Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10913

Search results for: design of experiment

10913 Product Form Bionic Design Based on Eye Tracking Data: A Case Study of Desk Lamp

Authors: Huan Lin, Liwen Pang

Abstract:

In order to reduce the ambiguity and uncertainty of product form bionic design, a product form bionic design method based on eye tracking is proposed. The eye-tracking experiment is designed to calculate the average time ranking of the specific parts of the bionic shape that the subjects are looking at. Key bionic shape is explored through the experiment and then applied to a desk lamp bionic design. During the design case, FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierachy Process) and SD (Semantic Differential) method are firstly used to identify consumer emotional perception model toward desk lamp before product design. Through investigating different desk lamp design elements and consumer views, the form design factors on the desk lamp product are reflected and all design schemes are sequenced after caculation. Desk lamp form bionic design method is combined the key bionic shape extracted from eye-tracking experiment and priority of desk lamp design schemes. This study provides an objective and rational method to product form bionic design.

Keywords: Bionic design; Form; Eye tracking; FAHP; Desk lamp

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
10912 Application of Generalized Taguchi and Design of Experiment Methodology for Rebar Production at an Integrated Steel Plant

Authors: S. B. V. S. P. Sastry, V. V. S. Kesava Rao

Abstract:

In this paper, x-ray impact of Taguchi method and design of experiment philosophy to project relationship between various factors leading to output yield strength of rebar is studied. In bar mill of an integrated steel plant, there are two production lines called as line 1 and line 2. The metallic properties e.g. yield strength of finished product of the same material is varying for a particular grade material when rolled simultaneously in both the lines. A study has been carried out to set the process parameters at optimal level for obtaining equal value of yield strength simultaneously for both lines.

Keywords: bar mill, design of experiment, taguchi, yield strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
10911 Dimensioning of a Solar Dryer with Application of an Experiment Design Method for Drying Food Products

Authors: B. Touati, A. Saad, B. Lips, A. Abdenbi, M. Mokhtari.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is an application of experiment design method for dimensioning of a solar drying system. NIMROD software was used to build up the matrix of experiments and to analyze the results. The software has the advantages of being easy to use and consists of a forced way, with some choices about the number and range of variation of the parameters, and the desired polynomial shape. The first design of experiments performed concern the drying with constant input characteristics of the hot air in the dryer and a second design of experiments in which the drying chamber is coupled with a solar collector. The first design of experiments allows us to study the influence of various parameters and get the studied answers in a polynomial form. The correspondence between the polynomial thus determined, and the model results were good. The results of the polynomials of the second design of experiments and those of the model are worse than the results in the case of drying with constant input conditions. This is due to the strong link between all the input parameters, especially, the surface of the sensor and the drying chamber, and the mass of the product.

Keywords: solar drying, experiment design method, NIMROD, mint leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
10910 Parametric Screening and Design Refinement of Ceiling Fan Blades

Authors: Shamraiz Ahmad, Riaz Ahmad, Adnan Maqsood

Abstract:

This paper describes the application of 2k-design of experiment in order to screen the geometric parameters and experimental refinement of ceiling fan blades. The ratio of the air delivery to the power consumed is commonly known as service value (SV) in ceiling fan designer’s community. Service value was considered as the response for 56 inch ceiling fan and four geometric parameters (bend position at root, bend position at tip, bent angle at root and bent angle at tip) of blade were analyzed. With two levels, the 4-design parameters along with their eleven interactions were studied and design of experiment was employed for experimental arrangement. Blade manufacturing and testing were done in a medium scale enterprise. The objective was achieved and service value of ceiling fan was increased by 10.4 % without increasing the cost of production and manufacturing system. Experiments were designed and results were analyzed using Minitab® 16 software package.

Keywords: parametric screening, 2k-design of experiment, ceiling fan, service value, performance improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
10909 Early Phase Design Study of a Sliding Door with Multibody Simulations

Authors: Erkan Talay, Mustafa Yigit Yagci

Abstract:

For the systems like sliding door, designers should predict not only strength but also dynamic behavior of the system and this prediction usually becomes more critical if design has radical changes refer to previous designs. Also, sometimes physical tests could cost more than expected, especially for rail geometry changes, since this geometry affects design of the body. The aim of the study is to observe and understand the dynamics of the sliding door in virtual environment. For this, multibody dynamic model of the sliding door was built and then affects of various parameters like rail geometry, roller diameters, or center of mass detected. Also, a design of experiment study was performed to observe interactions of these parameters.

