Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: Stéphanie Descroix

62 Surface Sunctionalization Strategies for the Design of Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices for New Analytical Diagnostics

Authors: Camille Perréard, Yoann Ladner, Fanny D'Orlyé, Stéphanie Descroix, Vélan Taniga, Anne Varenne, Cédric Guyon, Michael. Tatoulian, Frédéric Kanoufi, Cyrine Slim, Sophie Griveau, Fethi Bedioui

Abstract:

The development of micro total analysis systems is of major interest for contaminant and biomarker analysis. As a lab-on-chip integrates all steps of an analysis procedure in a single device, analysis can be performed in an automated format with reduced time and cost, while maintaining performances comparable to those of conventional chromatographic systems. Moreover, these miniaturized systems are either compatible with field work or glovebox manipulations. This work is aimed at developing an analytical microsystem for trace and ultra trace quantitation in complex matrices. The strategy consists in the integration of a sample pretreatment step within the lab-on-chip by a confinement zone where selective ligands are immobilized for target extraction and preconcentration. Aptamers were chosen as selective ligands, because of their high affinity for all types of targets (from small ions to viruses and cells) and their ease of synthesis and functionalization. This integrated target extraction and concentration step will be followed in the microdevice by an electrokinetic separation step and an on-line detection. Polymers consisting of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) or fluoropolymer (Dyneon THV) were selected as they are easy to mold, transparent in UV-visible and have high resistance towards solvents and extreme pH conditions. However, because of their low chemical reactivity, surface treatments are necessary. For the design of this miniaturized diagnostics, we aimed at modifying the microfluidic system at two scales : (1) on the entire surface of the microsystem to control the surface hydrophobicity (so as to avoid any sample wall adsorption) and the fluid flows during electrokinetic separation, or (2) locally so as to immobilize selective ligands (aptamers) on restricted areas for target extraction and preconcentration. We developed different novel strategies for the surface functionalization of COC and Dyneon, based on plasma, chemical and /or electrochemical approaches. In a first approach, a plasma-induced immobilization of brominated derivatives was performed on the entire surface. Further substitution of the bromine by an azide functional group led to covalent immobilization of ligands through “click” chemistry reaction between azides and terminal alkynes. COC and Dyneon materials were characterized at each step of the surface functionalization procedure by various complementary techniques to evaluate the quality and homogeneity of the functionalization (contact angle, XPS, ATR). With the objective of local (micrometric scale) aptamer immobilization, we developed an original electrochemical strategy on engraved Dyneon THV microchannel. Through local electrochemical carbonization followed by adsorption of azide-bearing diazonium moieties and covalent linkage of alkyne-bearing aptamers through click chemistry reaction, typical dimensions of immobilization zones reached the 50 µm range. Other functionalization strategies, such as sol-gel encapsulation of aptamers, are currently investigated and may also be suitable for the development of the analytical microdevice. The development of these functionalization strategies is the first crucial step in the design of the entire microdevice. These strategies allow the grafting of a large number of molecules for the development of new analytical tools in various domains like environment or healthcare.

Keywords: alkyne-azide click chemistry (CuAAC), electrochemical modification, microsystem, plasma bromination, surface functionalization, thermoplastic polymers

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61 Characterization of the Near-Wake of an Ahmed Body Profile

Authors: Stéphanie Pellerin, Bérengére Podvin, Luc Pastur

Abstract:

In aerovehicles context, the flow around an Ahmed body profile is simulated using the velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, associated to a penalization method for solids and Large Eddy Simulation for turbulence. The study focuses both on the ground influence on the flow and on the dissymetry of the wake, observed for a ground clearance greater than 10% of the body height H. Unsteady and mean flows are presented and analyzed. POD study completes the analysis and gives information on the most energetic structures of the flow.

Keywords: Ahmed body, bi-stability, LES, near wake

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60 Innate Immune Dysfunction in Niemann Pick Disease Type C

Authors: Stephanie Newman

Abstract:

Niemann-Pick Type C disease is a rare, usually fatal lysosomal storage disorder. Although clinically characterized by progressive neurodegeneration, there is also evidence of altered innate immune responses such as neuroinflammation that promote disease progression. We have initiated an investigation into whether phagocytosis, an important innate immune activity and the process by which particles are ingested is defective in NPC. Using an in vitro assay, we have shown that NPC macrophages have a deficiency in the phagocytosis of different particles. We plan to investigate the mechanistic basis for impaired phagocytosis, the contribution that this deficiency makes to disease pathology, and whether therapies that have shown in vivo benefit are able to restore phagocytic activity.

