Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1400

Search results for: electrochemical modification

1400 Electrochemical Modification of Boron Doped Carbon Nanowall Electrodes for Biosensing Purposes

Authors: M. Kowalski, M. Brodowski, K. Dziabowska, E. Czaczyk, W. Bialobrzeska, N. Malinowska, S. Zoledowska, R. Bogdanowicz, D. Nidzworski

Abstract:

Boron-doped-carbon nanowall (BCNW) electrodes are recently in much interest among scientists. BCNWs are good candidates for biosensor purposes as they possess interesting electrochemical characteristics like a wide potential range and the low difference between redox peaks. Moreover, from technical parameters, they are mechanically resistant and very tough. The production process of the microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) allows boron to build into the structure of the diamond being formed. The effect is the formation of flat, long structures with sharp ends. The potential of these electrodes was checked in the biosensing field. The procedure of simple carbon electrodes modification by antibodies was adopted to BCNW for specific antigen recognition. Surface protein D deriving from H. influenzae pathogenic bacteria was chosen as a target analyte. The electrode was first modified with the aminobenzoic acid diazonium salt by electrografting (electrochemical reduction), next anti-protein D antibodies were linked via 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) chemistry, and free sites were blocked by BSA. Cyclic voltammetry measurements confirmed the proper electrode modification. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy records indicated protein detection. The sensor was proven to detect protein D in femtograms. This work was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR) TECHMATSTRATEG 1/347324/12/NCBR/ 2017.

Keywords: anti-protein D antibodies, boron-doped carbon nanowall, impedance spectroscopy, Haemophilus influenzae.

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1399 An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on Oracet Blue as a Label for Detection of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Saeedeh Hajihosseini, Zahra Aghili, Navid Nasirizadeh

Abstract:

An innovative method of a DNA electrochemical biosensor based on Oracet Blue (OB) as an electroactive label and gold electrode (AuE) for detection of Helicobacter pylori, was offered. A single–stranded DNA probe with a thiol modification was covalently immobilized on the surface of the AuE by forming an Au–S bond. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor DNA hybridization by measuring the electrochemical signals of reduction of the OB binding to double– stranded DNA (ds–DNA). Our results showed that OB–based DNA biosensor has a decent potential for detection of single–base mismatch in target DNA. Selectivity of the proposed DNA biosensor was further confirmed in the presence of non–complementary and complementary DNA strands. Under optimum conditions, the electrochemical signal had a linear relationship with the concentration of the target DNA ranging from 0.3 nmol L-1 to 240.0 nmol L-1, and the detection limit was 0.17 nmol L-1, whit a promising reproducibility and repeatability.

Keywords: DNA biosensor, oracet blue, Helicobacter pylori, electrode (AuE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1398 Electrochemical Regeneration of GIC Adsorbent in a Continuous Electrochemical Reactor

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, H. Sattar, E. P. L. Roberts

Abstract:

Arvia™ introduced a novel technology consisting of adsorption followed by electrochemical regeneration with a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent that takes place in a single unit. The adsorbed species may lead to the formation of intermediate by-products products due to incomplete mineralization during electrochemical regeneration. Therefore, the investigation of breakdown products due to incomplete oxidation is of great concern regarding the commercial applications of this process. In the present paper, the formation of the chlorinated breakdown products during continuous process of adsorption and electrochemical regeneration based on a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent has been investigated.

Keywords: GIC, adsorption, electrochemical regeneration, chlorphenols

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1397 Electrochemical Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Air by Exfoliated Graphite Based Electrode

Authors: A. Sacko, H. Nyoni, T. A. M. Msagati, B. Ntsendwana

Abstract:

Carbon based materials to target environmental pollutants have become increasingly recognized in science. Electrochemical methods using carbon based materials are notable methods for high sensitive detection of organic pollutants in air. It is therefore in this light that exfoliated graphite electrode was fabricated for electrochemical analysis of PAHs in urban atmospheric air. The electrochemical properties of the graphite electrode were studied using CV and EIS in the presence of acetate buffer supporting electrolyte with 2 Mm ferricyanide as a redox probe. The graphite electrode showed enhanced current response which confirms facile kinetics and enhanced sensitivity. However, the peak to peak (DE) separation increased as a function of scan rate. The EIS showed a high charger transfer resistance. The detection phenanthrene on the exfoliated graphite was studied in the presence of acetate buffer solution at PH 3.5 using DPV. The oxidation peak of phenanthrene was observed at 0.4 V. Under optimized conditions (supporting electrolyte, pH, deposition time, etc.). The detection limit observed was at 5x 10⁻⁸ M. Thus the results demonstrate with further optimization and modification lower concentration detection can be achieved.

