Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: wet and dry bulb thermometer

60 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test

Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye


Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.

Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
59 Mathematical Modeling of a Sub-Wet Bulb Temperature Evaporative Cooling Using Porous Ceramic Materials

Authors: Meryem Kanzari, Rabah Boukhanouf, Hatem G. Ibrahim


Indirect Evaporative Cooling process has the advantage of supplying cool air at constant moisture content. However, such system can only supply air at temperatures above wet bulb temperature. This paper presents a mathematical model for a sub-wet bulb temperature indirect evaporative cooling arrangement that can overcome this limitation and supply cool air at temperatures approaching dew point and without increasing its moisture content. In addition, the use of porous ceramics as wet media materials offers the advantage of integration into building elements. Results of the computer show that the proposed design is capable of cooling air to temperatures lower than the ambient wet bulb temperature and achieving wet bulb effectiveness of about 1.17.

Keywords: indirect evaporative cooling, porous ceramic, sub-wet bulb temperature, mathematical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
58 Vortex Separator for More Accurate Air Dry-Bulb Temperature Measurement

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, I. M. S. Taha, A. M. Abdel-Ghany, M. Attalla


Fog systems application for cooling and humidification is still limited, although these systems require less initial cost compared with that of other cooling systems such as pad-and-fan systems. The undesirable relative humidity and air temperature inside the space which have been cooled or humidified are the main reasons for its limited use, which results from the poor control of fog systems. Any accurate control system essentially needs air dry bulb temperature as an input parameter. Therefore, the air dry-bulb temperature in the space needs to be measured accurately. The Scope of the present work is the separation of the fog droplets from the air in a fogged space to measure the air dry bulb temperature accurately. The separation is to be done in a small device inside which the sensor of the temperature measuring instrument is positioned. Vortex separator will be designed and used. Another reference device will be used for measuring the air temperature without separation. A comparative study will be performed to reach at the best device which leads to the most accurate measurement of air dry bulb temperature. The results showed that the proposed devices improved the measured air dry bulb temperature toward the correct direction over that of the free junction. Vortex device was the best. It respectively increased the temperature measured by the free junction in the range from around 2 to around 6°C for different fog on-off duration.

Keywords: fog systems, measuring air dry bulb temperature, temperature measurement, vortex separator

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57 Digital Antimicrobial Thermometer for Axilliary Usage: A New Device for Measuring the Temperature of the Body for the Reduction of Cross-Infections

Authors: P. Efstathiou, E. Kouskouni, Z. Manolidou, K. Karageorgou, M. Tseroni, A. Efstathiou, V. Karyoti, I. Agrafa


Aim: The aim of this prospective comparative study is to evaluate the reduction of microbial flora on the surface of an axillary digital thermometer, made of antimicrobial copper, in relation with a common digital thermometer. Material – Methods: A brand new digital electronic thermometer implemented with antimicrobial copper (Cu 70% - Nic 30%, low lead) on the two edges of the device (top and bottom: World Patent Number WO2013064847 and Register Number by the Hellenic Copper Development Institute No 11/2012) was manufactured and a comparative study with common digital electronic thermometer was conducted on 18 ICU (Intensive Care Unit) patients of three different hospitals. The thermometry was performed in accordance with the projected International Nursing Protocols for body temperature measurement. A total of 216 microbiological samples were taken from the axillary area of the patients, using both of the investigated body temperature devises. Simultaneously the “Halo” phenomenon (phenomenon “Stefanis”) was studied at the non-antimicrobial copper-implemented parts of the antimicrobial digital electronic thermometer. Results: In all samples collected from the surface of the antimicrobial electronic digital thermometer, the reduction of microbial flora (Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermitis, Candida spp, Pneudomonas spp) was progressively reduced to 99% in two hours after the thermometry. The above flora was found in the axillary cavity remained the same in common thermometer. The statistical analysis (SPSS 21) showed a statistically significant reduction of the microbial load (N = 216, < 0.05). Conclusions: The hospital-acquired infections are linked to the transfer of pathogens due to the multi-usage of medical devices from both health professionals and patients, such as axillary thermometers. The use of antimicrobial digital electronic thermometer minimizes microbes' transportation between patients and health professionals while having all the conditions of reliability, proper functioning, security, ease of use and reduced cost.

Keywords: antimicrobial copper, cross infections, digital thermometers, ICU

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
56 Effect of Architecture and Operating Conditions of Vehicle on Bulb Lifetime in Automotive

Authors: Hatice Özbek, Caner Çil, Ahmet Rodoplu


Automotive lighting is the leading function in the configuration of vehicle architecture. Especially headlights and taillights from external lighting functions are among the structures that determine the stylistic character of the vehicle. At the same time, the fact that lighting functions are related to many other functions brings along difficulties in design. Customers expect maximum quality from the vehicle. In these circumstances, it is necessary to make designs that aim to keep the performance of bulbs with limited working lives at the highest level. With this study, the factors that influence the working lives of filament lamps were examined and bulb explosions that can occur sooner than anticipated in the future were prevented while the vehicle was still in the design phase by determining the relations with electrical, dynamical and static variables. Especially the filaments of the bulbs used in the front lighting of the vehicle are deformed in a shorter time due to the high voltage requirement. In addition to this, rear lighting lamps vibrate as a result of the tailgate opening and closing and cause the filaments to be exposed to high stress. With this study, the findings that cause bulb explosions were evaluated. Among the most important findings: 1. The structure of the cables to the lighting functions of the vehicle and the effect of the voltage values are drawn; 2. The effect of the vibration to bulb throughout the life of the vehicle; 3 The effect of the loads carried to bulb while the vehicle doors are opened and closed. At the end of the study, the maximum performance was established in the bulb lifetimes with the optimum changes made in the vehicle architecture based on the findings obtained.