Keywords: Niemann Pick Disease C, phagocytosis, innate immunity, lysosomal storage disorder

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59 Paper-Based Detection Using Synthetic Gene Circuits

Authors: Vanessa Funk, Steven Blum, Stephanie Cole, Jorge Maciel, Matthew Lux

Abstract:

Paper-based synthetic gene circuits offer a new paradigm for programmable, fieldable biodetection. We demonstrate that by freeze-drying gene circuits with in vitro expression machinery, we can use complimentary RNA sequences to trigger colorimetric changes upon rehydration. We have successfully utilized both green fluorescent protein and luciferase-based reporters for easy visualization purposes in solution. Through several efforts, we are aiming to use this new platform technology to address a variety of needs in portable detection by demonstrating several more expression and reporter systems for detection functions on paper. In addition to RNA-based biodetection, we are exploring the use of various mechanisms that cells use to respond to environmental conditions to move towards all-hazards detection. Examples include explosives, heavy metals for water quality, and toxic chemicals.

Keywords: cell-free lysates, detection, gene circuits, in vitro

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58 Trauma Informed Applied Theatre: The Use of Performance to Connect With Mental Dysfunction Using Physical Embodiment

Authors: Stephanie Elizabeth Talder

Abstract:

Applied theatre programs provide a unique opportunity to engage with people using theatre with the intention of helping them with a variety of other ailments. Applied theatre within a medical setting allows for there to be other arts focused interventions that would allow for a creative and enjoyable way to connect with those who experience the same impairments as you. These programs have the potential to aid in health benefits as well as engage with theatre. This study will focus on those who have cognitive dysfunction and mental health advocacy. Due to the severe need for mental health initiatives, providing a community of those who are experiencing similar symptoms and connecting with playwrights such as Shakespeare will be meaningful. This study will partner with mental health and wellness professionals within the medical field to work with memory retention and increase mental wellness.

Keywords: applied theatre, trauma-informed, mental wellness advocacy, cognitive dysfunction

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57 Mercury and Selenium Levels in Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Fished in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Republic of Seychelles

Authors: Stephanie Hollanda, Nathalie Bodin, Carine Churlaud, Paco Bustamante

Abstract:

Total mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and Hg-Se ratios were analyzed in the white muscle, liver and gonads of swordfish, in order to compare concentration between the different tissues and sex, and also the effect of size (fork length). The results show significant difference between tissue types, with the liver having the highest concentration of both Hg and Se. Positive significant correlations between moles of Hg and Se were obtained in the liver and white muscle, but no relationship was obtained in the gonads. No difference in the concentration of Hg and Se was obtained between the sexes in the tissue types, except for Hg in the gonads, which were found to be higher in males. Significant negative relationships were obtained when the Hg-Se ratio was plotted against fork length in all three tissue types.

Keywords: bioaccumulation, large pelagic fish, mercury, selenium, western Indian Ocean

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56 Modified Preputial Urethrostomy as a Salvage Procedure in Four Dogs

Authors: Thomas Giansetto, Olivier Broux, Géraldine Bolen, Stéphanie Claeys

Abstract:

Objective: To describe a modified preputial urethrostomy in four dogs. Study design: Short case series. Animals: Four male dogs were treated by the modified preputial urethrostomy, three because of urethral stenosis, and one because of severe complications following perineal urethrostomy. Methods: Four dogs were presented for dysuria and urinary obstruction. secondary to urethral stenosis or tear. Obstruction was treated with a modified preputial urethrostomy. Results: Four dogs had resolution of dysuria with a modified preputial urethrostomy without penile amputation. None of the dogs presented signs of dysuria, urinary tract infection, or dermatitis postoperatively. Two dogs showed signs of urinary incontinence 15 days and one month postoperatively. Conclusion: The modified preputial urethrostomy resulted in a favorable prognosis and may be an alternative to prepubic urethrostomy in male dogs.

Keywords: urethrostomy, preputial, technique, urogenital

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55 The Molecular Bases of Δβ T-Cell Mediated Antigen Recognition

Authors: Eric Chabrol, Sidonia B.G. Eckle, Renate de Boer, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn, Mirjam H.M. Heemskerk, Stephanie Gras

Abstract:

αβ and γδ T-cells are disparate T-cell lineages that, via their use of either αβ or γδ T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) respectively, can respond to distinct antigens. Here we characterise a new population of human T-cells, term δβ T-cells, that express TCRs comprising a TCR-δ variable gene fused to a Joining-α/Constant-α domain, paired with an array of TCR-β chains. We characterised the cellular, functional, biophysical and structural characteristic feature of this new T-cells population that reveal some new insight into TCR diversity. We provide molecular bases of how δβ T-cells can recognise viral peptide presented by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) molecule. Our findings highlight how components from αβ and γδTCR gene loci can recombine to confer antigen specificity thus expanding our understanding of T-cell biology and TCR diversity.