Keywords: design of experiment, minimum closing effort, multibody simulation, sliding door

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
10908 Combined Analysis of Sudoku Square Designs with Same Treatments

Authors: A. Danbaba

Abstract:

Several experiments are conducted at different environments such as locations or periods (seasons) with identical treatments to each experiment purposely to study the interaction between the treatments and environments or between the treatments and periods (seasons). The commonly used designs of experiments for this purpose are randomized block design, Latin square design, balanced incomplete block design, Youden design, and one or more factor designs. The interest is to carry out a combined analysis of the data from these multi-environment experiments, instead of analyzing each experiment separately. This paper proposed combined analysis of experiments conducted via Sudoku square design of odd order with same experimental treatments.

Keywords: combined analysis, sudoku design, common treatment, multi-environment experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
10907 Optimization of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: I Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

In this study, we proposed a three-layer metal gasket with Al, Cu, and SUS304 as the material, respectively. A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution and design of experiment (DOE). Taguchi method was used to analysis the effect of each parameter design and predicts optimal design of new 25A-size three layer corrugated metal gasket. The L18 orthogonal array of Taguchi method was applied to design experiment matrix for eight factors with three levels. Based on elastic mode and plastic mode, optimum design gasket is gasket with core metal SUS304, surface layer aluminum, p1 = 4.5 mm, p2 = 4.5 mm, p3 = 4 mm, Tg = 1.2 mm, R = 3.5 mm, h = 0.4 mm and Ts = 0.3 mm.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
10906 Map UI Design of IoT Application Based on Passenger Evacuation Behaviors in Underground Station

Authors: Meng-Cong Zheng

Abstract:

When the public space is in an emergency, how to quickly establish spatial cognition and emergency shelter in the closed underground space is the urgent task. This study takes Taipei Station as the research base and aims to apply the use of Internet of things (IoT) application for underground evacuation mobility design. The first experiment identified passengers' evacuation behaviors and spatial cognition in underground spaces by wayfinding tasks and thinking aloud, then defined the design conditions of User Interface (UI) and proposed the UI design.  The second experiment evaluated the UI design based on passengers' evacuation behaviors by wayfinding tasks and think aloud again as same as the first experiment. The first experiment found that the design conditions that the subjects were most concerned about were "map" and hoping to learn the relative position of themselves with other landmarks by the map and watch the overall route. "Position" needs to be accurately labeled to determine the location in underground space. Each step of the escape instructions should be presented clearly in "navigation bar." The "message bar" should be informed of the next or final target exit. In the second experiment with the UI design, we found that the "spatial map" distinguishing between walking and non-walking areas with shades of color is useful. The addition of 2.5D maps of the UI design increased the user's perception of space. Amending the color of the corner diagram in the "escape route" also reduces the confusion between the symbol and other diagrams. The larger volume of toilets and elevators can be a judgment of users' relative location in "Hardware facilities." Fire extinguisher icon should be highlighted. "Fire point tips" of the UI design indicated fire with a graphical fireball can convey precise information to the escaped person. "Fire point tips" of the UI design indicated fire with a graphical fireball can convey precise information to the escaped person. However, "Compass and return to present location" are less used in underground space.

Keywords: evacuation behaviors, IoT application, map UI design, underground station

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
10905 Optimal Design of Submersible Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Based Design of Experiment and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Xiao Zhang, Wensheng Xiao, Junguo Cui, Hongmin Wang

Abstract:

Submersible permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (SPMLSMs) are electromagnetic devices, which can directly drive plunger pump to obtain the crude oil. Those motors have been gradually applied in oil fields due to high thrust force density and high efficiency. Since the force performance closely depends on the concrete structural parameters, the seven different structural parameters are investigated in detail. This paper presents an optimum design of an SPMLSM to minimize the detent force and maximize the thrust by using design of experiment (DOE) and genetic algorithm (GA). The three significant structural parameters (air-gap length, slot width, pole-arc coefficient) are separately screened using 27 1/16 fractional factorial design (FFD) to investigate the significant effect of seven parameters used in this research on the force performance. Response surface methodology (RSM) is well adapted to make analytical model of thrust and detent force with constraints of corresponding significant parameters and enable objective function to be easily created, respectively. GA is performed as a searching tool to search for the Pareto-optimal solutions. By finite element analysis, the proposed PMLSM shows merits in improving thrust and reducing the detent force dramatically.

