Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2769

Search results for: policy

2769 Policy Innovation and its Determinants: A Literature Review

Authors: Devasheesh Mathur

Abstract:

The presentation reviews the literature on the phenomenon of policy innovation. Policy innovation refers to a shift in the way policy is made or executed. The paper covers comprehensively on the definition and also the various types of policy innovations. The emphasis is on the antecedents or the determinants of innovation in policies. The author has then made an effort to discover the knowledge gap in the field of policy innovation so as to identify the future scope of research. The objective is to lend more clarity in the area of policy innovation and help in creating a framework for policy-makers as well as academics.

Keywords: literature review, policy innovation, determinants, antecedents

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2768 Patching and Stretching: Development of Policy Mixes for Entrepreneurship in China

Authors: Jian Shao

Abstract:

The effect of entrepreneurship on economic, innovation, and employment has been widely acknowledged by scholars and governments. As an essential factor of influencing entrepreneurship activities, entrepreneurship policy creates a conducive environment to support and develop entrepreneurship. However, the challenge in developing entrepreneurship policy is that policy is normally a combination of many different goals and instruments. Instead of examining the effect of individual policy instruments, we argue that attention to a policy mix is necessary. In recent years, much attention has been focused on comparing a single policy instrument to a policy mix, evaluating the interactions between different instruments within a mix or assessment of particular policy mixes. However, another required step in understanding policy mixes is to understand how and why mixes evolve and change over time and to determine whether any changes are an improvement. In this paper, we try to trace the development of the policy mix for entrepreneurship in China by mapping the policy goals and instruments and reveal the process of policy mix changing over time. We find two main process mechanisms of the entrepreneurship policy mix in China: patching and stretching. Compared with policy repackaging, patching and stretching are more realistic processes in the real world of the policy mix, and they are possible to achieve effectiveness by avoiding conflicts and promoting synergies among policy goals and instruments.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, China, policy design, policy mix, policy patching

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2767 Public Policy Making Process in Developing Countries: Case Study of Turkish Health System

Authors: Hakan Akin

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the policy making process in Turkish Health System. This policy making process will be examined through public policy change theories. Since political actors played in the formulation of public policies also explains the type of policy change, this actors will be inspected in the supranational and national basis. Also the transformation of public policy in the Turkish health care system will be analysed under the concepts of New right ideology, neo-liberalism, neo-conservatism and governance. And after this analyse, the outputs and outcomes of this transformation will be discussed in the context of developing countries.

Keywords: policy transfer, policy diffusion, policy convergence, new right, governance

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2766 Child Care Policy in Kazakhstan: A New Model

Authors: Dina Maratovna Aikenova

Abstract:

Child care policy must be a priority area of public authorities in any country. This study investigates child care policy in Kazakhstan in accordance with the current position of children and laws. The results show that Kazakhstan policy in this sphere needs more systematic model including state economic and social measures, parental involvement and role of non-government organizations.

Keywords: children, Kazakhstan, policy, vulnerability

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2765 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar

Abstract:

This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: ICT, policy, teacher beliefs, consensus

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2764 Humanity in Public Policy: The Polemic of Death Penalty Policy in Indonesia

Authors: Alvian R. E. Purnomo, K. Noni Srijati, Hernawan Adi

Abstract:

Government regulation is a result of agreement on the struggle of ideas, interests, and ideologies among elites in state institution. The polemic about death penalty policy in Indonesia is still becoming an interesting discussion and also a complex issue. There are pros/ cons of whether the policy is humane or not. Indonesia becomes the concern of the world’s community because the policy of death penalty applied is considered not reflecting the values of Indonesian culture including tolerance, mutual cooperation, and love. This paper examines them using literature study on how public policy theories respond to humanity issues and how Indonesian government should take steps to the issue of the death penalty that has become polemic until now.

