Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: bioaccumulation

41 Investigation Acute Toxicity and Bioaccumulation Mineral Mercury in Rutilus frisii Kutum

Authors: A. Gharaei, R. Karami

Abstract:

Rutilus frisii Kutum was exposed to various concentrations of mercuric chloride in water to determine its acute toxicity and bioaccumulation. We carried out ten treatments with three replicates and one control for each of the chemicals using the static O. E. C. D. method in 55-liter-tanks each containing 14 fingerlings. During the experiments, the average pH was recorded as 7.8, total hardness was measured to be 255 mg/l, the average water temperature was 27±1 degrees centigrade and dissolved oxygen was 7.2 mg/l. Mean LC50 values of Hgcl2 for juvenile R. frisii kutum with mean weight 1±0.2 gr were 0.102 and 0.86 mgHg/l at 24h and 96h, respectively. The bioaccumulation values during 24h in tissue, kidney, and gill were 1.55, 16.1, and 22.7 mgHg/l, respectively. So, these values during 96h were 2.8, 16.8, and 26.65 mgHg/l, respectively. The bioconcentration factors in tissue, kidney, and gill during 24h were 14.75, 153.39, and 216.11 and so during 96h were 33.8, 198.1, and 313.5 times. These results show that bioaccumulation was highest in the gill and then kidney and tissue, respectively. This study suggested that between mercury concentrations of water with bioaccumulation in tissue more than kidney and gill.

Keywords: HgCl2, LC5096h, bioaccumulation, Rutilus frisii Kutum, Caspian Sea

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40 Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Tissues of Ipomoea Batatas and Manihot Esculenta Irrigated with Water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Sa’idu A. Abdullah, Jafar Lawan, A. U. Adamu, Fowotade, S. A., Hamisu Abdu

Abstract:

Scarcity of quality water in many communities compels inhabitants to use any available water resources for domestic, recreational, industrial and agricultural purposes. Global concern on the potential health hazards of anthropogenic inputs into our ecosystems imposes the need for constant monitoring of levels of pollutants in order to ensure compliance with internationally acceptable criteria. In this research, assessment of bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn was carried out using tissues of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) irrigated with water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam in Kazaure, Jigawa State. The metal concentrations were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). The result of the analysis revealed the presence of the metals in varying concentrations. Cd and Co showed higher concentrations in the tubers of Manihot esculenta but all the other investigated metals were more concentrated in the leaves of the plant. Cd and Cu on the other hand showed higher concentration in the root of Ipomoea batatas while the remaining investigated metals were concentrated more in the leaves of the plant. The result of analysis of water samples from five sampling stations in the Dam showed the presence of the metals as follows: Cd, (0.063±0.02 mg/L), Co (0.086±0.03 mg/L), Cu (0.167±0.08 mg/L), Pb (0.22±0.01 mg/L) and Zn (0.047±0.01 mg/L) respectively. The results of bioaccumulation studies using the Bioaccumulation Factors (BAF) index indicated Ipomoea batatas to have higher bioaccumulation potential for Cd, Co and Cu while Pb and Zn were more accumulated in Manihot esculenta. The levels of the metals in both the water samples and plant tissues were all below the WHO permissible limit. This is indicative that the inhabitants of the community under investigation are not at any health risk.

Keywords: agriculture, bioaccumulation, heavy metal, plant tissues

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39 Assessment of Radiological Dose for Th-232 Laboratory Accumulated in Tropical Freshwater Fish

Authors: Zal U’yun Wan Mahmood, Norfaizal Mohamed, Nita Salina Abu Bakar, Yii Mei Wo, Abdul Kadir Ishak, Mohamad Noh Sawon, Mohd Tarmizi Ishak, Khairul Nizam Razali

Abstract:

The study of thorium radiotracer bioaccumulation in the whole body tropical freshwater fish (Anabas testudeneus; climb pearch) was performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different Th-232 activity concentration andradiological dose in Anabas testudeneus under the laboratory bioaccumulation condition. Anabas testudeneus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL-1 (control), 50 BqL-1, 100 BqL-1,150 BqL-1and 200 BqL-1for 30 days. Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels were calculated and; total dose rates and risk quotients using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive decrease of Th concentration ratio. Meanwhile, the total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudeneus less than the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 µGyh-1 and the risk quotient less than one. Thus, the findings can be concluded that the radiological dose of Th-232 to Anabas testudeneus is a very low probability and the situation may be considered to be of negligible radiological concern.

Keywords: Anabas testudeneus, bioaccumulation, radiological dose, Th-232

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38 The Bioaccumulation of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), and Chromium (Cr) in Relation to Personal and Social Habits in Electronic Repair Technicians in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria: A Pilot Study

Authors: M. A. Lawal, A. Uzairu, M. S. Sallau

Abstract:

The presence and bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in blood, urine, nail, and hair samples of electronic repair technicians in Kaduna-Nigeria were assessed using Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. 10 electronic repair technicians from within Kaduna Metropolis volunteered for the pilot study. The mean blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr in the subjects were 29.33 ± 4.80, 7.78 ± 10.57, and 24.78 ± 21.77 µg/dL, respectively. The mean urine concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Cr were 24.18 ± 2.98, 6.81 ± 10.05, and 14.78 ± 14.20 µg/dL, respectively. Mean nail metal values of 37.13 ± 4.08, 1.00 ± 1.21, and 18.49 ± 12.71 µg/g were obtained for Pb, Cd, and Cr, respectively while mean hair metal values of 39.41 ± 5.63, 1.09 ± 1.14, and 19.13 ± 11.61 µg/g for Pb, Cd, and Cr, respectively. Positive Pearson correlation coefficients were observed between Pb/Cd, Pb/Cr, and Cd/Cr in all samples and they indicate the metals are likely from the same pollution source. The mean concentrations of the metals in all samples were higher than the WHO, ILO, and ACGIH standards, implying the repairers are likely occupationally exposed and are subject to serious health concerns. Social habits like smoking were found to significantly affect the concentrations of these metals. The level of education, use of safety devices, period of exposure, the nature of electronics and the age of the repairers were also found to remarkably affect the concentrations of the metals.

