Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 169

Search results for: refugees

169 Ad Hocism Aiding Sufferings of Urban Refugees in Nepal: A Case Study of Pakistani Ahmadi Refugees

Authors: Shishir Lamichhane

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Nepal neither is a party to any international refugee instruments nor does it have a national legislation to govern the refugee concerns legislated in the international legal instruments. In the absence of both of these, Nepal has adopted a rather ad hoc approach to dealing with refugees. Whereas Nepali state’s ad hocism seems to be paying off well with prominent (and mainstream) refugee populations of Bhutanese and Tibetans, urban refugees like Pakistani Ahmadiyya refugees have been left mostly at the odds. This paper is an attempt to reflect how the ad hoc approach taken by the host country (Nepal) is resulting in the further persecution of the Pakistani Ahmadiyya refugees and is lined up with arguments about how the basic rights of these refugees are being violated in the absence of a proper law. Relevant information regarding urban refugees residing in Kathmandu has been gathered by applying Empirical Research Methodology, while the paper also reviews pertinent literature already available on the case of Ahmadiya community.

Keywords: Pakistan, Ahmadiya community, Nepal, urban refugees

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168 Promoting Community Food Security and Empowerment among Somali Bantu Refugees: A Case for Community Kitchen Gardens

Authors: Michelle D. Hand, Michelle L. Kaiser

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African refugees are among the fastest-growing populations in the United States and nearly half of these refugees come from Somalia, many of whom are Somali Bantus, the most marginalized group in Somali society. Yet limited research is available on Somali Bantu refugees. In this paper, Empowerment Theory is used to guide an in-depth exploration of the potential benefits of using community kitchen gardens to increase community food security among Somali Bantu refugees. In addition, recommendations for future research, policy and practice are offered following existing scholarly and grey source literature guidelines as informed by an Empowerment perspective to best meet the needs of this under-researched and underserved yet growing population.

Keywords: community kitchen gardens, food insecurity, refugees, Somali Bantu

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167 The Use of Mobile Phones by Refugees to Create Social Connectedness: A Literature Review

Authors: Sarah Vuningoma, Maria Rosa Lorini, Wallace Chigona

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Mobile phones are one of the main tools for promoting the wellbeing of people and supporting the integration of communities on the margins such as refugees. Information and Communication Technology has the potential to contribute towards reducing isolation, loneliness, and to assist in improving interpersonal relations and fostering acculturation processes. Therefore, the use of mobile phones by refugees might contribute to their social connectedness. This paper aims to demonstrate how existing literature has shown how the use of mobile phones by refugees should engender social connectedness amongst the refugees. Data for the study are drawn from existing literature; we searched a number of electronic databases for papers published between 2010 and 2019. The main findings of the study relate to the use of mobile phones by refugees to (i) create a sense of belonging, (ii) maintain relationships, and (iii) advance the acculturation process. The analysis highlighted a gap in the research over refugees and social connectedness. In particular, further studies should consider evaluating the differences between those who have a refugee permit, those who are waiting for the refugee permit, and those whose request was denied.

Keywords: belonging, mobile phones, refugees, social connectedness

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166 Economic Implications of the Arrival of Syrian Refugees in Jordan

Authors: Ammar Z. Alwrekiat, Sara Ojeda Gonzalez, Maria Jose Miranda Martel, Antonio Mihi-Ramirez

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This paper analyses the economic situation in Jordan, which has been the political asylum destination for Syrians since 2011. We analyze the effects of the Jordanian situation through the following indicators: international aid, gross domestic product, remittances, and unemployment. A correlation analysis has been used to identify the main connections of these parameters with the reception of refugees. Although the economic effects of Syrian refugees in Jordan are uncertain, it involves an important challenge in the development of migration policies. Jordan has a special economic situation and limited capacities, but the country has provided humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees. In this case, the support of the international community is of particular importance, taking an important role in the negotiation of international agreements on refugees.

Keywords: correlation analysis, economic implications, migration, refugees

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165 A Research on Determining the Viability of a Job Board Website for Refugees in Kenya

Authors: Prince Mugoya, Collins Oduor Ondiek, Patrick Kanyi Wamuyu

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Refugee Job Board Website is a web-based application that provides a platform for organizations to post jobs specifically for refugees. Organizations upload job opportunities and refugees can view them on the website. The website also allows refugees to input their skills and qualifications. The methodology used to develop this system is a waterfall (traditional) methodology. Software development tools include Brackets which will be used to code the website and PhpMyAdmin to store all the data in a database.