Keywords: government regulation, public policy, death penalty policy, humanity

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2763 Mechanisms and Process of an Effective Public Policy Formulation in Islamic Economic System

Authors: Md Abu Saieed

Abstract:

Crafting and implementing public policy is one of the indispensable works in any form of state and government. But the policy objectives, methods of formulation and tools of implementation might be different based on the ideological nature, historical legacy, structure and capacity of administration and management and other push and factors. Public policy in Islamic economic system needs to be based on the key guidelines of divine scriptures along with other sources of sharia’h. As a representative of Allah (SWT), the governor and other apparatus of the state will formulate and implement public policies which will enable to establish a true welfare state based on justice, equity and equality. The whole life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his policy in operating state of affairs in Madina is the practical guidelines for the policy actors and professionals in Islamic system of economics. Moreover, policy makers need to be more meticulous in formulating Islamic public policy which meets the needs and demands of contemporary worlds as well.

Keywords: formulation, Islam, public policy, policy factors, Sharia’h

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2762 Rules in Policy Integration, Case Study: Victoria Catchment Management

Authors: Ratri Werdiningtyas, Yongping Wei, Andrew Western

Abstract:

This paper contributes to on-going attempts at bringing together land, water and environmental policy in catchment management. A tension remains in defining the boundaries of policy integration. Most of Integrated Water Resource Management is valued as rhetoric policy. It is far from being achieved on the ground because the socio-ecological system has not been understood and developed into complete and coherent problem representation. To clarify the feature of integration, this article draws on institutional fit for public policy integration and uses these insights in an empirical setting to identify the mechanism that can facilitate effective public integration for catchment management. This research is based on the journey of Victoria’s government from 1890-2016. A total of 274 Victorian Acts related to land, water, environment management published in those periods has been investigated. Four conditions of integration have been identified in their co-evolution: (1) the integration policy based on reserves, (2) the integration policy based on authority interest, (3) policy based on integrated information and, (4) policy based coordinated resource, authority and information. Results suggest that policy coordination among their policy instrument is superior rather than policy integration in the case of catchment management.

Keywords: catchment management, co-evolution, policy integration, phase

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2761 Optimizing the Public Policy Information System under the Environment of E-Government

Authors: Qian Zaijian

Abstract:

E-government is one of the hot issues in the current academic research of public policy and management. As the organic integration of information and communication technology (ICT) and public administration, e-government is one of the most important areas in contemporary information society. Policy information system is a basic subsystem of public policy system, its operation affects the overall effect of the policy process or even exerts a direct impact on the operation of a public policy and its success or failure. The basic principle of its operation is information collection, processing, analysis and release for a specific purpose. The function of E-government for public policy information system lies in the promotion of public access to the policy information resources, information transmission through e-participation, e-consultation in the process of policy analysis and processing of information and electronic services in policy information stored, to promote the optimization of policy information systems. However, due to many factors, the function of e-government to promote policy information system optimization has its practical limits. In the building of E-government in our country, we should take such path as adhering to the principle of freedom of information, eliminating the information divide (gap), expanding e-consultation, breaking down information silos and other major path, so as to promote the optimization of public policy information systems.

Keywords: China, e-consultation, e-democracy, e-government, e-participation, ICTs, public policy information systems

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2760 The Fiscal-Monetary Policy and Economic Growth in Algeria: VECM Approach

Authors: K. Bokreta, D. Benanaya

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy in Algeria using the econometric modelling techniques of cointegration and vector error correction modelling to analyse and draw policy inferences. The chosen variables of fiscal policy are government expenditure and net taxes on products, while the effect of monetary policy is presented by the inflation rate and the official exchange rate. From the results, we find that in the long-run, the impact of government expenditures is positive, while the effect of taxes is negative on growth. Additionally, we find that the inflation rate is found to have little effect on GDP per capita but the impact of the exchange rate is insignificant. We conclude that fiscal policy is more powerful then monetary policy in promoting economic growth in Algeria.

Keywords: economic growth, monetary policy, fiscal policy, VECM

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2759 Exploring Coordination between Monetary and Macroprudential Policies Using a Monetary Policy Procyclicality Ratio

Authors: Lukasz Kurowski, Paweł Smaga

Abstract:

We explore the procyclicality of monetary policy decisions towards the financial cycle in the 1995−2015 period on a sample of six central banks. Using interest rate paths and the credit-to-GDP gap to construct a monetary policy procyclicality ratio, we provide evidence that monetary policy procyclicality was high in BoE and CNB and low in Riksbank and ECB. The results support the need for coordination between macroprudential and monetary policies, for example, by including financial stability considerations to the inflation targeting strategy.

