Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: renewables

40 Settlement Network Supplying Energy

Authors: Balázs Kulcsár

Abstract:

Few people now doubt the future of the global energy transition. The only question is whether the pace of renewables' penetration will be sufficient to compete with the rate of warming. Dynamic changes are also taking place in the Hungarian electricity system. In addition to nuclear power, which provides the basic electricity supply, the most dynamic is solar power, which is largely small-scale and residential. The emergence of solar power is outlining the emergence of energy production and supply fabric of municipalities. This creates the potential for over-producing municipalities to supply the electricity needs of neighboring settlements with lower production beyond renewables. By taking advantage of this energy sharing, electricity supply based on pure renewables can be achieved more quickly.

Keywords: renewable energy, energy geography, self-sufficiency, energy transition

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39 Electricity Generation from Renewables and Targets: An Application of Multivariate Statistical Techniques

Authors: Filiz Ersoz, Taner Ersoz, Tugrul Bayraktar

Abstract:

Renewable energy is referred to as "clean energy" and common popular support for the use of renewable energy (RE) is to provide electricity with zero carbon dioxide emissions. This study provides useful insight into the European Union (EU) RE, especially, into electricity generation obtained from renewables, and their targets. The objective of this study is to identify groups of European countries, using multivariate statistical analysis and selected indicators. The hierarchical clustering method is used to decide the number of clusters for EU countries. The conducted statistical hierarchical cluster analysis is based on the Ward’s clustering method and squared Euclidean distances. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified eight distinct clusters of European countries. Then, non-hierarchical clustering (k-means) method was applied. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the validity of the results with data normalized by Z score transformation. To explore the relationship between the selected indicators, correlation coefficients were computed. The results of the study reveal the current situation of RE in European Union Member States.

Keywords: share of electricity generation, k-means clustering, discriminant, CO2 emission

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38 Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios

Authors: S. Sakthivel

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Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cost analysis, break-even analysis, renewables, electrolyzer

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37 Construction Port Requirements for Floating Wind Turbines

Authors: Alan Crowle, Philpp Thies

Abstract:

As the floating offshore wind turbine industry continues to develop and grow, the capabilities of established port facilities need to be assessed as to their ability to support the expanding construction and installation requirements. This paper assesses current infrastructure requirements and projected changes to port facilities that may be required to support the floating offshore wind industry. Understanding the infrastructure needs of the floating offshore renewable industry will help to identify the port-related requirements. Floating Offshore Wind Turbines can be installed further out to sea and in deeper waters than traditional fixed offshore wind arrays, meaning that it can take advantage of stronger winds. Separate ports are required for substructure construction, fit-out of the turbines, moorings, subsea cables and maintenance. Large areas are required for the laydown of mooring equipment; inter-array cables, turbine blades and nacelles. The capabilities of established port facilities to support floating wind farms are assessed by evaluation of the size of substructures, the height of wind turbine with regards to the cranes for fitting of blades, distance to offshore site and offshore installation vessel characteristics. The paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using large land-based cranes, inshore floating crane vessels or offshore crane vessels at the fit-out port for the installation of the turbine. Water depths requirements for import of materials and export of the completed structures will be considered. There are additional costs associated with any emerging technology. However part of the popularity of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines stems from the cost savings against permanent structures like fixed wind turbines. Floating Offshore Wind Turbine developers can benefit from lighter, more cost-effective equipment which can be assembled in port and towed to the site rather than relying on large, expensive installation vessels to transport and erect fixed bottom turbines. The ability to assemble Floating Offshore Wind Turbines equipment onshore means minimizing highly weather-dependent operations like offshore heavy lifts and assembly, saving time and costs and reducing safety risks for offshore workers. Maintenance might take place in safer onshore conditions for barges and semi-submersibles. Offshore renewables, such as floating wind, can take advantage of this wealth of experience, while oil and gas operators can deploy this experience at the same time as entering the renewables space The floating offshore wind industry is in the early stages of development and port facilities are required for substructure fabrication, turbine manufacture, turbine construction and maintenance support. The paper discusses the potential floating wind substructures as this provides a snapshot of the requirements at the present time, and potential technological developments required for commercial development. Scaling effects of demonstration-scale projects will be addressed, however, the primary focus will be on commercial-scale (30+ units) device floating wind energy farms.

Keywords: floating wind, port, marine construction, offshore renewables

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36 Voltage and Frequency Regulation Using the Third-Party Mid-Size Battery

Authors: Roghieh A. Biroon, Zoleikha Abdollahi

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The recent growth of renewables, e.g., solar panels, batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) in residential and small commercial sectors, has potential impacts on the stability and operation of power grids. Considering approximately 50 percent share of the residential and the commercial sectors in the electricity demand market, the significance of these impacts, and the necessity of addressing them are more highlighted. Utilities and power system operators should manage the renewable electricity sources integration with power systems in such a way to extract the most possible advantages for the power systems. The most common effect of high penetration level of the renewables is the reverse power flow in the distribution feeders when the customers generate more power than their needs. The reverse power flow causes voltage rise and thermal issues in the power grids. To overcome the voltage rise issues in the distribution system, several techniques have been proposed including reducing transformers short circuit resistance and feeder impedance, installing autotransformers/voltage regulators along the line, absorbing the reactive power by distributed generators (DGs), and limiting the PV and battery sizes. In this study, we consider a medium-scale battery energy storage to manage the power energy and address the aforementioned issues on voltage deviation and power loss increase. We propose an optimization algorithm to find the optimum size and location for the battery. The optimization for the battery location and size is so that the battery maintains the feeder voltage deviation and power loss at a certain desired level. Moreover, the proposed optimization algorithm controls the charging/discharging profile of the battery to absorb the negative power flow from residential and commercial customers in the feeder during the peak time and sell the power back to the system during the off-peak time. The proposed battery regulates the voltage problem in the distribution system while it also can play frequency regulation role in islanded microgrids. This battery can be regulated and controlled by the utilities or a third-party ancillary service provider for the utilities to reduce the power system loss and regulate the distribution feeder voltage and frequency in standard level.