Keywords: information technology, refugee, skills, utilization, economy, jobs

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164 Support of Syrian Refugees: The Roles of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, Perception of Threat, and Negative Emotions

Authors: Senay Yitmen

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This research investigated individual’s support and helping intentions towards Syrian refugees in Turkey. This is examined in relation to perceived threat and negative emotions, and also to the perceptions of whether one’s intimate social network (family and friends) considers Syrians a threat (descriptive network norm) and whether this network morally supports Syrian refugees (injunctive norms). A questionnaire study was conducted among Turkish participants (n= 565) and the results showed that perception of threat was associated with negative emotions which, in turn, were related to less support of Syrian refugees. Additionally, descriptive norms moderated the relationship between perceived threat and negative emotions towards Syrian refugees. Furthermore, injunctive norms moderated the relationship between negative emotions and support to Syrian refugees. Specifically, the findings indicate that perceived threat is associated with less support of Syrian refugees through negative emotions when descriptive norms are weak and injunctive norms are strong. Injunctive norms appear to trigger a dilemma over the decision to conform or not to conform: when one has negative emotions as a result of perceived threat, it becomes more difficult to conform to the moral obligation of injunctive norms which is associated with less support of Syrian refugees. Hence, these findings demonstrate that both descriptive and injunctive norms are important and play different roles in individual’s support of Syrian refugees.

Keywords: descriptive norms, emotions, injunctive norms, the perception of threat

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163 Urban Refugees and Education in Developing Countries

Authors: Sheraz Akhtar

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In recent years, a massive influx of refugees into developing countries has placed significant constraints on the host government’s capacities to provide social services, including education, to all. As a result, the refugee communities often find themselves deprived of their rights to education in these host countries, particularly for those who to live outside camps in urban locations. While previous research has examined the educational experiences of refugees who have resettled in developed nations, there remains a dearth of research on the educational experiences of urban refugees in developing nations. This study examines this issue through a case study of Pakistani Christian refugees living in urban settings in Thailand. Using a combination of observations within community learning centres set up by international non-government organisations (INGOs) working with these communities, and interviews with young Pakistani Christian refugees and their families, the research aims to give greater voice to the Pakistani Christian refugee community living in Thailand, and better understand their educational aspirations.

Keywords: Education, Developing Countries , INGOs, Urban Refugees

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162 A Phenomenological Study on the Role of Civil Society Organizations in Supporting Urban Refugees in Thailand

Authors: Rowena Clemino Alcoba

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Thailand is host to the largest number of refugees in the region. The country has been one of the most accessible points of entry to refugees around the world because it has relatively lenient visa requirements, enabling asylum seekers to enter the country and subsequently search for legal assistance. However, because Thailand is not a signatory to the 1951 Geneva Convention on Refugees which governs the refugee status determination and safeguards several rights of the refugees, there are no national laws or administrative framework on the protection of refugees. Refugees are considered as illegal migrants, and certain groups are permitted to stay temporarily only upon executive discretion. Aside from the documented group of refugees from the Myanmar border, there are many others who came from different parts of the world. They are known as urban refugees believed to be in the thousands and are scattered in the impoverished areas of Bangkok and the suburbs. This study aims to advance understanding of the role of civil society organizations in supporting refugees, with particular focus on urban refugees. Using the method of triangulation in qualitative research, the study investigates the life journey of a refugee family from Pakistan, their difficulties and struggles to survive in perilous situations. The study presents the dynamics of how civil society works and collaborates to fill the gap for much-needed social services. It also discusses the depth and scope of the role of faith actors in the protection and support of this vulnerable sector. The engagement of civil society reveals framework and structure that aims to create long-term impact. The help provided is not merely monetary or material dole-outs but a platform for refugees to integrate with community, develop skills and make productive use of their time.

Keywords: asylum seeker, civil society, faith actors, refugees

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161 Acculturation Profiles of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

Authors: Abdurrahim Guler

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Immigrants who came to a new country experience some socio-cultural difficulties which are different from theirs. The study aims to investigate how Syrian Refugees manage their life in Turkey and the relationship between acculturation profiles and demographic background of Syrian refugees who came to Turkey after civil war has intensified in Syria. Data are collected from 280 adult Syrian refugees who were born in Syria. The study adopts bi-dimensional acculturation approach stating that both heritage and dominant host cultures can live together. Results suggest that demographic backgrounds, religion, and religiosity are significantly linked to both heritage and dominant host culture. Syrian refugees who are not affiliated with Islam are found to significantly preserve their ethnic/heritage culture. Generally, Syrian refugees are more willing to integrate Turkish society but not to assimilate. The results also confirmed acculturation process as a bi-dimensional, not a zero-sum game since we found a significant positive correlation between the heritage and the dominant host cultures which assume the independence and orthogonal of involvements in the dominant host and heritage cultures.

