Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: bioimaging

11 Rashba Spin Orbit Interaction Effect on Multiphoton Optical Transitions in a Quantum Dot for Bioimaging

Authors: Pradip Kumar Jha, Manoj Kumar


We demonstrate in this work the effect of Rashba spin orbit interaction on multiphoton optical transitions of a quantum dot in the presence of THz laser field and external static magnetic field. This combination is solved by accurate non-perturbative Floquet theory. Investigations are made for the optical response of intraband transition between the various states of the conduction band with spin flipping. Enhancement and power broadening observed for excited states probabilities with increase of external fields are directly linked to the emission spectra of QD and will be useful for making future bioimaging devices.

Keywords: bioimaging, multiphoton processes, spin orbit interaction, quantum dot

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10 Optimal Concentration of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds in Aqueous Media for Bioimaging and Thermometry Applications

Authors: Francisco Pedroza-Montero, Jesús Naín Pedroza-Montero, Diego Soto-Puebla, Osiris Alvarez-Bajo, Beatriz Castaneda, Sofía Navarro-Espinoza, Martín Pedroza-Montero


Nanodiamonds have been widely studied for their physical properties, including chemical inertness, biocompatibility, optical transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared region, high thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In this work, we studied how the fluorescence spectrum of nanodiamonds quenches concerning the concentration in aqueous solutions systematically ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/mL. Our results demonstrated a non-linear fluorescence quenching as the concentration increases for both of the NV zero-phonon lines; the 5 mg/mL concentration shows the maximum fluorescence emission. Furthermore, this behaviour is theoretically explained as an electronic recombination process that modulates the intensity in the NV centres. Finally, to gain more insight, the FRET methodology is used to determine the fluorescence efficiency in terms of the fluorophores' separation distance. Thus, the concentration level is simulated as follows, a small distance between nanodiamonds would be considered a highly concentrated system, whereas a large distance would mean a low concentrated one. Although the 5 mg/mL concentration shows the maximum intensity, our main interest is focused on the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, which our studies demonstrate the optimal human cell viability (99%). In this respect, this concentration has the feature of being as biocompatible as water giving the possibility to internalize it in cells without harming the living media. To this end, not only can we track nanodiamonds on the surface or inside the cell with excellent precision due to their fluorescent intensity, but also, we can perform thermometry tests transforming a fluorescence contrast image into a temperature contrast image.

Keywords: nanodiamonds, fluorescence spectroscopy, concentration, bioimaging, thermometry

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9 Quantum Dot – DNA Conjugates for Biological Applications

Authors: A. Banerjee, C. Grazon, B. Nadal, T. Pons, Y. Krishnan, B. Dubertret


Quantum Dots (QDs) have emerged as novel fluorescent probes for biomedical applications. The photophysical properties of QDs such as broad absorption, narrow emission spectrum, reduced blinking, and enhanced photostability make them advantageous over organic fluorophores. However, for some biological applications, QDs need to be first targeted to specific intracellular locations. It parallel, base pairing properties and biocompatibility of DNA has been extensively used for biosensing, targetting and intracellular delivery of numerous bioactive agents. The combination of the photophysical properties of QDs and targettability of DNA has yielded fluorescent, stable and targetable nanosensors. QD-DNA conjugates have used in drug delivery, siRNA, intracellular pH sensing and several other applications; and continue to be an active area of research. In this project, a novel method to synthesise QD-DNA conjugates and their applications in bioimaging are investigated. QDs are first solubilized in water using a thiol based amphiphilic co-polymer and, then conjugated to amine functionalized DNA using a heterobifunctional linker. The conjugates are purified by size exclusion chromatography and characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, electrophoresis and microscopy. Parameters that influence the conjugation yield such as reducing agents, the excess of salt and pH have been investigated in detail. In optimized reaction conditions, up to 12 single-stranded DNA (15 mer length) can be conjugated per QD. After conjugation, the QDs retain their colloidal stability and high quantum yield; and the DNA is available for hybridization. The reaction has also been successfully tested on QDs emitting different colors and on Gold nanoparticles and therefore highly generalizable. After extensive characterization and robust synthesis of QD-DNA conjugates in vitro, the physical properties of these conjugates in cellular milieu are being invistigated. Modification of QD surface with DNA appears to remarkably alter the fate of QD inside cells and can have potential implications in therapeutic applications.