Keywords: bioaccumulation, electronic repair technicians, heavy metals, occupational hazard

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37 Effect of Cadmium and Zinc on Initial Insect Food Chain in Wheat Agroecosystem

Authors: Muhammad Xaaceph Khan, Abida Butt, Farah Kausar

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Due to geogenic and anthropogenic factors, heavy metals concentrations increased throughout the world and deposit into soil. Thus available to different plants and travel in different food chains. The present study was designed to achieve bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in the wheat-aphid-beetle food chain. For this purpose, wheat plants were grown in three different treatments: Cd, Zn, Cd+Zn. Data showed that Cd content in soil and wheat plant increases with increase in Cd concentration while plant weighs, panicle weight, seed number per panicle and seed weight per panicle decreases with increase in Cd content in the soil. Zn content in soil and wheat plant increases with increase in Cd concentration while plant weighs, panicle weight, seed number per panicle, and seed weight per panicle increase with an increase in Zn content in the soil. With the addition of Zn in Cd-treated soil, the uptake of Cd decreases in all parts of wheat plants. Bioaccumulation from wheat plant to aphids and then its predators were also studied. Cd concentration increases from low to high concentration in all arthropods. Same was observed in Zn concentrations, while in Cd+Zn, Cd accumulation decreases but Zn accumulates increases. Health risk index (HRI) also showed that in the presence of Zn, the HRI improves and can help to reduce health risks associated with Cd.

Keywords: aphid, beetle, bioaccumulation, cadmium, wheat, zinc

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36 Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Padina boryana Alga Collected from a Contaminated Site at the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Huda Qari, I. A. Hassan

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The brown alga Padina boryanawas was used for bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation at the seashore of Jeddah city. PAHs were determined in the coastal water and algal tissues by GC-MS. Acenaphthene (Ace) and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene (dB(a,h)An) were the main PAHs in seawater (50.02 and 46.18) and algal tissues (64.67 and 72.45), respectively. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (1.76 – 1.44), fluoranthene/pyrene (1.57 – 1.52) and phenanthrene/anthracene (0.86 – 0.67) in seawater and algal tissues, respectively, indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using Padina boryanawas as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Padina boryanawas, bioaccumulation, waste water

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35 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai

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This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: heavy metal, wastewater, bioaccumulation, biosorption

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34 The Role of Two Macrophyte Species in Mineral Nutrient Cycling in Human-Impacted Water Reservoirs

Authors: Ludmila Polechonska, Agnieszka Klink

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The biogeochemical studies of macrophytes shed light on elements bioavailability, transfer through the food webs and their possible effects on the biota, and provide a basis for their practical application in aquatic monitoring and remediation. Measuring the accumulation of elements in plants can provide time-integrated information about the presence of chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the contents of micro- and macroelements in two cosmopolitan macrophytes, submerged Ceratophyllum demersum (hornworth) and free-floating Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit), in order to assess their bioaccumulation potential, elements stock accumulated in each plant and their role in nutrients cycling in small water reservoirs. Sampling sites were designated in 25 oxbow lakes in urban areas in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). In each sampling site, fresh whole plants of C. demersum and H. morsus-ranae were collected from squares of 1x1 meters each where the species coexisted. European frog-bit was separated into leaves, stems and roots. For biomass measurement all plants growing on 1 square meter were collected, dried and weighed. At the same time, water samples were collected from each reservoir and their pH and EC were determined. Water samples were filtered and acidified and plant samples were digested in concentrated nitric acid. Next, the content of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn was determined using atomic absorption method (AAS). Statistical analysis showed that C. demersum and organs of H. morsus-ranae differed significantly in respect of metals content (Kruskal-Wallis Anova, p<0.05). Contents of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were higher in hornwort, while European frog-bit contained more Ca, Fe, K, Mg. Bioaccumulation Factors (BCF=content in plant/concentration in water) showed similar pattern of metal bioaccumulation – microelements were more intensively accumulated by hornwort and macroelements by frog-bit. Based on BCF values both species may be positively evaluated as good accumulators of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. However, the distribution of metals in H. morsus-ranae was uneven – the majority of studied elements were retained in roots, which may indicate to existence of physiological barriers developed for dealing with toxicity. Some percent of Ca and K was actively transported to stems, but to leaves Mg only. Although the biomass of C. demersum was two times greater than biomass of H. morsus-ranae, the element off-take was greater only for Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn. Nevertheless, it can be stated that despite a relatively small biomass, compared to other macrophytes, both species may have an influence on the removal of trace elements from aquatic ecosystems and, as they serve as food for some animals, also on the incorporation of toxic elements into food chains. There was a significant positive correlation between content of Mn and Fe in water and roots of H. morus-ranae (R=0.51 and R=0.60, respectively) as well as between Cu concentration in water and in C. demersum (R=0.41) (Spearman rank correlation, p<0.05). High bioaccumulation rates and correlation between plants and water elements concentrations point to their possible use as passive biomonitors of aquatic pollution.

