Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7447

Search results for: temperature measurement

7447 Vortex Separator for More Accurate Air Dry-Bulb Temperature Measurement

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, I. M. S. Taha, A. M. Abdel-Ghany, M. Attalla


Fog systems application for cooling and humidification is still limited, although these systems require less initial cost compared with that of other cooling systems such as pad-and-fan systems. The undesirable relative humidity and air temperature inside the space which have been cooled or humidified are the main reasons for its limited use, which results from the poor control of fog systems. Any accurate control system essentially needs air dry bulb temperature as an input parameter. Therefore, the air dry-bulb temperature in the space needs to be measured accurately. The Scope of the present work is the separation of the fog droplets from the air in a fogged space to measure the air dry bulb temperature accurately. The separation is to be done in a small device inside which the sensor of the temperature measuring instrument is positioned. Vortex separator will be designed and used. Another reference device will be used for measuring the air temperature without separation. A comparative study will be performed to reach at the best device which leads to the most accurate measurement of air dry bulb temperature. The results showed that the proposed devices improved the measured air dry bulb temperature toward the correct direction over that of the free junction. Vortex device was the best. It respectively increased the temperature measured by the free junction in the range from around 2 to around 6°C for different fog on-off duration.

Keywords: fog systems, measuring air dry bulb temperature, temperature measurement, vortex separator

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7446 Influence of Measurement System on Negative Bias Temperature Instability Characterization: Fast BTI vs Conventional BTI vs Fast Wafer Level Reliability

Authors: Vincent King Soon Wong, Hong Seng Ng, Florinna Sim


Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is one of the critical degradation mechanisms in semiconductor device reliability that causes shift in the threshold voltage (Vth). However, thorough understanding of this reliability failure mechanism is still unachievable due to a recovery characteristic known as NBTI recovery. This paper will demonstrate the severity of NBTI recovery as well as one of the effective methods used to mitigate, which is the minimization of measurement system delays. Comparison was done in between two measurement systems that have significant differences in measurement delays to show how NBTI recovery causes result deviations and how fast measurement systems can mitigate NBTI recovery. Another method to minimize NBTI recovery without the influence of measurement system known as Fast Wafer Level Reliability (FWLR) NBTI was also done to be used as reference.

Keywords: fast vs slow BTI, fast wafer level reliability (FWLR), negative bias temperature instability (NBTI), NBTI measurement system, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), NBTI recovery, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
7445 Study on Concentration and Temperature Measurement with 760 nm Diode Laser in Combustion System Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

Authors: Miyeon Yoo, Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


It is important to measure the internal temperature or temperature distribution precisely in combustion system to increase energy efficiency and reduce the pollutants. Especially in case of large combustion systems such as power plant boiler and reheating furnace of steel making process, it is very difficult to measure those physical properties in detail. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement and analysis can be attractive method to overcome the difficulty. In this paper, TDLAS methods are used to measure the oxygen concentration and temperature distribution in various experimental conditions.

Keywords: tunable diode laser absorption Spectroscopy, temperature distribution, gas concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
7444 A Calibration Method for Temperature Distribution Measurement of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Based on Mathematical Morphology of Hue Image

Authors: Risti Suryantari, Flaviana


The aim of this research is to design calibration method of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal for temperature distribution measurement based on mathematical morphology of hue image A glass of water is placed on the surface of sample TLC R25C5W at certain temperature. We use scanner for image acquisition. The true images in RGB format is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) by taking of hue without saturation and value. Then the hue images is processed based on mathematical morphology using Matlab2013a software to get better images. There are differences on the final images after processing at each temperature variation based on visualization observation and the statistic value. The value of maximum and mean increase with rising temperature. It could be parameter to identify the temperature of the human body surface like hand or foot surface.

Keywords: thermochromic liquid crystal, TLC, mathematical morphology, hue image

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
7443 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine


Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGS), strain, temperature, humidity, structural health monitoring (SHM)

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7442 Noninvasive Evaluation of Acupuncture by Measuring Facial Temperature through Thermal Image

Authors: An Guo, Hieyong Jeong, Tianyi Wang, Na Li, Yuko Ohno


Acupuncture, known as sensory simulation, has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years. However, present studies had not addressed approaches for noninvasive measurement in order to evaluate therapeutic effect of acupuncture. The purpose of this study is to propose a noninvasive method to evaluate acupuncture by measuring facial temperature through thermal image. Three human subjects were recruited in this study. Each subject received acupuncture therapy for 30 mins. Acupuncture needles (Ø0.16 x 30 mm) were inserted into Baihui point (DU20), Neiguan points (PC6) and Taichong points (LR3), acupuncture needles (Ø0.18 x 39 mm) were inserted into Tanzhong point (RN17), Zusanli points (ST36) and Yinlingquan points (SP9). Facial temperature was recorded by an infrared thermometer. Acupuncture therapeutic effect was compared pre- and post-acupuncture. Experiment results demonstrated that facial temperature changed according to acupuncture therapeutic effect. It was concluded that proposed method showed high potential to evaluate acupuncture by noninvasive measurement of facial temperature.

