Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 144

Search results for: ceramics

144 Dielectric Properties of La2MoO6 Ceramics at Microwave Frequency

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Yu-Cheng You

Abstract:

The microwave dielectric properties of La2MoO6 ceramics were investigated with a view to their application in mobile communication. La2MoO6 ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state method with various sintering conditions. The X-ray diffraction peaks of La2MoO6 ceramic did not vary significantly with sintering conditions. The average grain size of La2MoO6 ceramics increased as the temperature and time of sintering increased. A maximum density of 5.67 g/cm3, a dielectric constants (εr) of 14.1, a quality factor (Q×f) of 68,000 GHz, and a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) of -56 ppm/℃ were obtained when La2MoO6 ceramics that were sintered at 1300 ℃ for 4h.

Keywords: ceramics, sintering, microwave dielectric properties, La2MoO6

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
143 Vietnamese Trade Ceramics from the 14th Century to the 17th Century through Materials

Authors: Ngo the Bach

Abstract:

Vietnam is one of not many Asian countries that have a long-standing and famous tradition of pottery production. Vietnam is also one of three countries including China, Vietnam, and Japan developed strongly the export of ceramics to other countries. In recent decades, the studies of Vietnamese and foreign scholars on Vietnamese trade ceramics as well as Vietnamese foreign trade was initially recorded. The aim of this article is to introduce an overview of the findings situation and research results; the development of Vietnam ceramics and the Vietnamese history of maritime trade with Asian ceramics from the 14th century to the 17th century. Given that, the author systematized materials; carried out the synthetic and analysis for research results of Vietnamese and foreign researchers until now on Vietnamese export ceramics on the basis of the historical sources, archaeological findings discovered from relics in the tombs, relics of residence, relics of trading port inland, and the ancient shipwreck sank in the Asian countries.

Keywords: Vietnamese ceramics, trading, maritime, international

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
142 Factors Affecting Green Supply Chain Management of Lampang Ceramics Industry

Authors: Nattida Wannaruk, Wasawat Nakkiew

Abstract:

This research aims to study the factors that affect the performance of green supply chain management in the Lampang ceramics industry. The data investigation of this research was questionnaires which were gathered from 20 factories in the Lampang ceramics industry. The research factors are divided into five major groups which are green design, green purchasing, green manufacturing, green logistics and reverse logistics. The questionnaire has consisted of four parts that related to factors green supply chain management and general information of the Lampang ceramics industry. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and priority of each factor by using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The understanding of factors affecting the green supply chain management of Lampang ceramics industry was indicated in the summary result along with each factor weight. The result of this research could be contributed to the development of indicators or performance evaluation in the future.

Keywords: Lampang ceramics industry, green supply chain management, analysis hierarchy process (AHP), factors affecting

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
141 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina

Abstract:

A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
140 3D Writing on Photosensitive Glass-Ceramics

Authors: C. Busuioc, S. Jinga, E. Pavel

Abstract:

Optical lithography is a key technique in the development of sub-5 nm patterns for the semiconductor industry. We have already reported that the best results obtained with respect to direct laser writing process on active media, such as glass-ceramics, are achieved only when the energy of the laser radiation is absorbed in discrete quantities. Further, we need to clarify the role of active centers concentration in silver nanocrystals natural generation, as well as in fluorescent rare-earth nanostructures formation. As a consequence, samples with different compositions were prepared. SEM, AFM, TEM and STEM investigations were employed in order to demonstrate that few nm width lines can be written on fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics, these being efficient absorbers. Moreover, we believe that the experimental data will lead to the best choice in terms of active centers amount, laser power and glass-ceramic matrix.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, 3D laser writing, optical disks, data storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
139 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Probe Mixed Valence State in Eu-Doped Nanocrystalline Glass-Ceramics

Authors: Ruchika Bagga, Mauro Falconieri, Venu Gopal Achanta, José M. F. Ferreira, Ashutosh Goel, Gopi Sharma

Abstract:

Mixed valence Eu-doped nanocrystalline NaAlSiO4/NaY9Si6O26 glass-ceramics have been prepared by controlled crystallization of melt quenched bulk glasses. XRD and SEM techniques were employed to characterize the crystallization process of the precursor glass and their resultant glass-ceramics. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the formation of divalent europium (Eu2+) from Eu3+ ions during high temperature synthesis under ambient atmosphere and is explained on the basis of optical basicity model. The observed luminescence properties of Eu: NaY9Si6O26 are compared with that of well explored Eu: β-PbF2 nanocrystals and their marked differences are discussed.