Keywords: bioimaging, cellular targeting, drug delivery, photostability

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8 Two-Photon Fluorescence in N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

Authors: Chi Man Luk, Ming Kiu Tsang, Chi Fan Chan, Shu Ping Lau


Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) were fabricated by microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The optical properties of the N-GQDs were studied. The luminescence of the N-GQDs can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Furthermore, two-photon luminescence of the N-GQDs excited by near-infrared laser can be obtained. It is shown that N-doping play a key role on two-photon luminescence. The N-GQDs are expected to find application in biological applications including bioimaging and sensing.

Keywords: graphene quantum dots, nitrogen doping, photoluminescence, two-photon fluorescence

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7 Synthesis of CeF3:Sm3+ Nanophosphor for Biological Applications

Authors: Mayuri Gandhi, Nayan Agrawal, Harshita Bhatia


In the present work, cerium fluoride (CeF3) was selected as the host material because of its high density, fast response and high radiation resistance, efficient absorption and energy transfer by host (to activator). For the synthesis of CeF3 nanoparticles doped with Sm3+ ion, co-precipitation route was employed. Thus for optimum results, concentration dependent studies of the fluorescence of Sm3+ was carried out. The photoluminescence gave emissions in both visible as well as the NIR region and therefore it can have its application in solar cells, where it can absorb a large spectrum of energy. CeF3:Sm3+ nanoparticles were carefully incorporated in a suitable polymer matrix in order to demonstrate a variety of applications to improve the performance of the polymer materials and use it to develop high grade optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, security labelling, lasers, displays, biological imaging, etc.

Keywords: bioimaging, cerium fluoride, NIR emission, samarium

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6 Green Synthesis of Red-Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters: Characterization and Application for Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Agnė Mikalauskaitė, Renata Karpicz, Vitalijus Karabanovas, Arūnas Jagminas


The use of biocompatible precursors for the synthesis and stabilization of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (NCs) with strong red photoluminescence creates an important link between natural sciences and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the cost-effective synthesis of Au nanoclusters by templating and reduction of chloroauric acid with the cheap amino acid food supplements. This synthesis under the optimized conditions leads to the formation of biocompatible Au NCs having good stability and intense red photoluminescence, peaked at 680 to 705 nm, with a quantum yield (QY) of ≈7% and the average lifetime of up to several µs. The composition and luminescent properties of the obtained NCs were compared with ones formed via well-known bovine serum albumin reduction approach. Our findings implied that synthesized Au NCs tend to accumulate in more tumorigenic breast cancer cells (line MDA-MB-213) and after dialysis can be prospective for bio imagining.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, proteins, materials chemistry, red-photoluminescence, bioimaging

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5 3D Label-Free Bioimaging of Native Tissue with Selective Plane Illumination Optical Microscopy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yvonne Reinwald, Nick Poulson, Alicia El Haj, Chung See, Mike Somekh, Melissa Mather