Keywords: electrochemical detection, exfoliated graphite, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), urban air

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1396 Hybrid Graphene Based Nanomaterial as Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Electrochemical Determination of Ciprofloxacin

Authors: Tien S. H. Pham, Peter J. Mahon, Aimin Yu

Abstract:

The detection of drug molecules by voltammetry has attracted great interest over the past years. However, many drug molecules exhibit poor electrochemical signals at common electrodes which result in low sensitivity in detection. An efficient way to overcome this problem is to modify electrodes with functional materials. Since discovered in 2004, graphene (or reduced graphene oxide) has emerged as one of the most studied two-dimensional carbon materials in condensed matter physics, electrochemistry, and so on due to its exceptional physicochemical properties. Additionally, the continuous development of technology has opened the new window for the successful fabrications of many novel graphene-based nanomaterials to serve in electrochemical analysis. This research aims to synthesize and characterize gold nanoparticle coated beta-cyclodextrin functionalized reduced graphene oxide (Au NP–β-CD–RGO) nanocomposites with highly conductive and strongly electro-catalytic properties as well as excellent supramolecular recognition abilities for the modification of electrodes. The electrochemical responses of ciprofloxacin at the as-prepared nanocomposite modified electrode was effectively amplified was much higher in comparison with that at the bare electrode. The linear concentration range was from 0.01 to 120 µM, with a detection limit of 2.7 nM using differential pulse voltammetry. Thus, Au NP–β-CD–RGO nanocomposite has great potential as an ideal material to construct sensitive sensors for the electrochemical determination of ciprofloxacin or similar antibacterial drugs in the future based on its excellent stability, selectivity, and reproducibility.

Keywords: Au nanoparticles, β-CD, ciprofloxacin, electrochemical determination, graphene based nanomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
1395 Carbon-Nanodots Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for the Electroanalysis of Selenium in Water

Authors: Azeez O. Idris, Benjamin O. Orimolade, Potlako J. Mafa, Alex T. Kuvarega, Usisipho Feleni, Bhekie B. Mamba

Abstract:

We report a simple and cheaper method for the electrochemical detection of Se(IV) using carbon nanodots (CNDTs) prepared from oat. The carbon nanodots were synthesised by green and facile approach and characterised using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The CNDT was used to fabricate an electrochemical sensor for the quantification of Se(IV) in water. The modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanodots led to an increase in the electroactive surface area of the electrode, which enhances the redox current peak of [Fe(CN)₆]₃₋/₄‒ in comparison to the bare GCE. Using the square wave voltammetry, the detection limit and quantification limit of 0.05 and 0.167 ppb were obtained under the optimised parameters using deposition potential of -200 mV, 0.1 M HNO₃ electrolyte, electrodeposition time of 60 s, and pH 1. The results further revealed that the GCE-CNDT was not susceptible to many interfering cations except Cu(II) and Pb(II), and Fe(II). The sensor fabrication involves a one-step electrode modification and was used to detect Se(IV) in a real water sample, and the result obtained is in agreement with the inductively coupled plasma technique. Overall, the electrode offers a cheap, fast, and sensitive way of detecting selenium in environmental matrices.

Keywords: carbon nanodots, square wave voltammetry, nanomaterials, selenium, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
1394 Characterization of Edible Film from Uwi Starch (Dioscorea alata L.)

Authors: Miksusanti, Herlina, Wiwin

Abstract:

The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L) by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w), 8%(v/w), and 10%(v/w). The amilograf parameters after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch have edible properties according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w). The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w). The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.