Keywords: optimization, force performance, design of experiment (DOE), genetic algorithm (GA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
10904 Experimental Analysis of the Plate-on-Tube Evaporator on a Domestic Refrigerator’s Performance

Authors: Mert Tosun, Tuğba Tosun

Abstract:

The evaporator is the utmost important component in the refrigeration system, since it enables the refrigerant to draw heat from the desired environment, i.e. the refrigerated space. Studies are being conducted on this component which generally affects the performance of the system, where energy efficient products are important. This study was designed to enhance the effectiveness of the evaporator in the refrigeration cycle of a domestic refrigerator by adjusting the capillary tube length, refrigerant amount, and the evaporator pipe diameter to reduce energy consumption. The experiments were conducted under identical thermal and ambient conditions. Experiment data were analysed using the Design of Experiment (DOE) technique which is a six-sigma method to determine effects of parameters. As a result, it has been determined that the most important parameters affecting the evaporator performance among the selected parameters are found to be the refrigerant amount and pipe diameter. It has been determined that the minimum energy consumption is 6-mm pipe diameter and 16-g refrigerant. It has also been noted that the overall consumption of the experiment sample decreased by 16.6% with respect to the reference system, which has 7-mm pipe diameter and 18-g refrigerant.

Keywords: heat exchanger, refrigerator, design of experiment, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
10903 Enhancement in Digester Efficiency and Numerical Analysis for Optimal Design Parameters of Biogas Plant Using Design of Experiment Approach

Authors: Rajneesh, Priyanka Singh

Abstract:

Biomass resources have been one of the main energy sources for mankind since the dawn of civilization. There is a vast scope to convert these energy sources into biogas which is a clean, low carbon technology for efficient management and conversion of fermentable organic wastes into a cheap and versatile fuel and bio/organic manure. Thus, in order to enhance the performance of anaerobic digester, an optimizing analysis of resultant parameters (organic dry matter (oDM) content, methane percentage, and biogas yield) has been done for a plug flow anaerobic digester having mesophilic conditions (20-40°C) with the wet fermentation process. Based on the analysis, correlations for oDM, methane percentage, and biogas yield are derived using multiple regression analysis. A statistical model is developed to correlate the operating variables using the design of experiment approach by selecting central composite design (CCD) of a response surface methodology. Results shown in the paper indicates that as the operating temperature increases the efficiency of digester gets improved provided that the pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) remains constant. Working in an optimized range of carbon-nitrogen ratio for the plug flow digester, the output parameters show a positive change with the variation of dry matter content (DM).

Keywords: biogas, digester efficiency, design of experiment, plug flow digester

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
10902 Comparison between FEM Simulation and Experiment of Temperature Rise in Power Transformer Inner Steel Plate

Authors: Byung hyun Bae

Abstract:

In power transformer, leakage magnetic flux generate temperature rise of inner steel plate. Sometimes, this temperature rise can be serious problem. If temperature of steel plate is over critical point, harmful gas will be generated in the tank. And this gas can be a reason of fire, explosion and life decrease. So, temperature rise forecasting of steel plate is very important at the design stage of power transformer. To improve accuracy of forecasting of temperature rise, comparison between simulation and experiment achieved in this paper.

Keywords: power transformer, steel plate, temperature rise, experiment, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
10901 Implementation of a Low-Cost Instrumentation for an Open Cycle Wind Tunnel to Evaluate Pressure Coefficient

Authors: Cristian P. Topa, Esteban A. Valencia, Victor H. Hidalgo, Marco A. Martinez

Abstract:

Wind tunnel experiments for aerodynamic profiles display numerous advantages, such as: clean steady laminar flow, controlled environmental conditions, streamlines visualization, and real data acquisition. However, the experiment instrumentation usually is expensive, and hence, each test implies a incremented in design cost. The aim of this work is to select and implement a low-cost static pressure data acquisition system for a NACA 2412 airfoil in an open cycle wind tunnel. This work compares wind tunnel experiment with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and parametric analysis. The experiment was evaluated at Reynolds of 1.65 e5, with increasing angles from -5° to 15°. The comparison between the approaches show good enough accuracy, between the experiment and CFD, additional parametric analysis results differ widely from the other methods, which complies with the lack of accuracy of the lateral approach due its simplicity.