Keywords: acculturation, demographic backgrounds, heritage culture, religion, Syrian refugees

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
160 Depression in Immigrants and Refugees

Authors: Fatou Cisse

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Depression is one of the most serious health problems experienced by immigrants and refugees, who are likely to undergo heightened political, economic, social, and environmental stressors as they transition to a new culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and compare risks associated with depression among young adult immigrants and refugees aged 18 to 25. Ten articles focused on risks associated with depression symptoms among this population were reviewed, revealing several common themes: Stress, identity, culture, language barriers, discrimination, social support, self-esteem, length of time in the receiving country, origins, or background. Existing research has failed to account adequately for sample size, language barriers, how the concept of "depression" differs across cultures, and stressors immigrants and refugees experience prior to the transition to the new culture. The study revealed that immigrants and refugees are at risk for depression and that the risk is greater in the refugee population due to their history of trauma. The Roy Adaptation Model was employed to understand the coping mechanisms that refugees and immigrants could use to reduce rates of depression. The psychiatric nurse practitioner must be prepared to intervene and educate this population on these coping mechanisms to help them overcome the feelings that lead to depression and facilitate a smooth integration into the new culture.

Keywords: immigration, refugees, depression, young adults

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159 Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Saraj Sharifzai, Keisuke Kitagawa, Mohammad Kamil Halimee, Javid Habib, Daishi Sakaguchi

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The overall goal of this paper is to examine the suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration. Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of various types of housing development in all zones of the country. There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to have their own houses.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, housing policy, affordability, social housing, housing provision, environmental sustainability principles, resettlement

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158 A Migration Policy Gone Wrong: A Study on How the Encampment Policy Undermines Refugees’ Potentials and Fails Local Economy: A Case of East Africa

Authors: John Bosco Ngendakurio

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The key question this paper asks is, ‘how does the refugee encampment policy undermine refugees’ potentials and fail local economy in East African countries?’ It is important to develop a full understanding of the legacies of the encampment policy for refugees’ performances economically, socially, and politically. The negative impacts of the encampment policy include the lack of participation or access to opportunities outside the refugee camps such as employment, education, and local integration, unfair imprisonments and constant alienation of refugees, mental and physical health issues, just to name a few. Evidence suggests that refugee camps in East Africa have progressively become open detention centres due to their designs, their locations, and movement restrictions imposed on refugees. Such restrictions in a region that hosts millions of refugees do not only undermine refugees’ potentials, but it also hurts the local economy- host countries miss out in many ways. Outlining the negative impacts of the encampment policy will enable governments and relevant non-governmental actors, including policymakers, to re-consider this policy with the aim to improve refugees’ participation and contributions in the broader society, promote socially cohesive practices, and help millions of refugees gain independence and reach their potentials financially, socially and politically, finally and truly giving the voice to the voiceless. The encampment policy undermines the general human security in East Africa, and it is one of the migration practices showcasing East African governments’ lack of will to protect human rights, especially within the most vulnerable population groups such as refugees.

Keywords: migration policy, immigration, refugees, encampment, migration, integration, social cohesion

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157 Policies and Practice of Refugee Education from Malaysian Perspective: Preliminary Findings

Authors: A. H. A. Hamid, N. A. Zainuddin, M. Y. M. Nor

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Millions of child refugees leave their countries in the hope of better and safer lives particularly in the aspect of education. However, the education access for the child refugees is strongly depending on the policies made by the federal and local governments. Malaysia, in particular, is a country which does not have a specific educational policy that is inclusive of child refugees. Hence, this study explores the feasibility of possible educational policy that specifically caters the needs of child refugees in Malaysia. These are preliminary findings of a case study which involved thirty-five postgraduate students in a local university who undertook Educational Policy coursework and five teachers in a refugee community centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed in relation to issues highlighted in the refugee education literature. The findings showed that most of the informants felt there is an urgent need of a systematic intervention put in place by the local government to cater to the needs of equal education access to the child refugees. A further large scale study is needed in the near future by integrating different perspectives of relevant stakeholders for an effective, efficient and sustainable policy formulation and implementation related to child refugees in Malaysia. The findings may be of interests to the educators, the ministry of education, state education office, district education office, teachers, parents and surrounding communities for their awareness about the needs of refugee education and the feasibility of educational policy for child refugees in the country.