Keywords: new delta-beta TCR, HLA, viral peptide, structural immunology

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54 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So

Abstract:

Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: formaldehyde, indoor air quality, passive panel, removal efficiency, sorption

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53 Zamzam Water as Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel Rebar in Rainwater and Simulated Acid Rain

Authors: Ahmed A. Elshami, Stephanie Bonnet, Abdelhafid Khelidj

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibitors are widely used in concrete industry to reduce the corrosion rate of steel rebar which is present in contact with aggressive environments. The present work aims to using Zamzam water from well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam as corrosion inhibitor for steel in rain water and simulated acid rain. The effect of Zamzam water was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Potentiodynamic polarization techniques in Department of Civil Engineering - IUT Saint-Nazaire, Nantes University, France. Zamzam water is considered to be one of the most important steel corrosion inhibitor which is frequently used in different industrial applications. Results showed that zamzam water gave a very good inhibition for steel corrosion in rain water and simulated acid rain.

Keywords: Zamzam water, corrosion inhibitor, rain water, simulated acid rain

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52 Crossing Borders: A Case Study on the Entry and Asylum of Sirius Refugees in Turkey

Authors: Stephanie M. De Oliveira

Abstract:

For a long time, migrations are characterized as a difficult problem to solve. Various phenomena throughout human history caused personnel migrations, whether by the free will of migrants or not. Nowadays, governments that seek to give these people protection and dignity, either to asylum or to build a new life in a different country, make refugee protection. At present, a large amount of people, have been crossing their country's borders by land, air or sea, becoming refugees and seeking a new life away from fear, threat or violence they suffered in their country of origin. It is known that some countries have already instituted rights and rules for refugees who wish to become citizens in the country to which they immigrated, even though this is not what happens in most cases. The article will be based on research made with UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) material as well as will analyze the interaction of the Turkish government with the European Union. Since Turkey is not part of the Union, it will be understood how the interaction was made, as well as the search for consensus, and not only humanitarian but also financial aid. The treatment of refugees and the defense of human rights within the country will also be considered.

Keywords: refugees, Turkey, asylum seekers, United Nations

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51 Microstructural and Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon Coated Nanograined LiFePO4 as Cathode Material for Li-Batteries

Authors: Rinlee Butch M. Cervera, Princess Stephanie P. Llanos

Abstract:

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising characteristics. In this study, pure LiFePO4 (LFP) and carbon-coated nanograined LiFePO4 (LFP-C) is synthesized and characterized for its microstructural properties. X-ray diffraction patterns of the synthesized samples can be indexed to an orthorhombic LFP structure with about 63 nm crystallite size as calculated by using Scherrer’s equation. Agglomerated particles that range from 200 nm to 300 nm are observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the crystalline structure of LFP and coating of amorphous carbon layer. Elemental mapping using energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of the compositional elements. In addition, galvanostatic charge and discharge measurements were investigated for the cathode performance of the synthesized LFP and LFP-C samples. The results showed that the carbon-coated sample demonstrated the highest capacity of about 140 mAhg-1 as compared to non-coated and micrograined sized commercial LFP.

Keywords: ceramics, energy storage, electrochemical measurements, transmission electron microscope

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50 U11 Functionalised Luminescent Gold Nanoclusters for Pancreatic Tumor Cells Labelling

Authors: Regina M. Chiechio, Rémi Leguevél, Helene Solhi, Marie Madeleine Gueguen, Stephanie Dutertre, Xavier, Jean-Pierre Bazureau, Olivier Mignen, Pascale Even-Hernandez, Paolo Musumeci, Maria Jose Lo Faro, Valerie Marchi

Abstract:

Thanks to their ultra-small size, high electron density, and low toxicity, gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have unique photoelectrochemical and luminescence properties that make them very interesting for diagnosis bio-imaging and theranostics. These applications require control of their delivery and interaction with cells; for this reason, the surface chemistry of Au NCs is essential to determine their interaction with the targeted biological objects. Here we demonstrate their ability as markers of pancreatic tumor cells. By functionalizing the surface of the NCs with a recognition peptite (U11), the nanostructures are able to preferentially bind to pancreatic cancer cells via a receptor (uPAR) overexpressed by these cells. Furthermore, the NCs can mark even the nucleus without the need of fixing the cells. These nanostructures can therefore be used as a non-toxic, multivalent luminescent platform, capable of selectively recognizing tumor cells for bioimaging, drug delivery, and radiosensitization.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, luminescence, biomarkers, pancreatic cancer, biomedical applications, bioimaging, fluorescent probes, drug delivery

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49 A Digital Twin Approach for Sustainable Territories Planning: A Case Study on District Heating

Authors: Ahmed Amrani, Oussama Allali, Amira Ben Hamida, Felix Defrance, Stephanie Morland, Eva Pineau, Thomas Lacroix

Abstract:

The energy planning process is a very complex task that involves several stakeholders and requires the consideration of several local and global factors and constraints. In order to optimize and simplify this process, we propose a tool-based iterative approach applied to district heating planning. We build our tool with the collaboration of a French territory using actual district data and implementing the European incentives. We set up an iterative process including data visualization and analysis, identification and extraction of information related to the area concerned by the operation, design of sustainable planning scenarios leveraging local renewable and recoverable energy sources, and finally, the evaluation of scenarios. The last step is performed by a dynamic digital twin replica of the city. Territory’s energy experts confirm that the tool provides them with valuable support towards sustainable energy planning.