Keywords: central bank, financial stability, macroprudential policy, monetary policy

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2758 How Do Crisis Affect Economic Policy?

Authors: Eva Kotlánová

Abstract:

After recession that began in 2007 in the United States and subsequently spilled over the Europe we could expect recovery of economic growth. According to the last estimation of economic progress of European countries, this recovery is not strong enough. Among others, it will depend on economic policy, where and in which way, the economic indicators will proceed. Economic theories postulate that the economic subjects prefer stably, continual economic policy without repeated and strong fluctuations. This policy is perceived as support of economic growth. Mostly in crises period, when the government must cope with consequences of recession, the economic policy becomes unpredictable for many subjects and economic policy uncertainty grows, which have negative influence on economic growth. The aim of this paper is to use panel regression to prove or disprove this hypothesis on the example of five largest European economies in the period 2008–2012.

Keywords: economic crises in Europe, economic policy, uncertainty, panel analysis regression

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2757 Governance Question and the Participatory Policy Making: Making the Process Functional in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, P. D. Dahida

Abstract:

This paper examines the effect of various epochs of governments on policy making in Nigeria. The character of governance and public policy making of both epochs was exclusive, non-participatory and self-centric. As a consequence the interests of citizenry were not represented, neither protected nor sought to meet fairly the needs of all groups. The introduction of the post-1999 democratic government demand that the hitherto skewed pattern of policy making cease to be a character of governance. Hence, the need for citizen participation in the policy making process. The question then is what mode is most appropriate to engender public participation so as to make the policy making process functional? Given the prevailing social, economic and political dilemmas the utilization of the direct mode of citizen participation to affect policy outcome is doubtful if not unattainable. It is due to these predicament that this paper uses the documentary research design argues for the utilization of the indirect mode of citizen participation in the policy making process so as to affect public policy outcome appropriately and with less cost, acrimony and delays.

Keywords: governance, public policy, participation, representation, civil society

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2756 Globalization and Public Policy Analysis: A Case Study of Foreign Policy of ASEAN Member States

Authors: Nattapol Pourprasert

Abstract:

This study has an objective to analyze foreign policy of member states in globalization current, aiming to answer that the foreign policy of member states have been changed or remained the same and there are any factors affecting changing of foreign policy of the member states. From the study results, it is found that the foreign policy of Thailand is a friendly foreign policy with all states. The policy of Indonesia is more opened because of a change in leader, allowing more democratic development in the country; the government has proceeded with friendly foreign policy with the states in order to bring funds into the state. The foreign policy of Malaysia is not much changed as there is no changing in the leader; the policy of Malaysia has reconciled relations with main city of Indian and Chinese residing in the country in order to bring investments into the country and to relieve tensions in the country. The foreign policy of the Philippines has proceeded with policy under the ASEAN framework and emphasized on international Islam communities. The foreign policy of Singapore has the least changed as the Singapore's policy focuses on internal trade since the state was found. As for the foreign policy of Brunei Darussalam, Brunei has a little role in the international stage; the state having closest relationship as from the view of history is Singapore as the Singaporean has invested in retailing business in Brunei. The foreign policy of Vietnam has emphasized on an omnidirectional foreign policy in order to compete with several states in global stage. The foreign policy of Myanmar has proceeded with a friendly foreign policy with all ASEAN member states, the East-west Corridor transportation line from Myanmar through Thailand and Lao to Vietnam has been developed. As for the foreign policy of Lao, In 2001, the Thai government and Lao government held a discussion which Thailand reaffirmed the position not to support the anti-Lao group. The foreign policy of Cambodia has proceeded with more openness, having good relation with China, Russia and USA as these states has invested in the state, especially the US company.