Keywords: ancillary services, battery, distribution system and optimization

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35 Establishing Forecasts Pointing Towards the Hungarian Energy Change Based on the Results of Local Municipal Renewable Energy Production and Energy Export

Authors: Balazs Kulcsar

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Professional energy organizations perform analyses mainly on the global and national levels about the expected development of the share of renewables in electric power generation, heating, and cooling, as well as the transport sectors. There are just a few publications, research institutions, non-profit organizations, and national initiatives with a focus on studies in the individual towns, settlements. Issues concerning the self-supply of energy on the settlement level have not become too wide-spread. The goal of our energy geographic studies is to determine the share of local renewable energy sources in the settlement-based electricity supply across Hungary. The Hungarian energy supply system defines four categories based on the installed capacities of electric power generating units. From these categories, the theoretical annual electricity production of small-sized household power plants (SSHPP) featuring installed capacities under 50 kW and small power plants with under 0.5 MW capacities have been taken into consideration. In the above-mentioned power plant categories, the Hungarian Electricity Act has allowed the establishment of power plants primarily for the utilization of renewable energy sources since 2008. Though with certain restrictions, these small power plants utilizing renewable energies have the closest links to individual settlements and can be regarded as the achievements of the host settlements in the shift of energy use. Based on the 2017 data, we have ranked settlements to reflect the level of self-sufficiency in electricity production from renewable energy sources. The results show that the supply of all the energy demanded by settlements from local renewables is within reach now in small settlements, e.g., in the form of the small power plant categories discussed in the study, and is not at all impossible even in small towns and cities. In Hungary, 30 settlements produce more renewable electricity than their own annual electricity consumption. If these overproductive settlements export their excess electricity towards neighboring settlements, then full electricity supply can be realized on further 29 settlements from renewable sources by local small power plants. These results provide an opportunity for governmental planning of the realization of energy shift (legislative background, support system, environmental education), as well as framing developmental forecasts and scenarios until 2030.

Keywords: energy geography, Hungary, local small power plants, renewable energy sources, self-sufficiency settlements

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34 Contribution of the Corn Milling Industry to a Global and Circular Economy

Authors: A. B. Moldes, X. Vecino, L. Rodriguez-López, J. M. Dominguez, J. M. Cruz

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The concept of the circular economy is focus on the importance of providing goods and services sustainably. Thus, in a future it will be necessary to respond to the environmental contamination and to the use of renewables substrates by moving to a more restorative economic system that drives towards the utilization and revalorization of residues to obtain valuable products. During its evolution our industrial economy has hardly moved through one major characteristic, established in the early days of industrialization, based on a linear model of resource consumption. However, this industrial consumption system will not be maintained during long time. On the other hand, there are many industries, like the corn milling industry, that although does not consume high amount of non renewable substrates, they produce valuable streams that treated accurately, they could provide additional, economical and environmental, benefits by the extraction of interesting commercial renewable products, that can replace some of the substances obtained by chemical synthesis, using non renewable substrates. From this point of view, the use of streams from corn milling industry to obtain surface-active compounds will decrease the utilization of non-renewables sources for obtaining this kind of compounds, contributing to a circular and global economy. However, the success of the circular economy depends on the interest of the industrial sectors in the revalorization of their streams by developing relevant and new business models. Thus, it is necessary to invest in the research of new alternatives that reduce the consumption of non-renewable substrates. In this study is proposed the utilization of a corn milling industry stream to obtain an extract with surfactant capacity. Once the biosurfactant is extracted, the corn milling stream can be commercialized as nutritional media in biotechnological process or as animal feed supplement. Usually this stream is combined with other ingredients obtaining a product namely corn gluten feed or may be sold separately as a liquid protein source for beef and dairy feeding, or as a nutritional pellet binder. Following the productive scheme proposed in this work, the corn milling industry will obtain a biosurfactant extract that could be incorporated in its productive process replacing those chemical detergents, used in some point of its productive chain, or it could be commercialized as a new product of the corn manufacture. The biosurfactants obtained from corn milling industry could replace the chemical surfactants in many formulations, and uses, and it supposes an example of the potential that many industrial streams could offer for obtaining valuable products when they are manage properly.