Keywords: aquatic plants, bioaccumulation, biomonitoring, macroelements, phytoremediation, trace metals

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33 A Comprehensive Review on Health Hazards and Challenges for Microbial Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants

Authors: Nisha Gaur, K.Narasimhulu, Pydi Setty Yelamarthy

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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have become a great concern due to their toxicity, transformation and bioaccumulation property. Therefore, this review highlights the types, sources, classification health hazards and mobility of organochlorine pesticides, industrial chemicals and their by-products. Moreover, with the signing of Aarhus and Stockholm convention on POPs there is an increased demand to identify and characterise such chemicals from industries and environment which are toxic in nature or to existing biota. Due to long life, persistent nature they enter into body through food and transfer to all tropic levels of ecological unit. In addition, POPs are lipophilic in nature and accumulate in lipid-containing tissues and organs which further indicates the adverse symptoms after the threshold limit. Though, several potential enzymes are reported from various categories of microorganism and their interaction with POPs may break down the complex compounds either through biodegradation, biostimulation or bioaugmentation process, however technological advancement and human activities have also indicated to explore the possibilities for the role of genetically modified organisms and metagenomics and metabolomics. Though many studies have been done to develop low cost, effective and reliable method for detection, determination and removal of ultra-trace concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but due to insufficient knowledge and non-feasibility of technique, the safe management of POPs is still a global challenge.

Keywords: persistent organic pollutants, bioaccumulation, biostimulation, microbial remediation

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32 Evaluation of Toxic Metals in Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Central Mexico

Authors: Jacobo Tabla, P. F. Rodriguez-Espinosa, M. E. Perez-Lopez

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Valsequillo reservoir located in Puebla City, Central Mexico receives water from the Atoyac River (Northwest) and from Alseseca River in the north. It has been the receptacle of municipal and industrial wastes for the past few decades affecting the water quality lethally. As a result, there is an outburst of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) in the reservoir occupying around 50 % of the total area. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to assess the concentration levels of toxic metals (Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As) in the water hyacinths and the ambient waters during the dry season. Fourteen water samples and three water hyacinth samples were procured from the Valsequillo reservoir. The collected samples of water hyacinth (roots, rhizome, stems and leaves) were analyzed using an Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) Ultramass 700 (Varian Inc.) to determine the metal levels. Results showed that water hyacinth presented an exhaustion in metal capture from the inlet to outlet of the reservoir. The maximum bioaccumulation factors (BF) of Co, Zn, Ni, Cu and As were 5000, 47474, 4929, 17090 and 74000 respectively. On the other hand, the maximum Translocation Factor (TF) of 0.85 was observed in Zn, whilst Co presented the minimum TF of 0.059. Thus, the results presented the fact that water hyacinth in Valsequillo reservoir proves to be an important environmental utility for efficiently accumulating and translocating heavy metals from the ambient waters to its organelles (stems and leaves).

Keywords: bioaccumulation factor, toxic metals, translocation factor, water hyacinth

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31 Assessment of Landfill Pollution Load on Hydroecosystem by Use of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation Data in Fish

Authors: Gintarė Sauliutė, Gintaras Svecevičius

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Landfill leachates contain a number of persistent pollutants, including heavy metals. They have the ability to spread in ecosystems and accumulate in fish which most of them are classified as top-consumers of trophic chains. Fish are freely swimming organisms; but perhaps, due to their species-specific ecological and behavioral properties, they often prefer the most suitable biotopes and therefore, did not avoid harmful substances or environments. That is why it is necessary to evaluate the persistent pollutant dispersion in hydroecosystem using fish tissue metal concentration. In hydroecosystems of hybrid type (e.g. river-pond-river) the distance from the pollution source could be a perfect indicator of such a kind of metal distribution. The studies were carried out in the Kairiai landfill neighboring hybrid-type ecosystem which is located 5 km east of the Šiauliai City. Fish tissue (gills, liver, and muscle) metal concentration measurements were performed on two types of ecologically-different fishes according to their feeding characteristics: benthophagous (Gibel carp, roach) and predatory (Northern pike, perch). A number of mathematical models (linear, non-linear, using log and other transformations) have been applied in order to identify the most satisfactorily description of the interdependence between fish tissue metal concentration and the distance from the pollution source. However, the only one log-multiple regression model revealed the pattern that the distance from the pollution source is closely and positively correlated with metal concentration in all predatory fish tissues studied (gills, liver, and muscle).

Keywords: bioaccumulation in fish, heavy metals, hydroecosystem, landfill leachate, mathematical model

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30 Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contamination and Assessment of the Suitability of Water for Irrigation: A Case Study of the Sand River, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Ngonidzashe Moyo, Mmaditshaba Rapatsa