Keywords: child refugees, educational policy, inclusive education, Malaysia

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156 The Socioeconomic and Moral Impacts of the Syrian Refugees to Turkey

Authors: Inci Aksu Kargin

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The civil war which began in the Daraa province of Syria in March 2011, has caused thousands of Syrians to die and millions more to seek refuge in other countries such as Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt. In order to understand the Syrian refugees’ living conditions and the problems they have experienced in Turkey in-depth, and to analyze how the arrival of the Syrian refugees in Turkey has affected the local people who live in Turkish-Syrian border, this study employed interviews, which were conducted with three different groups. First, 60 Syrian refugees, who have settled in Hatay and Gaziantep, were interviewed. Then, the Turkish government institutions, and NGOs, which are responsible for assisting the refugees, were interviewed. These interviews revealed that many Syrian refugees have encountered with several issues such as access to labor and housing markets as well as free healthcare and public education services. Second, 60 Turkish citizens living in Hatay and Gaziantep provinces were interviewed. These interviews shed light on the many issues (e.g., increase of unemployment, increase in the rental and sale prices of the houses, decrease in the quality of healthcare services, increase in traffic problems, problems with regard to the usage of parks and gardens) that Turkish citizens began experiencing after mass asylum claim of the Syrian refugees to Turkey. In addition to these, the existing social problems in Turkey such as child labor, begging, child brides, and illegal marriages (religious marriages) worsen.

Keywords: migration, refugees, Syrian civil war, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
155 Access to Livelihoods for Urban Refugees in Kenya: The Case Study of Somalis Living in Eastleigh

Authors: Nancy Njoka, Manuela Ramos Cacciatore

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In Kenya, refugee situations are becoming increasingly protracted, stretching over the years or even decades. As urbanization rates increase, so do the numbers of urban refugees in the country. Refugees living in urban areas face a range of challenges. In their efforts to pursue livelihoods, refugees have identified strategies to confront these challenges. In the same manner, humanitarian actors have come up with different interventions to promote access to livelihoods working through obstacles and barriers created by host governments. This paper seeks to understand the experience of Somali urban refugees living in the urban area of Eastleigh, Nairobi, both by investigating their own actions towards creating avenues to access livelihoods and by understanding their social, economic and policy context in which they forge livelihoods. The empirical data collected through fieldwork in Nairobi in 2020 serves as the basis of this qualitative case study. Drawing upon the themes of urban refugee movement, Somali ethnicity, citizenship discrimination and the livelihoods of refugees, the paper highlights how the actions of the Kenyan government and international non-governmental organization (INGO)s affect access to livelihoods and the consequences of these actions for Somali urban refugees. The results of the paper found that Somali urban refugees are taking active steps to create livelihoods for themselves. This is seen in the growth of Eastleigh as an economic hub in Kenya which is owned and run mostly by Somalis. Indeed, the Somali community is central to the establishment of networks in the neighborhood. Somali urban refugees are marginalized by the Kenyan government, reducing their opportunity to create dignified lives in Eastleigh. Findings also point out the community-based approaches used by INGOs in livelihood interventions. The relevance of this research lies in the interconnection of humanitarian development interventions for protracted refugees and the promotion of livelihoods in an urban and global context.

Keywords: Kenya, livelihoods, Somali, urban refugees

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154 Determinants of Quality of Life Among Refugees Aging Out of Place

Authors: Jonix Owino

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Aging Out of Place refers to the physical and emotional experience of growing older in a foreign or unfamiliar environment. Refugees flee their home countries and migrate to foreign countries such as the United States for safety. The emotional and psychological distress experienced by refugees who are compelled to leave their home countries can compromise their ability to adapt to new countries, thereby affecting their well-being. In particular, implications of immigration may be felt more acutely in later life stages, especially when life-long attachments have been made in the country of origin. However, aging studies in the United States have failed to conceptualize refugee aging experiences, more so for refugees who entered the country as adults. Specifically, little is known about the quality of life among aging refugees. Research studies on whether the quality of life varies among refugees by sociodemographic factors are limited. Research studies examining the role of social connectedness in aging refugees’ quality of life are also sparse. As such, the present study seeks to investigate the sociodemographic (i.e., age, sex, country of origin, and length of residence) and social connection factors associated with quality of life among aging refugees. The study consisted of a total of 108 participants from ages 50 years and above. The refugees represented in the study were from Bhutan, Burundi, and Somalia and were recruited from an upper Midwestern region of the United States. The participants completed an in-depth survey assessing social factors and well-being. Hierarchical regression was used for analysis. The results showed that females, older individuals, and refugees who were from Africa reported lower quality of life. Length of residence was not associated with quality of life. Furthermore, when controlling for sociodemographic factors, greater social integration was significantly associated with a higher quality of life, whereas lower loneliness was significantly associated with a higher quality of life. The results also indicated a significant interaction between loneliness and sex in predicting quality of life. This suggests that greater loneliness was associated with reduced quality of life for female refugees but not males. The present study highlights cultural variations within refugee groups which is important in determining how host communities can best support aging refugees’ well-being and develop social programs that can effectively cater to issues of aging among refugees.