Keywords: biosurfactantes, circular economy, corn, sustainability

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33 Simulation of Wind Solar Hybrid Power Generation for Pumping Station

Authors: Masoud Taghavi, Gholamreza Salehi, Ali Lohrasbi Nichkoohi

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Despite the growing use of renewable energies in different fields of application of this technology in the field of water supply has been less attention. Photovoltaic and wind hybrid system is that new topics in renewable energy, including photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, a set of batteries as a storage system and a diesel generator as a backup system is. In this investigation, first climate data including average wind speed and solar radiation at any time during the year, data collection and analysis are performed in the energy. The wind turbines in four models, photovoltaic panels at the 6 position of relative power, batteries and diesel generator capacity in seven states in the two models are combined hours of operation with renewables, diesel generator and battery bank check and a hybrid system of solar power generation-wind, which is optimized conditions, are presented.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind and solar energy, hybrid systems, cloning station

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32 A Digital Twin Approach for Sustainable Territories Planning: A Case Study on District Heating

Authors: Ahmed Amrani, Oussama Allali, Amira Ben Hamida, Felix Defrance, Stephanie Morland, Eva Pineau, Thomas Lacroix

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The energy planning process is a very complex task that involves several stakeholders and requires the consideration of several local and global factors and constraints. In order to optimize and simplify this process, we propose a tool-based iterative approach applied to district heating planning. We build our tool with the collaboration of a French territory using actual district data and implementing the European incentives. We set up an iterative process including data visualization and analysis, identification and extraction of information related to the area concerned by the operation, design of sustainable planning scenarios leveraging local renewable and recoverable energy sources, and finally, the evaluation of scenarios. The last step is performed by a dynamic digital twin replica of the city. Territory’s energy experts confirm that the tool provides them with valuable support towards sustainable energy planning.

Keywords: climate change, data management, decision support, digital twin, district heating, energy planning, renewables, smart city

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31 Techno-Economic Analysis of Offshore Hybrid Energy Systems with Hydrogen Production

Authors: Anna Crivellari, Valerio Cozzani

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Even though most of the electricity produced in the entire world still comes from fossil fuels, new policies are being implemented in order to promote a more sustainable use of energy sources. Offshore renewable resources have become increasingly attractive thanks to the huge entity of power potentially obtained. However, the intermittent nature of renewables often limits the capacity of the systems and creates mismatches between supply and demand. Hydrogen is foreseen to be a promising vector to store and transport large amounts of excess renewable power by using existing oil and gas infrastructure. In this work, an offshore hybrid energy system integrating wind energy conversion with hydrogen production was conceptually defined and applied to offshore gas platforms. A techno-economic analysis was performed by considering two different locations for the installation of the innovative power system, i.e., the North Sea and the Adriatic Sea. The water depth, the distance of the platform from the onshore gas grid, the hydrogen selling price and the green financial incentive were some of the main factors taken into account in the comparison. The results indicated that the use of well-defined indicators allows to capture specifically different cost and revenue features of the analyzed systems, as well as to evaluate their competitiveness in the actual and future energy market.

Keywords: cost analysis, energy efficiency assessment, hydrogen production, offshore wind energy

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30 Assessing the Impact of Renewable Energy on Regional Sustainability: A Comparative Study of Suwon and Seoul

Authors: Jongsoo Jurng

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The drive to expand renewable energies is often in direct conflict with sustainable development goals. Thus, it is important that energy policies account for potential trade-offs. We assess the interlinkages between energy, food, water, and land, for two case studies, Suwon and Seoul. We apply a range of assessment methods and study their usefulness as tools to identify trade-offs and to compare the sustainability performance. We calculate cross-sectoral footprints, self-sufficiency ratios and perform a simplified Energy-Water-Food nexus analysis. We use the latter for assessing scenarios to increase energy and food self-sufficiency in Suwon, while we use ecosystem service (ESS) accounting for Seoul. For Suwon, we find that constraints on the energy, food and water sectors urgently call for integrated approaches to energy policy; for Seoul, the further expansion of renewables comes at the expense of cultural and supporting ESS, which could outweigh gains from increased energy exports. We recommend a general upgrade to indicators and visualization methods that look beyond averages and a fostering of infrastructure for data on sustainable development based on harmonized international protocols. We warn against rankings of countries or regions based on benchmarks that are neither theory-driven nor location-specific.

Keywords: ESS, renewable energy, energy-water-food nexus, assessment

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29 Meeting India's Energy Demand: U.S.-India Energy Cooperation under Trump

Authors: Merieleen Engtipi

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India's total share of global population is nearly 18%; however, its per capita energy consumption is only one-third of global average. The demand and supply of electricity are uneven in the country; around 240 million of the population have no access to electricity. However, with India's trajectory for modernisation and economic growth, the demand for energy is only expected to increase. India is at a crossroad, on the one hand facing the increasing demand for energy and on the other hand meeting the Paris climate policy commitments, and further the struggle to provide efficient energy. This paper analyses the policies to meet India’s need for energy, as the per capita energy consumption is likely to be double in 6-7 years period. Simultaneously, India's Paris commitment requires curbing of carbon emission from fossil fuels. There is an increasing need for renewables to be cheaply and efficiently available in the market and for clean technology to extract fossil fuels to meet climate policy goals. Fossil fuels are the most significant generator of energy in India; with the Paris agreement, the demand for clean energy technology is increasing. Finally, the U.S. decided to withdraw from the Paris Agreement; however, the two countries plan to continue engaging bilaterally on energy issues. The U.S. energy cooperation under Trump administration is significantly vital for greater energy security, transfer of technology and efficiency in energy supply and demand.

