responsible for the development of same in school teachers. There is little awareness of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers, due to work load and prolonged/static postures. Further research should concentrate on specific risk factors like repetitive movements, psychological stress, and ergonomic factors and should be carried out all over the country and the school teachers should be studied carefully over a period of time. Also, an ergonomic investigation is needed to decrease the work-related musculoskeletal disorder problems. Implication: Recall bias and self-reporting can be considered as limitations. Also, cause and effect inferences cannot be ascertained. Based on these results, it is important to disseminate general recommendations for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders with regards to the suitability of furniture, equipment and work tools, environmental conditions, work organization and rest time to school teachers. School teachers in the early stage of their careers should try to adapt the ergonomically favorable position whilst performing their work for a safe and healthy life later. Employers should be educated on practical aspects of prevention to reduce musculoskeletal disorders, since changes in workplace and work organization and physical/recreational activities are required.

Keywords: work related musculoskeletal disorders, school teachers, risk factors funding, medical and health sciences

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1207 UEMSD Risk Identification: Case Study

Authors: K. Sekulová, M. Šimon


The article demonstrates on a case study how it is possible to identify MSD risk. It is based on a dissertation risk identification model of occupational diseases formation in relation to the work activity that determines what risk can endanger workers who are exposed to the specific risk factors. It is evaluated based on statistical calculations. These risk factors are main cause of upper-extremities musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: case study, upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomics, risk identification

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1206 The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Associated Factors among Nurses in Jordan

Authors: Khader A. Almhdawi, Hassan Alrabbaie


Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent a significant challenge for registered nurses. To our best knowledge, there is no published study that investigated the prevalence of MSDs among nurses and their associated factors comprehensively in Jordan. This study aimed to find the prevalence of MSDs, their possible predictors among registered nurses in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Outcome measures included Nordic Musculoskeletal Questioner (NMQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), IPAQ, and sociodemographic data. Prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was reported using descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of MSDs. Results: 597 nurses from different hospitals in Jordan participated in this study. Reported MSDs prevalence was the highest at neck (61.1%), followed by upper back (47.2%), shoulder (46.7%), wrist and hands (27.3%), and elbow (13.9%). Significant predictors of MSDs among Jordanian nurses included: being a female, poor sleep quality, high physical activity levels, poor ergonomics, increased workload, and mental stress. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of MSDs among Jordanian nurses and identified their significant predictors. Future studies are needed to investigate the progressive nature of MSDs and their effective treatment strategies.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nursing, ergonomic, occupational stress

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1205 Combination of Work and Family Demands Correlated with the Severity of Wrist Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nurses

Authors: Hsien Hwa Kuo, Lin Wen Chun, Lin Wen Chun, Hsien Wen Kuo


Objective: Nurses represent an important occupational group frequently affected by wrist musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to a heavy workload, working shifts, poor posture, giving shots, making beds, lifting patients, bending their waist and insufficient rest time every day. However, lack of research reported nurses whether workload in household correlated with the severity of WMSDs. Methods: 550 nurses from a hospital in Taoyuan were interviewed using a modified standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal (NMQ) questionnaire including the demographic information, workplace condition and nine body parts of musculoskeletal disorders. Results: 17.9% and 23.9% of severity and symptoms in WMSDs among nurses with children were significant higher than among nurses without children (1​2.4% and 15.9%). Based on multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, work duration, job title and body mass index (BMI), we found that heavy workload in hospital had higher odds ratio (OR) of the severity and symptoms of WMSD among nurses with children (OR= 8.67 and OR= 4.30, p<0.05) compared to nurses without children (OR= 1.94 and OR= 1.70). Conclusion: The severity and symptoms of WMSDs among nurses significantly correlated with workload in hospital among nurses with children. If women are at greater risk because of the combination of their work and family demands, synergistic effect of WMSDs was found among nurses. Comment: Women's domestic work, especially once they become mothers, they invest more time and energy caring for children, helping others, and doing housework. Thus domestic work, per se, may be a risk factor for wrist musculoskeletal problems, and, more importantly, it may constrain women's ability to protect themselves from the effects of their paid work. If nurses with more domestic work periodically make efforts to physical activity or modify inappropriate posture, their WMSDs symptoms will be alleviated.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nurse, NMQ, WMSDs