Keywords: rare earth, oxyfluoride glasses, nano-crystalline glass-ceramics, photoluminescence spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
138 Synthesis and Characterization of Zr and V Co-Doped BaTiO₃ Ceramic

Authors: Kanta Maan Sangwan, Neetu Ahlawat, Rajender Singh Kundu

Abstract:

BaZrTiO3 ceramics having high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss are interesting material for being used as commercial capacitor applications. BZT (BaZrTiO3) has attracted attentions for their many applications for the microwave technology as the doping of Zr4+ on Ti4+ has advantage to the stability of the system. In the present work, co-doping of Zr and V with BaTiO3 ceramics was synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction technique and sintered at 1200 K for 6 hours, and their structural and ferroelectric properties were studied. The XRD (x-ray diffraction) pattern of BZT (BaZrTiO3) ceramics shows that the crystalline sample is single phase tetragonal structure with P4mm space group. The result revealed that Zr ion enters the unit cell maintaining the perovskite structure of BZT ceramics and the impedance spectroscopy of the sample performed in selected frequency and temperature range.

Keywords: ferroelectric, impedance spectroscopy, space group, tetragonal

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
137 Dielectric, Energy Storage and Impedance Spectroscopic Studies of Tin Doped Ba₀.₉₈Ca₀.₀₂TiO₃ Lead-Free Ceramics

Authors: Ramovatar, Neeraj Panwar

Abstract:

Lead free Ba₀.₉₈Ca₀.₀₂SnxTi₁₋ₓO₃ (x = 0.01 and 0.05 mole %) ferroelectric ceramics have been synthesized by the solid-state reaction method with sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h. The room temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns identified the tetragonal phase for x = 0.01 composition whereas co-existence of tetragonal and orthorhombic phases for x =0.05 composition. Raman spectroscopy results corroborated with the XRD results at room temperature. The maximum dielectric properties (ɛm ~ 8591, tanδ ~ 0.018) were obtained for the compound with x = 0.01 at 5 kHz. Further, the tetragonal to cubic (TC) transition temperature was observed at 122 °C and 102 °C for the ceramics with x =0.01 and x = 0.05, respectively. The temperature dependent P-E loops also revealed the existence of TC at these particular temperature values. The energy storage density (Ed) of both compounds was calculated from room temperature P – E loops at an applied electric field of 20 kV/cm. The maximum Ed ~ 224 kJ/m³ was achieved for the sample with x = 0.01 as compared to 164 kJ/m³ for the x =0.05 composition. The value of Ed is comparable to other BaTiO₃ based lead free ferroelectric systems. Impedance spectroscopy analysis exhibited the bulk and grain boundary contributions above 300 °C under the frequency range 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The above properties make these ceramics suitable for energy storage devices.

Keywords: dielectric properties, energy storage properties, impedance spectroscopy, lead free ceramics

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
136 Exchange Bias in Ceramics: From Polyol Made CoFe₂O₄[email protected] NPs to Nanostructured Ceramics

Authors: N. Flores-Martinez, G. Franceschin, T. Gaudisson, J.-M. Greneche, R. Valenzuela-Monjaras, S. Ammar

Abstract:

Tailoring bulk materials keeping their nanoscale properties is the daydream of material scientists. But especially in magnetism, this single desire can revolutionize our everyday life. Now, thanks to the methods of synthesis, based on the combination of colloidal chemistry (CC) to flash sintering (FS), customizing magnets becomes each time more 'easy', 'cheap' and 'clean'. Although by CC we can obtain straightway nanopowders with good magnetic featuring, like exchange bias (EB) phenomenon, it does not result so attractive for applications. Since a solid material is simple to manipulate and integrate in a device, many consolidation methods have been tested aiming to keep the nanopowders characteristics after consolidation. Unfortunately, the lack of structural crystalline arrangement and the grain growth worsen the magnetic properties. In this work, we exhibit, for the first-time author’s best knowledge, the EB in sintered ceramics, starting from CoFe₂O₄[email protected] NPs obtained by CC. Despite the fact that EB field is about 28 mT in ceramics and it is not yet considered for applications, this work opens an alternative in the permanent magnets fabrication through a FS method, the spark plasma sintering, starting from CC synthesized nanopowders.