Keywords: energy demand, energy cooperation, fossil fuels, technology transfer

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28 Achieving High Renewable Energy Penetration in Western Australia Using Data Digitisation and Machine Learning

Authors: A. D. Tayal

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The energy industry is undergoing significant disruption. This research outlines that, whilst challenging; this disruption is also an emerging opportunity for electricity utilities. One such opportunity is leveraging the developments in data analytics and machine learning. As the uptake of renewable energy technologies and complimentary control systems increases, electricity grids will likely transform towards dense microgrids with high penetration of renewable generation sources, rich in network and customer data, and linked through intelligent, wireless communications. Data digitisation and analytics have already impacted numerous industries, and its influence on the energy sector is growing, as computational capabilities increase to manage big data, and as machines develop algorithms to solve the energy challenges of the future. The objective of this paper is to address how far the uptake of renewable technologies can go given the constraints of existing grid infrastructure and provides a qualitative assessment of how higher levels of renewable energy penetration can be facilitated by incorporating even broader technological advances in the fields of data analytics and machine learning. Western Australia is used as a contextualised case study, given its abundance and diverse renewable resources (solar, wind, biomass, and wave) and isolated networks, making a high penetration of renewables a feasible target for policy makers over coming decades.

Keywords: data, innovation, renewable, solar

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27 Information Communication Technologies and Renewable Technologies' Impact on Irish People's Lifestyle: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study

Authors: Hamilton V. Niculescu

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This paper discusses findings relating to people's engagement with mobile communication technologies and remote automated systems. This interdisciplinary study employs a constructivist grounded theory methodology, with qualitative data that was generated following in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18 people living in Ireland being corroborated with participants' observations and quantitative data. Additional data was collected following participants' remote interaction with six custom-built automated enclosures, located at six different sites around Dublin, Republic of Ireland. This paper argues that ownership and education play a vital role in people engaging with and adoption of new technologies. Analysis of participants' behavior and attitude towards Information Communication Technologies (ICT) suggests that innovations do not always improve peoples' social inclusion. Technological innovations are sometimes perceived as destroying communities and create a dysfunctional society. Moreover, the findings indicate that a lack of public information and support from Irish governmental institutions, as well as limited off-the-shelves availability, has led to low trust and adoption of renewable technologies. A limited variation in participants' behavior and interaction patterns with technologies was observed during the study. This suggests that people will eventually adopt new technologies according to their needs and experience, even though they initially rejected the idea of changing their lifestyle.

Keywords: automation, communication, ICT, renewables

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26 About the Effect of Temperature and Heating Rate on the Pyrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Waste

Authors: María del Carmen Recio-Ruiz, Ramiro Ruiz-Rosas, Juana María Rosas, José Rodríguez-Mirasol, Tomás Cordero

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At the present time, conventional fossil fuels show environmental and sustainability disadvantages with regard to renewables energies. Producing energy and chemicals from biomass is an interesting alternative for substitution of conventional fossil sources with a renewable feedstock while enabling zero net greenhouse gases emissions. Pyrolysis is a well-known process to produce fuels and chemicals from biomass. In this work, conventional and fast pyrolysis of different agro-industrial residues (almond shells, hemp hurds, olive stones, and Kraft lignin) was studied. Both processes were carried out in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen flow and using different operating conditions to analyze the influence of temperature (400-800 ºC) and heating rate (10 and 20 ºC/minfor conventional pyrolysis and 50 ºC/s for fast pyrolysis)on the yields, products distribution, and composition of the different fractions. The results showed that for both conventional and fast pyrolysis, the solid fraction yield decreased with temperature, while the liquid and gas fractions increased. In the case of the fast pyrolysis, a higher content of liquid fraction than that obtained in conventional pyrolysis could be observed due to cracking reactions occur at a lesser extent. With respect to the composition of de non-condensable fraction, the main gases obtained were CO, CO₂ (mainly at low temperatures), CH₄, and H₂ (mainly at high temperatures).

Keywords: bio-oil, biomass, conventional pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis

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25 Environmental Cost and Benefits Analysis of Different Electricity Option: A Case Study of Kuwait

Authors: Mohammad Abotalib, Hamid Alhamadi

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In Kuwait, electricity is generated from two primary sources that are heavy fuel combustion and natural gas combustion. As Kuwait relies mainly on petroleum-based products for electricity generation, identifying and understanding the environmental trade-off of such operations should be carefully investigated. The life cycle assessment (LCA) tool is applied to identify the potential environmental impact of electricity generation under three scenarios by considering the material flow in various stages involved, such as raw-material extraction, transportation, operations, and waste disposal. The three scenarios investigated represent current and futuristic electricity grid mixes. The analysis targets six environmental impact categories: (1) global warming potential (GWP), (2) acidification potential (AP), (3) water depletion (WD), (4) acidification potential (AP), (4) eutrophication potential (EP), (5) human health particulate matter (HHPM), and (6) smog air (SA) per one kWh of electricity generated. Results indicate that one kWh of electricity generated would have a GWP (881-1030) g CO₂-eq, mainly from the fuel combustion process, water depletion (0.07-0.1) m³ of water, about 68% from cooling processes, AP (15.3-17.9) g SO₂-eq, EP (0.12-0.14) g N eq., HHPA (1.13- 1.33)g PM₂.₅ eq., and SA (64.8-75.8) g O₃ eq. The variation in results depend on the scenario investigated. It can be observed from the analysis that introducing solar photovoltaic and wind to the electricity grid mix improves the performance of scenarios 2 and 3 where 15% of the electricity comes from renewables correspond to a further decrease in LCA results.