Keywords: vehicle architecture, automotive lighting functions, filament lamps, bulb lifetime

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
55 Response of Onion to FTM and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake in Lateritic Soil of Konkan

Authors: Rupali Thorat, S. B. Dodake, V. N. Palsande, S. D. Patil


A field experiment was conducted to study the “Response of onion to FYM and inorganic fertilizers application on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in lateritic soil of Konkan” at the farm of Pangari block of Irrigation of Scheme, Central Experimentation Station, Wakawali during Rabi 2009-10. There were 12 treatment combinations, comprising of 3 levels of NPK fertilizers (C1 ,C2-125 kg N, 62.5 kg P205 and 62.5 kg K20 ha-1 and C3-150 kg N, 75 kg P205 and 75 kg K20 ha-1) and 4 levels of FYM (F1-10 t FYM ha-1, F2 - 15 t FYM ha-1, F3-20 t FYM ha-1, F4-25 t FYM ha-1) replicated thrice using Factorial Randomized Block Design. The observations on plant height, number of leaves, girth of plant, polar and equatorial diameter of bulb as well as dry matter yield, onion bulb yield recorded during the course of field study were subjected to statistical analysis. Similarly nutrient content and uptake, quality parameters of bulb and soil properties were also determined and their data were also analyzed statistically. It is revealed from the study that the growth attributes, dry matter yield, onion bulb yield, nutrient content, nutrient uptake, quality parameters were improved significantly due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1(C3F3). Application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 along with FYM @ 20 t ha-1 (C3F3) registered highest onion bulb yield (t ha-1). The quality of onion as well as availability of N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the soil was improved due to application of NPK @ 150:75:75 kg ha-1 and FYM @ 20 t ha-1.

Keywords: onion, FYM, yield, nutrient uptake and fertilizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
54 Correlation Studies and Heritability Estimates among Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Cultivars of North Western Nigeria

Authors: L. Abubakar, B. M. Sokoto, I. U. Mohammed, M. S. Na’allah, A. Mohammad, A. N. Garba, T. S. Bubuche


Onion (Allium cepa var. cepa L.), is the most important species of the Allium group belonging to family Alliaceae and genus Allium. It can be regarded as the single important vegetable species in the world after tomatoes. Despite the similarities, which bring the species together, the genus is a strikingly diverse one, with more than five hundred species, which are perennial and mostly bulbous plants. Out of these, only seven species are in cultivation, and five are the most important species of the cultivated Allium. However, Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) are the two major cultivated species grown all over the world of which the onion crop is the most important. Heritability defined as the proportion of the observed total variability that is genetic, and its estimates from variance components give more useful information of genotypic variation from the total phenotypic differences and environmental effects on the individuals or families. It therefore guide the breeder with respect to the ease with which selection of traits can be carried out. Heritability estimates guide the breeder with respect to ease of selection of traits while correlations suggest how selection among characters can be practiced. Correlations explain relationship between characters and suggest how selection among characters can be practiced in breeding programmes. Highly significant correlations have been reported, between yield, maturity, rings/bulb and storage loss in onions. Similarly significant positive correlation exists between total bulb yield and plant height, leaf number/plant, bulb diameter and bulb yield/plant. Moderate positive correlations have been observed between maturity date and yield, dry matter content was highly correlated with soluble solids, and higher correlations were also observed between storage loss and soluble solids. The objective of the study is to determine heritability estimates and correlations for characters among onion cultivars of North Western Nigeria. This is envisaged will assist in the breeding of superior onion cultivars within the zone. Thirteen onion cultivars were collected during an expedition covering north western Nigeria and Southern part of Niger Republic during 2013, which are areas noted for onion production. The cultivars were evaluated at two locations; Sokoto, in Sokoto State and Jega in Kebbi State all in Nigeria during the 2013/14 onion season (dry season) under irrigation. Combined analysis of the results revealed fresh bulb yield is highly significantly positively correlated with bulb height and cured bulb yield, and significant positive correlation with plant height and bulb diameter. It also recorded significant negative correlation with mean No. of leaves/plant and non significant negative correlation with bolting %. Cured bulb yield (marketable yield) had highly significant positive correlation with mean bulb weight and fresh bulb yield/ha, with significant positive correlation with bulb height. It also recorded highly significant negative correlation with No. of leaves/plant and significant negative correlation with bolting % and non significant positive correlation with plant height and non significant negative correlation with bulb diameter. High broad sense heritability estimates were recorded for plant height, fresh bulb yield, number of leaves/plant, bolting % and cured bulb yield. Medium to low broad sense heritabilities were also observed for mean bulb weight, plant height and bulb diameter.

Keywords: correlation, heritability, onions, North Western Nigeria

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53 Transorbital Craniectomy for Treatment of Frontal Lobe and Olfactory Bulb Neoplasia in Two Canids

Authors: Kathryn L. Duncan, Charles A. Kuntz, James O. Simcock


A surgical approach to the cranium for treatment of frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia in dogs is described in this report, which provided excellent access for visualisation and removal of gross neoplastic tissue. An 8-year-old spayed female Shih Tzu crossbreed dog (dog 1) and a 13-year-old neutered male Miniature Fox Terrier (dog 2) were evaluated for removal of neoplasms involving both the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb. Both dogs presented with abnormal neurological clinical signs, decreased menace responses, and behavioural changes. Additionally, dog 2 presented with compulsive circling and generalized tonic-clonic seizure activity. Computed tomography was performed in both dogs, and MRI was also performed in dog 1. Imaging was consistent with frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasia. A transorbital frontal bone craniectomy, with orbital ligament desmotomy and ventrolateral retraction of the globe, was performed in both cases without complication. Dog 1 had a focal area of lysis in the frontal bone adjacent to the neoplasm in the frontal lobe. The presence of the bone defect provided part of the impetus for this approach, as it would permit resection of the lytic bone. In addition, the neoplasms would be surgically accessible without encountering interposed brain parenchyma, reducing the risk of iatrogenic injury. Both dogs were discharged from the hospital within 72 hours post-operatively, both with normal mentation. Case 1 had a histopathologic diagnosis of malignant anaplastic neoplasm. The tumour recurred 101d postoperatively, and the patient was euthanized. Case 2 was diagnosed with a meningioma and was neurologically normal at 294d postoperatively. This transorbital surgical approach allowed successful removal of the intracranial frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms in 2 dogs. This approach should be considered for dogs with lateralized frontal lobe and olfactory bulb neoplasms that are closely associated with the suborbital region of the frontal bone.