Keywords: uwi starch, edible film, propylen oxide, modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1393 Modification and Surface Characterization of the Co20Cr15W10Ni Alloy for Application as Biomaterial

Authors: Fernanda A. Vechietti, Natália O. B. Muniz, Laura C. Treccani, Kurosch. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos

Abstract:

CoCr alloys are widely used in prosthetic implants due to their excellent mechanical properties, such as good tensile strength, elastic modulus and wear resistance. Their biocompatibility and lack of corrosion are also prominent features of this alloy. One of the most effective and simple ways to protect metal’s surfaces are treatments, such as electrochemical oxidation by passivation, which is used as a protect release of metallic ions. Another useful treatment is the electropolishing, which is used to reduce the carbide concentration and protrusion at the implanted surface. Electropolishing is a cheap and effective method for treatment of implants, which generally has complex geometries. The purpose of this study is surface modification of the alloy CoCr(ASTM F90-09) by different methods: polishing, electro polishing, passivation and heat treatment for application as biomaterials. The modification of the surface was studied and characterized by SEM, profilometry, wettability and compared to the surface of the samples untreated. The heat treatment and of passivation increased roughness (0.477 µm and 0.825 µm) the samples in relation the sample electropolished and polished(0.131 µm and 0.274 µm) and were observed the improve wettability’s with the increase the roughness.

Keywords: biomaterial, CoCr, surface treatment, heat treatment, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
1392 Electrodeposited Silver Nanostructures: A Non-Enzymatic Sensor for Hydrogen Peroxide

Authors: Mandana Amiri, Sima Nouhi, Yashar Azizan-Kalandaragh

Abstract:

Silver nanostructures have been successfully fabricated by using electrodeposition method onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) techniques were employed for characterization of silver nanostructures. The results show nanostructures with different morphology and electrochemical properties can be obtained by various the deposition potentials and times. Electrochemical behavior of the nanostructures has been studied by using cyclic voltammetry. Silver nanostructures exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. The presented electrode can be employed as sensing element for hydrogen peroxide.

Keywords: electrochemical sensor, electrodeposition, hydrogen peroxide, silver nanostructures

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
1391 The Viscosity of Xanthan Gum Grout with Different pH and Ionic Strength

Authors: H. Ahmad Raji, R. Ziaie Moayed, M. A. Nozari

Abstract:

Xanthan gum (XG) an eco-friendly biopolymer has been recently explicitly investigated for ground improvement approaches. Rheological behavior of this additive strongly depends on electrochemical condition such as pH, ionic strength and also its content in aqueous solution. So, the effects of these factors have been studied in this paper considering various XG contents as 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% of water. Moreover, adjusting pH values such as 3, 5, 7 and 9 in addition to increasing ionic strength to 0.1 and 0.2 in the molar scale has covered a practical range of electrochemical condition. The viscosity of grouts shows an apparent upward trend with an increase in ionic strength and XG content. Also, pH affects the polymerization as much as other parameters. As a result, XG behavior is severely influenced by electrochemical settings

Keywords: electrochemical condition, ionic strength, viscosity, xhanthan gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
1390 Influence of Surface Preparation Effects on the Electrochemical Behavior of 2098-T351 Al–Cu–Li Alloy

Authors: Rejane Maria P. da Silva, Mariana X. Milagre, João Victor de S. Araujo, Leandro A. de Oliveira, Renato A. Antunes, Isolda Costa

Abstract:

The Al-Cu-Li alloys are advanced materials for aerospace application because of their interesting mechanical properties and low density when compared with conventional Al-alloys. However, Al-Cu-Li alloys are susceptible to localized corrosion. The near-surface deformed layer (NSDL) induced by the rolling process during the production of the alloy and its removal by polishing can influence on the corrosion susceptibility of these alloys. In this work, the influence of surface preparation effects on the electrochemical activity of AA2098-T351 (Al–Cu–Li alloy) was investigated using a correlation between surface chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical activity. Two conditions were investigated, polished and as-received surfaces of the alloy. The morphology of the two types of surfaces was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and optical microscopy. The surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Global electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization and EIS technique) and a local electrochemical technique (Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy-LEIS) were used to examine the electrochemical activity of the surfaces. The results obtained in this study showed that in the as-received surface, the near-surface deformed layer (NSDL), which is composed of Mg-rich bands, influenced the electrochemical behavior of the alloy. The results showed higher electrochemical activity to the polished surface condition compared to the as-received one.

Keywords: Al-Cu-Li alloys, surface preparation effects, electrochemical techniques, localized corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
1389 Analysis of Some Produced Inhibitors for Corrosion of J55 Steel in NaCl Solution Saturated with CO₂

Authors: Ambrish Singh

Abstract:

The corrosion inhibition performance of pyran (AP) and benzimidazole (BI) derivatives on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ was investigated by electrochemical, weight loss, surface characterization, and theoretical studies. The electrochemical studies included electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), and electrochemical frequency modulation trend (EFMT). Surface characterization was done using contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) studies were done using Gaussian and Materials Studio softwares. All the studies suggested the good inhibition by the synthesized inhibitors on J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO₂ due to the formation of a protective film on the surface. Molecular dynamic simulation was applied to search for the most stable configuration and adsorption energies for the interaction of the inhibitors with Fe (110) surface.