Keywords: energy, functional uni, global warming potential, life cycle assessment, energy, functional unit

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24 Strategies and Difficulties to Integrate Renewable Energy into Recreational Open Spaces

Authors: A. Tereci, M. Atmaca

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Recreational spaces designed or build for refreshment of the users through natural riches and/or activities. Those places contribute to the quality of city life by providing relaxation point for citizens and maintaining the environmental equilibrium. The elements which constitute the recreational areas also promote long-term environmental and social sustainability of cities. Preservation and creation of the recreation open spaces are important for water and air quality, natural habitat and also social communication. On this point, it is also a good area for promoting the renewable energy sources through comprehension of the sustainable development which is possible only with using nature and technic together. Energy production is mainly technical issue, and architectural design of these elements to the site always ignores or avoid. The main problems for integration of renewable energy sources are the system suitability, security, durability, and resiliency. In this paper, one of the city recreational open spaces in Konya, Turkey was evaluated for integration of possible renewable energy sources. It shows that the solar energy potential is high and PV integration is the best option. On the other hand wind, energy power and area is not suitable for wind turbine, so wind belts were decided to integrate on the design. According to recreational activities, the chosen elements was designed for site application, and their performance was calculated. According to possible installation on the furniture, there is 50 MWh/a electricity production capacity.

Keywords: energy, integrated design, recreational space, renewables

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23 A Sustainable Energy Portfolio for Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area by the Mid-Century

Authors: Ismail Kimuli

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With a steadfast economic development, the Greater Kampala metropolitan area (GKMA) faces increasing pressures to increasetheshare of low-carbon electricity in the energy balance, abate CO2 emissions and also restructure the transportation sector for a sustainable 2050. GKMA, is Uganda’s commercial, political, social, and industrial hub with a population of 4.1 million, contributing 60% tothe nation’s GDP and accounts for 80% of Uganda’s industrial sector.However, with the rampant anthropogenic interference that causes climate change, CO2 emissions in the metropolitan are contributing to global warming. Many economies across the globe are addressing this challengethrough development and analysis of sustainable energy portfolios.A sustainable energy portfolio is a low-carbon scenario. The study reviews the literature to establish the current energy management situation of GKMA and finds it wanting in addressing the immediate challenges associated with energy management of the metropolitan. Then, the study develops and examines a sustainable energy portfolio for GKMA using TIMES-VEDA and then presents it as an investigative low-carbon energy scenario that could propel the metropolitan sustainably towards 2050.Sustainability is plausible by optimizing the total primary energy supply, generating low-carbon electricity from hydropower and PV-solar renewables, improving heating technologies for residential & commercial sectors, and switching 90% of land passengers from road to a Kampala metro for a sustainable mid-century.

Keywords: GKMA, sustainability, TIMES-VEDA, low-carbon scenario

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22 Performance Gap and near Zero Energy Buildings Compliance of Monitored Passivhaus in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Italy

Authors: S. Colclough, V. Costanzo, K. Fabbri, S. Piraccini, P. Griffiths

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The near Zero Energy Building (nZEB) standard is required for all buildings from 2020. The Passive House (PH) standard is a well-established low-energy building standard, having been designed over 25 years ago, and could potentially be used to achieve the nZEB standard in combination with renewables. By comparing measured performance with design predictions, this paper considers if there is a performance gap for a number of monitored properties and assesses if the nZEB standard can be achieved by following the well-established PH scheme. Analysis is carried out based on monitoring results from real buildings located in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Italy respectively, with particular focus on the indoor air quality including the assumed and measured indoor temperature and heating periods for both standards as recorded during a full annual cycle. An analysis is carried out also on the energy performance certificates of each of the dwellings to determine if they meet the near Zero Energy Buildings primary energy consumption targets set in the respective jurisdictions. Each of the dwellings is certified as complying with the passive house standard, and accordingly have very good insulation levels, heat recovery and ventilation systems of greater than 75% efficiency and an airtightness of less than 0.6 air changes per hour at 50 Pa. It is found that indoor temperature and relative humidity were within the comfort boundaries set in the design stage, while carbon dioxide concentrations are sometimes higher than the values suggested by EN 15251 Standard for comfort class I especially in bedrooms.

Keywords: monitoring campaign, nZEB (near zero energy buildings), Passivhaus, performance gap

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21 India’s Energy System Transition, Survival of the Greenest

Authors: B. Sudhakara Reddy

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The transition to a clean and green energy system is an economic and social transformation that is exciting as well as challenging. The world today faces a formidable challenge in transforming its economy from being driven primarily by fossil fuels, which are non-renewable and a major source of global pollution, to becoming an economy that can function effectively using renewable energy sources and by achieving high energy efficiency levels. In the present study, a green economy scenario is developed for India using a bottom-up approach. The results show that the penetration rate of renewable energy resources will reduce the total primary energy demand by 23% under GE. Improvements in energy efficiency (e.g. households, industrial and commercial sectors) will result in reduced demand to the tune of 318 MTOE. The volume of energy-related CO2 emissions decline to 2,218 Mt in 2030 from 3,440 under the BAU scenario and the per capita emissions will reduce by about 35% (from 2.22 to 1.45) under the GE scenario. The reduction in fossil fuel demand and focus on clean energy will reduce the energy intensity to 0.21 (TOE/US$ of GDP) and carbon intensity to 0.42 (ton/US$ of GDP) under the GE scenario. total import bill (coal and oil) will amount to US$ 334 billion by 2030 (at 2010/11 prices), but as per the GE scenario, it would be US$ 194.2 billion, a saving of about US$ 140 billion. The building of a green energy economy can also serve another purpose: to develop new ‘pathways out of poverty’ by creating more than 10 million jobs and thus raise the standard of living of low-income people. The differences between the baseline and green energy scenarios are not so much the consequence of the diffusion of various technologies. It is the result of the active roles of different actors and the drivers that become dominant.