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The primary objective of this study was to determine heavy metal contamination in the water, sediment, grass and fish in Sand River, South Africa. This river passes through an urban area and sewage effluent is discharged into it. Water from the Sand river is subsequently used for irrigation downstream of the sewage treatment works. The suitability of this water and the surrounding boreholes for irrigation was determined. This study was undertaken between January, 2014 and January, 2015. Monthly samples were taken from four sites. Sites 1 was upstream of the Polokwane Wastewater Treatment Plant, sites 2, 3 and 4 were downstream. Ten boreholes in the vicinity of the Sand River were randomly selected and the water was tested for heavy metal contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in Sand River water followed the order Mn>Fe>Pb>Cu≥Zn≥Cd. Manganese concentration averaged 0.34 mg/L. Heavy metal concentration in the sediment, grass and fish followed the order Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. The bioaccumulation factor from grass to fish was highest in manganese (19.25), followed by zinc (16.39) and iron (14.14). Soil permeability index (PI) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) were used to determine the suitability of Sand River and borehole water for irrigation. The PI index for Sand River water was 75.1% and this indicates that Sand River water is suitable for irrigation of crops. The PI index for the borehole water ranged from 65.8-72.8% and again this indicates suitability of borehole water for crop irrigation. The sodium adsorption ratio also indicated that both Sand River and borehole water were suitable for irrigation. A risk assessment study is recommended to determine the suitability of the fish for human consumption.

Keywords: bioaccumulation, bioavailability, heavy metals, sodium adsorption ratio

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29 Phytotechnologies for Use and Reconstitution of Contaminated Sites

Authors: Olga Shuvaeva, Tamara Romanova, Sergey Volynkin, Valentina Podolinnaya

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Green chemistry concept is focused on the prevention of environmental pollution caused by human activity. However, there are a lot of contaminated areas in the world which pose a serious threat to ecosystems in terms of their conservation. Therefore in accordance with the principles of green chemistry, it should not be forgotten about the need to clean these areas. Furthermore, the waste material often contains the valuable components, the extraction of which by traditional wet chemical technologies is inefficient both from the economic and environmental protection standpoint. Wherein, the plants may be successfully used to ‘scavenge’ a range of metals from polluted land sites in an approach allowing to carry out both of these processes – phytoremediation and phytomining in conjunction. The goal of the present work was to study bioaccumulation ability of floating macrophytes such as water hyacinth and pondweed toward Hg, Ba, Cd, Mo and Pb as pollutants in aquatic medium and terrestrial plants (birch, reed, and cane) towards gold and silver as valuable components. The peculiarity of ongoing research was that the plants grew under extreme conditions (pH of drainage and pore waters was about 2.5). The study was conducted at the territory of Ursk tailings (Southwestern Siberia, Russia) formed as a result of primary polymetallic ores cyanidation. The waste material is mainly presented (~80%) by pyrite (FeS₂) and barite (BaSO₄), the raw minerals included FeAsS, HgS, PbS, Ag₂S as minor ones. It has been shown that water hyacinth demonstrates high ability to accumulate different metals, and what is especially important – to remove mercury from polluted waters with BCF value more than 1000. As for the gold, its concentrations in reed and cane growing near the waste material were estimated as 500 and 900 μg∙kg⁻¹ respectively. It was also found that the plants can survive under extreme conditions of acidic environment and hence we can assume that there is a principal opportunity to use them for the valuable substances extraction from an area of the mining waste dumps burial.

Keywords: bioaccumulation, gold, heavy metals, mine tailing

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28 Mercury and Selenium Levels in Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Fished in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Republic of Seychelles

Authors: Stephanie Hollanda, Nathalie Bodin, Carine Churlaud, Paco Bustamante

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Total mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and Hg-Se ratios were analyzed in the white muscle, liver and gonads of swordfish, in order to compare concentration between the different tissues and sex, and also the effect of size (fork length). The results show significant difference between tissue types, with the liver having the highest concentration of both Hg and Se. Positive significant correlations between moles of Hg and Se were obtained in the liver and white muscle, but no relationship was obtained in the gonads. No difference in the concentration of Hg and Se was obtained between the sexes in the tissue types, except for Hg in the gonads, which were found to be higher in males. Significant negative relationships were obtained when the Hg-Se ratio was plotted against fork length in all three tissue types.

Keywords: bioaccumulation, large pelagic fish, mercury, selenium, western Indian Ocean

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27 Gambusia an Excellent Indicator of Metals Stress

Authors: W. Khati, Y. Guasmi

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The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied in freshwater fish exposed to two heavy metals lead and cadmium. Measurements were made after short exposures (4 and 7 days) at concentrations of 1, 5, and 7μg/L cadmium and 1.25, 2.25, and 5 mg/L of lead. Cadmium induced no significant increases in activity of AChE in the gills for the lowest dose. Except significant inhibition on 7 days. In muscle of Gambusia, under stress of metallic lead, the activity increases compared to the control are noted at 4 days of treatment and inhibitions to 7 days of exposure. The analysis of variance (time, treatment) indicates only a very significant time effect (p<0.05), and as for cadmium, a significant body effect (p<0.01) is recorded. This small fish sedentary, colonizing particularly quiet environments, polluted, can only be the ideal bioindicator of contamination and bioaccumulation of metals. The presence of lead and cadmium in the bodies of fish is a risk factor not only for the lives of these aquatic species, but also for the man who is the top predator at the end of the food chain.

Keywords: biomarkers, bioindicator, environmenlal health, metals

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26 Heavy Metal Reduction in Plant Using Soil Amendment

Authors: C. Chaiyaraksa, T. Khamko

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of limestone and sepiolite on heavy metals accumulation in the soil and soybean. The soil was synthesized to contaminate with zinc 150 mg/kg, copper 100 mg/kg, and cadmium 1 mg/kg. The contaminated soil was mixed with limestone and sepiolite at the ratio of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 2:1. The amount of soil modifier added to soil was 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8%. The metals determination was performed on soil both before and after soybean planting and in the root, shoot, and seed of soybean after harvesting. The study was also on metal translocate from root to seed and on bioaccumulation factor. Using of limestone and sepiolite resulted in a reduction of metals accumulated in soybean. For soil containing a high concentration of copper, cadmium, and zinc, a mixture of limestone and sepiolite (1:1) was recommended to mix with soil with the amount of 0.2%. Zinc could translocate from root to seed more than copper, and cadmium. From studying the movement of metals from soil to accumulate in soybean, the result was that soybean could absorb the highest amount of cadmium, followed by zinc, and copper, respectively.