Keywords: globalization, public policy analysis, foreign policy, ASEAN member states

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2755 The Appropriation of Education Policy on Information and Communication Technology in South African Schools

Authors: T. Vandeyar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore how Government policy on ICT influences teaching and learning in South African schools. An instrumental case study using backward mapping principles as a strategy of inquiry was used. Utilizing a social constructivist lens and guided by a theoretical framework of a sociocultural approach to policy analysis, this exploratory qualitative research study set out to investigate how teachers appropriate government policy on ICT in South African schools. Three major findings emanated from this study. First, although teachers were ignorant of the national e-education policy their professionalism and agency were key in formulating and implementing an e-education policy in practice. Second, teachers repositioned themselves not as recipients or reactors of the e-education policy but as social and cultural actors of policy appropriation and formulation. Third, the lack of systemic support to teachers catalyzed improved school and teacher collaborations, teachers became drivers of ICT integration through collaboration, innovation, institutional practice and institutional leadership.

Keywords: ICT, teachers as change agents, practice as policy, teacher's beliefs, teacher's attitudes

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2754 Public and Private Domains: Contradictions and Covenants in Evolution of Game Policy

Authors: Mingzhu Lyu, Runlei Ren, Xinyu Dai, Jiaxuan Pi, Kanghua Li

Abstract:

The study of video game policy in China has been divided into two branches: "pedagogy" and "game industry". The binary perspective of policy reveals the "contradictory" side of policy performance. Based on this suspicion, this paper constructs a three-dimensional sequence of time, content and institutions of game policy, and establishes the "contradictory" aspects of policy performance between 1949 and 2019. A central-level database of game policies, clarifying that our game policies follow a shift from reactive response to proactive guidance, stigmatization and de-stigmatization, the evolutionary logic. The study found that the central government has always maintained a strict requirement and prudent guidance for game policy, and the deep contradictions in game policy stem from the essential conflict between the natural amusement of games and the seriousness of the educational system, and the Chinese government's use of the understanding of the public and private domains and the Managing of the conflict.

Keywords: game industry, gaming policy, public domain, private domain

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2753 Critical Literature Survey of the Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Policy in Light of Recent Empirical Evidence

Authors: Walaa W. Diab

Abstract:

The present paper offers a fundamental critique of the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy after it surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy. It emphasizes the importance of the fiscal policy after reviewing the revolution of almost all economic schools and bringing them in one summarized figure; the paper links the developmental role of the fiscal policy with the objectives and measures of the economic transformation. Thus, the importance of this study can be seen from several perspectives: First, it reviews the theoretical harvest of fiscal policy and provides a comparison between the main revolutionary Economic thoughts; the classical school, Keynesian school, and monetarist school. Then it turns to conclude the fiscal policy from the new consensus mainstream economic schools. Finally, the study presents grouped and classified empirical pieces of evidence as it divides those empirical studies into two groups; the first for developed economies and the second for developing ones. So the study is important also for the policymakers as well as scholars as it gives its recommendations upon the last analysis in the form of ‘policy implications’. The paper also presents a deeper look into the evaluation approaches of the macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy at the empirical level. Thus it is useful for both researchers and decision makers.

Keywords: economic transformation, fiscal policy, macroeconomic effects, public spending

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2752 Semantic Analysis of the Change in Awareness of Korean College Admission Policy

Authors: Sujin Hwang, Hyerang Park, Hyunchul Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to find the effectiveness of the admission simplification policy. The number of online news articles about ‘high school record’ was collected and semantically analyzed to identify and analyze the social awareness during 2014 to 2015. The main results of the study are as follows: First, there was a difference in expectations that the burden of the examinees would decrease as announced by KCUE. Thus, there was still a strain on the university entrance exam after the enforcement of the policy. Second, private tutoring is expanding in different forms, rather than reducing the policy. It is different from the prediction that examinees can prepare for university admissions without the private tutoring. Thus, the college admission rules currently enforced needs to be improved. The reasonable college admission system changes are discussed.