Keywords: climate change, data management, decision support, digital twin, district heating, energy planning, renewables, smart city

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48 Electrode Performance of Carbon Coated Nanograined LiFePO4 in Lithium Batteries

Authors: Princess Stephanie P. Llanos, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera

Abstract:

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising characteristics. In this study, carbon-coated nanograined LiFePO4 is synthesized via wet chemistry method at a low temperature of 400 °C and investigated its performance as a cathode in Lithium battery. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the synthesized samples can be indexed to an orthorhombic LiFePO4 structure. Agglomerated particles that range from 200 nm to 300 nm are observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the crystalline structure of LiFePO4 and coating of amorphous carbon layer. Elemental mapping using Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of Fe, P, O, and C elements. On the other hand, the electrochemical performances of the synthesized cathodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests with different C-rates, and cycling performances. Galvanostatic charge and discharge measurements revealed that the sample sintered at 400 °C for 3 hours with carbon coating demonstrated the highest capacity among the samples which reaches up to 160 mAhg⁻¹ at 0.1C rate.

Keywords: cathode, charge-discharge, electrochemical, lithium batteries

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47 Repairing Broken Trust: The Influence of Positive Induced Emotion and Gender

Authors: Zach Banzon, Marina Caculitan, Gianne Laisac, Stephanie Lopez, Marguerite Villegas

Abstract:

The role of incidental positive emotions and gender on people’s trust decisions have been established by existing research. The aim of this experiment is to address the gap in the literature by examining whether these factors will have a similar effect on trust behavior even after the experience of betrayal. A total of 144 undergraduate students participated in a trust game involving the anonymous interaction of a participant and a transgressor. Of these participants, only 125 (63 males and 62 females) were included in the data analyses. A story was used to prime incidental positive emotions or emotions originally unrelated to the trustee. Recovered trust was measured by relating the proportion of the money passed before and after betrayal. Data was analyzed using two-way analysis of variance having two levels for gender (male, female) and two for priming (with, without), with trust propensity scores entered as a covariate. It was predicted that trust recovery will be more apparent in females than in males but the data obtained was not significantly different between the genders. Induced positive emotions, however, had a statistically significant effect on trust behavior even after betrayal. No significant interaction effect was found between induced positive emotion and gender. The experiment provides evidence that the manipulation of situational variables, to a certain extent, can facilitate the reparation of trust.

Keywords: gender effect, positive emotions, trust game, trust recovery

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46 Using Econometric Methods to Explore Obesity Stigma and Avoidance of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

Authors: Stephanie A. Schauder, Gosia Sylwestrzak

Abstract:

Overweight and obese women report avoiding preventive care due to fear of weight-related bias from medical professionals. Gynecological exams, due to their sensitive and personally invasive nature, are especially susceptible to avoidance. This research investigates the association between body mass index (BMI) and screening rates for breast and cervical cancer using claims data from 1.3 million members of a large health insurance company. Because obesity is associated with increased cancer risk, screenings for these cancers should increase as BMI increases. However, this paper finds that the distribution of cancer screening rates by BMI take an inverted U-shape with underweight and obese members having the lowest screening rates. For cervical cancer screening, those in the target population with a BMI of 23 have the highest screening rate at 68%, while Obese Class III members have a screening rate of 50%. Those in the underweight category have a screening rate of 58%. This relationship persists even after controlling for health and demographic covariates in regression analysis. Interestingly, there is no association between BMI and BRCA (BReast CAncer gene) genetic testing. This is consistent with the narrative that stigma causes avoidance because genetic testing does not involve any assessment of a person’s body. More work must be done to determine how to increase cancer screening rates in those who may feel stigmatized due to their weight.