Keywords: heavy metals, limestone, sepiolite, soil, soybean

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25 Phycoremiadation of Heavy Metals by Marine Macroalgae Collected from Olaikuda, Rameswaram, Southeast Coast of India

Authors: Suparna Roy, Anatharaman Perumal

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The industrial effluent with high amount of heavy metals is known to have adverse effects on the environment. For the removal of heavy metals from aqueous environment, different conventional treatment technologies had been applied gradually which are not economically beneficial and also produce huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. So, bio-sorption of heavy metals by marine plant is an eco-friendly innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of heavy metals accumulation and removal by some selected marine macroalgae (seaweeds) from marine environment. Methods: Seaweeds Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl.) Boergesen, Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Halimeda gracilis Harvey ex. J. Agardh, Gracilaria opuntia Durairatnam.nom. inval. Valoniopsis pachynema (Martens) Boergesen, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder ex Kutzing) W. R. Taylor and Hydroclathrus clathratus (C. Agardh) Howe were collected from Olaikuda (09°17.526'N-079°19.662'E), Rameshwaram, south east coast of India during post monsoon period (April’2016). Seaweeds were washed with sterilized and filtered in-situ seawater repeatedly to remove all the epiphytes and debris and clean seaweeds were kept for shade drying for one week. The dried seaweeds were grinded to powder, and one gm powder seaweeds were taken in a 250ml conical flask, and 8 ml of 10 % HNO3 (70 % pure) was added to each sample and kept in room temperature (28 ̊C) for 24 hours and then samples were heated in hotplate at 120 ̊C, boiled to evaporate up to dryness and 20 ml of Nitric acid: Percholoric acid in 4:1 were added to it and again heated to hotplate at 90 ̊C up to evaporate to dryness, then samples were kept in room temperature for few minutes to cool and 10ml 10 % HNO3 were added to it and kept for 24 hours in cool and dark place and filtered with Whatman (589/2) filter paper and the filtrates were collected in 250ml clean conical flask and diluted accurately to 25 ml volume with double deionised water and triplicate of each sample were analysed with Inductively-Coupled plasma analysis (ICP-OES) to analyse total eleven heavy metals (Ag, Cd, B, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Al content of the specified species and data were statistically evaluated for standard deviation. Results: Acanthophora spicifera contains highest amount of Ag (0.1± 0.2 mg/mg) followed by Cu (0.16±0.01 mg/mg), Mn (1.86±0.02 mg/mg), B (3.59±0.2 mg/mg), Halimeda gracilis showed highest accumulation of Al (384.75±0.12mg/mg), Valoniopsis pachynema accumulates maximum amount of Co (0.12±0.01 mg/mg), Zn (0.64±0.02 mg/mg), Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa contains Zn (0.63±0.01), Cr (0.26±0.01 mg/mg ), Ni (0.21±0.05), Pb (0.16±0.03 ) and Cd ( 0.02±00 ). Hydroclathrus clathratus, Codium tomentosum and Gracilaria opuntia also contain adequate amount of heavy metals. Conclusions: The mentioned species of seaweeds are contributing important role for decreasing the heavy metals pollution in marine environment by bioaccumulation. So, we can utilise this species to remove excess amount of heavy metals from polluted area.

Keywords: heavy metals pollution, seaweeds, bioaccumulation, eco-friendly, phyco-remediation

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24 Radium Equivalent and External Hazard Indices of Trace Elements Concentrations in Aquatic Species by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

Authors: B. G. Muhammad, S. M. Jafar

Abstract:

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed to analyze the level of trace elements concentrations in sediment samples and their bioaccumulation in some aquatic species selected randomly from surface water resources in the Northern peninsula of Malaysia. The NAA results of the sediment samples indicated a wide range in concentration of different elements were observed. Fe, K, and Na were found to have major concentration values that ranges between 61,000 ± 1400 to 4,500 ± 100 ppm, 20100±1000 to 3100±600 and 3,100±600 and 200±10 ppm, respectively. Traces of heavy metals with much more contamination health concern, such as Cr and As, were also identified in many of the samples analyzed. The average specific activities of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in soil and the corresponding radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were all found to be lower than the maximum permissible limits (370 Bq kg-1 and 1).

Keywords: external hazard index, Neutron Activation Analysis, radium equivalent, trace elements concentrations

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23 Preliminary Assessment of Arsenic Levels in Farmland Soils of Bokkos Local Government Area, Plateau State Nigeria

Authors: W. M. Buba, J. G. Nangbes, J. P. Butven

Abstract:

This research was undertaken to evolve community based awareness on the arsenic contamination from agricultural practices in Communities of Bokkos local government area. Contaminated farmland soil samples were collected from the surface for tailings and at various depths (50, 100, 150 cm intervals) in eight holes drilled in each farm at different locations using hand auger. A total of sixty- four (64) soil samples were collected from eight (8) different communities. A standard titrimetric method was applied for the determination of arsenic. It was found that the average concentration of arsenic in the surface soil (0-150cm) for the entire study areas was 0.0525mg/kg with range 0.0425 -0.0601mg/kg which is well above the recommended the soil to plant concentration guideline range of 2.3 – 4.3 x10-4 mg/kg value. This indicates that the arsenic concentration in the study areas does pose health risk for agricultural practices via potential bioaccumulation in plant food crops. However, some risks measures could follow the arsenic occurrence through direct exposure such as those resulting from the inhalation, oral or dermal intake of arsenic during agricultural practices and in the course of stay on the contaminated soil.