Keywords: wind tunnel, low cost instrumentation, experimental testing, CFD simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
10900 Callus Induction of Segmented Corm Explant of Gladiolus cv. White Prosperity and Regeneration in vitro Condition

Authors: M. Sepahvand, M. Khorushy

Abstract:

Gladiolus, being a cormous plant, it is principally propagated by the natural multiplication of new corms and cormels. In order to obtain callus from segmented corm which was obtained from in vitro culture, callus formation media were MS media supplemented with 4 levels of hormones such as 1.0 mg l-1 NAA + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, 0.5 mg l-1 NAA + 0.25 mg l-1 BAP, 1.0 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, and 0.5 mg l-1 2, 4-D + 0.25 mg l-1 BAP. The results showed that the most weight of callus (2.28 g) was produced in MS callus formation media which were supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 NAA + 0.5 mg l-1 BAP. This experiment was carried out in randomized completely design with 3 replications and each treatment with six jars. In second experiment for regeneration of callus, a factorial experiment in the form of randomized complete design with 12 treatments and 3 replications and each replication with six jars was carried out. The treatments consisted of callus culture media in 4 levels and regeneration culture media in 3 levels [control (no PGRs), MS with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.1 mg l-1 Kin + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA, and MS with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.05 mg l-1 Kin + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA]. The results showed that the best regeneration media were MS media which were supplemented with 0.2 mg l-1 BAP + 0.1 mg l-1 Kin. + 0.01 mg l-1 NAA that had the highest number of shoots (7/83 N), and shoot length (7/3 cm).

Keywords: regeneration, Segmented corm explant, callus, in vitro, gladiolus cv. white prosperity

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
10899 The Next Generation Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment nEXO

Authors: Ryan Maclellan

Abstract:

The nEXO Collaboration is designing a very large detector for neutrinoless double beta decay of Xe-136. The nEXO detector is rooted in the current EXO-200 program, which has reached a sensitivity for the half-life of the decay of 1.9x10^25 years with an exposure of 99.8 kg-y. The baseline nEXO design assumes 5 tonnes of liquid xenon, enriched in the mass 136 isotope, within a time projection chamber. The detector is being designed to reach a half-life sensitivity of > 5x10^27 years covering the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, with 5 years of data. We present the nEXO detector design, the current status of R&D efforts, and the physics case for the experiment.

Keywords: double-beta, Majorana, neutrino, neutrinoless

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
10898 Optimization of Dissolution of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Chloride Solutions

Authors: Mustafa Sertçelik, Hacali Necefoğlu, Turan Çalban, Soner Kuşlu

Abstract:

In this study, Chevreul’s salt was dissolved in ammonium chloride solutions. All experiments were performed in a batch reactor. The obtained results were optimized. Parameters used in the experiments were the reaction temperature, the ammonium chloride concentration, the reaction time and the solid-to-liquid ratio. The optimum conditions were determined by 24 factorial experimental design method. The best values of four parameters were determined as based on the experiment results. After the evaluation of experiment results, all parameters were found as effective in experiment conditions selected. The optimum conditions on the maximum Chevreul’s salt dissolution were the ammonium chloride concentration 4.5 M, the reaction time 13.2 min., the reaction temperature 25 oC, and the solid-to-liquid ratio 9/80 g.mL-1. The best dissolution yield in these conditions was 96.20%.

Keywords: Chevreul's salt, factorial experimental design method, ammonium chloride, dissolution, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
10897 Experimental Investigation for the Overtopping Wave Force of the Vertical Breakwater

Authors: Jin Song Gui, Han Li, Rui Jin Zhang, Heng Jiang Cai

Abstract:

There is a large deviation between the measured wave power at the vertical breast wall and the calculated one according to current specification in the case of overtopping. In order to investigate the reasons for the deviation, the wave forces of vertical breast wall under overtopping conditions have been measured through physical model experiment and compared with the calculated results. The effect of water depth, period and the wave height on the wave forces of the vertical breast wall have been also investigated. The distribution of wave pressure under different wave actions was tested based on the force sensor which is installed in the vertical breakwater. By comparing and analyzing the measured values and norms calculated values, the applicability of the existing norms recommended method were discussed and a reference for the design of vertical breakwater was provided. Experiment results show that with the decrease of the water depth, the gap is growing between the actual wave forces and the specification values, and there are no obvious regulations between these two values with the variation of period while wave force greatly reduces with the overtopping reducing. The amount of water depth and wave overtopping has a significant impact on the wave force of overtopping section while the period has no obvious influence on the wave force. Finally, some favorable recommendations for the overtopping wave force design of the vertical breakwater according to the model experiment results are provided.