Keywords: education policy, private tutoring, shadow education, education admission policy

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2751 Economic Analysis of Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency

Authors: Etidel Labidi

Abstract:

Energy efficiency improvement is one of the means to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Recently, some developed countries have implemented the tradable white certificate scheme (TWC) as a new policy instrument based on market approach to support energy efficiency improvements. The major focus of this paper is to compare the White Certificates (TWC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement to other policy instruments: energy taxes and regulations setting a minimum level of energy efficiency. On the basis of our theoretical discussion and numerical simulation, we show that the white certificates system is the most interesting policy instrument for saving energy because it generates the most important level of energy savings and the least increase in energy service price.

Keywords: energy savings, energy efficiency, energy policy, white certificates

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2750 Asymmetries in Monetary Policy Response: The Role of Uncertainty in the Case of Nigeria

Authors: Elias Udeaja, Elijah Udoh

Abstract:

Exploring an extended SVAR model (SVAR-X), we use the case of Nigeria to hypothesize for the role of uncertainty as the underlying source of asymmetries in the response of monetary policy to output and inflation. Deciphered the empirical finding is the potential of monetary policy exhibiting greater sensitive to shocks due to output growth than they do to shocks due to inflation in recession periods, while the reverse appears to be the case for a contractionary monetary policy. We also find the asymmetric preference in the response of monetary policy to changes in output and inflation as relatively more pronounced when we control for uncertainty as the underlying source of asymmetries.

Keywords: asymmetry response, developing economies, monetary policy shocks, uncertainty

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2749 Functions of Public Policy in Private International Law

Authors: Fedorova Elena

Abstract:

In this article, we draw a distinction between two important functions of public policy in private international law. The first function is widely recognized and relates to the prevention of application of foreign laws and enforcement of foreign court judgments whenever their effects are incompatible with the domestic legal system of the forum. This effectively protects sovereign rights of the forum state as it allows to resist against the undesirable effects of foreign law-making and law-enforcement policies. The second function is less obvious, but not less important. As the internal private legal relationships, international private relationships are usually governed by rules of public policy, to which the parties can not derogate by mutual agreement. Thefore, for international private law relations public policy has a different function than previously mentioned: in this case, the public policy acts as a defense against unacceptable effects of the party autonomy. Thus, this second function of public policy consists in the limitation of the party autonomy wich effects would be unacceptable for the local legal system. In the frame of this second function the author will analyse two types of public policy which can limit the party autonomy: « substantial » public policy (which regulates the substance of international legal relationship) and « conflictual » public policy (which regulates the party autonomy to choose the law applicable for the substance of relationship). The author provides an analysis of these functions of the public policy in the field of international contract law because of the important role of the principle of party autonomy for international contract relations.

Keywords: public policy, general theory of private international law, substantial public policy, conflictual public policy

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2748 Brazilian Environmental Public Policies Analysis

Authors: Estela Macedo Alves

Abstract:

This paper is an overview on public policy analysis focused on the study of Brazilian public policy making process. The methodology is based on the review of some theories on the subject, linking them to Brazilian reality. The study presents basic policy analysis concepts, such as policy, polity and politics. It is emphasized John Kingdon's Multiple Stream Model, because of its clarifying aspects concerning public policies formulation process in democratic countries. In this path it was possible to establish interpretations on environmental public policies in Brazil and understand its methods, instead of presenting only a case study. At the end, it is possible to connect theory with Brazilian reality, identifying negative and positive points of its political processes and structure.

Keywords: Brazilian policies, environmental public policy, multiple stream model, public policy analysis

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2747 An Exposition of Principles of Islamic Fiscal Policy

Authors: Muhammad A. Ishaq, S. U. R. Aliyu

Abstract:

This paper on an exposition of Islamic fiscal policy attempts to discuss the basic principles of Islamic fiscal policy in an Islamic economy. The paper presents a number of definitions of the subject matter, its nature and its tools of application. Government spending, taxation and public borrowings were identified as the tools of the policy. The paper identifies zakat both as a veritable source of revenue and a major instrument of economic stabilization. Furthermore, the paper presents an algebraic 2-sector and 3-sector models from the basic Keynesian model. The paper posits that in view of uniqueness of its instruments, absence of interest rate in the economy and the policy’s derive towards socioeconomic justice and redistribution, Islamic fiscal policy is capable of stabilizing Islamic economy and ushering it into the path of long term economic growth and prosperity.