Keywords: corrosion, inhibitor, EFM, AFM, DFT, MD

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
1388 Bio-Electrochemical Process Coupled with MnO2 Nanowires for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: A. Giwa, S. M. Jung, W. Fang, J. Kong, S. W. Hasan

Abstract:

MnO2 nanowires were developed as filtration media for wastewater treatment that uniquely combines several advantages. The resulting material demonstrated strong capability to remove the pollution of heavy metal ions and organic contents in water. In addition, the manufacture process of such material is practical and economical. In this work, MnO2 nanowires were integrated with the state-of-art bio-electrochemical system for wastewater treatment, to overcome problems currently encountered with organic, inorganic, heavy metal, and microbe removal, and to minimize the unit footprint (land/space occupation) at low cost. Results showed that coupling the bio-electrochemical with MnO2 resulted in very encouraging results with higher removal efficiencies of such pollutants.

Keywords: bio-electrochemical, nanowires, novel, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
1387 1-Butyl-2,3-Dimethylimidazolium Bis (Trifluoromethanesulfonyl) Imide and Titanium Oxide Based Voltammetric Sensor for the Quantification of Flunarizine Dihydrochloride in Solubilized Media

Authors: Rajeev Jain, Nimisha Jadon, Kshiti Singh

Abstract:

Titanium oxide nanoparticles and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethane- sulfonyl) imide modified glassy carbon electrode (TiO2/IL/GCE) has been fabricated for electrochemical sensing of flunarizine dihydrochloride (FRH). The electrochemical properties and morphology of the prepared nanocomposite were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The response of the electrochemical sensor was found to be proportional to the concentrations of FRH in the range from 0.5 µg mL-1 to 16 µg mL-1. The detection limit obtained was 0.03 µg mL-1. The proposed method was also applied to the determination of FRH in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum with good recoveries.

Keywords: flunarizine dihydrochloride, ionic liquid, nanoparticles, voltammetry, human serum

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1386 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Studies of Magnesium-Iron Galvanic Couple

Authors: Akram Alfantazi, Tirdad Nickchi

Abstract:

Magnesium galvanic corrosion plays an important role in the commercialization of Mg alloys in the automobile industry. This study aims at visualizing the electrochemical activity of the magnesium surface being coupled with pure iron in sulfate-chloride solutions. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to monitor the chemical activity of the surface and the data was compared with the conventional corrosion results such as potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and immersion tests. The SECM results showed that the chemical reactivity of Mg is higher than phosphate-permanganate-coated Mg. Regions in the vicinity of the galvanic couple boundary are very active in the magnesium phase and fully protected in the iron phase. Scanning electrochemical microscopy results showed that the conversion coating provided good corrosion resistance for magnesium in the short-term but fails at long-term testing.

Keywords: corrosion, galvanic corrosion, magnesium, scanning electrochemical microscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1385 Study of Intergranular Corrosion in Austenitic Stainless Steels Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Satish Kolli, Adriana Ferancova, David Porter, Jukka Kömi

Abstract:

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to detect sensitization in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated in the temperature regime 600-820 °C to produce different degrees of sensitization in the material. The tests were conducted at five different DC potentials in the transpassive region. The quantitative determination of degree of sensitization has been done using double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests (DL-EPR). The correlation between EIS Nyquist diagrams and DL-EPR degree of sensitization values has been studied. The EIS technique can be used as a qualitative tool in determining the intergranular corrosion in austenitic stainless steels that are heat treated at a given temperature.

Keywords: electrochemical technique, intergranular corrosion, sensitization, stainless steels

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
1384 Downhole Corrosion Inhibition Treatment for Water Supply Wells

Authors: Nayif Alrasheedi, Sultan Almutairi

Abstract:

Field-wide, a water supply wells’ downhole corrosion inhibition program is being applied to maintain downhole component integrity and keep the fluid corrosivity below 5 MPY. Batch treatment is currently used to inject the oil field chemical. This work is a case study consisting of analytical procedures used to optimize the frequency of the good corrosion inhibition treatments. During the study, a corrosion cell was fitted with a special three-electrode configuration for electrochemical measurements, electrochemical linear polarization, corrosion monitoring, and microbial analysis. This study revealed that the current practice is not able to mitigate material corrosion in the downhole system for more than three months.