Biomedical imaging of native tissue using light offers the potential to obtain excellent structural and functional information in a non-invasive manner with good temporal resolution. Image contrast can be derived from intrinsic absorption, fluorescence, or scatter, or through the use of extrinsic contrast. A major challenge in applying optical microscopy to in vivo tissue imaging is the effects of light attenuation which limits light penetration depth and achievable imaging resolution. Recently Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM) has been used to map the 3D distribution of fluorophores dispersed in biological structures. In this approach, a focused sheet of light is used to illuminate the sample from the side to excite fluorophores within the sample of interest. Images are formed based on detection of fluorescence emission orthogonal to the illumination axis. By scanning the sample along the detection axis and acquiring a stack of images, 3D volumes can be obtained. The combination of rapid image acquisition speeds with the low photon dose to samples optical sectioning provides SPIM is an attractive approach for imaging biological samples in 3D. To date all implementations of SPIM rely on the use of fluorescence reporters be that endogenous or exogenous. This approach has the disadvantage that in the case of exogenous probes the specimens are altered from their native stage rendering them unsuitable for in vivo studies and in general fluorescence emission is weak and transient. Here we present for the first time to our knowledge a label-free implementation of SPIM that has downstream applications in the clinical setting. The experimental set up used in this work incorporates both label-free and fluorescent illumination arms in addition to a high specification camera that can be partitioned for simultaneous imaging of both fluorescent emission and scattered light from intrinsic sources of optical contrast in the sample being studied. This work first involved calibration of the imaging system and validation of the label-free method with well characterised fluorescent microbeads embedded in agarose gel. 3D constructs of mammalian cells cultured in agarose gel with varying cell concentrations were then imaged. A time course study to track cell proliferation in the 3D construct was also carried out and finally a native tissue sample was imaged. For each sample multiple images were obtained by scanning the sample along the axis of detection and 3D maps reconstructed. The results obtained validated label-free SPIM as a viable approach for imaging cells in a 3D gel construct and native tissue. This technique has the potential use in a near-patient environment that can provide results quickly and be implemented in an easy to use manner to provide more information with improved spatial resolution and depth penetration than current approaches.

Keywords: bioimaging, optics, selective plane illumination microscopy, tissue imaging

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4 Upconversion Nanoparticles for Imaging and Controlled Photothermal Release of Anticancer Drug in Breast Cancer

Authors: Rishav Shrestha, Yong Zhang


The Anti-Stoke upconversion process has been used extensively for bioimaging and is recently being used for photoactivated therapy in cancer utilizing upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs). The UCNs have an excitation band at 980nm; 980nm laser excitation used to produce UV/Visible emissions also produce a heating effect. Light-to-heat conversion has been observed in nanoparticles(NPs) doped with neodymium(Nd) or ytterbium(Yb)/erbium(Er) ions. Despite laser-induced heating in Rare-earth doped NPs being proven to be a relatively efficient process, only few attempts to use them as photothermal agents in biosystems have been made up to now. Gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes are the most researched and developed for photothermal applications. Both have large heating efficiency and outstanding biocompatibility. However, they show weak fluorescence which makes them harder to track in vivo. In that regard, UCNs are attractive due to their excellent optical features in addition to their light-to-heat conversion and excitation by NIR, for imaging and spatiotemporally releasing drugs. In this work, we have utilized a simple method to coat Nd doped UCNs with thermoresponsive polymer PNIPAM on which 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OH-T) is loaded. Such UCNs demonstrate a high loading efficiency and low leakage of 4-OH-T. Encouragingly, the release of 4-OH-T can be modulated by varying the power and duration of the NIR. Such UCNs were then used to demonstrate imaging and controlled photothermal release of 4-OH-T in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Keywords: cancer therapy, controlled release, photothermal release, upconversion nanoparticles

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3 Upconversion Nanomaterials for Applications in Life Sciences and Medicine

Authors: Yong Zhang


Light has proven to be useful in a wide range of biomedical applications such as fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic imaging, optogenetics, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, and light controlled drug/gene delivery. Taking photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an example, PDT has been proven clinically effective in early lung cancer, bladder cancer, head, and neck cancer and is the primary treatment for skin cancer as well. However, clinical use of PDT is severely constrained by the low penetration depth of visible light through thick tissue, limiting its use to target regions only a few millimeters deep. One way to enhance the range is to use invisible near-infrared (NIR) light within the optical window (700–1100nm) for biological tissues, extending the depth up to 1cm with no observable damage to the intervening tissue. We have demonstrated use of NIR-to-visible upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), emitting visible fluorescence when excited by a NIR light at 980nm, as a nanotransducer for PDT to convert deep tissue-penetrating NIR light to visible light suitable for activating photosensitizers. The unique optical properties of UCNPs enable the upconversion wavelength to be tuned and matched to the activation absorption wavelength of the photosensitizer. At depths beyond 1cm, however, tissue remains inaccessible to light even within the NIR window, and this critical depth limitation renders existing phototherapy ineffective against most deep-seated cancers. We have demonstrated some new treatment modalities for deep-seated cancers based on UCNP hydrogel implants and miniaturized, wirelessly powered optoelectronic devices for light delivery to deep tissues.