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1204 Changes in Pain Intensity of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Flight Attendants after Stretching Exercise Program

Authors: Maria Melania Muda, Retno Wibawanti, Retno Asti Werdhani


Background: Flight attendant (FA) is a job that is often exposed to ergonomic stressors; thus, they are very susceptible to symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One of the ways to overcome musculoskeletal complaints is by stretching. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of MSDs and the effect of a 2-week stretching exercise program using the Indonesian Ministry of Health's stretching video on changes in musculoskeletal pain intensity in FA on commercial aircraft in Indonesia. Methods: A pre-post study was conducted using Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) for MSDs’ identification and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) as pain intensity measurement. Data was collected and then analyzed using SPSS with Wilcoxon test. The change in pain intensity was considered significant if the p value was less than 0.05. Results: The results showed that 92% of the FA (n=75) had MSDs in at least 1 area of the body in the last 12 months. Thirty-four respondents participated as subjects. The complaint level score in 28 body areas before intervention was a median of 34 (29-84), with pain intensity of a median of 6 (2-9) became a median of 32 (28-67) and a median of 3 (0-9) after the intervention, respectively, with p-value <0.001. Conclusion: The stretching exercise program showed significant changes in the complaint level scores in 28 body areas (p < 0.001) and pain intensity before and after the stretching exercise intervention (p < 0.001).

Keywords: flight attendant, MSDs, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, stretching exercise program, visual analog scale

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1203 Assessment of Work Postures and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Diamond Polishers in Botswana: A Case Study

Authors: Oanthata Jester Sealetsa, Richie Moalosi


Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are reported to be amongst the leading contributing factors of low productivity in many industries across the world, and the most affected being New Emerging Economies (NEC) such as Botswana. This is due to lack of expertise and resources to deal with existing ergonomics challenges. This study was aimed to evaluate occupational postures and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among diamond polishers in a diamond company in Botswana. A case study was conducted with about 106 diamond polishers in Gaborone, Botswana. A case study was chosen because it can investigate and explore an issue thoroughly and deeply, and record behaviour over time so changes in behaviour can be identified. The Corlett and Bishop Body Map was used to determine frequency of MSDs symptoms in different body parts of the workers. This was then followed by the use of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) to evaluate the occupational postural risks of MSDs. Descriptive statistics, chi square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results of the study reveal that workers experienced pain in the upper back, lower back, shoulders, neck, and wrists with the most pain reported in the upper back (44.6%) and lower back (44.2%). However, the mean REBA score of 6.07 suggests that sawing, bruiting and polishing were the most dangerous processes in diamond polishing. The study recommends that a redesign of the diamond polishing workstations is necessary to accommodate the anthropometry characteristic of Batswana (people from Botswana) to prevent the development of MSDs.

Keywords: assessment, Botswana, diamond polishing, ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, occupational postural risks

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1202 Parkinson's Disease and Musculoskeletal Problems

Authors: Ozge Yilmaz Kusbeci, Ipek Inci


Aim: Musculoskeletal problems are very common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). They affect quality of life and cause disabilities. However they are under-evaluated, and under-treated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of musculoskeletal problems in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) compared to controls. Methods: 50 PD patients and 50 age and sex matched controls were interviewed by physicians about their musculoskeletal problems. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was significantly higher in the PD group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Commonly involved body sites were the shoulder, low back, and knee. The shoulder and low back was more frequently involved in the PD group than in the control group. However, the knee was similarly involved in both groups. Among the past diagnoses associated with musculoskeletal problems, frozen shoulder, low back pain and osteoporosis more common in the PD group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, musculoskeletal problems in the PD group tended to receive less treatment than that of the control group. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal problems were more common in the PD group than in the controls. Therefore assessment and treatment of musculoskeletal problems could improve quality of life in PD patients.