Keywords: neurosurgery, small animal surgery, surgical oncology, veterinary neurology

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52 Germination and Bulb Formation of Allium tuncelianum L. under in vitro Condition

Authors: Suleyman Kizil, Tahsin Sogut, Khalid M. Khawar


Genus Allium includes 600 to 750 species and most of these including Allium tuncelianum (Kollman) N. Ozhatay, B. Mathew & Siraneci; Syn; A. macrochaetum Boiss. and Hausskn. subsp. tuncelianum Kollman] or Tunceli garlic is endemic to Eastern Turkish Province of Tunceli and Munzur mountains. They are edible, bear attractive white-to-purple flowers and fertile black seeds with deep seed dormancy. This study aimed to break seed dormancy of Tunceli garlic and determine the conditions for induction of bulblets on these seeds and increase their diameter by culturing them on MS medium supplemented different strengths of KNO3. Tunceli garlic seeds were collected from field grown plants. They were germinated on MS medium with or without 20 g/l sucrose followed by their culture on 1 × 1900 mg/l, 2 × 1900 mg/l, 4 ×1900 mg/l and 6 × 1900 mg/l mg/l KNO3 supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose to increase bulb diameter. Improved seeds germination was noted on MS medium with and without sucrose but with variation compared to previous reports. The bulb development percentage on each of the sprouted seeds was not parallel to the percentage of seed germination. The results showed 34% and 28.5% bulb induction was noted on germinated seeds after 150 and 158 days on MS medium containing 20 g l-1 sucrose and no sucrose respectively showing a delay of 8 days on the latter compared to the former. The results emphatically noted role of cold stratification on agar solidified MS medium supplemented with sucrose to improve seed germination. The best increase in bulb diameter was noted on MS medium containing 1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3 after 178 days with bulblet diameter and bulblet weight of 0.54 cm and 0.048 g, respectively. Consequently, the bulbs induced on sucrose containing MS medium could be transferred to pots earlier. Increased (>1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3) strengths of KNO3 induced negative effect on growth and development of Tunceli garlic bulbs. The strategy of seed germination and bulblet induction reported in this study could be positively used for conservation of this endemic plant species.

Keywords: Tunceli garlic, seed, dormancy, bulblets, bulb growth

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51 Performance Evaluations of Lap Spliced Joint of Decked Bulb-Tee Type Modular Bridge

Authors: Sang-Yoon Lee, Jae-Joon Song


Precast decked bulb-tee girder or precast deck generally adopts in-situ connections of loop joints. Loop joint could be an effective method to connect precast concrete members where the width of joint is not wide sufficiently to allow the lap splice length of reinforcing bars. However, the regulation for the minimum bend diameter of looped rebar gives limitation not to reduce the thickness of precast concrete member; thus, in-situ connection adopting loop joint place a constraint on improving the structural efficiency of precast concrete member. Ultra high strength concrete (UHSC) is effective on reduce the development and lap splice length of reinforcing bar. In-situ connection with UHSC gives a merit to reduce connection width. This study intends to investigate the details of the longitudinal joint to be applied in the precast modular bridge using decked bulb-tee girder that has been recently developed in Korea. This paper presents the details applying UHSC and lap splices of straight reinforcement and results of tests. Several tests were performed on flexural specimens with longitudinal joints to verify the length of the lap splices and amount of transverse reinforcement, and to examine the flexural strength of the longitudinal joint.

Keywords: precast structure, decked bulb-tee girder, in-situ connection, UHSC, modular bridge

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50 High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation

Authors: Jyoti Kumari, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, color, HPP-high pressure processing, jackfruit bulbs, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, total phenolic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
49 Evaluation of Genetic Potentials of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Cultivars of North Western Nigeria

Authors: L. Abubakar, B. M. Sokoto, I. U. Mohammed, M. S. Na’allah, A. Mohammad, A. N. Garba, T. S. Bubuche


Onion (Allium cepa var. cepa L.) is the most important species of the Allium group belonging to family Alliaceae and genus Allium. It can be regarded as the single important vegetable species in the world after tomatoes. Despite the similarities, which bring the species together, the genus is a strikingly diverse one, with more than five hundred species, which are perennial and mostly bulbous plants. Out of these, only seven species are in cultivation, and five are the most important species of the cultivated Allium. However, Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativum (Garlic) are the two major cultivated species grown all over the world of which the onion crop is the most important. North Western Nigeria (Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara States) constitute the major onion producing zone in Nigeria, which is primarily during the dry season. However, onion production in the zone is seriously affected by two main factors i.e. diseases and storage losses, in addition to other constraints that limits the cultivation of the crop during the rainy season which include lack of prolonged rainy season to allow for proper maturation of the crop. The major onion disease in this zone is purple blotch caused by a fungus Alternaria porri and currently efforts are on to develop onion hybrids resistant to the disease. Genetic diversity plays an important role in plant breeding either to exploit heterosis or to generate productive recombinants. Assessment of a large number of genotypes for a genetic diversity is the first step in this direction. The objective of this research therefore is to evaluate the genetic potentials of the onion cultivars of North Western Nigeria, with a view of developing new cultivars that address the major production challenges to onion cultivation in North Western, Nigeria. Thirteen onion cultivars were collected during an expedition covering North western Nigeria and Southern part of Niger Republic during 2013, which are areas noted for onion production. The cultivars were evaluated at two locations; Sokoto, in Sokoto State and Jega in Kebbi State all in Nigeria during the 2013/14 onion season (dry season) under irrigation. The objective of the research was to determine the genetic potentials of onion cultivars of north western Nigeria as a basis for breeding purposes. Combined analysis of the results revealed highly significant variation between the cultivars across the locations with respect to plant height, number of leaves/plant, bolting %, bulb height, bulb weight, mean bulb yield and cured bulb weight, with significant variation in terms of bulb diameter. Tasa from Warra Local Government Area of Kebbi State (V4) recorded the greatest mean fresh bulb yield with Jar Albasa (V8) from Illela Local Government Area of Sokoto State recording the least. Similarly Marsa (V5) from Silame Local Government Area recorded the greatest mean cured bulb yield (marketable bulb)with Kiba (V11) from Goronyo Local Government of Sokoto State recording the least. Significant variation was recorded between the locations with respect to all characters, with Sokoto being better in terms of plant height, number of leaves/plant, bolting % and bulb diameter. Jega was better in terms of bulb height, bulb yield and cured bulb weight. Significant variation was therefore observed between the cultivars.