Keywords: overtopping wave, physical model experiment, vertical breakwater, wave forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
10896 Study of Microstructure of Weldment Obtained by Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) on IS 2062 Grade B Mild Steel Plate at Zero Degree Celsius

Authors: Ajay Biswas, Swapan Bhaumik, Abhijit Bhowmik

Abstract:

Present experiment has been carried out to study the microstructure of weldment obtained by submerged arc welding on mild steel plate at zero degree Celsius. To study this, bead on plate welding is done by submerged arc welding on the sample plate of heavy duty mild steel of designation IS 2062 grade B, fitted on the special fixture ensuring the plate temperature at zero degree Celsius. Sixteen numbers of such samples are welded by varying the most influencing parameters viz. travel speed, voltage, wire feed rate and electrode stick-out at four different levels. Taguchi’s design of experiment is applied by selecting Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array to restrict the number of experimental runs. Cross sectioned samples are polished and etched to view the weldment. Finally, different zone of the weldment is observed by optical microscope. From the type of microstructure of weldment it is concluded that submerged arc welding is feasible at zero degree Celsius on mild steel plate.

Keywords: Submerged Arc Welding, zero degree Celsius, Taguchi’s design of experiment, microstructure of weldment

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
10895 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Nhat Linh Ho, Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang, Hieu Giang Le

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: flexure hinge, compliant mechanism, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism, Taguchi method, response surface methodology, design of experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
10894 Fengqiao: An Ongoing Experiment with 'UrbanMemory' Theory in an Ancient Town and ItsDesign Experience

Authors: Yibei Ye, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao

Abstract:

Ancient town is a unique carrier of urban culture, maintaining the core culture of a region and continuing the urban context. Fengqiao, a nearly 2000-year-old town was on the brink of dilapidation in the past few decades. The town faced such problems as poor construction quality, environmental degeneration, inadequate open space, cultural characteristics and industry vitality. Therefore, the research upholds the principle of ‘organic renewal’ and puts forward three practical updated strategies which are ‘Repair Old as Ever,' ‘Activate Function’ and ‘Fill in with The New’. Also as a participant in updating the design, the author aims to ‘keep the memory of the history and see the development of the present’ as the goal of updating the design and regards the process of town renewal as the experimental venue for realizing this purpose. The research will sum up innovations on the designing process and the engineering progress in the past two years, and find out the innovation experiment and the effect of its implementation on the methodological level of the organic renewal design in Fengqiao ancient town. From here, we can also enjoy the very characteristic development trend presented by China in the design practice of the organic renewal in the ancient town.

Keywords: characteristic town, Fengqiao, organic renewal, urban memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
10893 Virtual Chemistry Laboratory as Pre-Lab Experiences: Stimulating Student's Prediction Skill

Authors: Yenni Kurniawati

Abstract:

Students Prediction Skill in chemistry experiments is an important skill for pre-service chemistry students to stimulate students reflective thinking at each stage of many chemistry experiments, qualitatively and quantitatively. A Virtual Chemistry Laboratory was designed to give students opportunities and times to practicing many kinds of chemistry experiments repeatedly, everywhere and anytime, before they do a real experiment. The Virtual Chemistry Laboratory content was constructed using the Model of Educational Reconstruction and developed to enhance students ability to predicted the experiment results and analyzed the cause of error, calculating the accuracy and precision with carefully in using chemicals. This research showed students changing in making a decision and extremely beware with accuracy, but still had a low concern in precision. It enhancing students level of reflective thinking skill related to their prediction skill 1 until 2 stage in average. Most of them could predict the characteristics of the product in experiment, and even the result will going to be an error. In addition, they take experiments more seriously and curiously about the experiment results. This study recommends for a different subject matter to provide more opportunities for students to learn about other kinds of chemistry experiments design.

Keywords: virtual chemistry laboratory, chemistry experiments, prediction skill, pre-lab experiences

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
10892 Direct Design of Steel Bridge Using Nonlinear Inelastic Analysis

Authors: Boo-Sung Koh, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct design using a nonlinear inelastic analysis is suggested. Also, this paper compares the load carrying capacity obtained by a nonlinear inelastic analysis with experiment results to verify the accuracy of the results. The allowable stress design results of a railroad through a plate girder bridge and the safety factor of the nonlinear inelastic analysis were compared to examine the safety performance. As a result, the load safety factor for the nonlinear inelastic analysis was twice as high as the required safety factor under the allowable stress design standard specified in the civil engineering structure design standards for urban magnetic levitation railways, which further verified the advantages of the proposed direct design method.