Keywords: cancer screening, cervical cancer, breast cancer, weight stigma, avoidance of care

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45 Religious Coercion as Means of Trafficking in Women and Faith Communities’ Role in Ending Such Religious Exploitation

Authors: Xiaoyu Stephanie Ren

Abstract:

With the increase of massive migration, economic polarization, as well as increasing awareness and respects for religious freedom in the world, women have become unprecedentedly vulnerable to trafficking involving religious coercion. Such cases can also bring enormous challenges for prosecution in which the prosecutor bears the burden of proving that the victim acted, or not acted in a certain way due to the exploitation of her belief system: (1) Jurors who are nonbelievers tend not to be convinced that something of intangible nature can act as the force to get victim into women trafficking situation; (2) Court more often than not rules in favor of victims in women trafficking cases involving religious exploitation only when there is physical coercion in addition to religious coercion; (3) Female victims are often reluctant to testify at court due to their godly fear and loyalty to trafficker. Using case study methodology, this paper examines the unique characteristics of religious coercion as means of trafficking in women from a legal perspective and proposes multiple ways based on communal beliefs that faith communities, as victims for such crime themselves, can act in order to help to end religious exploitation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to improve acknowledgment for the role of religious coercion as a sole force for women trafficking situation; to discuss legal hurdles in prosecuting women trafficking cases involving religious coercion; and to propose collaboration across borders among faith communities to end such exploitation.

Keywords: women trafficking, sex violence, religious exploitation, faith community, prosecution, law

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44 Optimization of Alkali Silicate Glass Heat Treatment for the Improvement of Thermal Expansion and Flexural Strength

Authors: Stephanie Guerra-Arias, Stephani Nevarez, Calvin Stewart, Rachel Grodsky, Denis Eichorst

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to describe the framework for optimizing the heat treatment of alkali silicate glasses, to enhance the performance of hermetic seals in extreme environments. When connectors are exposed to elevated temperatures, residual stresses develop due to the mismatch of thermal expansions between the glass, metal pin, and metal shell. Excessive thermal expansion mismatch compromises the reliability of hermetic seals. In this study, a series of heat treatment schedules will be performed on two commercial sealing glasses (one conventional sealing glass and one crystallizable sealing glass) using a design of experiments (DOE) approach. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) will be measured pre- and post-heat treatment using thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Afterwards, the flexural strength of the specimen will be measured using a four-point bend fixture mounted in a static universal testing machine. The measured material properties will be statistically analyzed using MiniTab software to determine which factors of the heat treatment process have a strong correlation to the coefficient of thermal expansion and/or flexural strength. Finally, a heat-treatment will be designed and tested to ensure the optimal performance of the hermetic seals in connectors.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, design of experiment, hermetic connectors, material characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
43 Technologic Information about Photovoltaic Applied in Urban Residences

Authors: Stephanie Fabris Russo, Daiane Costa Guimarães, Jonas Pedro Fabris, Maria Emilia Camargo, Suzana Leitão Russo, José Augusto Andrade Filho

Abstract:

Among renewable energy sources, solar energy is the one that has stood out. Solar radiation can be used as a thermal energy source and can also be converted into electricity by means of effects on certain materials, such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic panels. These panels are often used to generate energy in homes, buildings, arenas, etc., and have low pollution emissions. Thus, a technological prospecting was performed to find patents related to the use of photovoltaic plates in urban residences. The patent search was based on ESPACENET, associating the keywords photovoltaic and home, where we found 136 patent documents in the period of 1994-2015 in the fields title and abstract. Note that the years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 had the highest number of applicants, with respectively, 11, 13, 23, 29, 15 and 21. Regarding the country that deposited about this technology, it is clear that China leads with 67 patent deposits, followed by Japan with 38 patents applications. It is important to note that most depositors, 50% are companies, 44% are individual inventors and only 6% are universities. On the International Patent classification (IPC) codes, we noted that the most present classification in results was H02J3/38, which represents provisions in parallel to feed a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers. Among all categories, there is the H session, which means Electricity, with 70% of the patents.

Keywords: photovoltaic, urban residences, technology forecasting, prospecting

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42 How to Improve the Environmental Performance in a HEI in Mexico, an EEA Adaptation

Authors: Stephanie Aguirre Moreno, Jesús Everardo Olguín Tiznado, Claudia Camargo Wilson, Juan Andrés López Barreras

Abstract:

This research work presents a proposal to evaluate the environmental performance of a Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Mexico in order to minimize their environmental impact. Given that public education has limited financial resources, it is necessary to conduct studies that support priorities in decision-making situations and thus obtain the best cost-benefit ratio of continuous improvement programs as part of the environmental management system implemented. The methodology employed, adapted from the Environmental Effect Analysis (EEA), weighs the environmental aspects identified in the environmental diagnosis by two characteristics. Number one, environmental priority through the perception of the stakeholders, compliance of legal requirements, and environmental impact of operations. Number two, the possibility of improvement, which depends of factors such as the exchange rate that will be made, the level of investment and the return time of it. The highest environmental priorities, or hot spots, identified in this evaluation were: electricity consumption, water consumption and recycling, and disposal of municipal solid waste. However, the possibility of improvement for the disposal of municipal solid waste is higher, followed by water consumption and recycling, in spite of having an equal possibility of improvement to the energy consumption, time of return and cost-benefit is much greater.