Keywords: emissions, green energy, fossil fuels, green jobs, renewables, scenario

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20 A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study on the Impact of Automation on People and Gardening

Authors: Hamilton V. Niculescu

Abstract:

Following a three year study conducted on eighteen Irish people that are involved in growing vegetables in various community gardens around Dublin, Republic of Ireland, it was revealed that addition of some automated features aimed at improving agricultural practices represented a process which was regarded as potentially beneficial, and as a great tool to closely monitor climate conditions inside the greenhouses. The participants were provided with a free custom-built mobile app through which they could remotely monitor and control features such as irrigation, air ventilation, and windows to ensure optimal growing conditions for vegetables growing inside purpose-built greenhouses. While the initial interest was generally high, within weeks, the participants' level of interaction with the enclosures slowly declined. By employing a constructivist grounded theory methodology, following focus group discussions, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and observations, it was revealed that participants' trust in newer technologies, and renewables, in particular, was low. There are various reasons for this, but because the participants in this study consist of mainly working-class people, it can be argued that lack of education and knowledge are the main barriers acting against the adoption of innovations. Consequently, it was revealed that most participants eventually decided to "set and forget" the systems in automatic working mode, indicating that the immediate effect of introducing people to assisting technologies also introduced some unintended consequences into their lifestyle. It is argued that this occurrence also indicates the fact that people initially "read" newer technologies and only adopt those features that they find useful and less intrusive in regards to their current lifestyle.

Keywords: automation, communication, greenhouse, sustainable

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19 The Relationship between Renewable Energy, Real Income, Tourism and Air Pollution

Authors: Eyup Dogan

Abstract:

One criticism of the energy-growth-environment literature, to the best of our knowledge, is that only a few studies analyze the influence of tourism on CO₂ emissions even though tourism sector is closely related to the environment. The other criticism is the selection of methodology. Panel estimation techniques that fail to consider both heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence across countries can cause forecasting errors. To fulfill the mentioned gaps in the literature, this study analyzes the impacts of real GDP, renewable energy and tourism on the levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions for the top 10 most-visited countries around the world. This study focuses on the top 10 touristic (most-visited) countries because they receive about the half of the worldwide tourist arrivals in late years and are among the top ones in 'Renewables Energy Country Attractiveness Index (RECAI)'. By looking at Pesaran’s CD test and average growth rates of variables for each country, we detect the presence of cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. Hence, this study uses second generation econometric techniques (cross-sectionally augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF), and cross-sectionally augmented IPS (CIPS) unit root test, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, and the DOLS and the FMOLS estimators) which are robust to the mentioned issues. Therefore, the reported results become accurate and reliable. It is found that renewable energy mitigates the pollution whereas real GDP and tourism contribute to carbon emissions. Thus, regulatory policies are necessary to increase the awareness of sustainable tourism. In addition, the use of renewable energy and the adoption of clean technologies in tourism sector as well as in producing goods and services play significant roles in reducing the levels of emissions.

Keywords: air pollution, tourism, renewable energy, income, panel data

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18 Economic Evaluation of Varying Scenarios to Fulfill the Regional Electricity Demand in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Kafait Ullah, Kashif Imran, Arshad Mahmood, Maarten Arentsen

Abstract:

Poor planning and governance in the power sector of Pakistan have generated several issues ranging from gradual reliance on thermal-based expensive energy mix, supply shortages, unrestricted demand, subsidization, inefficiencies at different levels of the value chain and resultantly, the circular debt. This situation in the power sector has also hampered the growth of allied economic sectors. This study uses the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) system for electricity modelling of Pakistan from the period of 2016 to 2040. The study has first time in Pakistan forecasted the electricity demand at the provincial level. At the supply side, five scenarios Business as Usual Scenario (BAUS), Coal Scenario (CS), Gas Scenario (GS), Nuclear Scenario (NS) and Renewable Scenario (RS) have been analyzed based on the techno-economic and environmental parameters. The study has also included environmental externality costs for evaluating the actual costs and benefits of different scenarios. Contrary to the expectations, RS has a lower output than even BAUS. The study has concluded that the generation from RS has five times lesser costs than BAUS, CS, and GS. NS can also be an alternative for the sustainable future of Pakistan. Generation from imported coal is not a good option, however, indigenous coal with clean coal technologies should be promoted. This paper proposes energy planners of the country to devise incentives for the utilization of indigenous energy resources including renewables on priority and then clean coal to reduce the energy crises of Pakistan.