Keywords: parkinson disease, musculoskeletal problems, quality of life, PD disease

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1201 Detection of Biomechanical Stress for the Prevention of Disability Derived from Musculoskeletal Disorders

Authors: Leydi Noemi Peraza Gómez, Jose Álvarez Nemegyei, Damaris Francis Estrella Castillo


In order to have an epidemiological tool to detect biomechanical stress (ERGO-Mex), which impose physical labor or recreational activities, a questionnaire is constructed in Spanish, validated and culturally adapted to the Mayan indigenous population of Yucatan. Through the seven steps proposed by Guillemin and Beaton the procedure was: initial translation, synthesis of the translations, feed back of the translation. After that review by a committee of experts, pre-test of the preliminary version, and presentation of the results to the committee of experts and members of the community. Finally the evaluation of its internal validity (Cronbach's α coefficient) and external (intraclass correlation coefficient). The results for the validation in Spanish indicated that 45% of the participants have biomechanical stress. The ERGO-Mex correlation was 0.69 (p <0.0001). Subjects with high biomechanical stress had a higher score than subjects with low biomechanical stress (17.4 ± 8.9 vs.9.8 ± 2.8, p = 0.003). The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.92; and for validation in Cronbach's α maya it was 0.82 and CCI = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.58-0.79; p˂0.0001); ERGO-Mex is suitable for performing early detection of musculoskeletal diseases and helping to prevent disability.

Keywords: biomechanical stress, disability, musculoskeletal disorders, prevention

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1200 Real-World Economic Burden of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole


Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSPD), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and post immobilization stiffness (PIS) have a major impact on individuals, health systems and society in terms of morbidity, long-term disability, and economics. This study estimated the direct and indirect costs of common MSDs in Osun State, Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out. The occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). The direct and indirect costs were estimated using a cost-of-illness approach. Physiotherapy related health resource use, and costs of the common MSDs, including consultation fee, total fee charge per session, costs of consumables were estimated. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics mean and standard deviation (SD). Overall, 1582 (Male = 47.5%, Female = 52.5%) patients with MSDs population with a mean age of 47.8 ± 25.7 years participated in this study. The mean (SD) direct costs estimate for LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions were $18.35 ($17.33), $34.76 ($17.33), $32.13 ($28.37), $35.14 ($44.16), $37.19 ($41.68), and $15.74 ($13.96), respectively. The mean (SD) indirect costs estimate of LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other MSD conditions were $73.42 ($43.54), $140.57 ($69.31), $128.52 ($113.46), sprain $140.57 ($69.31), $148.77 ($166.71), and $62.98 ($55.84), respectively. Musculoskeletal disorders contribute a substantial economic burden to individuals with the condition and society. The unacceptable economic loss of MSDs should be reduced using appropriate strategies. Further research is required to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of strategies to improve health outcomes of patients with MSDs. The findings of the present study may assist health policy and decision makers to understand the economic burden of MSDs and facilitate efficient allocation of healthcare resources to alleviate the burden associated with these conditions in Nigeria.

Keywords: economic burden, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders, real-world

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1199 Musculoskeletal Disorders among Employees of an Assembly Industrial Workshop: Biomechanical Constrain’s Semi-Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Lamia Bouzgarrou, Amira Omrane, Haithem Kalel, Salma Kammoun


Background: During recent decades, mechanical and electrical industrial sector has greatly expanded with a significant employability potential. However, this sector faces the increasing prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders with heavy consequences associated with direct and indirect costs. Objective: The current intervention was motivated by large musculoskeletal upper limbs and back disorders frequency among the operators of an assembly workshop in a leader company specialized in sanitary equipment and water and gas connections. We aimed to identify biomechanical constraints among these operators through activity and biomechanical exposures semi-quantitative analysis based on video recordings and MUSKA-TMS software. Methods: We conducted, open observations and exploratory interviews at first, in order to overall understand work situation. Then, we analyzed operator’s activity through systematic observations and interviews. Finally, we conducted a semi-quantitative biomechanical constraints analysis with MUSKA-TMS software after representative activity period video recording. The assessment of biomechanical constrains was based on different criteria; biomechanical characteristics (work positions), aggravating factor (cold, vibration, stress, etc.) and exposure time (duration and frequency of solicitations, recovery phase); with a synthetic score of risk level variable from 1 to 4 (1: low risk of developing MSD and 4: high risk). Results: Semi-quantitative analysis objective many elementary operations with higher biomechanical constrains like high repetitiveness, insufficient recovery time and constraining angulation of shoulders, wrists and cervical spine. Among these risky elementary operations we sited the assembly of sleeve with the body, the assembly of axis, and the control on testing table of gas valves. Transformation of work situations were recommended, covering both the redevelopment of industrial areas and the integration of new tools and equipment of mechanical handling that reduces operator exposure to vibration. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders are complex and costly disorders. Moreover, an approach centered on the observation of the work can promote the interdisciplinary dialogue and exchange between actors with the objective to maximize the performance of a company and improve the quality of life of operators.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, biomechanical constrains, semi-quantitative analysis, ergonomics