Keywords: upconversion, fluorescent, nanoparticle, bioimaging, photodynamic therapy

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2 Bimetallic Cu/Au Nanostructures and Bio-Application

Authors: Si Yin Tee


Bimetallic nanostructures have received tremendous interests as a new class of nanomaterials which may have better technological usefulness with distinct properties from those of individual atoms and molecules or bulk matter. They excelled over the monometallic counterparts because of their improved electronic, optical and catalytic performances. The properties and the applicability of these bimetallic nanostructures not only depend on their size and shape, but also on the composition and their fine structure. These bimetallic nanostructures are potential candidates for bio-applications such as biosensing, bioimaging, biodiagnostics, drug delivery, targeted therapeutics, and tissue engineering. Herein, gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures were synthesized through the controlled disproportionation of Cu⁺-oleylamine complex at 220 ºC to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au³⁺ at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 ºC. This is to achieve their synergistic effect through the combined use of the merits of low-cost transition and high-stability noble metals. Of these Cu/Au nanostructures, Cu/Au nanotubes display the best performance towards electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensing, originating from the high conductivity of gold and the high aspect ratio copper nanotubes with high surface area so as to optimise the electroactive sites and facilitate mass transport. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose.

Keywords: bimetallic, electrochemical sensing, glucose oxidation, gold-incorporated copper nanostructures

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1 Investigation of the Carbon Dots Optical Properties Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and TimE-resolved Fluorescence Microscopy

Authors: M. S. Stepanova, V. V. Zakharov, P. D. Khavlyuk, I. D. Skurlov, A. Y. Dubovik, A. L. Rogach


Carbon dots are small carbon-based spherical nanoparticles, which are typically less than 10 nm in size that can be modified with surface passivation and heteroatoms doping. The light-absorbing ability of carbon dots has attracted a significant amount of attention in photoluminescence for bioimaging and fluorescence sensing applications owing to their advantages, such as tunable fluorescence emission, photo- and thermostability and low toxicity. In this study, carbon dots were synthesized by the solvothermal method from citric acid and ethylenediamine dissolved in water. The solution was heated for 5 hours at 200°C and then cooled down to room temperature. The carbon dots films were obtained by evaporation from a high-concentration aqueous solution. The increase of both luminescence intensity and light transmission was obtained as a result of a 405 nm laser exposure to a part of the carbon dots film, which was detected using a confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM 710, Zeiss). Blueshift up to 35 nm of the luminescence spectrum is observed as luminescence intensity, which is increased more than twofold. The exact value of the shift depends on the time of the laser exposure. This shift can be caused by the modification of surface groups at the carbon dots, which are responsible for long-wavelength luminescence. In addition, a shift of the absorption peak by 10 nm and a decrease in the optical density at the wavelength of 350 nm is detected, which is responsible for the absorption of surface groups. The obtained sample was also studied with time-resolved confocal fluorescence microscope (MicroTime 100, PicoQuant), which made it possible to receive a time-resolved photoluminescence image and construct emission decays of the laser-exposed and non-exposed areas. 5 MHz pulse rate impulse laser has been used as a photoluminescence excitation source. Photoluminescence decay was approximated by two exhibitors. The laser-exposed area has the amplitude of the first-lifetime component (A1) twice as much as before, with increasing τ1. At the same time, the second-lifetime component (A2) decreases. These changes evidence a modification of the surface groups of carbon dots. The detected effect can be used to create thermostable fluorescent marks, the physical size of which is bounded by the diffraction limit of the optics (~ 200-300 nm) used for exposure and to improve the optical properties of carbon dots or in the field of optical encryption. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russian Federation, goszadanie no. 2019-1080 and financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 08-08.

Keywords: carbon dots, photoactivation, optical properties, photoluminescence and absorption spectra

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