Keywords: evaluation, genetic, onions, North Western Nigeria

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48 Long-Term Indoor Air Monitoring for Students with Emphasis on Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Exposure

Authors: Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, Jamshid Yazdani, Syavash Etemadi Nejad


One of the main indoor air parameters in classrooms is dust pollution and it depends on the particle size and exposure duration. However, there is a lake of data about the exposure level to PM2.5 concentrations in rural area classrooms. The objective of the current study was exposure assessment for PM2.5 for students in the classrooms. One year monitoring was carried out for fifteen schools by time-series sampling to evaluate the indoor air PM2.5 in the rural district of Sari city, Iran. A hygrometer and thermometer were used to measure some psychrometric parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) and Real-Time Dust Monitor, (MicroDust Pro, Casella, UK) was used to monitor particulate matters (PM2.5) concentration. The results show the mean indoor PM2.5 concentration in the studied classrooms was 135µg/m3. The regression model indicated that a positive correlation between indoor PM2.5 concentration and relative humidity, also with distance from city center and classroom size. Meanwhile, the regression model revealed that the indoor PM2.5 concentration, the relative humidity, and dry bulb temperature was significant at 0.05, 0.035, and 0.05 levels, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regressions modeling for indoor PM2.5 concentration and indoor psychrometric parameters conditions.

Keywords: classrooms, concentration, humidity, particulate matters, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
47 Effect of Environmental Changes in Working Heart Rate among Industrial Workers: An Ergonomic Interpretation

Authors: P. Mukhopadhyay, N. C. Dey


Occupational health hazard is a very common term in every emerging country. Along with the unorganized sector, most organized sectors including government industries are suffering from this affliction. In addition to workload, the seasonal changes also have some impacts on working environment. With this focus in mind, one hundred male industrial workers, who are directly involved to the task of Periodic Overhauling (POH) in a fabricating workshop in the public domain are selected for this research work. They have been studied during work periods throughout different seasons in a year. For each and every season, the participants working heart rate (WHR) is measured and compared with the standards given by different national and internationally recognized agencies i.e., World Health Organization (WHO) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) etc. The different environmental parameters i.e. dry bulb temperature (DBT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), globe temperature (GT), natural wet bulb temperature (NWB), relative humidity (RH), wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), air velocity (AV), effective temperature (ET) are recorded throughout the seasons to critically observe the effect of seasonal changes on the WHR of the workers. The effect of changes in environment to the WHR of the workers is very much surprising. It is found that the percentages of workers who belong to the ‘very heavy’ workload category are 83.33%, 66.66% and 16.66% in the summer, rainy and winter seasons, respectively. Ongoing undertaking of this type of job profile forces the worker towards occupational disorders causing absenteeism. This occurrence results in lower production rates, and on the other hand, costs due to medical claims also weaken the industry’s economic condition. In this circumstance, the authors are trying to focus on some remedial measures from the ergonomic angle by proposing a new work/ rest regimen and introducing engineering controls along with management controls which may help the worker, and consequently, the management also.

Keywords: workload, working heart rate, occupational health hazard, industrial worker

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46 Assessment of Personal Level Exposures to Particulate Matter among Children in Rural Preliminary Schools as an Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring

Authors: Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, J. Yazdani, S. M. Asadi, M. Rokni, A. Toosi


There are many indoor air quality studies with an emphasis on indoor particulate matters (PM2.5) monitoring. Whereas, there is a lake of data about indoor PM2.5 concentrations in rural area schools (especially in classrooms), since preliminary children are assumed to be more defenseless to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. The objective of this study was indoor PM2.5 concentration quality assessment. Fifteen preliminary schools by time-series sampling were selected to evaluate the indoor air quality in the rural district of Sari city, Iran. Data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) were measured by a hygrometer and thermometer. Particulate matters (PM2.5) were collected and assessed by Real Time Dust Monitor, (MicroDust Pro, Casella, UK). The mean indoor PM2.5 concentration in the studied classrooms was 135µg/m3 in average. The multiple linear regression revealed that a correlation between PM2.5 concentration and relative humidity, distance from city center and classroom size. Classroom size yields reasonable negative relationship, the PM2.5 concentration was ranged from 65 to 540μg/m3 and statistically significant at 0.05 level and the relative humidity was ranged from 70 to 85% and dry bulb temperature ranged from 28 to 29°C were statistically significant at 0.035 and 0.05 level, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regressions modeling for PM2.5 and indoor psychrometric parameters.

Keywords: particulate matters, classrooms, regression, concentration, humidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
45 Occupational Heat Stress Condition According to Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index in Textile Processing Unit: A Case Study of Surat, Gujarat, India

Authors: Dharmendra Jariwala, Robin Christian


Thermal exposure is a common problem in every manufacturing industry where heat is used in the manufacturing process. In developing countries like India, a lack of awareness regarding the proper work environmental condition is observed among workers. Improper planning of factory building, arrangement of machineries, ventilation system, etc. play a vital role in the rise of temperature within the manufacturing areas. Due to the uncontrolled thermal stress, workers may be subjected to various heat illnesses from mild disorder to heat stroke. Heat stress is responsible for the health risk and reduction in production. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index and relative humidity are used to evaluate heat stress conditions. WBGT index is a weighted average of natural wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, dry bulb temperature, which are measured with standard instrument QuestTemp 36 area stress monitor. In this study textile processing units have been selected in the industrial estate in the Surat city. Based on the manufacturing process six locations were identified within the plant at which process was undertaken at 120°C to 180°C. These locations were jet dying machine area, stenter machine area, printing machine, looping machine area, washing area which generate process heat. Office area was also selected for comparision purpose as a sixth location. Present Study was conducted in the winter season and summer season for day and night shift. The results shows that average WBGT index was found above Threshold Limiting Value (TLV) during summer season for day and night shift in all three industries except office area. During summer season highest WBGT index of 32.8°C was found during day shift and 31.5°C was found during night shift at printing machine area. Also during winter season highest WBGT index of 30°C and 29.5°C was found at printing machine area during day shift and night shift respectively.