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1198 The Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy on Decreasing Pain in Women with Temporomandibular Disorders and How Their Brains Respond: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Zenah Gheblawi, Susan Armijo-Olivo, Elisa B. Pelai, Vaishali Sharma, Musa Tashfeen, Angela Fung, Francisca Claveria


Due to physiological differences between men and women, pain is experienced differently between the two sexes. Chronic pain disorders, notably temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), disproportionately affect women in diagnosis, and pain severity in opposition of their male counterparts. TMDs are a type of musculoskeletal disorder that target the masticatory muscles, temporalis muscle, and temporomandibular joints, causing considerable orofacial pain which can usually be referred to the neck and back. Therapeutic methods are scarce, and are not TMD-centered, with the latest research suggesting that subjects with chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders have abnormal alterations in the grey matter of their brains which can be remedied with exercise, and thus, decreasing the pain experienced. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exercise therapy in TMD female patients experiencing chronic jaw pain and to assess the consequential effects on brain activity. In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of an exercise program to improve brain alterations and clinical outcomes in women with TMD pain will be tested. Women with chronic TMD pain will be randomized to either an intervention arm or a placebo control group. Women in the intervention arm will receive 8 weeks of progressive exercise of motor control training using visual feedback (MCTF) of the cervical muscles, twice per week. Women in the placebo arm will receive innocuous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation during 8 weeks as well. The primary outcomes will be changes in 1) pain, measured with the Visual Analogue Scale, 2) brain structure and networks, measured by fractional anisotropy (brain structure) and the blood-oxygen level dependent signal (brain networks). Outcomes will be measured at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment, and 4 months after treatment ends and will determine effectiveness of MCTF in managing TMD, through improved clinical outcomes. Results will directly inform and guide clinicians in prescribing more effective interventions for women with TMD. This study is underway, and no results are available at this point. The results of this study will have substantial implications on the advancement in understanding the scope of plasticity the brain has in regards with pain, and how it can be used to improve the treatment and pain of women with TMD, and more generally, other musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: exercise therapy, musculoskeletal disorders, physical therapy, rehabilitation, tempomandibular disorders

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1197 Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Malaysian Office Workers in Klang Valley

Authors: Mohd Fadzly Yahya, Matthew Teo Yong Chang


Globally, the increasing life expectancy of human beings has brought more issues with non-communicable diseases, especially work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs). WMSD also is one of the leading causes of health-related absence from work restricted work time in Malaysia. WMDs are cumulative disorders, resulting from repeated exposure to high or low-intensity loads over a long period. Evidence from a previous study showed that office workers in government and private sectors were showing high WRMDs prevalence in Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of MSDs among Malaysian office workers in Klang Valley and to identify the association between MSDs pain and working experience among office workers. This is a cross-sectional study focusing on officer workers in the Klang Valley area. The questionnaires consisted of the subject’s demographics, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, and The Numeric Pain Rating Scale were distributed online via google forms to all consenting participants. The data were analyzed for descriptive analysis, parametric test, and student T-test using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 27. From a total of 244 participants, 95 (38.9%) were male and 149 (61.1%) were female. 57.8% of the total samples were government staff while private-sector workers were 42.2%. The highest MSDs prevalence was neck pain during the last 12 months which contributed to 69.3% (n=169) of total participants, which is male 38.5% (n=65) and female 61.5% (n=104). Our study revealed that female office workers have a higher prevalence of WMDs and there is a significant difference in elbow pain, wrist, and hands pain, and lower back pain across four different working experience groups. Office workers in this study were highly exposed to MSDs due to poor ergonomics implementation at the workplace. It is crucial to advocate preventative measures to employers such as workplace ergonomics and changes to work practices to reduce the incidence of MSDs cases in office settings.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, pain, prevalence rate, office workers, risks