Keywords: economic evaluation, externality cost, penetration of renewable energy, regional electricity supply-demand planning

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17 Hybrid Renewable Power Systems

Authors: Salman Al-Alyani

Abstract:

In line with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030, the Saudi Green initiative was announced aimed at reducing carbon emissions by more than 4% of the global contribution. The initiative included plans to generate 50% of its energy from renewables by 2030. The geographical location of Saudi Arabia makes it among the best countries in terms of solar irradiation and has good wind resources in many areas across the Kingdom. Saudi Arabia is a wide country and has many remote locations where it is not economically feasible to connect those loads to the national grid. With the improvement of battery innovation and reduction in cost, different renewable technologies (primarily wind and solar) can be integrated to meet the need for energy in a more effective and cost-effective way. Saudi Arabia is famous for high solar irradiations in which solar power generation can extend up to six (6) hours per day (25% capacity factor) in some locations. However, the net present value (NPV) falls down to negative in some locations due to distance and high installation costs. Wind generation in Saudi Arabia is a promising technology. Hybrid renewable generation will increase the net present value and lower the payback time due to additional energy generated by wind. The infrastructure of the power system can be capitalized to contain solar generation and wind generation feeding the inverter, controller, and load. Storage systems can be added to support the hours that have an absence of wind or solar energy. Also, the smart controller that can help integrate various renewable technologies primarily wind and solar, to meet demand considering load characteristics. It could be scalable for grid or off-grid applications. The objective of this paper is to study the feasibility of introducing a hybrid renewable system in remote locations and the concept for the development of a smart controller.

Keywords: battery storage systems, hybrid power generation, solar energy, wind energy

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16 Hybrid Energy System for the German Mining Industry: An Optimized Model

Authors: Kateryna Zharan, Jan C. Bongaerts

Abstract:

In recent years, economic attractiveness of renewable energy (RE) for the mining industry, especially for off-grid mines, and a negative environmental impact of fossil energy are stimulating to use RE for mining needs. Being that remote area mines have higher energy expenses than mines connected to a grid, integration of RE may give a mine economic benefits. Regarding the literature review, there is a lack of business models for adopting of RE at mine. The main aim of this paper is to develop an optimized model of RE integration into the German mining industry (GMI). Hereby, the GMI with amount of around 800 mill. t. annually extracted resources is included in the list of the 15 major mining country in the world. Accordingly, the mining potential of Germany is evaluated in this paper as a perspective market for RE implementation. The GMI has been classified in order to find out the location of resources, quantity and types of the mines, amount of extracted resources, and access of the mines to the energy resources. Additionally, weather conditions have been analyzed in order to figure out where wind and solar generation technologies can be integrated into a mine with the highest efficiency. Despite the fact that the electricity demand of the GMI is almost completely covered by a grid connection, the hybrid energy system (HES) based on a mix of RE and fossil energy is developed due to show environmental and economic benefits. The HES for the GMI consolidates a combination of wind turbine, solar PV, battery and diesel generation. The model has been calculated using the HOMER software. Furthermore, the demonstrated HES contains a forecasting model that predicts solar and wind generation in advance. The main result from the HES such as CO2 emission reduction is estimated in order to make the mining processing more environmental friendly.

Keywords: diesel generation, German mining industry, hybrid energy system, hybrid optimization model for electric renewables, optimized model, renewable energy

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15 Analysing the Renewable Energy Integration Paradigm in the Post-COVID-19 Era: An Examination of the Upcoming Energy Law of China

Authors: Lan Wu

Abstract:

The declared transformation towards a ‘new electricity system dominated by renewable energy’ by China requires a cleaner electricity consumption mix with high shares of renewable energy sourced-electricity (RES-E). Unfortunately, integration of RES-E into Chinese electricity markets remains a problem pending more robust legal support, evidenced by the curtailment of wind and solar power as a consequence of integration constraints. The upcoming energy law of the PRC (energy law) is expected to provide such long-awaiting support and coordinate the existing diverse sector-specific laws to deal with the weak implementation that dampening the delivery of their desired regulatory effects. However, in the shadow of the COVID-19 crisis, it remains uncertain how this new energy law brings synergies to RES-E integration, mindful of the significant impacts of the pandemic. Through the theoretical lens of the interplay between China’s electricity reform and legislative development, the present paper investigates whether there is a paradigm shift in energy law regarding renewable energy integration compared with the existing sector-specific energy laws. It examines the 2020 draft for comments on the energy law and analyses its relationship with sector-specific energy laws focusing on RES-E integration. The comparison is drawn upon five key aspects of the RES-E integration issue, including the status of renewables, marketisation, incentive schemes, consumption mechanisms, access to power grids, and dispatching. The analysis shows that it is reasonable to expect a more open and well-organized electricity market enabling absorption of high shares of RES-E. The present paper concludes that a period of prosperous development of RES-E in the post-COVID-19 era can be anticipated with the legal support by the upcoming energy law. It contributes to understanding the signals China is sending regarding the transition towards a cleaner energy future.

Keywords: energy law, energy transition, electricity market reform, renewable energy integration

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14 Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus: a Sustainability Understanding from the BRICS Economies

Authors: Smart E. Amanfo

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Although the exact functional relationship between energy consumption and economic growth and development remains a complex social science, there is a sustained growing of agreement among energy economists and the likes on direct or indirect role of energy use in the development process, and as sustenance for many of societal achieved socio-economic and environmental developments in any economy. According to OECD, the world economy will double by 2050 in which the two members of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries: China and India lead. There is a global apprehension that if countries constituting the epicenter of the present and future economic growth follow the same trajectory as during and after Industrial Revolution, involving higher energy throughputs, especially fossil fuels, the already known and models predicted threats of climate change and global warming could be exacerbated, especially in the developing economies. The international community’s challenge is how to address the trilemma of economic growth, social development, poverty eradication and stability of the ecological systems. This paper aims at providing the estimates of economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions using BRICS members’ panel data from 1980 to 2017. The preliminary results based on fixed effect econometric model show positive significant relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. The paper further identified a strong relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions which suggests that the global agenda of low-carbon-led growth and development is not a straight forward achievable The study therefore highlights the need for BRICS member states to intensify low-emissions-based production and consumption policies, increase renewables in order to avoid further deterioration of climate change impacts.