Keywords: downhole corrosion inhibition, electrochemical measurements, electrochemical linear polarization, corrosion monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1383 Enhanced of Corrosion Resistance of Carbon Steel C1018 with Nano-Tio2 Films Using Dip-Coating Method

Authors: Mai M. Khalaf, Hany M. Abd El-Lateef

Abstract:

A new good application for the sol gel method is to improve the corrosion inhibition properties of carbon steel by the dip coating method of Nano TiO2 films and its modification with Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). The prepared coating samples were investigated by different techniques, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX). The corrosion inhibition performance of the blank carbon steel and prepared coatings samples were evaluated in 0.5 M H2SO4 by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that corrosion resistance of carbon steel increases with increasing the number of coated layers of both nano–TiO2 films and its modification of PEG. SEM-EDAX analyses confirmed that the percentage atomic content of iron for the carbon steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 is 83% and after the deposition of the steel in nano TiO2 sol and that with PEG are 94.3% and 93.7% respectively.

Keywords: dip-coatings, corrosion protection, sol gel, TiO2 films, PEG

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
1382 Pollutants Removal from Synthetic Wastewater by the Combined Electrochemical Sequencing Batch Reactor

Authors: Amin Mojiri, Akiyoshi Ohashi, Tomonori Kindaichi

Abstract:

Synthetic domestic wastewater was treated via combining treatment methods, including electrochemical oxidation, adsorption, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR). In the upper part of the reactor, an anode and a cathode (Ti/RuO2-IrO2) were organized in parallel for the electrochemical oxidation procedure. Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) with a concentration of 2.5 g/L was applied as the electrolyte. The voltage and current were fixed on 7.50 V and 0.40 A, respectively. Then, 15% working value of the reactor was filled by activated sludge, and 85% working value of the reactor was added with synthetic wastewater. Powdered cockleshell, 1.5 g/L, was added in the reactor to do ion-exchange. Response surface methodology was employed for statistical analysis. Reaction time (h) and pH were considered as independent factors. A total of 97.0% biochemical oxygen demand, 99.9% phosphorous and 88.6% cadmium were eliminated at the optimum reaction time (80.0 min) and pH (6.4).

Keywords: adsorption, electrochemical oxidation, metals, SBR

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
1381 Fabrication and Characteristics of Ni Doped Titania Nanotubes by Electrochemical Anodization

Authors: J. Tirano, H. Zea, C. Luhrs

Abstract:

It is well known that titanium dioxide is a semiconductor with several applications in photocatalytic process. Its band gap makes it very interesting in the photoelectrodes manufacturing used in photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen production, a clean and environmentally friendly fuel. The synthesis of 1D titanium dioxide nanostructures, such as nanotubes, makes possible to produce more efficient photoelectrodes for solar energy to hydrogen conversion. In essence, this is because it increases the charge transport rate, decreasing recombination options. However, its principal constraint is to be mainly sensitive to UV range, which represents a very low percentage of solar radiation that reaches earth's surface. One of the alternatives to modifying the TiO2’s band gap and improving its photoactivity under visible light irradiation is to dope the nanotubes with transition metals. This option requires fabricating efficient nanostructured photoelectrodes with controlled morphology and specific properties able to offer a suitable surface area for metallic doping. Hence, currently one of the central challenges in photoelectrochemical cells is the construction of nanomaterials with a proper band position for driving the reaction while absorbing energy over the VIS spectrum. This research focuses on the synthesis and characterization of Nidoped TiO2 nanotubes for improving its photocatalytic activity in solar energy conversion applications. Initially, titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) with controlled morphology were synthesized by two-step potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil. The anodization was carried out at room temperature in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water and ethylene glycol. Consequent thermal annealing of as-prepared TNTs was conducted in the air between 450 °C - 550 °C. Afterwards, the nanotubes were superficially modified by nickel deposition. Morphology and crystalline phase of the samples were carried out by SEM, EDS and XRD analysis before and after nickel deposition. Determining the photoelectrochemical performance of photoelectrodes is based on typical electrochemical characterization techniques. Also, the morphological characterization associated electrochemical behavior analysis were discussed to establish the effect of nickel nanoparticles modification on the TiO2 nanotubes. The methodology proposed in this research allows using other transition metal for nanotube surface modification.