Keywords: acupuncture, facial temperature, noninvasive evaluation, thermal image

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7441 Simultaneous Measurement of Pressure and Temperature Profile of Lubricating Oil-Film along Orthogonally Displaced Non-Circular Journal Bearing: An Experimental Study

Authors: Amit Singla, Amit Chauhan


The non-circular journal bearings provide better thermal stability and lesser oil-film temperature rise as compared to circular journal bearings. Experimentation on simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature of lubricated oil-film along the profile of the bearing will help the designer to design journal bearings. In this paper, pressure and temperature of oil-film along orthogonally displaced non-circular journal bearing have been measured on a designed journal bearing test rig. The orthogonal non-circular journal bearing has been fabricated by displacing two circular halves away from the centers in the orthogonal direction. The data acquisition for oil film pressure and temperature has been carried out at journal speed=3000 rpm and by increasing the static radial load from 500 N to 2000 N in steps of 500 N using three different grades of oil (ISOVG 32, 68, and 150) named as oil-1, oil-2, and oil-3 respectively. The results show that the oil-film pressure and temperature increases with increase in radial load and change of lubricating oil towards increasing viscosity. Further, two lobes in the pressure and temperature profiles have been obtained which accounts for better thermal stability as it reduces cavitation zone inside the bearing.

Keywords: cavitation, non-circular journal bearing, orthogonally displaced, thermal stability

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7440 Research on the Impact on Building Temperature and Ventilation by Outdoor Shading Devices in Hot-Humid Area: Through Measurement and Simulation on an Office Building in Guangzhou

Authors: Hankun Lin, Yiqiang Xiao, Qiaosheng Zhan


Shading devices (SDs) are widely used in buildings in the hot-humid climate areas for reducing cooling energy consumption for interior temperature, as the result of reducing the solar radiation directly. Contrasting the surface temperature of materials of SDs to the glass on the building façade could give more analysis for the shading effect. On the other side, SDs are much more used as the independence system on building façade in hot-humid area. This typical construction could have some impacts on building ventilation as well. This paper discusses the outdoor SDs’ effects on the building thermal environment and ventilation, through a set of measurements on a 2-floors office building in Guangzhou, China, which install a dynamic aluminum SD-system around the façade on 2nd-floor. The measurements recorded the in/outdoor temperature, relative humidity, velocity, and the surface temperature of the aluminum panel and the glaze. After that, a CFD simulation was conducted for deeper discussion of ventilation. In conclusion, this paper reveals the temperature differences on the different material of the façade, and finds that the velocity of indoor environment could be reduced by the outdoor SDs.

Keywords: outdoor shading devices, hot-humid area, temperature, ventilation, measurement, CFD

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7439 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph


A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant

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7438 Experimental Chip/Tool Temperature FEM Model Calibration by Infrared Thermography: A Case Study

Authors: Riccardo Angiuli, Michele Giannuzzi, Rodolfo Franchi, Gabriele Papadia


Temperature knowledge in machining is fundamental to improve the numerical and FEM models used for the study of some critical process aspects, such as the behavior of the worked material and tool. The extreme conditions in which they operate make it impossible to use traditional measuring instruments; infrared thermography can be used as a valid measuring instrument for temperature measurement during metal cutting. In the study, a large experimental program on superduplex steel (ASTM A995 gr. 5A) cutting was carried out, the relevant cutting temperatures were measured by infrared thermography when certain cutting parameters changed, from traditional values to extreme ones. The values identified were used to calibrate a FEM model for the prediction of residual life of the tools. During the study, the problems related to the detection of cutting temperatures by infrared thermography were analyzed, and a dedicated procedure was developed that could be used during similar processing.