Keywords: aging refugees, quality of life, social integration, migration and integration

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153 Crossing Borders: A Case Study on the Entry and Asylum of Sirius Refugees in Turkey

Authors: Stephanie M. De Oliveira

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For a long time, migrations are characterized as a difficult problem to solve. Various phenomena throughout human history caused personnel migrations, whether by the free will of migrants or not. Nowadays, governments that seek to give these people protection and dignity, either to asylum or to build a new life in a different country, make refugee protection. At present, a large amount of people, have been crossing their country's borders by land, air or sea, becoming refugees and seeking a new life away from fear, threat or violence they suffered in their country of origin. It is known that some countries have already instituted rights and rules for refugees who wish to become citizens in the country to which they immigrated, even though this is not what happens in most cases. The article will be based on research made with UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) material as well as will analyze the interaction of the Turkish government with the European Union. Since Turkey is not part of the Union, it will be understood how the interaction was made, as well as the search for consensus, and not only humanitarian but also financial aid. The treatment of refugees and the defense of human rights within the country will also be considered.

Keywords: refugees, Turkey, asylum seekers, United Nations

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152 The Educational Role of Non-Governmental Organizations among Young Refugees: An Ethnographic Study

Authors: Ceyda Sensin

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Chios Island in Greece hosts many refugees from the Middle East since the Turkey-EU Refugee Deal. Thus, it has become commonplace for non-governmental organizations (NGO) to provide help for refugees in various ways. The purpose of this research is to identify ways in which improvements can be made in the educational services offered to young adult refugees (age group 14-22) by the NGO’s. To meet this aim, an unstructured observational technique was used in this qualitative study. The data was collected as a participant observer in February 2018. According to the observations made in this study, it came out that international NGOs may utilize volunteering team members on an urgent basis since they are a free resource from all around the world. In this study, it was observed that the volunteering team members without any teaching qualifications or teaching experience have struggled with reaching refugee students with or without potential mental health problems from exposure to stress, turmoil and trauma. Therefore, this study highly recommends the use of more relevantly trained professionals, alongside the volunteer staff. Alternatively, the volunteer staffs need to have teacher training and periodical refresher training.

Keywords: ethnographic study, non-governmental organizations, refugees, qualitative research method

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151 Health, Social Integration and Social Justice: The Lived Experiences of Young Middle-Eastern Refugees in Australia

Authors: Pranee Liamputtong, Hala Kurban

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Based on the therapeutic landscape theory, this paper examines how young Middle-Eastern refugee individuals perceive their health and well-being and address the barriers they face in their new homeland and the means that helped them to form social connections in their new social environment. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and mapping activities) were conducted with ten young people from refugee backgrounds. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Findings suggested that the young refugees face various structural and cultural inequalities that significantly influenced their health and well-being. Mental health well-being was their greatest health concern. All reported the significant influence the English language had on their ability to adapt and form connections with their social environment. The presence of positive social support in their new social environment had a great impact on the health and well-being of the participants. The findings of this study have implications for social justice among refugees. They also contributed to the role of therapeutic landscapes and social support in helping young refugees to feel that they belonged to the society, and hence assisted them to adapt to their new living situation.

Keywords: young refugees, Middle-Eastern, social support, social justice

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150 Interactions and Integration: Implications of Victim-Agent Portrayals for Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Germany

Authors: Denise Muro

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Conflict in Syria, producing over 11 million displaced persons, has incited global attention to displacement. Although neighboring countries have borne the largest part of the displacement burden, due to the influx of refugees into Europe, the so-called ‘refugee crisis’ is taking place on two fronts: Syria’s neighboring countries, with millions of refugees, and Europe, a destination goal for so many that European states face unprecedented challenges. With increasing attention to displacement, forcibly displaced persons are consistently portrayed as either un-agentic victims, or as dangerous free agents. Recognizing that these dominant portrayals involve discourses of power and inequality, this research investigates the extent to which this victim-agent dichotomy affects refugees and organizations that work closely with them during initial integration processes in Berlin, Germany. The research measures initial integration based on German policy measures regarding integration juxtaposed with the way refugees and those who work with them understand integration. Additionally, the study examines day-to-day interactions of refugees in Germany as a way to gauge social integration in a bottom-up approach. This study involved a discourse analysis of portrayals of refugees and participant observation and interviews with refugees and those who work closely with them, which took place during fieldwork in Berlin in the summer of 2016. Germany is unique regarding their migration history and lack of successful integration, in part due to the persistent refrain, ‘Wir sind kein einwanderungsland’ (‘We are not an immigration country’). Still, their accepted asylum seeker population has grown exponentially in the past few years. Findings suggest that the victim-agent dichotomy is present and impactful in the process of refugees entering and integrating into Germany. Integration is hindered due to refugees either being patronized or criminalized to such an extent that, despite being constantly told that they must integrate, they cannot become part of German society.