Keywords: dimensionally stable electrode, nickel nanoparticles, photo-electrode, TiO₂ nanotubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
1380 Synthesis and Characterization of Polypyrrole-Coated Non-Conducting Cellulosic Substrate and Modified by Copper Oxide

Authors: A. Hamam, D. Oukil, A. Dib, L. Makhloufi

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to synthesize modified Polypyrrole films (PPy) containing nanoparticles of copper oxides onto a non conducting cellulosic substrate. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is carried out using FeCl3 as an oxidant and Pyrrole as monomer. Different parameters were optimized (monomer concentration, duration of the experiment, nature of supporting electrolyte, temperature, etc.) in order to obtain films with different thickness and different morphologies. Thickness and topography of different PPy deposits were estimated by a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electrodes were tested by cyclic voltammetry technique (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Secondly, the modification of the PPy film surface by incorporation of copper oxide nanonoparticles is conducted by applying a galvanostatic procedure from CuCl2 solution. Surface characterization has been carried out using scanning microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis showed the presence of the copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO) in the polymer films with dimensions less than 50 nm.

Keywords: polypyrrole, modified electrode, cellulosic substrate, copper oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1379 Study of the Adsorption of Metal Ions Ag+ Mg2+, Ni2+ by the Chemical and Electrochemical Polydibenzoether Crown

Authors: Dalila Chouder, Djaafer Benachour

Abstract:

This work concerns the study of the adsorption of metal ions Ag +, Mg +, and Ni2+ in aqueous medium by polydibenzoether-ROWN based on three factors: Temperature, time and concentration. The polydibenzoether crown was synthesized by two means: Chemical and electrochemical. The behavior of the two polymers has been different, and turns out very interesting for chemical polydibenzoether crown has identified conditions. Chemical and électronique polydibenzoether crown have different extraction screw vi property of adsoption of ions fifférents, this study also shows that plyméres doped may have an advantageous electrical conductivity.

Keywords: polymerization, electrochemical, conductivity, complexing metal ions

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1378 Useful Effects of Silica Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Energy Storage

Authors: Dong Won Kim, Hye Ji Kim, Hyun Young Jung

Abstract:

Improved energy storage is inevitably needed to improve energy efficiency and to be environmentally friendly to chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) can play a crucial role in addressing these needs due to inherent adjustable properties including low volatility, low flammability, inherent conductivity, wide liquid range, broad electrochemical window, high thermal stability, and recyclability. Here, binary mixtures of ILs were prepared with fumed silica nanoparticles and characterized to obtain ILs with conductivity and electrochemical properties optimized for use in energy storage devices. The solutes were prepared by varying the size and the weight percent concentration of the nanoparticles and made up 10 % of the binary mixture by weight. We report on the physical and electrochemical properties of the individual ILs and their binary mixtures.

Keywords: ionic liquid, silica nanoparticle, energy storage, electrochemical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1377 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification, tafel polarisation, corrosion resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
1376 Simple Rheological Method to Estimate the Branch Structures of Polyethylene under Reactive Modification

Authors: Mahdi Golriz

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to estimate the change in molecular structure of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) during peroxide modification can be detected by a simple rheological method. For this purpose a commercial grade LLDPE (Exxon MobileTM LL4004EL) was reacted with different doses of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The samples were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with a light scattering detector. The dynamic shear oscillatory measurements showed a deviation of the δ-׀G ׀٭curve from that of the linear LLDPE, which can be attributed to the presence of long-chain branching (LCB). By the use of a simple rheological method that utilizes melt rheology, transformations in molecular architecture induced on an originally linear low density polyethylene during the early stages of reactive modification were indicated. Reasonable and consistent estimates are obtained, concerning the degree of LCB, the volume fraction of the various molecular species produced in peroxide modification of LLDPE.

Keywords: linear low-density polyethylene, peroxide modification, long-chain branching, rheological method

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1375 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres and Their Electrochemical Properties for Glucose Detection

Authors: Ali Akbar Kazemi Asl, Mansour Rahsepar

Abstract:

Mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs) with uniform particle size distribution having an average of 290 nm and large specific surface area (274.4 m²/g) were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method followed by the calcination process and then utilized as an enzyme-free glucose biosensor. Morphology, crystal structure, and porous nature of the synthesized nanospheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, respectively. Also, the electrochemical performance of the [email protected] electrode for the measurement of glucose concentration in alkaline media was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and chronoamperometry (CA). [email protected] electrode shows good sensing performance, including a rapid glucose oxidation response within 3.1 s, a wide linear range of 0.026-12 mM, a sensitivity of 212.34 μA.mM⁻¹.cm⁻², and a detection limit of 25.7 μM with excellent selectivity.