Keywords: direct design, nonlinear inelastic analysis, residual stress, initial geometric imperfection

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
10891 Experimental Investigation of R600a as a Retrofit for R134a in a Household Refrigerator

Authors: T. O Babarinde, F. A Oyawale, O. S Ohunakin, R. O Ohunakin, R. O Leramo D.S Adelekan

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study of R600a, environment-friendly refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP), zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), as a substitute for R134a in domestic refrigerator. A refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, the capillary for this experiment was not varied at anytime during the experiment. 40, 60, 80g, charge of R600a were tested against 100 g of R134a under the designed capillary length of the refrigerator, and the performance using R600a was evaluated and compared with its performance when R134a was used. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for small refrigerator was achieved using both 80g of R600a and 100g of R134a but R134a has earlier pulled down time than using R600a. The average coefficient of performance (COP) obtained using R600a is 17.7% higher than that of R134a while the average power consumption is 42.5 % lower than R134a, which shows that R600a can be used as replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerator without necessarily need to modified the capillary.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, R600a, R134a

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
10890 An Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Fuel-Type Configurations in Car Lines

Authors: Charalampos Saridakis, Stelios Tsafarakis

Abstract:

Although environmental concern is on the rise across Europe, current market data indicate that adoption rates of environmentally friendly vehicles remain extremely low. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to a) assess preferences of European consumers for clean-fuel cars and their characteristics and b) design car lines that optimize the combination of fuel types among models in the line-up. In this direction, the authors introduce a new evolutionary mechanism and implement it to stated-preference data derived from a large-scale choice-based conjoint experiment that measures consumer preferences for various factors affecting clean-fuel vehicle (CFV) adoption. The proposed two-step methodology provides interesting insights into how new and existing fuel-types can be combined in a car line that maximizes customer satisfaction.

Keywords: clean-fuel vehicles, product line design, conjoint analysis, choice experiment, differential evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
10889 A Low Cost and Reconfigurable Experimental Platform for Engineering Lab Education

Authors: S. S. Kenny Lee, C. C. Kong, S. K. Ting

Abstract:

Teaching engineering lab provides opportunity for students to practice theories learned through physical experiment in the laboratory. However, building laboratories to accommodate increased number of students are expensive, making it impossible for an educational institution to afford the high expenses. In this paper, we develop a low cost and remote platform to aid teaching undergraduate students. The platform is constructed where the real experiment setting up in laboratory can be reconfigure and accessed remotely, the aim is to increase student’s desire to learn at which they can interact with the physical experiment using network enabled devices at anywhere in the campus. The platform is constructed with Raspberry Pi as a main control board that provides communication between computer interfaces to the actual experiment preset in the laboratory. The interface allows real-time remote viewing and triggering the physical experiment in the laboratory and also provides instructions and learning guide about the experimental.

Keywords: engineering lab, low cost, network, remote platform, reconfigure, real-time

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
10888 Failure to Replicate the Unconscious Thought Advantages

Authors: Vladimíra Čavojová, Eva Ballová Mikušková

Abstract:

In this study we tried to replicate the unconscious thought advantage (UTA), which states that complex decisions are better handled by unconscious thinking. We designed an experiment in e-prime using similar material as the original study (choosing between four different apartments, each described by 12 attributes). A total of 73 participants (52 women (71.2%); 18 to 62 age: M=24.63; SD=8.7) took part in the experiment. We did not replicate the results suggested by UTT. However, from the present study we cannot conclude whether this was the case of flaws in the theory or flaws in our experiment and we discuss several ways in which the issue of UTA could be examined further.