Keywords: core-shell nanoparticles, exchange bias, nanostructured ceramics, spark plasma sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
135 Structural Magnetic Properties of Multiferroic (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x Ceramics

Authors: Mohammad Shariq, Davinder Kaur

Abstract:

A series of multiferroic (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x [x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5] solid solution ceramics were synthesised by conventional solid-state reaction method. Well crystalline phase has been optimized at sintering temperature of 950°C for 2 hours. X rays diffraction studies of these ceramics revealed the existence of a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region in this system, which exhibits co-existence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phase with a large tetragonality (c/a ratio) in the tetragonal phase region. The average grain size of samples was found to be between 1-1.5 µm. The M-H curve revealed the BiFeO3 (BFO) as antiferromanetic material whereas, induced weak ferromagnetism was observed for (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x composites with x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 at temperature of 5 K. The results evidenced the destruction of a space-modulated spin structure in bulk materials, via substituent effects, releasing a latent magnetization locked within the cycloid. Relative to unmodified BiFeO3, modified BiFeO3-PbTiO3 -based ceramics revealed enhancement in the electric-field-induced polarization.

Keywords: BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x ceramic, multiferroic, SQUID, magnetic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
134 Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified With Li-Sb

Authors: Roopam Gaur, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram

Abstract:

In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 10500C-10900C for 2-3 hours to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination.

Keywords: piezoelectric, dielectric, Li, Sb, KNN, conventional sintering

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133 Accurate and Repeatable Pressure Control for Critical Testing of Advanced Ceramics Using Proportional and Derivative Controller

Authors: Benchalak Muangmeesri

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how to test the best control performance of a ceramics. Hydraulic press machine (HPM) is the most common shaping of advanced ceramic with products, dimensions, and ceramic products mainly from synthetic powders. A microcontroller can be achieved to control process and has set high standards in the shaping of raw materials in powder form. HPM was proposed to develop a position control system that linked to the embedded controller PIC16F877 via Proportional and Derivative (PD) controller. The model is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the best control performance of an HPM. Finally, PD controller results, showing the best performance as it had the smallest overshoot and highest quality using a microcontroller control.

Keywords: ceramics, hydraulic press, microcontroller, PD controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
132 Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Authors: Bing-Jing Li, Sih-Yin Wang, Tse-Chun Yeh, Yuan-Bin Chen

Abstract:

Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Keywords: (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
131 Limiting Fracture Stress of Composite Ceramics with Symmetric Triangle Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Jinfeng Yu, Xinhua Ni

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The limiting fracture stress predicting model of composite ceramics with symmetric triangle eutectic was established based on its special microscopic structure. The symmetric triangle eutectic is consisted of matrix, the strong constraint inter-phase and reinforced fiber inclusions which are 120 degrees uniform symmetrical distribution. Considering the conditions of the rupture of the cohesive bond between matrix and fibers in eutectic and the stress concentration effect at the fiber end, the intrinsic fracture stress of eutectic was obtained. Based on the biggest micro-damage strain in eutectic, defining the load function, the macro-damage fracture stress of symmetric triangle eutectic was determined by boundary conditions. Introducing the conception of critical zone, the theoretical limiting fracture stress forecasting model of composite ceramics was got, and the stress was related to the fiber size and fiber volume fraction in eutectic. The calculated results agreed with the experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: symmetric triangle eutectic, composite ceramics, limiting stress, intrinsic fracture stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
130 Controllable Modification of Glass-Crystal Composites with Ion-Exchange Technique

Authors: Andrey A. Lipovskii, Alexey V. Redkov, Vyacheslav V. Rusan, Dmitry K. Tagantsev, Valentina V. Zhurikhina

Abstract:

The presented research is related to the development of recently proposed technique of the formation of composite materials, like optical glass-ceramics, with predetermined structure and properties of the crystalline component. The technique is based on the control of the size and concentration of the crystalline grains using the phenomenon of glass-ceramics decrystallization (vitrification) induced by ion-exchange. This phenomenon was discovered and explained in the beginning of the 2000s, while related theoretical description was given in 2016 only. In general, the developed theory enables one to model the process and optimize the conditions of ion-exchange processing of glass-ceramics, which provide given properties of crystalline component, in particular, profile of the average size of the crystalline grains. The optimization is possible if one knows two dimensionless parameters of the theoretical model. One of them (β) is the value which is directly related to the solubility of crystalline component of the glass-ceramics in the glass matrix, and another (γ) is equal to the ratio of characteristic times of ion-exchange diffusion and crystalline grain dissolution. The presented study is dedicated to the development of experimental technique and simulation which allow determining these parameters. It is shown that these parameters can be deduced from the data on the space distributions of diffusant concentrations and average size of crystalline grains in the glass-ceramics samples subjected to ion-exchange treatment. Measurements at least at two temperatures and two processing times at each temperature are necessary. The composite material used was a silica-based glass-ceramics with crystalline grains of Li2OSiO2. Cubical samples of the glass-ceramics (6x6x6 mm3) underwent the ion exchange process in NaNO3 salt melt at 520 oC (for 16 and 48 h), 540 oC (for 8 and 24 h), 560 oC (for 4 and 12 h), and 580 oC (for 2 and 8 h). The ion exchange processing resulted in the glass-ceramics vitrification in the subsurface layers where ion-exchange diffusion took place. Slabs about 1 mm thick were cut from the central part of the samples and their big facets were polished. These slabs were used to find profiles of diffusant concentrations and average size of the crystalline grains. The concentration profiles were determined from refractive index profiles measured with Max-Zender interferometer, and profiles of the average size of the crystalline grains were determined with micro-Raman spectroscopy. Numerical simulation were based on the developed theoretical model of the glass-ceramics decrystallization induced by ion exchange. The simulation of the processes was carried out for different values of β and γ parameters under all above-mentioned ion exchange conditions. As a result, the temperature dependences of the parameters, which provided a reliable coincidence of the simulation and experimental data, were found. This ensured the adequate modeling of the process of the glass-ceramics decrystallization in 520-580 oC temperature interval. Developed approach provides a powerful tool for fine tuning of the glass-ceramics structure, namely, concentration and average size of crystalline grains.