Keywords: relative humidity, textile industry, thermal stress, WBGT

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44 An Investigation on Orthopedic Rehabilitation by Avoiding Thermal Necrosis

Authors: R. V. Dahibhate, A. B. Deoghare, P. M. Padole


Maintaining natural integrity of biosystem is paramount significant for orthopedic surgeon while performing surgery. Restoration is challenging task to rehabilitate trauma patient. Drilling is an inevitable procedure to fix implants. The task leads to rise in temperature at the contact site which intends to thermal necrosis. A precise monitoring can avoid thermal necrosis. To accomplish it, data acquiring instrument is integrated with the drill bit. To contemplate it, electronic feedback system is developed. It not only measures temperature without any physical contact in between measuring device and target but also visualizes the site and monitors correct movement of tool path. In the current research work an infrared thermometer data acquisition system is used which monitors variation in temperature at the drilling site and a camera captured movement of drill bit advancement. The result is presented in graphical form which represents variations in temperature, drill rotation and time. A feedback system helps in keeping drill speed in threshold limit.

Keywords: thermal necrosis, infrared thermometer, drilling tool, feedback system

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43 Quantification of Hydrogen Sulfide and Methyl Mercaptan in Air Samples from a Waste Management Facilities

Authors: R. F. Vieira, S. A. Figueiredo, O. M. Freitas, V. F. Domingues, C. Delerue-Matos


The presence of sulphur compounds like hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans is one of the reasons for waste-water treatment and waste management being associated with odour emissions. In this context having a quantifying method for these compounds helps in the optimization of treatment with the goal of their elimination, namely biofiltration processes. The aim of this study was the development of a method for quantification of odorous gases in waste treatment plants air samples. A method based on head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography - flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) was used to analyse H2S and Metil Mercaptan (MM). The extraction was carried out with a 75-μm Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating at 22 ºC for 20 min, and analysed by a GC 2010 Plus A from Shimadzu with a sulphur filter detector: splitless mode (0.3 min), the column temperature program was from 60 ºC, increased by 15 ºC/min to 100 ºC (2 min). The injector temperature was held at 250 ºC, and the detector at 260 ºC. For calibration curve a gas diluter equipment (digital Hovagas G2 - Multi Component Gas Mixer) was used to do the standards. This unit had two input connections, one for a stream of the dilute gas and another for a stream of nitrogen and an output connected to a glass bulb. A 40 ppm H2S and a 50 ppm MM cylinders were used. The equipment was programmed to the selected concentration, and it automatically carried out the dilution to the glass bulb. The mixture was left flowing through the glass bulb for 5 min and then the extremities were closed. This method allowed the calibration between 1-20 ppm for H2S and 0.02-0.1 ppm and 1-3.5 ppm for MM. Several quantifications of air samples from inlet and outlet of a biofilter operating in a waste management facility in the north of Portugal allowed the evaluation the biofilters performance.

Keywords: biofiltration, hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans, quantification

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42 Physicochemical Properties and Toxicity Studies on a Lectin from the Bulb of Dioscorea bulbifera

Authors: Uchenna Nkiruka Umeononihu, Adenike Kuku, Oludele Odekanyin, Olubunmi Babalola, Femi Agboola, Rapheal Okonji


In this study, a lectin from the bulb of Dioscorea bulbifera was purified, characterised, and its acute and sub-acute toxicity was investigated with a view to evaluate its toxic effects in mice. The protein from the bulb was extracted by homogenising 50 g of the bulb in 500 ml of phosphate buffered saline (0.025 M) of pH 7.2, stirred for 3 hr, and centrifuged at the speed of 3000 rpm. Blood group and sugar specificity assays of the crude extract were determined. The lectin was purified in a two-step procedure- gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4-B arabinose. The degree of purity of the purified lectin was ascertained by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Detection of covalently bound carbohydrate was carried out with Periodic Acid-Schiffs (PAS) reagent staining technique. Effects of temperature, pH, and EDTA on the lectin were carried out using standard methods. This was followed by acute toxicity studies via oral and subcutaneous routes using mice. The animals were monitored for mortality and signs of toxicity. The sub-acute toxicity studies were carried out using rats. Different concentrations of the lectin were administered twice daily for 5 days via the subcutaneous route. The animals were sacrificed on the sixth day; blood samples and liver tissues were collected. Biochemical assays (determination of total protein, direct bilirubin, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out on the serum and liver homogenates. The collected organs (heart, liver, kidney, and spleen) were subjected to histopathological analysis. The results showed that lectin from the bulbs of Dioscorea bulbifera agglutinated non-specifically the erythrocytes of the human ABO system as well as rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutinating activity was strongly inhibited by arabinose and dulcitol with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.781 and 6.25, respectively. The lectin was purified to homogeneity with native and subunit molecular weights of 56,273 and 29,373 Daltons, respectively. The lectin was thermostable up to 30 0C and lost 25 %, 33.3 %, and 100 % of its heamagglutinating activity at 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C, respectively. The lectin was maximally active at pH 4 and 5 but lost its total activity at pH eight, while EDTA (10 mM) had no effect on its haemagglutinating activity. PAS reagent staining showed that the lectin was not a glycoprotein. The sub-acute studies on rats showed elevated levels of ALT, AST, serum bilirubin, total protein in serum and liver homogenates suggesting damage to liver and spleen. The study concluded that the aerial bulb of D. bulbifera lectin was non-specific in its heamagglutinating activity and dimeric in its structure. The lectin shared some physicochemical characteristics with lectins from other Dioscorecea species and was moderately toxic to the liver and spleen of treated animals.