Keywords: agrochemicals, arsenic, bokkos, contamination, soil

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22 The Adsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Coconut Shell Activated Carbons

Authors: Premrudee Kanchanapiya, Supachai Songngam, Thanapol Tantisattayakul

Abstract:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that have increasingly attracted concerns due to their global distribution in environment, persistence, high bioaccumulation, and toxicity. It is important to study the effective treatment to remove PFOA from contaminated water. The feasibility of using commercial coconut shell activated carbon produced in Thailand to remove PFOA from water was investigated with regard to their adsorption kinetics and isotherms of powder activated carbon (PAC-325) and granular activated carbon (GAC-20x50). Adsorption kinetic results show that the adsorbent size significantly affected the adsorption rate of PFOA, and GAC-20x50 required at least 100 h to achieve the equilibrium, much longer than 3 h for PAC-325. Two kinetic models were fitted to the experimental data, and the pseudo-second-order model well described the adsorption of PFOA on both PAC-325 and GAC-20x50. PAC-325 trended to adsorb PFOA faster than GAC-20x50, and testing with the shortest adsorption times (5 min) still yielded substantial PFOA removal (~80% for PAC-325). The adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of PAC-325 was 0.80 mmol/g, which is 83 % higher than that for GAC-20x50 (0.13 mmol/g), according to the Langmuir fitting.

Keywords: perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA, coconut shell activated carbons, adsorption, water treatment

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21 Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Pollution Effects on Blood Metabolic Factors of Periophthalmus waltoni from Northern Coast of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

The present study provides information about the nature of adverse effects on fish and the ecological impact that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollutant are having in the northern coast of Hormuz Strait. The glucose and cholesterol levels were higher in fish from the St3 than in Walton's mudskipper from other stations however St3 samples had lowest total proteins levels. There was a significant positive correlation between glucose and cholesterol with PAHs concentrations in sediment and tissue samples (P<0.05). However, total proteins had adverse significant correlation with PAHs concentrations (P>0.05). The adverse correlation was seen between length and body weight of fish samples with PAHs concentrations. According to the results of this study, the monitoring of contaminants bioaccumulation in the northern part of Hormuz Strait is necessary, because this will give an indication of the temporal and spatial extent of the process, as well as an assessment of the potential impact on aquatic organisms health.

Keywords: PAHs, blood metabolic factors, Periophthalmus waltoni, Hormuz Strait

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20 Studies on Bioaccumulation of 51Cr by Ulva sp. and Ruppia maritima

Authors: Clarissa L. de Araujo, Kátia N. Suzuki, Wilson T. V. Machado, Luis F. Bellido, Alfredo V.B. Bellido

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This study aims at contributing to the characterization of the process of biological incorporation of chromium by two benthonic species, the macroalgae Ulva sp. and the aquatic macrophyte Ruppia maritima, to subsidize future activities of monitoring the contamination of aquatic biota. This study is based on laboratory experiments to characterize the incorporation kinetics of the radiotracer 51Cr in two oxidation states (III and VI), under different salinities (7, 15, and 21 ‰). Samples of two benthonic species were collected on the margins of Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acclimated in the laboratory and subsequently subjected to experiments. In tests with 51Cr (III and IV), it was observed that accumulation of the metal in Ulva sp. has inverse relationship with salinity, while for R. maritima, the maximum accumulation occurs in salinity 21‰. In experiments with Cr(III), increases in the uptake of ion by both species were verified. The activity of Cr(III) was up to 19 times greater than the Cr(VI). As regards the potential for accumulation of metals, a better sensitivity of Ulva sp. for any chromium tri or hexavalent forms was verified, while for the Cr(VI) it will require low salinities and longer exposure (>24h). For R. maritima, the results showed the uptake of Cr(VI) increase along with time (>20h), because this species is more resistant for the hexavalent form and useful for any salinity as well.

Keywords: chromium, Cr-51, macroalgae, macrophyte, uptake

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19 Bioremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCBS) Contaminated Soils: A Case Study from Rietvlei Farm at Borehole No. 11, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: D. Sengani, N. Potgieter, P. E. L. Mojapelo

Abstract:

Three bacteria species which comprise of Gram negative and Gram positive microorganisms were isolated and identified on the basis of morpho-cultural study, catalase tests, oxidase tests and biochemical characteristics were found belonging to different genera including Burkholderia cepacia, Pasteurella pneumotropica and Enterococcus faecalis. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify PCB degrading bacteria from PCB contaminated soils and test them for their degradation ability of PCBs in natural habitat conditions. The results indicated an overall decrease of PCB concentration level with the gradient average ranging from 1.5 to 1.8 respectively. Enterococcus faecalis removed as much as 32% of PCBs in the contaminated soil samples. Whereas Pasteurella pneumotropica could remove 24% of PCBs, Burkholderia cepacia 21% of PCBs and the mixed culture removed 23%. Data showed that the three bacterial strains could tolerate high concentration of PCBs. The results provided the evidence that naturally occurring bacteria in soil contaminated with PCBs have the potential to degrade PCBs. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between bacteria growth and treatment with a coefficient of (r) =0.1459 and p value < 0.001.