Keywords: diffusion, glass-ceramics, ion exchange, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
129 Pick and Place System for Dip Glaze Using PID Controller

Authors: Benchalak Muangmeesri

Abstract:

Glazes ceramics are ceramic materials produced through controlled crystallization of a parent glass. The great variety of compositions and the possibility of developing special micro structures with specific technological properties have allowed glass ceramic materials to be used in a wide range of applications. At the same time, glazes ceramics need to improvement in the mechanical and chemical properties of glazed. The pick and place station is equipped with a three-axis module. test piece housings placed on the vacuum are detected module picks up a test piece insert from the slide and places it on the test piece housing. Overall, glazes ceramics are compared with automatically and manually of speed and position control. The handling modules of automatic transfer are a new generation of high speed and precision then these color results from absorption and thickness than manual is also included.

Keywords: glaze, PID control, pick and place, ceramic

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
128 Microwave Dielectric Properties and Microstructures of Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ Ceramics for Application in Wireless Gas Sensors

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Yue-Xuan Du, Min-Zhe Weng

Abstract:

Carbon monoxide is a substance produced by the incomplete combustion. It is toxic even at concentrations of less than 100ppm. Since it is colorless and odorless, it is difficult to detect. CO sensors have been developed using a variety of physical mechanisms, including semiconductor oxides, solid electrolytes, and organic semiconductors. Many works have focused on using semiconducting sensors composed of sensitive layers such as ZnO, TiO₂, and NiO with high sensitivity for gases. However, these sensors working at high temperatures increased their power consumption. On the other hand, the dielectric resonator (DR) is attractive for gas detection due to its large surface area and sensitivity for external environments. Materials that are to be employed in sensing devices must have a high-quality factor. Numerous researches into the fergusonite-type structure and related ceramic systems have explored. Extensive research into RENbO₄ ceramics has explored their potential application in resonators, filters, and antennas in modern communication systems, which are operated at microwave frequencies. Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics were synthesized herein using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics were prepared using the conventional solid-state method. Dielectric constants (εᵣ) of 15.4-19.4 and quality factor (Q×f) of 3,600-11,100 GHz were obtained at sintering temperatures in the range 1425-1525°C for 4 h. The dielectric properties of the Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics at microwave frequencies were found to vary with the sintering temperature. For a further understanding of these microwave dielectric properties, they were analyzed by densification, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by making microstructural observations.

Keywords: dielectric constant, dielectric resonators, sensors, quality factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
127 Experimental Optimization in Diamond Lapping of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

Authors: S. Gowri, K. Narayanasamy, R. Krishnamurthy

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Plasma spraying, from the point of value engineering, is considered as a cost-effective technique to deposit high performance ceramic coatings on ferrous substrates for use in the aero,automobile,electronics and semiconductor industries. High-performance ceramics such as Alumina, Zirconia, and titania-based ceramics have become a key part of turbine blades,automotive cylinder liners,microelectronic and semiconductor components due to their ability to insulate and distribute heat. However, as the industries continue to advance, improved methods are needed to increase both the flexibility and speed of ceramic processing in these applications. The ceramics mentioned were individually coated on structural steel substrate with NiCr bond coat of 50-70 micron thickness with the final thickness in the range of 150 to 200 microns. Optimal spray parameters were selected based on bond strength and porosity. The 'optimal' processed specimens were super finished by lapping using diamond and green SiC abrasives. Interesting results could be observed as follows: The green SiC could improve the surface finish of lapped surfaces almost as that by diamond in case of alumina and titania based ceramics but the diamond abrasives could improve the surface finish of PSZ better than that by green SiC. The conventional random scratches could be absent in alumina and titania ceramics but in PS those marks were found to be less. However, the flatness accuracy could be improved unto 60 to 85%. The surface finish and geometrical accuracy were measured and modeled. The abrasives in the midrange of their particle size could improve the surface quality faster and better than the particles of size in low and high ranges. From the experimental investigations after lapping process, the optimal lapping time, abrasive size, lapping pressure etc could be evaluated.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma spraying, ceramics, lapping, surface qulaity, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
126 Realization and Characterizations of Conducting Ceramics Based on ZnO Doped by TiO₂, Al₂O₃ and MgO