Keywords: biosensor, electrochemical, glucose, mesoporous carbon, non-enzymatic

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1374 Evaluation of the Inhibitive Effect of Novel Quinoline Schiff Base on Corrosion of Mild Steel in HCl Solution

Authors: Smita Jauhari, Bhupendra Mistry

Abstract:

Schiff base (E)-2-methyl-N-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-ylmethylene)aniline (QMA) was synthesized, and its inhibitive effect for mild steel in 1M HCl solution was investigated by weight loss measurement and electrochemical tests.From the weight loss measurements and electrochemical tests, it was observed that the inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in the Schiff base concentration and reaches a maximum at the optimum concentration. This is further confirmed by the decrease in corrosion rate. It is found that the system follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: Schiff base, acid corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1373 Electrochemical Performance of Al-Mn2O3 Based Electrode Materials

Authors: Noor Ul Ain Bhatti, M. Junaid Khan, Javed Ahmad, Murtaza Saleem, Shahid M. Ramay, Saadat A. Siddiqi

Abstract:

Manganese oxide is being recently used as electrode material for rechargeable batteries. In this study, Al incorporated Mn2O3 compositions were synthesized to study the effect of Al doping on electrochemical performance of host material. Structural studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the phase stability and explore the lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density and cell volume. Morphology and composition were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to observe the average particle size of the compositions. FTIR measurements exhibit the O-Al-O and O-Mn-O and Al-O bonding and with increasing the concentration of Al, the vibrational peaks of Mn-O become sharper. An enhanced electrochemical performance was observed in compositions with higher Al content.

Keywords: Mn2O3, electrode materials, energy storage and conversion, electrochemical performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1372 Evaluation of Response Modification Factor and Behavior of Seismic Base-Isolated RC Structures

Authors: Mohammad Parsaeimaram, Fang Congqi

Abstract:

In this paper, one of the significant seismic design parameter as response modification factor in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with base isolation system was evaluated. The seismic isolation system is a capable approach to absorbing seismic energy at the base and transfer to the substructure with lower response modification factor as compared to non-isolated structures. A response spectrum method and static nonlinear pushover analysis in according to Uniform Building Code (UBC-97), have been performed on building models involve 5, 8, 12 and 15 stories building with fixed and isolated bases consist of identical moment resisting configurations. The isolation system is composed of lead rubber bearing (LRB) was designed with help UBC-97 parameters. The force-deformation behavior of isolators was modeled as bi-linear hysteretic behavior which can be effectively used to create the isolation systems. The obtained analytical results highlight the response modification factor of considered base isolation system with higher values than recommended in the codes. The response modification factor is used in modern seismic codes to scale down the elastic response of structures.

Keywords: response modification factor, base isolation system, pushover analysis, lead rubber bearing, bi-linear hysteretic

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1371 Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water Using Modified Natural Nanozeolite

Authors: T. Meftah, M. M. Zerafat, S. Sabbaghi

Abstract:

Nitrate compounds are considered as groundwater contaminants, the concentration of which has been growing in these resources during recent years. As a result, it seems necessary to use effective methods to remove nitrate from water and wastewater. Adsorption process is generally considered more economical in water treatment. Natural clinoptilolite zeolite is one of the best absorbents because of its high capacity and low cost.In this research, we are going to modify zeolite nanoparticles as a chemical modification. Zeolite nanoparticles have been modified with a kind of organosilane, like 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The advantage of this modification method, in comparison with physical modification, is the good stability in various environmental conditions. In this research, absorbent properties have been analyzed by PSA, FTIR and CHN elemental analysis. Also, nitrate adsorption by modified nanoparticles was examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. There would be 〖NH〗_2 groups on the zeolite surface as a result of organosilane modification. In order to adsorption of nitrate, we need to convert 〖NH〗_2 groups to〖NH〗_4^+, that it is possible in acidic condition. As a result, the best nitrate removal is possible in the lowest concentration and pH. We obtained 80.12% nitrate removal in pH=3 and 50 mg⁄l nitrate concentration and 4 g⁄l absorbent optimum concentration.

Keywords: nitrate removal, zeolite, surface modification, organosilane

Procedia PDF Downloads 358