Keywords: Dioscorea bulbifera, heamagglutinin, lectin, toxicity

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41 Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Maisotsenko Cycle

Authors: Rasikh Tariq, Fatima Z. Benarab


Evaporative coolers has a minimum potential to reach the wet-bulb temperature of intake air which is not enough to handle a large cooling load; therefore, it is not a feasible option to overcome cooling requirement of a building. The invention of Maisotsenko (M) cycle has led evaporative cooling technology to reach the sub-wet-bulb temperature of the intake air; therefore, it brings an innovation in evaporative cooling techniques. In this work, we developed a mathematical model of the Maisotsenko based air cooler by applying energy and mass balance laws on different air channels. The governing ordinary differential equations are discretized and simulated on MATLAB. The temperature and the humidity plots are shown in the simulation results. A parametric study is conducted by varying working air inlet conditions (temperature and humidity), inlet air velocity, geometric parameters and water temperature. The influence of these aforementioned parameters on the cooling effectiveness of the HMX is reported.  Results have shown that the effectiveness of the M-Cycle is increased by increasing the ambient temperature and decreasing absolute humidity. An air velocity of 0.5 m/sec and a channel height of 6-8mm is recommended.

Keywords: HMX, maisotsenko cycle, mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, parametric study

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40 Evaluation of Non-Pharmacological Method-Transcervical Foley Catheter and Misoprostol to Intravaginal Misoprostol for Preinduction Cervical Ripening

Authors: Krishna Dahiya, Esha Charaya


Induction of labour is a common obstetrical intervention. Around 1 in every 4 patient undergo induction of labour for different indications Purpose: To study the efficacy of the combination of Foley bulb and vaginal misoprostol in comparison to vaginal misoprostol alone for cervical ripening and induction of labour. Methods: A prospective randomised study was conducted on 150 patients with term singleton pregnancy admitted for induction of labour. Seventy-five patients were induced with both Foley bulb, and vaginal misoprostol and another 75 were given vaginal misoprostol alone for induction of labour. Both groups were then compared with respect to change in Bishop score, induction to the active phase of labour interval, induction delivery interval, duration of labour, maternal complications and neonatal outcomes. Data was analysed using statistical software SPSS version 11.5. Tests with P,.05 were considered significant. Results: The two groups were comparable with respect to maternal age, parity, gestational age, indication for induction, and initial Bishop scores. Both groups had a significant change in Bishop score (2.99 ± 1.72 and 2.17 ± 1.48 respectively with statistically significant difference (p=0.001 S, 95% C.I. -0.1978 to 0.8378). Mean induction to delivery interval was significantly lower in the combination group (11.76 ± 5.89 hours) than misoprostol group (14.54 ± 7.32 hours). Difference was of 2.78 hours (p=0.018,S, 95% CI -5.1042 to -0.4558). Induction to delivery interval was significantly lower in nulliparous women of combination group (13.64 ± 5.75 hours) than misoprostol group (18.4±7.09 hours), and the difference was of 4.76 hours (p=0.002, S, 95% CI 1.0465 to 14.7335). There was no difference between the groups in the mode of delivery, infant weight, Apgar score and intrapartum complications. Conclusion: From the present study it was concluded that addition of Foley catheter to vaginal misoprostol have the synergistic effect and results in early cervical ripening and delivery. These results suggest that the combination may be used to achieve timely and safe delivery in the presence of an unfavorable cervix. A combination of the Foley bulb and vaginal misoprostol resulted in a shorter induction-to-delivery time when compared with vaginal misoprostol alone without increasing labor complications.

Keywords: Bishop score, Foley catheter, induction of labor, misoprostol

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39 Transcriptomic Analysis for Differential Expression of Genes Involved in Secondary Metabolite Production in Narcissus Bulb and in vitro Callus

Authors: Aleya Ferdausi, Meriel Jones, Anthony Halls


The Amaryllidaceae genus Narcissus contains secondary metabolites, which are important sources of bioactive compounds such as pharmaceuticals indicating that their biological activity extends from the native plant to humans. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) is an effective platform for the identification and functional characterization of candidate genes as well as to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The biotechnological production of secondary metabolites in plant cell or organ cultures has become a tempting alternative to the extraction of whole plant material. The biochemical pathways for the production of secondary metabolites require primary metabolites to undergo a series of modifications catalyzed by enzymes such as cytochrome P450s, methyltransferases, glycosyltransferases, and acyltransferases. Differential gene expression analysis of Narcissus was obtained from two conditions, i.e. field and in vitro callus. Callus was obtained from modified MS (Murashige and Skoog) media supplemented with growth regulators and twin-scale explants from Narcissus cv. Carlton bulb. A total of 2153 differentially expressed transcripts were detected in Narcissus bulb and in vitro callus, and 78.95% of those were annotated. It showed the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of alkaloids were present in both conditions i.e. cytochrome P450s, O-methyltransferase (OMTs), NADP/NADPH dehydrogenases or reductases, SAM-synthetases or decarboxylases, 3-ketoacyl-CoA, acyl-CoA, cinnamoyl-CoA, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, caffeic acid, N-methyltransferase, and NADPH-cytochrome P450s. However, cytochrome P450s and OMTs involved in the later stage of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids biosynthesis were mainly up-regulated in field samples. Whereas, the enzymes involved in initial biosynthetic pathways i.e. fructose biphosphate adolase, aminotransferases, dehydrogenases, hydroxyl methyl glutarate and glutamate synthase leading to the biosynthesis of precursors; tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan for secondary metabolites were up-regulated in callus. The knowledge of probable genes involved in secondary metabolism and their regulation in different tissues will provide insight into the Narcissus plant biology related to alkaloid production.