Keywords: environmental performance, environmental priority, possibility of improvement, continuous improvement programs

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41 Access to the Community and Needed Supports among People with Physical Disabilities Receiving Long-Term Services and Supports in the United States

Authors: Stephanie Giordano, Eric Lam, Rosa Plasencia

Abstract:

An important piece of active aging is ensuring people have the right support to meet individual needs. Using NCI-AD data, we will look at measures of satisfaction with community access and needed services among people with physical disabilities receiving LTSS in the US. National Core Indicators—Aging and Disabilities (NCI-AD) is a voluntary effort by State Medicaid, aging, and disability agencies across the US to measure and track their own performance. NCI-AD uses a standardized survey – the Adult Consumer Survey (ACS), to hear directly from people receiving services about the quality of services and supports they receive. Data from the 2018-19 ACS found that compared to people without a physical disability, those with a physical disability were more likely to make choices about the services they receive, including when and how often they receive those services. Yet people with a physical disability were less likely to report they get enough assistance with everyday activities (e.g., shopping, housework, and taking medications) and self-care (e.g., dressing or bathing) and more likely to report that services and supports do not fully meet their needs and goals. A further breakdown by age shows that people 40-65 years old with a physical disability experienced even greater barriers to being as active in the community as they would like to be, indicating a need to better support people as they age with or into a disability. We will explore how these and other outcomes were affected by COVID-19, take a closer look at outcomes by demographics (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, and mental health diagnoses) and discuss implications on the future needs of service systems.

Keywords: quality-of-life, long-term services and supports, person-centered, community

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40 Educators’ Perceived Capacity to Create Inclusive Learning Environments: Exploring Individual Competencies and District Policy

Authors: Thuy Phan, Stephanie Luallin

Abstract:

Inclusive education policies have demonstrated benefits for students with and without disabilities in the US. There are several laws that relate to inclusive education, such as 'No Child Left Behind', 'The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act'. However, the application of these inclusive education laws and policies vary per state and school district. Classroom teachers in an inclusive classroom often experience confusion as to how to apply these policies in order to create appropriate inclusive learning environments that meet the abilities and needs of their diverse student population. The study aims to investigate teachers’ perspective of their capacities to create an appropriate learning environment for their diverse student population including students with disabilities. Qualitative method is implemented in this study, using open-end interview questions to investigate teachers’ perspective of their capacities to create an appropriate inclusive learning environment for all students based on current inclusive education laws and district policies in the state of Colorado, USA. These findings may indicate a lack of confidence in teachers’ capacity to create appropriate inclusive learning environments based on laws and district policies; including challenges that classroom teachers may experience in creating inclusive learning environments. The purpose of this study is to examine the adequate preparation of classroom teachers in creating inclusive classrooms with the intent of determining implications for developing policies in inclusive education.

Keywords: educator’s capacity, inclusive education, inclusive learning environment, policy

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39 Comparative Evaluation of Weaning Knowledge, Attitudes and Feeding Practices among Mothers in Benue and Zamfara States of Nigeria

Authors: Apityan Tume, Sefater Gbashi, Stephanie Dillon

Abstract:

The present study was aimed at investigating the weaning knowledge, attitudes and practices among mothers with infants in Benue and Zamfara States, Nigeria. A questionnaire consisting of both open and close-ended questions was adopted for this study. Socio-demographic information was captured with this questionnaire. This is in addition to capturing data linked to respondents' knowledge and attitude to weaning and the weaning practice itself. 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 329 was filled and returned. Results obtained from the study revealed that the mother's location; mother's level of education, her occupation, her age; and her level of education would have an effect on her practice of and attitude to weaning. Essentially, mothers based in Zamfara who were full-time housewives, tailor or trader were more likely to start weaning at a later age than mothers who have the same occupation but based in Benue. Furthermore, the results revealed mothers who were uneducated and based in Zamfara were more likely to wean their babies later than the uneducated mothers, mothers educated to primary, secondary or tertiary level based in Benue. It was also evident that mothers who were low-income earners and based in Zamfara were more likely to start weaning later than the low, average or high-income earning mothers in Benue. Moreover, younger mothers in Zamfara age 20-25 years were more likely to start weaning later than mothers of other age groups. In overall, mothers had a good understanding of best practices with regards to weaning. Notwithstanding, mothers could be further encouraged and educated about the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices as well as the benefits therein to enhance the healthy growth of the children.