Keywords: BRICS, sustainability, sustainable development, energy consumption, economic growth

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13 Energy Options and Environmental Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Utilization Pathways

Authors: Evar C. Umeozor, Experience I. Nduagu, Ian D. Gates

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The energy requirements of carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) technologies/processes are diverse, so also are their environmental footprints. This paper explores the energy and environmental impacts of systems for CO₂ conversion to fuels, chemicals, and materials. Energy needs of the technologies and processes deployable in CO₂ conversion systems are met by one or combinations of hydrogen (chemical), electricity, heat, and light. Likewise, the environmental footprint of any CO₂ utilization pathway depends on the systems involved. So far, evaluation of CDU systems has been constrained to particular energy source/type or a subset of the overall system needed to make CDU possible. This introduces limitations to the general understanding of the energy and environmental implications of CDU, which has led to various pitfalls in past studies. A CDU system has an energy source, CO₂ supply, and conversion units. We apply a holistic approach to consider the impacts of all components in the process, including various sources of energy, CO₂ feedstock, and conversion technologies. The electricity sources include nuclear power, renewables (wind and solar PV), gas turbine, and coal. Heat is supplied from either electricity or natural gas, and hydrogen is produced from either steam methane reforming or electrolysis. The CO₂ capture unit uses either direct air capture or post-combustion capture via amine scrubbing, where applicable, integrated configurations of the CDU system are explored. We demonstrate how the overall energy and environmental impacts of each utilization pathway are obtained by aggregating the values for all components involved. Proper accounting of the energy and emission intensities of CDU must incorporate total balances for the utilization process and differences in timescales between alternative conversion pathways. Our results highlight opportunities for the use of clean energy sources, direct air capture, and a number of promising CO₂ conversion pathways for producing methanol, ethanol, synfuel, urea, and polymer materials.

Keywords: carbon dioxide utilization, processes, energy options, environmental impacts

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12 Examining the Discursive Hegemony of British Energy Transition Narratives

Authors: Antonia Syn

Abstract:

Politicians’ outlooks on the nature of energy futures and an ‘Energy Transition’ have evolved considerably alongside a steady movement towards renewable energies, buttressed by lower technology costs, rising environmental concerns, and favourable national policy decisions. This paper seeks to examine the degree to which an energy transition has become an incontrovertible ‘status quo’ in parliament, and whether politicians share similar understandings of energy futures or narrate different stories under the same label. Parliamentarians construct different understandings of the same reality, in the form of co-existing and competing discourses, shaping and restricting how policy problems and solutions are understood and tackled. Approaching energy policymaking from a parliamentary discourse perspective draws directly from actors’ concrete statements, offering an alternative to policy literature debates revolving around inductive policy theories. This paper uses computer-assisted discourse analysis to describe fundamental discursive changes in British parliamentary debates around energy futures. By applying correspondence cluster analyses to Hansard transcripts from 1986 to 2010, we empirically measure the policy positions of Labour and Conservative politicians’ parliamentary speeches during legislatively salient moments preceding significant energy transition-related policy decisions. Results show the concept of a technology-based, market-driven transition towards fossil-free and nuclear-free renewables integration converged across Labour and the Conservatives within three decades. Specific storylines underwent significant change, particularly in relation to international outlooks, environmental framings, treatments of risk, and increases in rhetoric. This study contributes to a better understanding of the role politics plays in the energy transition, highlighting how politicians’ values and beliefs inevitably determine and delimit creative policymaking.

Keywords: quantitative discourse analysis, energy transition, renewable energy, British parliament, public policy

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11 Optimizing the Insertion of Renewables in the Colombian Power Sector

Authors: Felipe Henao, Yeny Rodriguez, Juan P. Viteri, Isaac Dyner

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Colombia is rich in natural resources and greatly focuses on the exploitation of water for hydroelectricity purposes. Alternative cleaner energy sources, such as solar and wind power, have been largely neglected despite: a) its abundance, b) the complementarities between hydro, solar and wind power, and c) the cost competitiveness of renewable technologies. The current limited mix of energy sources creates considerable weaknesses for the system, particularly when facing extreme dry weather conditions, such as El Niño event. In the past, El Niño have exposed the truly consequences of a system heavily dependent on hydropower, i.e. loss of power supply, high energy production costs, and loss of overall competitiveness for the country. Nonetheless, it is expected that the participation of hydroelectricity will increase in the near future. In this context, this paper proposes a stochastic lineal programming model to optimize the insertion of renewable energy systems (RES) into the Colombian electricity sector. The model considers cost-based generation competition between traditional energy technologies and alternative RES. This work evaluates the financial, environmental, and technical implications of different combinations of technologies. Various scenarios regarding the future evolution of costs of the technologies are considered to conduct sensitivity analysis of the solutions – to assess the extent of the participation of the RES in the Colombian power sector. Optimization results indicate that, even in the worst case scenario, where costs remain constant, the Colombian power sector should diversify its portfolio of technologies and invest strongly in solar and wind power technologies. The diversification through RES will contribute to make the system less vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, reduce the overall system costs, cut CO2 emissions, and decrease the chances of having national blackout events in the future. In contrast, the business as usual scenario indicates that the system will turn more costly and less reliable.

Keywords: energy policy and planning, stochastic programming, sustainable development, water management

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