Keywords: machining, infrared thermography, FEM, temperature measurement

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7437 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško


The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
7436 Heat Distribution Simulation on Transformer Using FEMM Software

Authors: N. K. Mohd Affendi, T. A. R. Tuan Abdullah, S. A. Syed Mustaffa


In power industry transformer is an important component and most of us familiar by the functioning principle of a transformer electrically. There are many losses occur during the operation of a transformer that causes heat generation. This heat, if not dissipated properly will reduce the lifetime and effectiveness of the transformer. Transformer cooling helps in maintaining the temperature rise of various paths. This paper proposed to minimize the ambient temperature of the transformer room in order to lower down the temperature of the transformer. A simulation has been made using finite element methods programs called FEMM (Finite Elements Method Magnetics) to create a virtual model based on actual measurement of a transformer. The generalization of the two-dimensional (2D) FEMM results proves that by minimizing the ambient temperature, the heat of the transformer is decreased. The modeling process and of the transformer heat flow has been presented.

Keywords: heat generation, temperature rise, ambient temperature, FEMM

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7435 Smart Irrigation System

Authors: Levent Seyfi, Ertan Akman, Tuğrul C. Topak


In this study, irrigation automation with electronic sensors and its control with smartphones were aimed. In this context, temperature and soil humidity measurements of the area irrigated were obtained by temperature and humidity sensors. A micro controller (Arduino) was utilized for accessing values of these parameters and controlling the proposed irrigation system. The irrigation system could automatically be worked according to obtained measurement values. Besides, a GSM module used together with Arduino provided that the irrigation system was in connection to smartphones. Thus, the irrigation system can be remotely controlled. Not only can we observe whether the irrigation system is working or not via developed special android application but also we can see temperature and humidity measurement values. In addition to this, if desired, the irrigation system can be remotely and manually started or stopped regardless of measured sensor vales thanks to the developed android application. In addition to smartphones, the irrigation system can be alternatively controlled via the designed website (

Keywords: smartphone, Android Operating System, sensors, irrigation System, arduino

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7434 Photovoltaic Cells Characteristics Measurement Systems

Authors: Rekioua T., Rekioua D., Aissou S., Ouhabi A.


Power provided by the photovoltaic array varies with solar radiation and temperature, since these parameters influence the electrical characteristic (Ipv-Vpv) of solar cells. In Scientific research, there are different methods to obtain these characteristics. In this paper, we present three methods. A simulation one using Matlab/Simulink. The second one is the standard experimental voltage method and the third one is by using LabVIEW software. This latter is based on an electronic circuit to test PV modules. All details of this electronic schemes are presented and obtained results of the three methods with a comparison and under different meteorological conditions are presented. The proposed method is simple and very efficiency for testing and measurements of electrical characteristic curves of photovoltaic panels.

Keywords: photovoltaic cells, measurement standards, temperature sensors, data acquisition

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7433 Online Measurement of Fuel Stack Elongation

Authors: Sung Ho Ahn, Jintae Hong, Chang Young Joung, Tae Ho Yang, Sung Ho Heo, Seo Yun Jang


The performances of nuclear fuels and materials are qualified at an irradiation system in research reactors operating under the commercial nuclear power plant conditions. Fuel centerline temperature, coolant temperature, neutron flux, deformations of fuel stack and swelling are important parameters needed to analyze the nuclear fuel performances. The dimensional stability of nuclear fuels is a key parameter measuring the fuel densification and swelling. In this study, the fuel stack elongation is measured using a LVDT. A mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is developed. The performances of mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is evaluated by experiments.

Keywords: axial deformation, elongation measurement, in-pile instrumentation, LVDT

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7432 A Multigrid Approach for Three-Dimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Problems

Authors: Jianhua Zhou, Yuwen Zhang


A two-step multigrid approach is proposed to solve the inverse heat conduction problem in a 3-D object under laser irradiation. In the first step, the location of the laser center is estimated using a coarse and uniform grid system. In the second step, the front-surface temperature is recovered in good accuracy using a multiple grid system in which fine mesh is used at laser spot center to capture the drastic temperature rise in this region but coarse mesh is employed in the peripheral region to reduce the total number of sensors required. The effectiveness of the two-step approach and the multiple grid system are demonstrated by the illustrative inverse solutions. If the measurement data for the temperature and heat flux on the back surface do not contain random error, the proposed multigrid approach can yield more accurate inverse solutions. When the back-surface measurement data contain random noise, accurate inverse solutions cannot be obtained if both temperature and heat flux are measured on the back surface.