Keywords: breastfeeding, complementary feeding, socio-demographic, weaning

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38 Growth and Immune Response of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) Postlarvae Fed Diets Containing Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Gian Carlo F. Maliwat, Stephanie F. Velasquez, Janice A. Ragaza

Abstract:

A 50-day growth trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck) as an ingredient in the diets of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) postlarvae (PL30). Immune response (total haemocyte count and prophenoloxidase activity) was also assessed by subjecting postlarvae to a challenge test against Aeromonas hydrophila (Chester) for 14 days. Isonitrogenous and iso-lipidic test diets were prepared using a fishmeal-based-positive control diet (D0) and four basal diets with inclusion levels of 2% (D2), 4% (D4), 6% (D6) and 8% (D8) C. vulgaris. Postlarvae of M. rosenbergii were randomly stocked (mean initial body weight of 0.19 ± 0.02 g) in 30-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for evaluation of growth performance. Another set of postlarvae (mean initial body weight of 1.25 ± 0.02 g) was randomly distributed in 95-L tanks in three replicates per dietary treatment for the assessment of immune response. Results showed that specific growth rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in postlarvae fed D4 and D6. Variations in values for carcass protein, lipid, moisture, and ash were also evident. Postlarvae fed diets with Chlorella showed increased prophenol oxidase activity and total haemocyte counts. Moreover, the survival rate after challenge with A. hydrophila was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Inclusion of C. vulgaris in diets enhanced immune response and resistance of M. rosenbergii postlarvae against A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, haemocyte count, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, prophenoloxidase activity

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37 Analysis of Intra-Varietal Diversity for Some Lebanese Grapevine Cultivars

Authors: Stephanie Khater, Ali Chehade, Lamis Chalak

Abstract:

The progressive replacement of the Lebanese autochthonous grapevine cultivars during the last decade by the imported foreign varieties almost resulted in the genetic erosion of the local germplasm and the confusion with cultivars' names. Hence there is a need to characterize these local cultivars and to assess the possible existing variability at the cultivar level. This work was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the intra-varietal diversity within Lebanese traditional cultivars 'Aswad', 'Maghdoushe', 'Maryame', 'Merweh', 'Meksese' and 'Obeide'. A total of 50 accessions distributed over five main geographical areas in Lebanon were collected and submitted to both ampelographic description and ISSR DNA analysis. A set of 35 ampelographic descriptors previously established by the International Office of Vine and Wine and related to leaf, bunch, berry, and phenological stages, were examined. Variability was observed between accessions within cultivars for blade shape, density of prostrate and erect hairs, teeth shape, berry shape, size and color, cluster shape and size, and flesh juiciness. At the molecular level, nine ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) primers, previously developed for grapevine, were used in this study. These primers generated a total of 35 bands, of which 30 (85.7%) were polymorphic. Totally, 29 genetic profiles were differentiated, of which 9 revealed within 'Obeide', 6 for 'Maghdoushe', 5 for 'Merweh', 4 within 'Maryame', 3 for 'Aswad' and 2 within 'Meksese'. Findings of this study indicate the existence of several genotypes that form the basis of the main indigenous cultivars grown in Lebanon and which should be further considered in the establishment of new vineyards and selection programs.

Keywords: ampelography, autochthonous cultivars, ISSR markers, Lebanon, Vitis vinifera L.

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36 A Rapid Prototyping Tool for Suspended Biofilm Growth Media

Authors: Erifyli Tsagkari, Stephanie Connelly, Zhaowei Liu, Andrew McBride, William Sloan

Abstract:

Biofilms play an essential role in treating water in biofiltration systems. The biofilm morphology and function are inextricably linked to the hydrodynamics of flow through a filter, and yet engineers rarely explicitly engineer this interaction. We develop a system that links computer simulation and 3-D printing to optimize and rapidly prototype filter media to optimize biofilm function with the hypothesis that biofilm function is intimately linked to the flow passing through the filter. A computational model that numerically solves the incompressible time-dependent Navier Stokes equations coupled to a model for biofilm growth and function is developed. The model is imbedded in an optimization algorithm that allows the model domain to adapt until criteria on biofilm functioning are met. This is applied to optimize the shape of filter media in a simple flow channel to promote biofilm formation. The computer code links directly to a 3-D printer, and this allows us to prototype the design rapidly. Its validity is tested in flow visualization experiments and by microscopy. As proof of concept, the code was constrained to explore a small range of potential filter media, where the medium acts as an obstacle in the flow that sheds a von Karman vortex street that was found to enhance the deposition of bacteria on surfaces downstream. The flow visualization and microscopy in the 3-D printed realization of the flow channel validated the predictions of the model and hence its potential as a design tool. Overall, it is shown that the combination of our computational model and the 3-D printing can be effectively used as a design tool to prototype filter media to optimize biofilm formation.

Keywords: biofilm, biofilter, computational model, von karman vortices, 3-D printing.