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1196 Prevalence of the Musculoskeletal Disorder amongst School Teachers

Authors: Nirav Vaghela, Sanket Parekh


Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent one of the most common and important occupational health problems in working populations, being responsible for a substantial impact on quality of life and incurring a major economic burden in compensation cost and lost wages. School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of MSD. Design: Three hundred and fourteen teachers were enrolled in this study. Teachers were interview with the Modified Nordic Questionnaire. Result: In current study total 314 participants have been recruited in that minimum age of participants is 22 and maximum age is 59 with mean 40.5± 9.88. Total prevalence of the MSD is 71.95% among the teachers. In that Female were more affected with 72% than the males with 28%. Conclusion: The teachers here in reported a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the shoulder, knee and back.

Keywords: repetitive stress injury, pain, occupational hazards, disability, abneetism, physical health, quality of life

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1195 Evaluation of Computer Usage and Related Health Hazards

Authors: B. O. Adegoke, B. O. Ola, D. T. Ademiluyi


This paper examines the use of computer and its related health hazard among computer users in South-Western zone of Nigeria. Two hundred and eighteen (218) computer users constituted the population used to evaluate association between posture, extensive computer use and related health hazard. The instruments for the study are a questionnaire on demographics, lifestyle, body features and work ability index while mean rating, standard deviation and t test were used for data analysis. Identified health related hazard include damages to the eyesight, bad posture, arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, headache, stress and so on. The results showed that factors such as work demand, posture, closeness to computer screen and excessive working hours on computers constitute health hazards in both old and young computer users of various gender. It is therefore recommended that total number of hours spent with computer should be monitored and controlled.

Keywords: computer-related health hazard, musculoskeletal disorders, computer usage, work ability index

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1194 Work demand and Prevalence of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Case Study of Pakistan Aviation Maintenance Workers

Authors: Muzamil Mahmood, Afshan Naseem, Muhammad Zeeshan Mirza, Yasir Ahmad, Masood Raza


The purpose of this research is to analyze how aviation maintenance workers’ characteristics and work demand affect their development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Guided by literature on task characteristics, work demand, and WMSDs, data is collected from 128 aviation maintenance workers of private and public airlines. Data is then analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. It is found that task characteristics have a significant positive effect on WMSDs and an increase in tasks performed by aviation maintenance workers leads to increase in WMSDs. Work demand did not have a significant effect on WMSDs. The task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers moderates the relationship between their work demand and WMSDs. This reveals that task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers enhance the effect of work demand on WMSDs. The task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers are challenging and unpredictable. Subsequently, WMSDs are prevalent among aviation maintenance workers. The work demand of aviation maintenance workers does not influence their development of WMSDs. Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority should minimize the intensity of tasks assigned to aviation maintenance workers by introducing work dynamisms such as task sharing, job rotation, and probably teleworking to enhance flexibility. Human Resource and Recruitment Department need to consider the ability and fitness levels of potential aviation maintenance workers during recruitment. In addition, regular physical activities and ergonomic policies should be put in place by the management of the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority to reduce the incidences of WMSDs.

Keywords: work related musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomics, occupational health and safety, human factors

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1193 Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy versus Ultrasound on Musculoskeletal Conditions

Authors: Andrew Anis Fakhrey Mosaad


This Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are a major contributing factor in disability. This becomes more challenging as the world population is witnessing an increase in geriatric population. Various treatment strategies are being researched to provide the most effective and non-invasive approach. To date, low level laser therapy (LLLT) and ultrasound (US) are different modalities to treat different musculoskeletal conditions in physical therapy practice. Physical therapy practice uses different modalities to control pain and inflammation. LLLT also US have been under research for last two decades and has shown varying results. This literature review focuses on the effectiveness of LLLT versus US in different musculoskeletal conditions. Using search engines of PubMed and Google Scholar, a number of articles have been reviewed based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. LLLT and US show promising results in treating different musculoskeletal conditions. However, clinicians need to ensure to follow the recommended dosage parameters for specific musculoskeletal condition.