Authors: Qianying Sun, Abdelhadi Kassiba, Guorong Li

Abstract:

ZnO with wurtzite structure is a well-known semiconducting oxide (SCO), being applied in thermoelectric devices, varistors, gas sensors, transparent electrodes, solar cells, liquid crystal displays, piezoelectric and electro-optical devices. Intrinsically, ZnO is weakly n-type SCO due to native defects (Znⱼ, Vₒ). However, the substitutional doping by metallic elements as (Al, Ti) gives rise to a high n-type conductivity ensured by donor centers. Under CO+N₂ sintering atmosphere, Schottky barriers of ZnO ceramics will be suppressed by lowering the concentration of acceptors at grain boundaries and then inducing a large increase in the Hall mobility, thereby increasing the conductivity. The presented work concerns ZnO based ceramics, which are fabricated with doping by TiO₂ (0.50mol%), Al₂O₃ (0.25mol%) and MgO (1.00mol%) and sintering in different atmospheres (Air (A), N₂ (N), CO+N₂(C)). We obtained uniform, dense ceramics with ZnO as the main phase and Zn₂TiO₄ spinel as a secondary and minor phase. An important increase of the conductivity was shown for the samples A, N, and C which were sintered under different atmospheres. The highest conductivity (σ = 1.52×10⁵ S·m⁻¹) was obtained under the reducing atmosphere (CO). The role of doping was investigated with the aim to identify the local environment and valence states of the doping elements. Thus, Electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR) determines the concentration of defects and the effects of charge carriers in ZnO ceramics as a function of the sintering atmospheres. The relation between conductivity and defects concentration shows the opposite behavior between these parameters suggesting that defects act as traps for charge carriers. For Al ions, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used to identify the involved local coordination of these ions. Beyond the six and forth coordinated Al, an additional NMR signature of ZnO based TCO requires analysis taking into account the grain boundaries and the conductivity through the Knight shift effects. From the thermal evolution of the conductivity as a function of the sintering atmosphere, we succeed in defining the conditions to realize ZnO based TCO ceramics with an important thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) which is promising for electrical safety of devices.

Keywords: ceramics, conductivity, defects, TCO, ZnO

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
125 The Determinants of Senior Students, Behavioral Intention on the Blended E-Learning for the Ceramics Teaching Course at the Active Aging University

Authors: Horng-Jyh Chen, Yi-Fang Chen, Chien-Liang Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors try to investigate the determinants of behavioral intention of the blended e-learning course for senior students at the Active Ageing University in Taiwan. Due to lower proficiency in the use of computers and less experience on learning styles of the blended e-learning course for senior students will be expected quite different from those for most young students. After more than five weeks course for two years the questionnaire survey is executed to collect data for statistical analysis in order to understand the determinants of the behavioral intention for senior students. The object of this study is at one of the Active Ageing University in Taiwan total of 84 senior students in the blended e-learning for the ceramics teaching course. The research results show that only the perceived usefulness of the blended e-learning course has significant positive relationship with the behavioral intention.

Keywords: Active Aging University, blended e-learning, ceramics teaching course, behavioral intention

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
124 Synthesis and Characterisations of Cordierite Bonded Porous SiC Ceramics by Sol Infiltration Technique