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35 A Meta-Analysis on the Efficacy and Safety of TRC101/Veverimer 6g/Day in Increasing Serum Bicarbonate Levels of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

Authors: Hazel Ann Gianelli Cu, Stephanie Co, Radcliff Cobankiat

Abstract:

Objectives: TRC101/Veverimer is an orally administered, non absorbed, sodium- and counterion-free hydrochloric acid binder for the treatment of metabolic acidosis associated with chronic kidney disease. The main objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of TRC 101/ Veverimer 6g/day in increasing serum bicarbonate levels of chronic kidney disease patients with metabolic acidosis. In this meta analysis, we also aim to look at safety outcomes, adverse effects and if the level of serum bicarbonate reached metabolic alkalosis when given TRC101/Veverimer. Methodology: Pubmed, Cochrane, Google Scholar and Science direct were used to search for randomized controlled trials about TRC101/Veverimer use in Chronic kidney disease patients with metabolic acidosis. Search strategy according to the Prisma checklist was done with evaluation of biases and synthesis of results using the Cochrane Review Manager software 5.4. Results: Two randomized controlled trials involving 371 chronic kidney disease patients were included in this study. Results show there was a significant increase in the serum bicarbonate level when given TRC101/Veverimer compared to the placebo. Both studies had a significant number of participants who completed the studies until the end. P value of <0.00001 was used in both studies with a confidence interval of 95%. Conclusion: TRC101/Veverimer 6g/day was shown to effectively and safely increase serum bicarbonate or achieve normalization in chronic kidney disease patients with metabolic acidosis as compared with a placebo. This was associated with delayed progression of kidney disease with improvement of physical functioning, however longer duration of future studies is ideal in order to assess further the long advantages and consequences of TRC 101/Veverimer.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, metabolic acidosis, Veverimer, TRC101

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34 A Longitudinal Study to Develop an Emotional Design Framework for Physical Activity Interventions

Authors: Stephanie Hewitt, Leila Sheldrick, Weston Baxter

Abstract:

Multidisciplinary by nature, design research brings together varying research fields to answer globally significant questions. Emotional design, a field which helps us create products that influence people’s behaviour, and sports psychology, containing a growing field of recent research which focuses on understanding the emotions experienced through sport and the effects this has on our health and wellbeing, are two research fields that can be combined through design research to tackle global physical inactivity. The combination of these research fields presents an opportunity to build new tools and methods that could help designers create new interventions to promote positive behaviour change in the form of physical activity uptake, ultimately improving people’s health and wellbeing. This paper proposes a framework that can be used to develop new products and services that focus on not only improving the uptake and upkeep of physical activity but also helping people have a healthy emotional relationship with exercise. To develop this framework, a set of comprehensive maps exploring the relationship between human emotions and physical activity across a range of factors was created. These maps were then further evolved through in-depth interviews, which analysed the reasons behind the emotions felt, how physical activity fits into the daily routine and how important regular exercise is to people. Finally, to progress these findings into a design framework, a longitudinal study was carried out to explore further the emotional relationship people of varying sporting abilities have overtime with physical activity. This framework can be used to design more successful interventions that help people to not only become more active initially but implement long term changes to ensure they stay active.

Keywords: design research, emotional design, emotions, intervention, physical activity, sport psychology

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33 A Surrealist Play of Associations: Neoliberalism, Critical Pedagogy and Surrealism in Secondary English Language Arts

Authors: Stephanie Ho

Abstract:

This project utilizes principles derived from the Surrealist movement to prioritize creative and critical thinking in secondary English Language Arts (ELA). The implementation of Surrealist-style pedagogies within an ELA classroom will be rooted in critical, radical pedagogy, which addresses the injustices caused by economic-oriented educational systems. The use of critical pedagogy will enable the subversive artistic and political aims of Surrealism to be transmitted to a classroom context. Through aesthetic reading strategies, appreciative questioning and dialogue, students will actively critique the power dynamics which structure (and often restrict) their lives. Within the ELA domain, cost-effective approaches often replace the actual “arts” of ELA. This research will therefore explore how Surrealist-oriented pedagogies could restore imaginative freedom and deconstruct conceptual barriers (normative standards, curricular constraints, and status quo power relations) in secondary ELA. This research will also examine how Surrealism can be used as a political and pedagogical model to treat societal problems mirrored in ELA classrooms. The stakeholders are teachers, as they experience constant pressure within their practices. Similarly, students encounter rigorous, results-based pressures. These dynamics contribute to feelings of powerlessness, thus reinforcing a formulaic model of ELA. The ELA curriculum has potential to create laboratories for critical discussion and active movement towards social change. This proposed research strategy of Surrealist-oriented pedagogies could enable students to experiment with social issues and develop senses of agency and voice that reflect awareness of contemporary society while simultaneously building their ELA skills.

Keywords: arts-informed pedagogies, language arts, literature, surrealism

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