Keywords: conduction, inverse problems, conjugated gradient method, laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
7431 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid


The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material

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7430 Condition Optimization for Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Activities in Economic Animals

Authors: Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Buaream Maneewan, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn


For animals, trypsin and chymotrypsin are the 2 proteases that play the important role in protein digestion and involving in growth rate. In many animals, these two enzymes are indicated as growth parameter by feed. Although enzyme assay at optimal condition is significant for its accuracy activity determination. There is less report of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Therefore, in this study, optimization of pH and temperature for trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C) in economic species; i.e. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sand goby (Oxyeleotoris marmoratus), giant freshwater prawn (Macrobachium rosenberchii) and native chicken (Gallus gallus) were investigated. Each enzyme of each species was assaying for its specific activity with variation of pH in range of 2-12 and temperature in range of 30-80 °C. It revealed that, for Nile tilapia, T had optimal condition at pH 9 and temperature 50-80 °C, whereas C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature 60 °C. For sand goby, T had optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 50 °C, while C had optimal condition at pH 11 and temperature of 70-75 °C. For juvenile freshwater prawn, T had optimal condition at pH 10-11 and temperature of 60-65 °C, C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 70°C. For starter native chicken, T has optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 70 °C, whereas C had o optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 60°C. This information of optimal conditions will be high valuable in further for, actual enzyme measurement of T and C activities that benefit for growth and feed analysis.

Keywords: trypsin, chymotrypsin, Oreochromis niloticus, Oxyeleotoris marmoratus, Macrobachium rosenberchii, Gallus gallus

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
7429 A Simple Low-Cost 2-D Optical Measurement System for Linear Guideways

Authors: Wen-Yuh Jywe, Bor-Jeng Lin, Jing-Chung Shen, Jeng-Dao Lee, Hsueh-Liang Huang, Tung-Hsien Hsieh


In this study, a simple 2-D measurement system based on optical design was developed to measure the motion errors of the linear guideway. Compared with the transitional methods about the linear guideway for measuring the motion errors, our proposed 2-D optical measurement system can simultaneously measure horizontal and vertical running straightness errors for the linear guideway. The performance of the 2-D optical measurement system is verified by experimental results. The standard deviation of the 2-D optical measurement system is about 0.4 μm in the measurement range of 100 mm. The maximum measuring speed of the proposed automatic measurement instrument is 1 m/sec.

Keywords: 2-D measurement, linear guideway, motion errors, running straightness

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
7428 Thermal Analysis of a Graphite Calorimeter for the Measurement of Absorbed Dose for Therapeutic X-Ray Beam

Authors: I.J. Kim, B.C. Kim, J.H. Kim, C.-Y. Yi


Heat transfer in a graphite calorimeter is analyzed by using the finite elements method. The calorimeter is modeled in 3D geometry. Quasi-adiabatic mode operation is realized in the simulation and the temperature rise by different sources of the ionizing radiation and electric heaters is compared, directly. The temperature distribution caused by the electric power was much different from that by the ionizing radiation because of its point-like localized heating. However, the temperature rise which was finally read by sensing thermistors agreed well to each other within 0.02 %.

Keywords: graphite calorimeter, finite element analysis, heat transfer, quasi-adiabatic mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
7427 Hydrogen Storage in Carbonized Coconut Meat (Kernel)

Authors: Viney Dixit, Rohit R. Shahi, Ashish Bhatnagar, P. Jain, T. P. Yadav, O. N. Srivastava


Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen absorption kinetics and low cost. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to synthesize carbon based material which shows moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of natural precursor coconut kernel is studied in this work. The hydrogen storage measurement reveals that the as-synthesized materials have good hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with fast kinetics. The synthesized material absorbs 8 wt.% of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature and 2.3 wt.% at room temperature. This could be due to the presence of certain elements (KCl, Mg, Ca) which are confirmed by TEM.

Keywords: coconut kernel, carbonization, hydrogenation, KCl, Mg, Ca

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7426 A Comparative Study of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) for Airflow Measurement

Authors: Sijie Fu, Pascal-Henry Biwolé, Christian Mathis


Among modern airflow measurement methods, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV), as visualized and non-instructive measurement techniques, are playing more important role. This paper conducts a comparative experimental study for airflow measurement employing both techniques with the same condition. Velocity vector fields, velocity contour fields, voticity profiles and turbulence profiles are selected as the comparison indexes. The results show that the performance of both PIV and PTV techniques for airflow measurement is satisfied, but some differences between the both techniques are existed, it suggests that selecting the measurement technique should be based on a comprehensive consideration.