Keywords: narcissus, callus, transcriptomics, secondary metabolites

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38 Higher Relative Humidity from Pipping Increases Physical Problems in the Broiler Chicks

Authors: M. A. Nogueira, M. Thimotheo, G. C. Ripamonte, S. C. C. Aguiar, M. H. S. Ulian, J. C. Goncalves Netto, I. C. Boleli


Increasing in the relative humidity during the last incubation day is a usual practice in the commercial hatchery to facilitate hatching. This study analyzed whether higher relative humidity improves eclodibility as well as chick quality, and alters the hatch window. Fertile eggs (65- 67g) produced by 53 weeks old broiler breeders (Cobb 500®) were incubated at 37.5°C and 31°C in the wet bulb in incubators with automatic control of temperature and egg turning (1 each hour). Two-hundred ten were distributed randomly in three treatments: 31°C in the wet bulb from internal pipping (BI-31), 33°C from internal pipping (BI-33), and 33°C from external pipping (BE-33), all three hatchers maintained at 37.5°C and without egg turning. For this, eggs were checked for internal pipping by ovoscopy and external pipping by visual observation through the transparent cover of the incubators each hour from day 18 of incubation. No significant differences in the hatchability (BI-31:79.61%, BI-33:77.63%, BE-33:80.77%; by Q-square test, P > 0.05). Absence of significant effects of the treatments were also observed for incubation duration (BI-31:488.58 h, BI-33:488.30 h, BE-33:489.04 h), and chick body weight (BI-31: 49.40g, BI-33: 49.74g, BE-33: 49.34g) and quality scores (BI-31: 90.02, BI-33: 87.56, BE-33: 92.28 points), by variance analysis (P > 0.05). However, BI-33 increased the incidence of feathering and leg problems and remaining of alantoic membrane, and BE-33 increased the incidence of problems with feathering, navel and yolk sac and reduced the leg problems, compared to BI-31. In sum, the results show higher relative humidity from internal or external pipping did not influence hatchability and incubation duration, but reduced chick quality, affecting the incubation efficiency.

Keywords: chick quality, hatchability, hatcher humidity, incubation duration

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37 The Effect of Power of Isolation Transformer on the Lamps in Airfield Ground Lighting Systems

Authors: Hossein Edrisi


To study the impact of the amount and volume of power of isolation transformer on the lamps in airfield Ground Lighting Systems. A test was conducted in Persian Gulf International Airport, This airport is situated in the south of Iran and it is one of the most cutting-edge airports, the same one that owns modern devices. Iran uses materials and auxiliary equipment which are made by ADB Company from Belgium. Airfield ground lighting (AGL) systems are responsible for providing visual issue to aircrafts and helicopters in the runways. In an AGL system a great deal of lamps are connected in serial circuits to each other and each ring has its individual constant current regulators (CCR), which through that provide energy to the lamps. Control of lamps is crucial for maintenance and operation in the AGL systems. Thanks to the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) that is a cutting-edge technology can help the system to connect the elements from substations and ATC (TOWER). For this purpose, a test in real conditions of the airport done for all element that used in the airport such as isolation transformer in different power capacity and different consuming power and brightness of the lamps. The data were analyzed with Lux meter and Multimeter. The results had shown that the increase in the power of transformer caused a significant increase in brightness. According to the Ohm’s law and voltage division, without changing the characteristics of the light bulb, it is not possible to change the voltage, just need to change the amount of transformer with which it connects to the lamps. When the voltage is increased, the current through the bulb has to increase as well, because of Ohm's law: I=V/R and I=V/R which means that if V increases, so do I increase. The output voltage on the constant current regulator emerges between the lamps and the transformers.

Keywords: AGL, CCR, lamps, transformer, Ohm’s law

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36 Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System

Authors: Sagar R. Patil, Dinesh R. Gawade, Sudhir N. Divekar


One of the medical devices we found when we visit a hospital care unit such device is ‘patient monitoring system’. This device (patient monitoring system) informs doctors and nurses about the patient’s physiological signals. However, this device (patient monitoring system) does not have a remote monitoring capability, which is necessitates constant onsite attendance by support personnel (doctors and nurses). Thus, we have developed a Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System using some biomedical sensors and Android OS, which is a portable patient monitoring. This device(Remote Wireless Patient Monitoring System) monitors the biomedical signals of patients in real time and sends them to remote stations (doctors and nurse’s android Smartphone and web) for display and with alerts when necessary. Wireless Patient Monitoring System different from conventional device (Patient Monitoring system) in two aspects: First its wireless communication capability allows physiological signals to be monitored remotely and second, it is portable so patients can move while there biomedical signals are being monitor. Wireless Patient Monitoring is also notable because of its implementation. We are integrated four sensors such as pulse oximeter (SPO2), thermometer, respiration, blood pressure (BP), heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) in this device (Wireless Patient Monitoring System) and Monitoring and communication applications are implemented on the Android OS using threads, which facilitate the stable and timely manipulation of signals and the appropriate sharing of resources. The biomedical data will be display on android smart phone as well as on web Using web server and database system we can share these physiological signals with remote place medical personnel’s or with any where in the world medical personnel’s. We verified that the multitasking implementation used in the system was suitable for patient monitoring and for other Healthcare applications.

Keywords: patient monitoring, wireless patient monitoring, bio-medical signals, physiological signals, embedded system, Android OS, healthcare, pulse oximeter (SPO2), thermometer, respiration, blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG)

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35 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo


The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

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34 The Effect of Wet Cooling Pad Thickness and Geometric Configuration to Enhance Evaporative Cooler Saturation Efficiency: A Review

Authors: Biruk Abate


Evaporative cooling occurs when air with high temperature and reduced humidity passes over a wet porous surface and a higher degree of cooling process is achieved for storage of fruits and vegetables due to greater rate of evaporation. The main objective of this reviewed study is to understand the effect of evaporative surface pad thickness and geometric configuration on the saturation efficiency of evaporative cooler and to state some related factors affecting the performance of the system. From this overview, selection of pad thickness and geometrical shape with suitable characteristics of heat and mass transfer and water holding capacity of the pads was reviewed as these parameters are important for saturation efficiency of evaporative cooling. Increasing the cooling pad thickness through increasing the face velocity increases the effectiveness of wet-bulb saturation. Increasing ambient temperature, inlet air speed and ambient air humidity decreases the wet bulb effectiveness and it increases with increasing length of the pad. Increasing the ambient temperature and inlet air velocity decreases the humidity ratio, but increases with increasing ambient air humidity and lengths of the pad. Increasing the temperature-humidity index is possible with increasing ambient temperature, inlet air velocity, ambient air humidity and pad length. Generally, all materials having a higher wetted surface area per unit volume give higher efficiency. Materials with higher thickness increase the wetted surface area for better mix-up of air and water to give higher efficiency for the same shape and this in turn helps to store fruits and vegetables.