Keywords: automatic built-in-stabilizers, government spending, Islamic fiscal policy, taxation, zakat

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2746 Nigerian Foreign Policy: A Dancing Tune of the Western Powers

Authors: Nura Suleiman

Abstract:

The foreign policy of any country or nation is intended to promote and protect the country’s national interest. To achieve this interest, a country has to be guided by certain principles and influence of domestic and international conditions. The history of Nigerian foreign policy is directed to defend its sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity, to promote and sustain the economic well-being of Nigerians, and promotion of Africa and world peace with justice. With the change of time and leadership, coupled with corruption, despite all the foreign policy determinants endowed with Nigeria as a country, sacrificed its foreign interest for the benefit of the western powers, by this it lost the opportunity to formulate policies according to its own need and desires.

Keywords: foreign policy, Nigeria, Western power

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2745 Revisiting the Fiscal Theory of Sovereign Risk from the DSGE View

Authors: Eiji Okano, Kazuyuki Inagaki

Abstract:

We revisit Uribe's `Fiscal Theory of Sovereign Risk' advocating that there is a trade-off between stabilizing inflation and suppressing default. We develop a class of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model with nominal rigidities and compare two de facto inflation stabilization policies, optimal monetary policy and optimal monetary and fiscal policy with the minimizing interest rate spread policy which completely suppress the default. Under the optimal monetary and fiscal policy, not only the nominal interest rate but also the tax rate work to minimize welfare costs through stabilizing inflation. Under the optimal monetary both inflation and output gap are completely stabilized although those are fluctuating under the optimal monetary policy. In addition, volatility in the default rate under the optimal monetary policy is considerably lower than one under the optimal monetary policy. Thus, there is not the SI-SD trade-off. In addition, while the minimizing interest rate spread policy makes inflation rate severely volatile, the optimal monetary and fiscal policy stabilize both the inflation and the default. A trade-off between stabilizing inflation and suppressing default is not so severe what pointed out by Uribe.

Keywords: sovereign risk, optimal monetary policy, fiscal theory of the price level, DSGE

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2744 Rigorous Literature Review: Open Science Policy

Authors: E. T. Svahn

Abstract:

This article documents how open science policy is perceived in the scientific literature globally throughout the history. It also presents what policy needs are persistent to enable safe and effective dissemination of scientific knowledge. This information may be of interest to open science and science policy makers globally, especially in the view of recent adoption of supranational open science policies such as Plan S. Evaluation of open science policy landscape is in pressing need of assessment regarding its impact on the research community and society at wide as no previous literature review has been conducted on the topic. This study is a rigorous literature review based on constructivist grounded theory method on the full body of scientific open science policy publications. Selection of these articles has been conducted in 2019 and 2020 in major global knowledge databases. Through the analysis of these articles, two key themes emerged that are seen to shape the relationship between science and society. 1st is that of the policy enabling open science in a safe and effective way, and 2nd is that of the outcome of the science policy may have on the research community and the wider society. These findings accentuate that open science policies can have a major impact on not only research process and availability of knowledge but also on society itself. As an outcome of this study, a theoretical framework is constructed, and the need for further study on open science policy itself on a higher level becomes apparent.

Keywords: constructivist grounded theory, open science policy, rigorous literature review, science policy

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2743 The Challenges of Decentralised Education Policy for Teachers in Indonesian Contexts

Authors: Ahmad Ardillah Rahman

Abstract:

The decentralisation policy in education has been a trend in some countries in the last two decades. In Indonesia, the implementation of the policy has been introduced since 2003 with the occurrence of School-Based Management policy. The reform has affected the way principals and teachers should involve in school practices in which more autonomies and flexibilities are given to teachers in conducting their teaching practices. Almost 13 years since the policy was firstly introduced, the government and teachers in Indonesia still face some obstacles in maximising the potential benefits of the implementation of the decentralised education system. This study, thus, critically analyses the challenges of decentralised education policy for teachers in Indonesian education context. The purposes of this study are threefold. Firstly, it will explore the history of policy transformation from a centralised to a decentralised education policy. Secondly, it points out the advantages of the decentralised policy implementation. The last, it provides a comprehensive description of challenges faced by Indonesian teachers with the new roles in designing and implementing a curriculum. By using data from existing surveys and research, this study concludes that to successfully implement the transformation in the educational reform of Indonesia, continual and gradual teachers’ training, professional career pathway, and local monitoring for teachers should be developed and strengthened.