Authors: Sanchita Baitalik, Nijhuma Kayal, Omprakash Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Recently SiC ceramics have been a focus of interest in the field of porous materials due to their unique combination of properties and hence they are considered as an ideal candidate for catalyst supports, thermal insulators, high-temperature structural materials, hot gas particulate separation systems etc. in different industrial processes. Several processing methods are followed for fabrication of porous SiC at low temperatures but all these methods are associated with several disadvantages. Therefore processing of porous SiC ceramics at low temperatures is still challenging. Concerning that of incorporation of secondary bond phase additives by an infiltration technique should result in a homogenous distribution of bond phase in the final ceramics. Present work is aimed to synthesis cordierite (2MgO.2Al2O3.5SiO2) bonded porous SiC ceramics following incorporation of sol-gel bond phase precursor into powder compacts of SiC and heat treating the infiltrated body at 1400 °C. In this paper the primary aim was to study the effect of infiltration of a precursor sol of cordierite into a porous SiC powder compact prepared with pore former of different particle sizes on the porosity, pore size, microstructure and the mechanical properties of the porous SiC ceramics. Cordierite sol was prepared by mixing a solution of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and aluminium nitrate nonahydrate in 2:4 molar ratio in ethanol another solution containing tetra-ethyl orthosilicate and ethanol in 1:3 molar ratio followed by stirring for several hours. Powders of SiC (α-SiC; d50 =22.5 μm) and 10 wt. % polymer microbead of two sizes 8 and 50µm as the pore former were mixed in a suitable liquid medium, dried and pressed in the form of bars (50×20×16 mm3) at 23 MPa pressure. The well-dried bars were heat treated at 1100° C for 4 h with a hold at 750 °C for 2 h to remove the pore former. Bars were evacuated for 2 hr upto 0.3 mm Hg pressure into a vacuum chamber and infiltrated with cordierite precursor sol. The infiltrated samples were dried and the infiltration process was repeated until the weight gain became constant. Finally the infiltrated samples were sintered at 1400 °C to prepare cordierite bonded porous SiC ceramics. Porous ceramics prepared with 8 and 50 µm sized microbead exhibited lower oxidation degrees of respectively 7.8 and 4.8 % than the sample (23 %) prepared with no microbead. Depending on the size of pore former, the porosity of the final ceramic varied in the range of 36 to 40 vol. % with a variation of flexural strength from 33.7 to 24.6 MPa. XRD analysis showed major crystalline phases of the ceramics as SiC, SiO2 and cordierite. Two forms of cordierite, α-(hexagonal) and µ-(cubic), were detected by the XRD analysis. The SiC particles were observed to be bonded both by cristobalite with fish scale morphology and cordierite with rod shape morphology and thereby formed a porous network. The material and mechanical properties of cordierite bonded porous SiC ceramics are good in agreement to carry out further studies like thermal shock, corrosion resistance etc.

Keywords: cordierite, infiltration technique, porous ceramics, sol-gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
123 Influence of Titanium Oxide on Crystallization, Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Barium Fluormica Glass-Ceramics

Authors: Amit Mallik, Anil K. Barik, Biswajit Pal

Abstract:

The galloping advancement of research work on glass-ceramics stems from their wide applications in electronic industry and also to some extent in application oriented medical dentistry. TiO2, even in low concentration has been found to strongly influence the physical and mechanical properties of the glasses. Glass-ceramics is a polycrystalline ceramic material produced through controlled crystallization of glasses. Crystallization is accomplished by subjecting the suitable parent glasses to a regulated heat treatment involving the nucleation and growth of crystal phases in the glass. Mica glass-ceramics is a new kind of glass-ceramics based on the system SiO2•MgO•K2O•F. The predominant crystalline phase is synthetic fluormica, named fluorophlogopite. Mica containing glass-ceramics flaunt an exceptional feature of machinability apart from their unique thermal and chemical properties. Machinability arises from the randomly oriented mica crystals with a 'house of cards' microstructures allowing cracks to propagate readily along the mica plane but hindering crack propagation across the layers. In the present study, we have systematically investigated the crystallization, microstructure and mechanical behavior of barium fluorophlogopite mica-containing glass-ceramics of composition BaO•4MgO•Al2O3•6SiO2•2MgF2 nucleated by addition of 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt% TiO2. The glass samples were prepared by the melting technique. After annealing, different batches of glass samples for nucleation were fired at 730°C (2wt% TiO2), 720°C (4 wt% TiO2), 710°C (6 wt% TiO2) and 700°C (8 wt% TiO2) batches respectively for 2 h and ultimately heated to corresponding crystallization temperatures. The glass batches were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro hardness indenter. From the DTA study, it is found that the fluorophlogopite mica crystallization exotherm appeared in the temperature range 886–903°C. Glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp) increased with increasing TiO2 content up to 4 wt% beyond this weight% the glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp) start to decrease with increasing TiO2 content up to 8 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy confirms the development of an interconnected ‘house of cards’ microstructure promoted by TiO2 as a nucleating agent. The increase in TiO2 content decreases the vicker’s hardness values in glass-ceramics.