Keywords: musculoskeletal conditions, low level laser therapy, ultrasound, wavelength, pain and inflammation

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1192 Injury Prevention among Construction Workers: A Case Study on Iranian Steel Bar Bending Workers

Authors: S. Behnam Asl, H. Sadeghi Naeini, L. Sadat Ensaniat, R. Khorshidian, S. Alipour, S. Behnam Asl


Nowadays, the construction industry is growing, especially among developing countries. Iran also has a critical role in these industries in terms of workers disorders. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) account for 7% of the whole diseases in the society, which makes some limitations. One of the main factors which causes WMSDs is awkward posture. Steel bar bending is considered as one of the prominent performance among construction workers. In this case study, we aimed to find the major tasks of bar benders and the most important risk factors related to it. This study was carried out among twenty workers (18-45 years) as our volunteer samples in some construction sites with less than 6 floors in two regions of Tehran municipality. The data was gathered through in depth observation, interview and questionnaire. Also postural analysis was done by OWAS method. In another part of study we used NMQ for gathering some data about psychosocial effects of work related disorders. Our findings show that 64% of workers were not aware of work risks, about 59% of workers had troubles in their wrists, hands, especially workers who worked in steel bar bending. In 46% cases lower back pain was in prevalence. Considering gathered data and results, awkward postures and long term tasks and their duration are known as the main risk factors of WMSDs among construction workers, meaning that work-rest schedule and tools design should be reconsidered to make an ergonomic condition for the mentioned workers.

Keywords: bar benders, construction workers, musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), OWAS method

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1191 The Relationship between Functional Movement Screening Test and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Emergency Nurse and Emergency Medical Services Staff Shiraz, Iran, 2017

Authors: Akram Sadat Jafari Roodbandi, Alireza Choobineh, Nazanin Hosseini, Vafa Feyzi


Introduction: Physical fitness and optimum functional movement are essential for efficiently performing job tasks without fatigue and injury. Functional Movement Screening (FMS) tests are used in screening of athletes and military forces. Nurses and emergency medical staff are obliged to perform many physical activities such as transporting patients, CPR operations, etc. due to the nature of their jobs. This study aimed to assess relationship between FMS test score and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in emergency nurses and emergency medical services (EMS) staff. Methods: 134 male and female emergency nurses and EMS technicians participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study. After video tutorial and practical training of how to do FMS test, the participants carried out the test while they were wearing comfortable clothes. The final score of the FMS test ranges from 0 to 21. The score of 14 is considered weak in the functional movement base on FMS test protocol. In addition to the demographic data questionnaire, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was also completed for each participant. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Totally, 49.3% (n=66) of the subjects were female. The mean age and work experience of the subjects were 35.3 ± 8.7 and 11.4 ± 7.7, respectively. The highest prevalence of MSDs was observed at the knee and lower back with 32.8% (n=44) and 23.1% (n=31), respectively. 26 (19.4%) health worker had FMS test score of 14 and less. The results of the Spearman correlation test showed that the FMS test score was significantly associated with MSDs (r=-0.419, p < 0.0001). It meant that MSDs increased with the decrease of the FMS test score. Age, sex, and MSDs were the remaining significant factors in linear regression logistic model with dependent variable of FMS test score. Conclusion: FMS test seems to be a usable screening tool in pre-employment and periodic medical tests for occupations that require physical fitness and optimum functional movements.