Keywords: curriculum design, decentralisation, school-based management, teachers’ autonomy

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2742 Actually Existing Policy Mobilities in Czechia: Comparing Creative and Smart Cities

Authors: Ondrej Slach, Jan Machacek, Jan Zenka, Lucie Hyllova, Petr Rumpel

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to identify and asses different trajectories of two fashionable urban policies –creative and smart cities– in specific post-socialistic context. Drawing on the case of Czechia, we employ the concept of policy mobility research. More specifically, we employ a discourse analysis in order to identify the so-called 'infrastructure' of both policies (such as principal actors, journals, conferences, events), with the special focus on 'agents of transfer' in a multiscale perspective. The preliminary results indicate faster and more aggressive spatial penetration of smart cities policy compared to creative cities policy in Czechia. Further, it seems that existed translation and implementation of smart cities policy into the national and urban context resulted in deliberated fragmented policy of smart cities in Czechia (pure technocratic view), which might be a threat for the future development of social sustainability, especially in cities that are facing increasing social polarisation. Last but not least, due to the fast spatial penetration of the concept and policies of smart cities, it seems that creative cities policy has almost been crowded out of the Czech urban agenda.

Keywords: policy mobility, smart cities, creative cities, Czechia

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2741 Impacts of E-Learning on Educational Policy: Policy of Sensitization and Training in E-Learning in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Layla Albdr

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia instituted the policy of Sensitizing and Training Stakeholders for E-learning and witnessed wide adoption in many institutions. However, it is at the infancy stage and needs time to develop to mirror the US and UK. The majority of the higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia have adopted E-learning as an alternative to traditional methods to advance education. Conversely, effective implementation of the policy of sensitization and training of stakeholders for E-learning implementation has not been attained because of various challenges. The objectives included determining the challenges and opportunities of the E-learning policy of sensitization and training of stakeholders in Saudi Arabia's higher education and examining if sensitization and training of stakeholder's policy will help promote the implementation of E-learning in institutions. The study employed a descriptive research design based on qualitative analysis. The researcher recruited 295 students and 60 academic staff from four Saudi Arabian universities to participate in the study. An online questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was then analyzed and reported both quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis provided an in-depth understanding of the opportunities and challenges of E-learning policy in Saudi Arabian universities. The main challenges identified as internal challenges were the lack of educators’ interest in adopting the policy, and external challenges entailed lack of ICT infrastructure and Internet connectivity. The study recommends encouraging, sensitizing, and training all stakeholders to address these challenges and adopt the policy.

Keywords: e-learning, educational policy, Saudi Arabia, policy of sensitization and training

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2740 An Abductive Approach to Policy Analysis: Policy Analysis as Informed Guessing

Authors: Adrian W. Chew

Abstract:

This paper argues that education policy analysis tends to be steered towards empiricist oriented approaches, which place emphasis on objective and measurable data. However, this paper argues that empiricist oriented approaches are generally based on inductive and/or deductive reasoning, which are unable to generate new ideas/knowledge. This paper will outline the logical structure of induction, deduction, and abduction, and argues that only abduction provides possibilities for the creation of new ideas/knowledge. This paper proposes the neologism of ‘informed guessing’ as a reformulation of abduction, and also as an approach to education policy analysis. On one side, the signifier ‘informed’ encapsulates the idea that abductive policy analysis needs to be informed by descriptive conceptualization theory to be able to make relations and connections between, and within, observed phenomenon and unobservable general structures. On the other side, the signifier ‘guessing’ captures the cyclical and unsystematic process of abduction. This paper will end with a brief example of utilising ‘informed guessing’ for a policy analysis of school choice lotteries in the United States.

Keywords: abductive reasoning, empiricism, informed guessing, policy analysis

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