Keywords: crystallization, fluormica glass, ‘house of cards’ microstructure, hardness

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122 Improvement of Energy Consumption toward Sustainable Ceramic Industry in Indonesia

Authors: Sawarni Hasibuan, Rudi Effendi Listyanto

Abstract:

The industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy consumption in Indonesia. The ceramics industry includes one of seven industries categorized as an energy-intensive industry. Energy costs on the ceramic floor production process reached 40 percent of the total production cost. The kiln is one of the machines in the ceramic industry that consumes the most gas energy reach 51 percent of gas consumption in ceramic production. The purpose of this research is to make improvement of energy consumption in kiln machine part with the innovation of burner tube to support the sustainability of Indonesian ceramics industry. The tube burner is technically designed to be able to raise the temperature and stabilize the air pressure in the burner so as to facilitate the combustion process in the kiln machine which implies the efficiency of gas consumption required. The innovation of the burner tube also has an impact on the decrease of the combustion chamber pressure in the kiln and managed to keep the pressure of the combustion chamber according to the operational standard of the kiln; consequently, the smoke fan motor power can be lowered and the kiln electric energy consumption is also more efficient. The innovation of burner tube succeeded in saving consume of gas and electricity respectively by 0.0654 GJ and 1,693 x 10-3 GJ for every ton of ceramics produced. Improvement of this energy consumption not only implies the cost savings of production but also supports the sustainability of the Indonesian ceramics industry.

Keywords: sustainable ceramic industry, burner tube, kiln, energy efficiency

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121 Effect of Diamagnetic Additives on Defects Level of Soft LiTiZn Ferrite Ceramics

Authors: Andrey V. Malyshev, Anna B. Petrova, Anatoly P. Surzhikov

Abstract:

The article presents the results of the influence of diamagnetic additives on the defects level of ferrite ceramics. For this purpose, we use a previously developed method based on the mathematical analysis of experimental temperature dependences of the initial permeability. A phenomenological expression for the description of such dependence was suggested and an interpretation of its main parameters was given. It was shown, that the main criterion of the integral defects level of ferrite ceramics is the relation of two parameters correlating with elastic stress value in a material. Model samples containing a controlled number of intergranular phase inclusions served to prove the validity of the proposed method, as well as to assess its sensitivity in comparison with the traditional XRD (X-ray diffraction) analysis. The broadening data of diffraction reflexes of model samples have served for such comparison. The defects level data obtained by the proposed method are in good agreement with the X-ray data. The method showed high sensitivity. Therefore, the legitimacy of the selection relationship β/α parameters of phenomenological expression as a characteristic of the elastic state of the ferrite ceramics confirmed. In addition, the obtained data can be used in the detection of non-magnetic phases and testing the optimal sintering production technology of soft magnetic ferrites.

Keywords: cure point, initial permeability, integral defects level, homogeneity

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120 Using the Transient Plane Source Method for Measuring Thermal Parameters of Electroceramics

Authors: Peter Krupa, Svetozár Malinarič

Abstract:

Transient plane source method has been used to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of a compact isostatic electro-ceramics at room temperature. The samples were fired at temperatures from 100 up to 1320 degrees Celsius in steps of 50. Bulk density and specific heat capacity were also measured with their corresponding standard uncertainties. The results were compared with further thermal analysis (dilatometry and thermogravimetry). Structural processes during firing were discussed.

Keywords: TPS method, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal analysis, electro-ceramics, firing

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119 Predicting Depth of Penetration in Abrasive Waterjet Cutting of Polycrystalline Ceramics

Authors: S. Srinivas, N. Ramesh Babu

Abstract:

This paper presents a model to predict the depth of penetration in polycrystalline ceramic material cut by abrasive waterjet. The proposed model considered the interaction of cylindrical jet with target material in upper region and neglected the role of threshold velocity in lower region. The results predicted with the proposed model are validated with the experimental results obtained with Silicon Carbide (SiC) blocks.

Keywords: abrasive waterjet cutting, analytical modeling, ceramics, micro-cutting and inter-grannular cracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
118 Sintering of Composite Ceramic based on Corundum with Additive in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO System

Authors: Aung Kyaw Moe, Lukin Evgeny Stepanovich, Popova Nelya Alexandrovna

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the additive content in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO system on the sintering of composite ceramics based on corundum was studied. The samples were pressed by uniaxial semi-dry pressing under 100 MPa and sintered at 1500 °С and 1550 °С. The properties of composite ceramics for porosity and flexural strength were studied. When the amount of additives increases, the properties of composite ceramic samples are better than samples without additives.