Keywords: discourse analysis, Germany, integration, refugee crisis

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149 The Effects of an Immigration Policy on the Economic Integration of Migrants and on Natives’ Attitudes: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

Authors: S. Zeynep Siretioglu Girgin, Gizem Turna Cebeci

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Turkey’s immigration policy is a controversial issue considering its legal, economic, social, and political and human rights dimensions. Formulation of an immigration policy goes hand in hand with political processes, where natives’ attitudes play a significant role. On the other hand, as was the case in Turkey, radical changes made in immigration policy or policies lacking transparency may cause severe reactions by the host society. The underlying discussion paper aims to analyze quantitatively the effects of the existing ‘open door’ immigration policy on the economic integration of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and on the perception of the native population of refugees. For the analysis, semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group interviews have been conducted. After the introduction, a literature review is provided, followed by theoretical background on the explanation of natives’ attitudes towards immigrants. In the next section, a qualitative analysis of natives’ attitudes towards Syrian refugees is presented with the subtopics of (i) awareness, general opinions and expectations, (ii) open-door policy and management of the migration process, (iii) perception of positive and negative impacts of immigration, (iv) economic integration, and (v) cultural similarity. Results indicate that, natives concurrently have social, economic and security concerns regarding refugees, while difficulties regarding security and economic integration of refugees stand out. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, such as the educational level and employment status, are not sufficient to explain the overall attitudes towards refugees, while they can be used to explain the awareness of the respondents and the priority of the concerns felt.

Keywords: economic integration, immigration policy, integration policies, migrants, natives’ sentiments, perception, Syrian refugees, Turkey

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148 The Comparison between Public's Social Distances against Syrian Refugees and Perceptions of Access to Healthcare Services: Istanbul Sample

Authors: Pinar Dogan, Merve Tarhan, Ahu Kurklu

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Syrian refugees who sheltering due to war has protected by the Government of Turkey since 2011. Since Syria was a medium-low income country prior to the war, it is known that chronic health problems weren’t common among citizens. However, it is also known that they frequently use health services in our country because of the spread of infectious and acute diseases due to insufficient sanitation and crowding after the war. This study was planned to compare the social distances of the community against the Syrian refugees and the perceptions of accessing health care services. The descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 1262 individuals living in Istanbul. A questionnaire form consisted of Personal Information Form, The Bogardus Social Distance Scale (BSDS) and The Survey of Access to Healthcare Services (AHS) was used as data collection tool. Descriptive tests and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. It was found that the majorities of participants was satisfied with the health services and were waiting for more than 40 minutes to be examined. It was determined that participants have high scores from BSDS. At the same time, the majority of participants stated that their level of access to health care is diminishing due to refugees. Participants who experienced disruption in access to health services due to refugees were found to have higher scores from BSDS. The data collection process in the study will continue until 2400 individuals are reached. With these conclusions, it is considered necessary that the effect of the presence of the refugees in reaching the health services and nursing care of the society should be revealed through extensive researches to be conducted in Turkey.

Keywords: health care services, nursing care, social distances, Syrian refugees

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147 Meaning in Life, Hope, and Mental Health: Relation between Meaning in Life, Hope, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Afghan Refugees in Iran

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

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The present research was carried out in order to investigate the relationship between meaning in life and hope with depression, anxiety and stress in Afghan Refugees in Alborz province in Iran. In this research, method of study is a descriptive correlation type. One hundred and fifty-eight Afghan refugees (64 male, 94 female) participated in this study. All participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaires (MLQ), Hope Scale (HS), and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). The results revealed that Meaning in Life was positively associated with hope, presence of meaning, search of meaning, and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. Hope was positively associated with presence of meaning and search of meaning, and hope was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Depression, anxiety, and stress were positively correlated with each other. Meaning in life and hope could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Afghan refugees, meaning of life, hope, depression, anxiety and stress

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146 Exploring Coping Mechanisms in Sudanese and Congolese Refugee Women Through Life Story Interviews

Authors: Gwyneth Bernier

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An authoritative literature review of peer-reviewed journals and edited books on East African refugees' coping strategies identifies the four most common coping skills among this group as the following: (1) relying on faith, religion, or another belief system, (2) turning to communities or social supports, (3) cognitive reframing--in other words, finding meaning in one's traumas or hardships--and (4) finding hope for the future, especially through education. However, this review recognizes that there are gaps in knowledge in this field and that the validity of these general findings must be further investigated in East African refugees who are women, have not been resettled in Western countries, and belong to specific nationality groups. This review also suggests studies that build on the current body of research begin to use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. This paper aims to bridge part of that gap in understanding using a qualitative methodology. Specifically, it provides a more holistic view of East African refugees' psychological coping mechanisms through its analysis of trends observed across life story interviews from two participant groups: Sudanese refugee women in Cairo's informal settlements, Egypt and Congolese refugee women in Rwanda's Mahama camp.