Keywords: Degree of cooling, heat and mass transfer, evaporative cooling, porous surface

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33 Synergistic and Antagonistic Interactions between Garlic Extracts and Metformin in Diabetes Treatment

Authors: Ikram Elsiddig, Yacouba Djamila, Amna Hamad


Abstract—The worldwide increasing of using herbs in form of medicine with or without prescription medications potentiates the interactions between herbal products and conventional medicines; due to more research for herb-drug interactions are needed. for a long time hyperglycemia had been treated with several medicinal plants. A. sativum, belonging to the Liliaceae family is well known for its medicinal uses in African traditional medicine, it used for treating of many human diseases mainly diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to determine the interaction effect between A. sativum bulb extracts and metformin drug used in diabetes treatment. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation were conducted by glucose reuptake using isolated rats hemidiaphgrams tissue and by estimate glucose tolerance in glucose-loaded wistar albino rats. The results showed that, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were found to have activity of glucose uptake in isolated rats hemidiaphgrams of 24.11 mg/g, 19.07 mg/g and 15.66 mg/g compared to metformin drug of 17 mg/g. These activity were reducded to 17.8 mg/g, 13.59 mg/g and 14.46 mg/g after combination with metformin, metformin itself reduced to 13.59 mg/g, 14.46 mg/g and 12.71 mg/g in comination with chloroform and ethyl acetate. These decrease in activity could be due to herbal–drug interaction between the extracts of A. sativum bulb and metformin drug. The interaction between A. sativum extract and metformin was also shown by in vivo study on the induced hyperglycemic rats. The glucose level after administered of 200 mg/kg was found to be increase with 47.2 % and 17.7% at first and second hour compared to the increase of blood glucose in the control group of 82.6% and76.7%.. At fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 3.4% compared to control which continue to increase with 68.2%. Dose of 400 mg/kg at first hour showed increase in blood glucose of 31.5 %, at second and fourth hours the glucose level was became less than normal with decrease of 3.2 % and 30.4%. After combination the activity was found to be less than that of extract at both high and low dose, whereas, at first and second hour, the glucose level was found to be increase with 50.4% and 21.2%, at fourth hour the glucose level was became less than normal with 14%. Therefore A. sativum could be a potential source for anti-diabetic when it used alone, and it is significant important to use the garlic extract alone instead of combined with Metformin drug in diabetes- treatment.

Keywords: Antagonistic, Garlic, Metformin, Synergistic

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32 Decrease in Olfactory Cortex Volume and Alterations in Caspase Expression in the Olfactory Bulb in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Majed Al Otaibi, Melissa Lessard-Beaudoin, Amel Loudghi, Raphael Chouinard-Watkins, Melanie Plourde, Frederic Calon, C. Alexandre Castellano, Stephen Cunnane, Helene Payette, Pierrette Gaudreau, Denis Gris, Rona K. Graham


Introduction: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Symptoms include memory dysfunction, and also alterations in attention, planning, language and overall cognitive function. Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of several neurological disorders including AD. Studying the mechanisms underlying the olfactory dysfunction may therefore lead to the discovery of potential biomarkers and/or treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. Objectives: To determine if olfactory dysfunction predicts future cognitive impairment in the aging population and to characterize the olfactory system in a murine model expressing a genetic factor of AD. Method: For the human study, quantitative olfactory tests (UPSIT and OMT) have been done on 93 subjects (aged 80 to 94 years) from the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge) cohort accepting to participate in the ORCA secondary study. The telephone Modified Mini Mental State examination (t-MMSE) was used to assess cognition levels, and an olfactory self-report was also collected. In a separate cohort, olfactory cortical volume was calculated using MRI results from healthy old adults (n=25) and patients with AD (n=18) using the AAL single-subject atlas and performed with the PNEURO tool (PMOD 3.7). For the murine study, we are using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Result: Human Study: Based on the self-report, 81% of the participants claimed to not suffer from any problem with olfaction. However, based on the UPSIT, 94% of those subjects showed a poor olfactory performance and different forms of microsmia. Moreover, the results confirm that olfactory function declines with age. We also detected a significant decrease in olfactory cortical volume in AD individuals compared to controls. Murine study: Preliminary data demonstrate there is a significant decrease in expression levels of the proform of caspase-3 and the caspase substrate STK3, in the olfactory bulb of mice expressing human APOE4 compared with controls. In addition, there is a significant decrease in the expression level of the caspase-9 proform and caspase-8 active fragment. Analysis of the mature neuron marker, NeuN, shows decreased expression levels of both isoforms. The data also suggest that Iba-1 immunostaining is increased in the olfactory bulb of APOE4 mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusions: The activation of caspase-3 may be the cause of the decreased levels of STK3 through caspase cleavage and may play role in the inflammation observed. In the clinical study, our results suggest that seniors are unaware of their olfactory function status and therefore it is not sufficient to measure olfaction using the self-report in the elderly. Studying olfactory function and cognitive performance in the aging population will help to discover biomarkers in the early stage of the AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, APOE4, cognition, caspase, brain atrophy, neurodegenerative, olfactory dysfunction

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31 Evaluation of the Radiolabelled 68GA-DOTATOC Complex in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Naderi, H. Yousefnia, B. Alirzapour, A. R. Jalilian, A. Ramazani


Nowadays, 68Ga-DOTATOC has been known as a potential agent for the detection of neuroendocrine tumours and it has indicated higher sensitivity compared with the 111In-Octeroetide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this new agent in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma breast cancer. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by the specific activity of 39.6 TBq/mmol. 37 MBq of the complex was injected intravenously into the BULB/c mice with adenocarcinoma breast cancer. PET/CT images were acquired after 30, 60 and 90 min post injection demonstrated significant accumulation in the tumour sites. Also, considerable activity was observed in the kidney and bladder as the main routs of excretion. Generally, the results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a suitable complex for diagnosis of the adenocarcinoma breast cancer using PET procedure.

Keywords: adenocarcinoma breast cancer, 68Ga, octreotide, imaging

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