Keywords: ceramic, composite material, sintering, corundum

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117 Clay Palm Press: A Technique of Hand Building in Ceramics for Developing Conceptual Forms

Authors: Okewu E. Jonathan

Abstract:

There are several techniques of production in the field of ceramics. These different techniques overtime have been categorised under three methods of production which includes; casting, throwing and hand building. Hand building method of production is further broken down into other techniques and they include coiling, slabbing and pinching. Ceramic artists find the different hand building techniques to be very interesting, practicable and rewarding. This has encouraged ceramic artist in their various studios at different levels to experiment for further hand building techniques that could be unique and unusual. The art of “Clay Palm Press” is a development from studio experiment in a quest for uniqueness in conceptual ceramic practise. Clay palm press is a technique that requires no formal tutelage but at the same time, it is not easily comprehensible when viewed. It is a practice of putting semi-solid clay in the palm and inserting a closed fist pressure so as to take the imprint of the human palm. This clay production from the palm when dried, fired and explored into an art, work reveals an absolute awesomeness of what the palm imprint could result in.

Keywords: ceramics, clay palm press, conceptual forms, hand building, technique

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116 Development of Web Application for Warehouse Management System: A Case Study of Ceramics Factory

Authors: Thanaphat Suwanaklang, Supaporn Suwannarongsri

Abstract:

Presently, there are many industries in Thailand producing various products for both domestic distribution and export to foreign countries. Warehouse is one of the most important areas of business needing to store their products. Such businesses need to have a suitable warehouse management system for reducing the storage time and using the space as much as possible. This paper proposes the development of a web application for a warehouse management system. One of the ceramics factories in Thailand is conducted as a case study. By applying the ABC analysis, fixed location, commodity system, ECRS, and 7-waste theories and principles, the web application for the warehouse management system of the selected ceramics factory is developed to design the optimal storage area for groups of products and design the optimal routes of forklifts. From experimental results, it was found that the warehouse management system developed via the web application can reduce the travel distance of forklifts and the time of searching for storage area by 100% once compared with the conventional method. In addition, the entire storage area can be on-line and real-time monitored.

Keywords: warehouse management system, warehouse design method, logistics system, web application

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115 Dual-Phase High Entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅) BxCy Ceramics Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Ana-Carolina Feltrin, Daniel Hedman, Farid Akhtar

Abstract:

High entropy ceramic (HEC) materials are characterized by their compositional disorder due to different metallic element atoms occupying the cation position and non-metal elements occupying the anion position. Several studies have focused on the processing and characterization of high entropy carbides and high entropy borides, as these HECs present interesting mechanical and chemical properties. A few studies have been published on HECs containing two non-metallic elements in the composition. Dual-phase high entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)BxCy ceramics with different amounts of x and y, (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrC + 0.25 VC + 0.25 TiB₂), (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrC + 0.25 VB2 + 0.25 TiB₂) and (0.25 HfC + 0.25 ZrB2 + 0.25 VB2 + 0.25 TiB₂) were sintered from boride and carbide precursor powders using SPS at 2000°C with holding time of 10 min, uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa and under Ar atmosphere. The sintered specimens formed two HEC phases: a Zr-Hf rich FCC phase and a Ti-V HCP phase, and both phases contained all the metallic elements from 5-50 at%. Phase quantification analysis of XRD data revealed that the molar amount of hexagonal phase increased with increased mole fraction of borides in the starting powders, whereas cubic FCC phase increased with increased carbide in the starting powders. SPS consolidated (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)BC0.5 and (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)B1.5C0.25 had respectively 94.74% and 88.56% relative density. (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅Hf₀.₂₅)B0.5C0.75 presented the highest relative density of 95.99%, with Vickers hardness of 26.58±1.2 GPa for the borides phase and 18.29±0.8 GPa for the carbides phase, which exceeded the reported hardness values reported in the literature for high entropy ceramics. The SPS sintered specimens containing lower boron and higher carbon presented superior properties even though the metallic composition in each phase was similar to other compositions investigated. Dual-phase high entropy (Ti₀.₂₅V₀.₂₅Zr₀.₂₅H₀.₂₅)BxCy ceramics were successfully fabricated in a boride-carbide solid solution and the amount of boron and carbon was shown to influence the phase fraction, hardness of phases, and density of the consolidated HECs. The microstructure and phase formation was highly dependent on the amount of non-metallic elements in the composition and not only the molar ratio between metals when producing high entropy ceramics with more than one anion in the sublattice. These findings show the importance of further studies about the optimization of the ratio between C and B for further improvements in the properties of dual-phase high entropy ceramics.

Keywords: high-entropy ceramics, borides, carbides, dual-phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 57