Keywords: Congolese refugees, coping mechanisms, refugee women, Sudanese refugees

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145 The Psychological Impact of War Trauma on Refugees

Authors: Anastasia Papachristou, Anastasia Ntikoudi, Vasileios Saridakis

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The safety and health care needs of refugees have become an increasingly important issue all over the world especially during last few decades. Wars are the primary reason for refugees to leave their countries. Moreover, refugees are frequently exposed to a variety of stressors such as socioeconomic disadvantages, poverty, changes in family structure and functioning, losing social support, difficulty to access education, living in very crowded places, experiencing racism and isolation. This systematic review included research studies published between 2007-2017 from the search databases Medline, Scopus, Cinahl and PubMed, with keywords 'war survivors', 'war trauma', 'psychiatric disorders', 'refugees'. In order to meet the purpose of the systematic review, further research for complementary studies was conducted into the literature references of the research articles included in this study that would meet the criteria. Overall, 14 studies were reviewed and evaluated. The majority of them demonstrated that the most common psychiatric disorders observed among war refugees are post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and multiple somatic complaints. Moreover, significant relationship was shown between the number of traumatic events experienced by the refugees and sociodemographic features such as gender, age and previous family history of any psychological disorder. War violence is highly traumatic, causing multiple, long-term negative outcomes such as the aforementioned psychiatric disorders. The number of the studies reviewed in this systematic review is not representative of the problem and its significance. The need for care of the survivors and their families is vital. Further research is necessary in order to clarify the role of predictive factors in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress and the rest psychiatric disorders following war trauma. In conclusion, it is necessary to have large multicenter studies in the future in order to be able to draw reliable conclusions about the effects of war.

Keywords: psychiatric disorders, refugees, war survivors, war trauma

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144 Predictors of Quality of Life among Older Refugees Aging out of Place

Authors: Jonix Owino, Heather Fuller

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Refugees flee from their home countries due to civil unrest, war, persecution and migrate to Western countries such as the United States in search of a safe haven. Transitioning into a new society and culture can be challenging, thereby affecting refugee’s quality of life and well-being in the host communities. Moreover, as individuals age, they experience physical, cognitive and socioemotional changes that may impact their quality of life. However, little is known about the predictors of quality of life among aging refugees. It is not clear how quality of life varies by age, that is, between midlife refugees in comparison to their older counterparts. In addition to age, other sociodemographic factors such as gender, socioeconomic status, or country of origin are likely to have differential associations to quality of life, yet research on such variations among older refugees is sparse. Thus the present study seeks to explore factors associated with quality of life by asking the following research questions: 1) Do sociodemographic factors (such as age and gender) predict quality of life among older refugees, 2) Is there an association between social integration and quality of life, and 3) Is there an association between migratory related experiences (such as post migratory adjustments) and quality of life. The present study recruited 90 refugees (primarily originating from Bhutan, Somalia, Burundi, and Sudan) aged 50 or older living in the US. The participants completed a structured questionnaire which assessed factors such as participant’s sociodemographic attributes (e.g., age, gender, length of residence in the US, country of origin, employment, level of education, and marital status), and validated measures of social integration, post-migration living difficulties, and quality of life. Preliminary results suggest sociodemographic variability in quality of life among these refugees. Further analyses will be conducted using hierarchical regression analyses to address the following hypotheses: first, it is hypothesized that quality of life will vary by age and gender such that younger refugees and men will report higher quality of life. Second, it is expected that refugees with greater levels of social integration will also report better quality of life. Finally, post-migration factors such as language barriers and family stress are hypothesized to predict poorer quality of life. Further results will be analyzed, including potential moderating effects of age and gender, and resulting findings will be interpreted and discussed. The findings from this study have potential implications for communities on how they can better support older refugees as well as develop social programs that can effectively cater to their well-being. Conclusions will be drawn and discussed in light of policies related to both aging and refugee migration within the context of the US.

Keywords: aging out of place, migration, older refugees, quality of life, social integration

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143 Realising the Socio-Economic Rights of Refugees Under Human Rights Law: A Case Study of South Africa

Authors: Taguekou Kenfack Alexie

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For a long time, refugee protection has constituted one of the main concerns of the international community as a whole and for the South African government in particular.The focus of this paper is on the challenges refugees face in accessing their rights in South Africa. In particular, it analyses the legal framework for the protection of the socio economic rights of refugees under international law, regional and domestic law and the extent to which the rights have been realized. The main hypothesis of the study centered on the fact that the social protection of refugees in South Africa is in conformity with international standards. To test this hypothesis, the qualitative research method was applied. Refugee related legal instruments were analyzed as well as academic publications, organizational reports and internet sources. The data analyzed revealed that there has been enormous progress in meeting international standards in the areas of education, emergency relief and assistance, protection of women and refugee children. The results also indicated that much remain to be desired in such areas as nutrition, shelter, health care, freedom of movement and very importantly, employment and social security. The paper also seeks to address the obstacles which prevent the proper treatment of refugees and to make recommendations as how the South African government can better regulate the treatment of refugees living in its territory.Recommendations include the amendment of the legal instruments that provide the normative framework for protection and improvement of protection policies to reflect the changing dynamics.