Keywords: functional movement, musculoskeletal disorders, health care worker, screening test

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1190 Work Related and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders among Workers in an Automated flexible Assembly Line in India

Authors: Rohin Rameswarapu, Sameer Valsangkar


Background: Globally, musculoskeletal disorders are the largest single cause of work-related illnesses accounting for over 33% of all newly reported occupational illnesses. Risk factors for MSD need to be delineated to suggest means for amelioration. Material and methods: In this current cross-sectional study, the prevalence of MSDs among workers in an electrical company assembly line, the socio-demographic and job characteristics associated with MSD were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. A quantitative assessment of the physical risk factors through the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) tool, and measurement of psychosocial risk factors through a Likert scale was obtained. Statistical analysis was conducted using Epi-info software and descriptive and inferential statistics including chi-square and unpaired t test were obtained. Results: A total of 263 workers consented and participated in the study. Among these workers, 200 (76%) suffered from MSD. Most of the workers were aged between 18–27 years and majority of the workers were women with 198 (75.2%) of the 263 workers being women. A chi square test was significant for association between male gender and MSD with a P value of 0.007. Among the MSD positive group, 4 (2%) had a grand score of 5, 10 (5%) had a grand score of 6 and 186 (93%) had a grand score of 7 on RULA. There were significant differences between the non-MSD and MSD group on five out of the seven psychosocial domains, namely job demand, job monotony, co-worker support, decision control and family and environment domains. Discussion: The current cross-sectional study demonstrates a high prevalence of MSD among assembly line works with inherent physical and psychosocial risk factors and recommends that not only physical risk factors, addressing psychosocial risk factors through proper ergonomic means is also essential to the well-being of the employee.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, India, occupational health, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA)

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1189 Real-World Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole


Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major cause of pain and disability. It is likely to become a greater economic and public health burden that is unnecessary. Thus, reliable prevalence figures are important for both clinicians and policy-makers to plan health care needs for those affected with the disease. This study estimated hospital based real-world prevalence of MSDs in Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out to identify common MSDs including low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSD), post immobilization stiffness (PIS), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and other conditions. Occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages. Overall, medical charts of 3,340 patients were reviewed within the span of ten years (2009 to 2018). Majority of the patients (62.8%) were in the middle class, and the remaining were in low class (25.1%) and high class (10.5%) category. An overall prevalence of 47.35% of MSD was found within the span of ten years. Of this, the prevalence of LBP, CSD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions was 21.6%, 10%, 18.9%, 2%, 6.3%, and 41.3%, respectively. The highest (14.2%) and lowest (10.5%) prevalence of MSDs was recorded in the year of 2012 and 2018, respectively. The prevalence of MSDs is considerably high among Nigerian patients attending outpatient a physiotherapy clinic. The high prevalence of MSDs underscores the need for clinicians and decision makers to put in place appropriate strategies to reduce the prevalence of these conditions. In addition, they should plan and evaluate healthcare services to improve the health outcomes of patients with MSDs. Further studies are required to determine the economic burden of the condition and examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for patients with MSDs.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, Nigeria, prevalence, real world

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1188 Prevalence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Surgeons

Authors: Nirav P. Vaghela


Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WMS) are a major health issue in many occupations all over the world. Past research on hospital workers have mainly been focused on nurses [8] and very few studies have examined musculoskeletal symptoms among doctors in various specialties. The work of surgeons can involve high levels of mental concentration and very precise movements that can be categorized as mild-to-moderate physical demands. Design: Forty-three surgeons were enrolled in this study. To investigate musculoskeletal disorder among the surgeons we had used Standardised Nordic Questionnaire, Quick Exposure Check (QEC) and Workstyle Short Form. Result: In the current study, total 43 surgeons participants out of 30 males and 13 females. Their mean age was 42.07 ± 12.35, and the mean working years of the group were 15.14years ±9.017. On the average, they worked a total of about 8.58 h (±1.967) per day. The prevalence of work related musculoskeletal symptoms among the surgeons indicating 83.70% surgeons had atleast one joint affected while 16.30% had no symptoms at all. Conclusion: The present survey study has shown high prevalence rates of neck, back and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms in surgeons.

Keywords: repetitive stress injury, pain, occupational hazards, disability, abneetism, physical health, quality of life

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1187 Impact of Kinesio Taping on Masseter Muscle: An Electromyographic Study

Authors: Joanna E. Owczarek, Izabela Zielinska


The incidence of temporomandibular disorders is 50% up to 80%. Kinesio taping (KT) is treatment method for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of KT on masseter muscles’ tone evaluated by electromyography. 30 adults (aged 22±2.1) were examined. The tone of masseters before and after 4 days KT application on sternocleidomastoideus muscle was measured during resting mandibular position and clenching. Noraxon DTS device was used. Masseter muscles’ tone during clenching after KT application was relevently lower in comparison to its tone before the KT.