Keywords: airflow measurement, comparison, PIV, PTV

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7425 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel


The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

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7424 Temperature Field Measurement of Premixed Landfill Gas Laminar Flame in a Cylindrical Slot Burner Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Bahareh Najafian Ashrafi, Hossein Zeidabadinejad, Mehdi Ashjaee


The temperature field is a key factor of flame heat transfer rate and therefore should be measured accurately. In this study, the Mach-Zehnder Interferometry method is applied to measure the temperature field of premixed air/landfill gas (LFG60:60% CH4+40% CO2) laminar flame. The three-dimensional flame of cylindrical slot burner can assume to be two-dimensional due to the high aspect ratio (L/W=10) of the rectangular slot. So, the method converts two-dimensional flame to closed isothermal curves called fringes and the outer fringes temperature is measured by thermocouples. The experiments are carried out for Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios ranging from 100 to 400 and 1.0 to 1.4, respectively. Results show that by increasing the equivalence ratio or Reynolds number, the flame height increases. The maximum flame temperature decreases by increasing the equivalence ratio but does not change considerably by changing the Reynolds number.

Keywords: landfill gas, Mach-Zehender interferometry, premix flame, slot burner, temperature filed

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7423 The Effect of the Calcination Temperature and SiO2 Addition on the Physical Properties’ of Sol Gel TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Nour El Houda Arabi, Aicha Iratni, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui


In this paper, we report the effect of the calcination temperature and SiO2 addition on structural, optical and hydrophilicity of TiO2 films deposited by deep-coating sol-gel process. XRD investigation of the structural TiO2 films with increasing the temperature calcination, reveals that rutile phase will appear for the high temperature (>1000°C). However, the addition of SiO2 relate the densification of TiO2 films. Ellipsometric and UV-visible measure show that the refractive index grow with increasing temperature, against the film thickness decreases. On the other hand, the addition of SiO2 decreases the refractive index and increases the TiO2 film thickness. Finally, the hydrophilicity is assisted by contact angle measurement. It is found that addition of 50% of SiO2 to TiO2 is most effective for reducing the contact angle of water.

Keywords: physical properties, sol, gel, TiO2/SiO2 composite films

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7422 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require systematic investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 300 series austenitic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800°C and 200-900°C. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation

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7421 Temperature Effect on Corrosion and Erosion in Transfer Line Exchange by CFD

Authors: S. Hehni Meidani Behzad, Mokhtari Karchegani Amir, Mabodi Samad


There are some TLE (Transfer Line Exchanger) that their lifetime reduced to 4 years instead of 30 years and after 4 years, we saw corroded area on one part of those T.L.E. that named Oval header and this happened in condition that other parts of those TLE were safe and perfect. By using of thickness measurement devices, we find that thickness reduces unusually on that part and after research and doing computer analysis with fluent software, it was recognized that on that part, we have high temperature and when this out of range temperature adds to bad quality of water, corrosion increased with high rate on that part and after more research it became obviously that it case by more excess air in furnace that located before this T.L.E. that this more air case to consuming more fuel to reach same furnace temperature so it concluded that inner coil fluid temperature increased and after received to T.L.E, this case happened and deflector condition, creep in coil and material analysis confirmed that condition.

Keywords: Transfer Line Exchanger (TLE), CFD, corrosion, erosion, tube, oval header

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
7420 A Measuring Industrial Resiliency by Using Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Authors: Ida Bagus Made Putra Jandhana, Teuku Yuri M. Zagloel, Rahmat Nurchayo


Having several crises that affect industrial sector performance in the past decades, decision makers should utilize measurement application that enables them to measure industrial resiliency more precisely. It provides not only a framework for the development of resilience measurement application, but also several theories for the concept building blocks, such as performance measurement management, and resilience engineering in real world environment. This research is a continuation of previously published paper on performance measurement in the industrial sector. Finally, this paper contributes an alternative performance measurement method in industrial sector based on resilience concept. Moreover, this research demonstrates how applicable the concept of resilience engineering is and its method of measurement.

Keywords: industrial, measurement, resilience, sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
7419 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar


The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by radio-frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40 oC to +150 oC and can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by capacitance bridge and inwave guide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement

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7418 Synthesis, Characterization and Impedance Analysis of Polypyrrole/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites

Authors: M. G. Smitha, M. V. Murugendrappa


Perovskite manganite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was synthesized by Sol-gel method. Polymerization of pyrrole was carried by in-situ polymerization method. The composite of pyrrole (Py)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 composite in the presence of oxidizing agent ammonium per sulphate to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy)/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCM) composite was carried out by the same in-situ polymerization method. The PPy/LCM composites were synthesized with varying compositions like 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.% of LCM in Py. The surface morphologies of these composites were analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images show that LCM particles are embedded in PPy chain. The impedance measurement of PPy/LCM at different temperature ranges from 30 to 180 °C was studied using impedance analyzer. The study shows that impedance is frequency and temperature dependent and it is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature.

Keywords: polypyrrole, sol gel, impedance, composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 246