Keywords: decision making, unconscious thoughts, UTT, complex decisions

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
10887 Modeling and Optimization of Algae Oil Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: I. F. Ejim, F. L. Kamen

Abstract:

Aims: In this experiment, algae oil extraction with a combination of n-hexane and ethanol was investigated. The effects of extraction solvent concentration, extraction time and temperature on the yield and quality of oil were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Experimental Design: Optimization of algae oil extraction using Box-Behnken design was used to generate 17 experimental runs in a three-factor-three-level design where oil yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value were evaluated as the response. Result: In this result, a minimum oil yield of 17% and maximum of 44% was realized. The optimum values for yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value from the overlay plot were 40.79%, 0.8788, 0.5056 mg KOH/g and 180.78 mg KOH/g respectively with desirability of 0.801. The maximum point prediction was yield 40.79% at solvent concentration 66.68 n-hexane, temperature of 40.0°C and extraction time of 4 hrs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results showed that the linear and quadratic coefficient were all significant at p<0.05. The experiment was validated and results obtained were with the predicted values. Conclusion: Algae oil extraction was successfully optimized using RSM and its quality indicated it is suitable for many industrial uses.

Keywords: algae oil, response surface methodology, optimization, Box-Bohnken, extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
10886 Near Infrared Spectrometry to Determine the Quality of Milk, Experimental Design Setup and Chemometrics: Review

Authors: Meghana Shankara, Priyadarshini Natarajan

Abstract:

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has revolutionized the way we look at materials around us. Unraveling the pattern in the molecular spectra of materials to analyze the composition and properties of it has been one of the most interesting challenges in modern science. Applications of the IR spectrometry are numerous in the field’s pharmaceuticals, health, food and nutrition, oils, agriculture, construction, polymers, beverage, fabrics and much more limited only by the curiosity of the people. Near Infrared (NIR) spectrometry is applied robustly in analyzing the solids and liquid substances because of its non-destructive analysis method. In this paper, we have reviewed the application of NIR spectrometry in milk quality analysis and have presented the modes of measurement applied in NIRS measurement setup, Design of Experiment (DoE), classification/quantification algorithms used in the case of milk composition prediction like Fat%, Protein%, Lactose%, Solids Not Fat (SNF%) along with different approaches for adulterant identification. We have also discussed the important NIR ranges for the chosen milk parameters. The performance metrics used in the comparison of the various Chemometric approaches include Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), R^2, slope, offset, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy

Keywords: chemometrics, design of experiment, milk quality analysis, NIRS measurement modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
10885 Stoa: Urban Community-Building Social Experiment through Mixed Reality Game Environment

Authors: Radek Richtr, Petr Pauš

Abstract:

Social media nowadays connects people more tightly and intensively than ever, but simultaneously, some sort of social distance, incomprehension, lost of social integrity appears. People can be strongly connected to the person on the other side of the world but unaware of neighbours in the same district or street. The Stoa is a type of application from the ”serious games” genre- it is research augmented reality experiment masked as a gaming environment. In the Stoa environment, the player can plant and grow virtual (organic) structure, a Pillar, that represent the whole suburb. Everybody has their own idea of what is an acceptable, admirable or harmful visual intervention in the area they live in; the purpose of this research experiment is to find and/or define residents shared subconscious spirit, genius loci of the Pillars vicinity, where residents live in. The appearance and evolution of Stoa’s Pillars reflect the real world as perceived by not only the creator but also by other residents/players, who, with their actions, refine the environment. Squares, parks, patios and streets get their living avatar depictions; investors and urban planners obtain information on the occurrence and level of motivation for reshaping the public space. As the project is in product conceptual design phase, the function is one of its most important factors. Function-based modelling makes design problem modular and structured and thus decompose it into sub-functions or function-cells. Paper discuss the current conceptual model for Stoa project, the using of different organic structure textures and models, user interface design, UX study and project’s developing to the final state.

Keywords: augmented reality, urban computing, interaction design, mixed reality, social engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
10884 Impact of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness of Machined PU Block

Authors: Louis Denis Kevin Catherine, Raja Aziz Raja Ma’arof, Azrina Arshad, Sangeeth Suresh

Abstract:

Machining parameters are very important in determining the surface quality of any material. In the past decade, some new engineering materials were developed for the manufacturing industry which created a need to conduct an investigation on the impact of the said parameters on their surface roughness. The polyurethane (PU) block is widely used in the automotive industry to manufacture parts such as checking fixtures that are used to verify the dimensional accuracy of automotive parts. In this paper, the design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate the effect of the milling parameters on the PU block. Furthermore, an analysis of the machined surface chemical composition was done using scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the surface roughness of the PU block is severely affected when PU undergoes a flood machining process instead of a dry condition. In addition, the step over and the silicon content were found to be the most significant parameters that influence the surface quality of the PU block.

Keywords: polyurethane (PU), design of experiment (DOE), scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 363