Keywords: electromyography, kinesio taping, masseter muscle, TMD

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1186 Effectiveness of Exercise and TENS in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

Authors: Arben Murtezani, Shefqet Mrasori, Vančo Spirov, Bukurije Rama, Oliver Dimitrovski, Visar Bunjaku


Overview: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. Clinical indicators of discomfort are related to the use of the joint stiffness during first motions after extended rest and restricted joint range of motion can cause substantial pain and disability. There is little evidence that physical therapy methods of management cause long-lasting reduction in signs and symptoms. Exercise programs premeditated to improve physical fitness have beneficial effects on chronic pain and disability of the musculoskeletal system. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions in the management of temporomandibular disorders. Materials and Methods: A prospective comparative study with a 2-month follow-up period was conducted between April 2016 and June 2016 at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic in Prishtina. Forty six patients with TMDs, (more than three months duration of symptoms) were randomized into two groups: the TENS therapy group (n=24) and combination of active exercise and manual therapy group (n=22). The TENS therapy group patients were treated with twelve sessions of TENS. The treatment period of both groups was 3 weeks at an outpatient clinic. Following main outcome measures were evaluated: (1) pain at rest (2) pain at stress (3) impairment (4) mouth opening at base-line, before and after treatment and at 3 month follow-up. Results: Significant reduction in pain was observed in both treatment groups. In the TENS group 73% (16/22) achieved at least 80% improvement from baseline in TMJ pain at 2 months compared with 54% (13/24) in the exercise group (difference of 19%; 95% confidence interval 220 to 30%). Active and passive maximum mouth opening has been greater in the TENS group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exercise therapy in combination with TENS seems to be useful in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

Keywords: temporomandibular joint disorders, TENS, manual therapy, exercise

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1185 Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Characteristics and Presenteeism among Hotel Employees

Authors: Ruey-Yu Chen, Yao-Tsung Chang, Ching-Ying Yeh, Yu-Ting Huang


Musculoskeletal problems in the hotel sector have been little studied. The aim of this study was to examine relationships of musculoskeletal pain and work characteristics with presenteeism, i.e., feeling sick but going to work anyway. Data of a self-reported questionnaire were collected from 1,101 employees, who joined the study on a voluntary basis from four hotels in northern Taiwan. The results showed that respondents who were female, were younger, had a higher educational level, and worked in the real-service department had higher presenteeism. There were significant positive associations between presenteeism and heavy loads, frequent beatings or hits of hard objects, improper bench height, employees’ lower limb and lower back pain. Our study results imply that knowledge of work characteristics and employees' musculoskeletal problems could be advantageously used to reduce presenteeism in the workplace.

Keywords: musculoskeletal pain, absenteeism, presenteeism, hotel employees

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1184 The Effect of Smartphones on Human Health Relative to User’s Addiction: A Study on a Wide Range of Audiences in Jordan

Authors: T. Qasim, M. Obeidat, S. Al-Sharairi


The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the excessive use of smartphones. Smartphones have enormous effects on the human body in that some musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and health problems might evolve. These days, there is a wide use of the smartphones among all age groups of society, thus, the focus on smartphone effects on human behavior and health, especially on the young and elderly people, becomes a crucial issue. This study was conducted in Jordan on smartphone users for different genders and ages, by conducting a survey to collect data related to the symptoms and MSDs that are resulted from the excessive use of smartphones. A total of 357 responses were used in the analysis. The main related symptoms were numbness, fingers pain, and pain in arm, all linked to age and gender for comparative reasons. A statistical analysis was performed to find the effects of extensive usage of a smartphone for long periods of time on the human body. Results show that the significant variables were the vision problems and the time spent when using the smartphone that cause vision problems. Other variables including age of user and ear problems due to the use of the headsets were found to be a border line significant.

Keywords: smart phone, age group, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), health problems

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