Keywords: bacteria, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, bioremediation, polychlorinated biphenyls

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18 Phytotreatment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contaminated Soil by Chromolaena odorata L. King and Robinson

Authors: R. O. Anyasi, H. I. Atagana

Abstract:

In this study, phytoextraction ability of a weed on Aroclor 1254 was studied under greenhouse conditions. Chromolaena odorata plants were transplanted into soil containing 100, 200, and 500 ppm of Aroclor in 1L pots. The experiments were watered daily at 70 % moisture field capacity. Parameters such as fully expanded leaves per plant, shoot length, leaf chlorophyll content as well as root length at harvest were measured. PCB was not phytotoxic to C. odorata growth but plants in the 500 ppm treatment only showed diminished growth at the sixth week. Percentage increases in height of plant were 45.9, 39.4 and 40.0 for 100, 200 and 500 ppm treatments respectively. Such decreases were observed in the leaf numbers, root length and leaf chlorophyll concentration. The control sample showed 48.3 % increase in plant height which was not significant from the treated samples, an indication that C. odorata could survive such PCB concentration and could be used to remediate contaminated soil. Mean total PCB absorbed by C. odorata plant was between 6.40 and 64.60 ppm per kilogram of soil, leading to percentage PCB absorption of 0.03 and 17.03 % per kilogram of contaminated soil. PCBs were found mostly in the root tissues of the plants, and the Bioaccumulation factor were between 0.006-0.38. Total PCB absorbed by the plant increases as the concentration of the compound is increased. With these high BAF ensured, C. odorata could serve as a promising candidate plant in phytoextraction of PCB from a PCB-contaminated soil.

Keywords: phytoremediation, bioremediation, soil restoration, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), biological treatment, aroclor

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17 Arundo Donax (Giant Reed) Phytoremediation Function of Chromium (Cr) Removal

Authors: Sadeg Abdurahman, Claudio Stockle, James Harsh, Marc Beutel, Usama Zaher

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Pollution of the environment is a phenomenon which has taken a big part of importance of the world governments since the second half of the last century, this takes dangerous environmental, economic and social ranges dimensions especially after industrial advancement in industrialized country and good industrial expansion supported with modern technology and as chromium is known to be used in tannery factories. Chromium is considered a harm element to the environment due to its danger and transference through food, air, and water to the plants, animals and people. In this study the capacity of Arundo donax against chromium pollution was conducted. A. donax plants were grown-up under greenhouse conditions in pots contain nursery soil and feeding by Cr synthetic wastewater (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 ) for four weeks. Leaves, roots and stems dry matter production, color degree values, chlorophyll, growth parameters, and morphological characters were measured. The high Cr concentration was in roots was 1.15 mg kg-1 . Similarly, Cr concentration in stem was 0.469 mg kg-1 at 2.0 mg L-1 supplied Cr. In case of leaves, the maximum Cr concentration was 0.345 mg kg-1 at 2.0 g L-1 supplied Cr. The bioaccumulation and translocation factors was calculated. The macrophyte A. donax L. may be considered to be the most promising plant species in remediation of Cr-contaminated soil and wastewater due to its deeper root system as well as has higher efficiency to absorb chromium and other heavy metals as well.

Keywords: Arundo donax, Chromium pollution, heavy metals, phytoremediation, wastewater

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16 Trace Element Phytoremediation Potential of Mangrove Plants in Indian Sundarban

Authors: Ranju Chowdhury, Santosh K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Trace element accumulation potential of ten mangrove species in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) along with host sediments was carried out at 2 study sites of diverse environmental stresses of Indian Sundarban Wetland, a UNESCO world heritage site. The study was undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to investigate the extent of accumulation and the distribution of trace metals in plant tissues (ii) to determine whether sediment trace metal levels are correlated with trace metal levels in tissues and (iii) to find out the suitable candidate for phytoremediation species. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many- fold increase for most trace metals than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The concentrations of studied 11 trace elements (expressed in µg g -1) showed wide range of variations in host sediment with the following descending order: Fe (2865.31-3019.62) > Mn (646.04- 648.47 > Cu (35.03- 41.55) > Zn (32.51- 36.33) > Ni (34.4- 36.60) > Cr (27.5- 29.54) > Pb (11.6- 20.34) > Co (6.79- 8.55) > As (3.22- 4.41) > Cd (0.19- 0.22) > Hg (0.06- 0.07). The ranges of concentration of trace metals (expressed in µg g -1) for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissues were 0.006- 0.31, 0.02- 2.97, 0.10- 4.80, 0.13- 6.49, 4.46- 48.30, 9.20- 938.13, 0.02- 0.13, 9.8- 1726.24, 5.41- 11.34, 0.04 - 7.64, 3.81- 52.20 respectively. Among all trace elements, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in Excoecaria agallocha (2.97 and 52.20 µg g -1 respectively). The bio- concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in E. agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for trace metal bioaccumulation. Therefore, phytoremediation could be extensively used for the removal of the toxic contaminants for sustainable management of Sundarban coastal regions.

Keywords: Indian Sundarban, mangroves, phytoremediation, trace elements

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15 Expression of Metallothionein Gen and Protein on Hepatopancreas, Gill and Muscle of Perna viridis Caused by Biotoxicity Hg, Pb and Cd

Authors: Yulia Irnidayanti , J. J. Josua, A. Sugianto

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Jakarta Bay with 13 rivers that flow into, the environment has deteriorated and is the most polluted bays in Asia. The entry of waste into the waters of the Bay of Jakarta has caused pollution. Heavy metal contamination has led to pollution levels and may cause toxicity to organisms that live in the sea, down to the cellular level and may affect the ecological balance. Various ways have been conducted to measure the impact of environmental degradation, such as by measuring the levels of contaminants in the environment, including measuring the accumulation of toxic compounds in the tissues of organisms. Biological responses or biomarkers known as a sensitive indicator but need relevant predictions. In heavy metal pollution monitoring, analysis of aquatic biota is very important from the analysis of the water itself. The content of metals in aquatic biota will usually always be increased from time to time due to the nature of metal bioaccumulation, so the aquatic biota is best used as an indicator of metal pollution in aquatic environments. The results of the content analysis results of sea water in coastal estuaries Angke, Kaliadem and Panimbang detected heavy metals cadmium, mercury, lead, but did not find zinc metal. Based on the results of protein electrophoresis methallotionein found heavy metals in the tissues hepatopancreas, gills and muscles, and also the mRNA expression of has detected.

Keywords: gills, heavy metal, hepatopancreas, metallothionein, muscle

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14 Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Tunas Caught from Lakshweep Islands, India

Authors: Mahesh Kumar Farejiya, Anil Kumar Dikshit

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The toxic metal contamination and their biomagnification in marine fishes is a serious public health concern specially, in the coastal areas and the small islands. In the present study, concentration of toxic heavy metals like zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the tissues of tunas (T. albacores) caught from the area near to Lakshdweep Islands. The heavy metals are one of the indicators for the marine water pollution. Geochemical weathering, industrialization, agriculture run off, fishing, shipping and oil spills are the major pollutants. The presence of heavy toxic metals in the near coastal water fishes at both western coast and eastern coast of India has been well established. The present study was conducted assuming that the distant island will not have the metals presence in a way it is at the near main land coast. However, our study shows that there is a significant amount of the toxic metals present in the tissues of tuna samples. The gill, lever and flash samples were collected in waters around Lakshdweep Islands. They were analyzed using ICP–AES for the toxic metals after microwave digestion. The concentrations of the toxic metals were found in all fish samples and the general trend of presence was in decreasing order as Zn > Al > Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg. The amount of metals was found to higher in fish having more weight.

Keywords: toxic metals, marine tuna fish, bioaccumulation, biomagnifications

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13 Spatio-temporal Variations in Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment of Qua Iboe River Estuary, Nigeria

Authors: Justina I. R. Udotong, Ime R. Udotong, Offiong U. Eka

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The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of Qua Iboe River Estuary (QIRE) were monitored at four different sampling locations in wet and dry seasons. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling stations along the river continuum showed that the area spanned between < 0.1% salinity at the control station and 21.5‰ at the fourth station along the river continuum. A preliminary survey to determine the four sampling locations along the river estuary showed variations in salinity and other physicochemical parameters. The estuary was found to be polluted with heavy metals from point and nonpoint sources at varying degrees. Mean values of 7.80 mg/kg, 4.97 mg/kg and 2.80 mg/kg of nickel were obtained for sediment samples from Douglas creek, Qua Iboe and Atlantic sampling locations, respectively in the dry season. The wet season nickel concentrations were however lower. The entire study area was grossly contaminated by iron. At Douglas creek, the concentration of iron in sediment was 9274 ± 9.54 mg/kg while copper, nickel, lead and vanadium were <0.5 mg/kg each as compared to iron. Bioaccumulation was therefore suspected within the study area as values of 31.00 ± 0.79, 36.00 ± 0.10 and 55.00 ± 0.05 mg/kg of zinc were recorded in sediment at Douglas creek, Atlantic and the control sampling locations. The results from this study showed that the source of these heavy metals were from point sources like the corrosion of metal steel pipes from old bridges as well as oily sludge wastes from the Qua Iboe Terminal / tank farm located within the vicinity of the study area.

Keywords: heavy metal, Qua Iboe River estuary, seasonal variations, Sediment

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12 Potential of Castor Bean (Ricinus Communis L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina Angelova, Mariana Perifanova-Nemska, Krasimir Ivanov

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The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in industrially polluted soils containing high concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd, situated at different distances (0.3, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution - the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. On reaching commercial ripeness, the castor oil plants were gathered and the contents of heavy metals in their different parts – roots, stems, leaves and seeds, were determined after dry ashing. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric soil samples were carried. Translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with ICP. A soxhlet extraction was used for the extraction of the oil, using hexane as solvent. The oil was recovered by simple distillation of the solvent. The residual oil obtained was investigated for physicochemical parameters and fatty acid composition. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor values (BAF and TF > 1) were greater than one suggesting efficient accumulation in the shoot. The castor oil plant may be preferred as a good candidate for phytoremediation (phytoextraction). These results indicate that R. communis has good potential for removing Pb from contaminated soils attributed to its fast growth, high biomass, strong absorption and accumulation for Pb. The concentrations of heavy metals in the oil were low as seed coats accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb. In addition, the result of the fatty acid composition analysis confirms the oil to be of good quality and can be used for industrial purposes such as cosmetics, soaps and paint.

Keywords: castor bean, heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils

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