Keywords: international community, refugee, socioeconomic rights, social protection

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142 Health Services for Women Refugees: A Quantitative Exploratory Study in Ottawa, Canada

Authors: Kholoud Sheba

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Women refugees expectedly are physical, socially and mentally vulnerable due to their past traumatic experiences and their novel circumstances in their receiving countries. They may have a wide range of general, mental, and reproductive health problems, but reportedly avoid visiting health care facilities owing to complex elements. Women refugees are usually unfamiliar with their new country health system and unable to navigate it efficiently. They have limited English language skills, which makes it even harder to access culturally insensitive health services. This study examines barriers to health care for refugee women in Ottawa and offers suggestions to address these challenges. Drawing from culturally congruent health care models in Canada, the United Kingdom, and some parts of the United States, this study highlights the importance of cultivating compassion in the provision of health care for women refugees as a way of addressing some of the disparities in health care in Canada. To address the study purpose, a survey questionnaire was designed and pretested questionnaire and was administrated using SurveyMonkey, a paid source survey application, over a period of two weeks. Snowballing sampling procedures were used to recruit the participants. Data was measured using frequencies, percentages, t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square. The test of significance is set at p < .05. The study asked how refugees perceive their experience in accessing and navigating public health services in Ottawa; what challenges refugees face with healthcare in Canada, and, if gender is related to refugees’ perceptions of the health care system they are forced to use? Results show refugees perceived their experience accessing the healthcare services in Canada to be a positive experience and the health providers to be culturally sensitive and allowing enough time listening to their complaints. The language stood tall in their barriers accessing the services due to low English proficiency and the need for interpretation services to encourage them attending the services.

Keywords: women refugee, access barriers, Ottawa, resettlement

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141 The Work Conditions of Women Refugees: The Case of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon

Authors: Saja Al Zoubi, Humam Wardeh

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This study aims to shed light on the work conditions of female refugees and the most important constraints and challenges preventing them from accessing good earning work. The study was conducted in the Syrian refugee camps in Bekaa province, Lebanon, with a field survey carried out between 2016-2017 through face-to-face interviews of 69 female refugee workers, in addition to 4 focus groups. The results show that 97% of the Syrian female refugees are agricultural workers, they form more than 53% of the agricultural labor work among the refugees. Women predominantly perform all agricultural activities (Planting, weeding, fertilization, irrigation, compacting, cutting, sorting, packaging), except the carriage of heavy objects and sometimes irrigation are exclusive for men. The female child labor is 66% of the child labor. To maintain the livelihoods of their families, women accept to be paid for 4-8 $/day with gender gap around 6 $/day. Women’s acceptance of these low wages is one of the main reasons for landowners’ preference of hiring women under bad work conditions. The less educated and skilled (40% of the women are illiterate, and 2% have some skills) women are more likely to be limited to farm work. In addition, there are other reasons as traditions, labor market demand and other challenges related to security and legal issues. This study finds that enhancing the women capacities (for both refugees and host community) through vocational training and cooperative micro enterprises matched with income generating activities and opening new market channels for local manufactured products can play important role to improve the work skills and conditions, and that can improve the livelihood of their families. The study also recommends to adopt a strategy by all humanitarian agencies to make the aid on educating children condition.

Keywords: agricultural work conditions, gender wage gap, women refugees, work constraints

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140 UNHCR and the International Refugee Protection: An Analysis of Its Actions in Protecting Mozambican Refugees in Malawi

Authors: Marcia Teresa Gildo

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The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is responsible to provide international protection and humanitarian assistance to refugees and to seek permanent solutions to their situation. To fulfil this mandate, the agency works in collaboration with its partners and governments. This paper aims to analyse the agency's actions to protect and provide assistance to Mozambican refugees in Malawi. Since July 2015, approximately 12.000 people have fled Mozambique to neighbouring Malawi due to the political-military conflict between the government of Mozambique and RENAMO (the country’s largest opposition party). This led to a series of military clashes between the two parties and the consequent flight of some Mozambicans to Malawi, in search of asylum. Most arrived from the province of Tete, in the central region of Mozambique, and, to a lesser extent, from the province of Zambezia. The asylum seekers arrived in small groups and settled in the village of Kapise in the Mwanza district of Thambani, as well as in Chikwawa and Nsanje districts in Malawi. UNHCR led an interinstitutional response action to manage the flow of Mozambican asylum seekers to Malawi. In view of these aspects and the ongoing challenge of protecting refugees and finding permanent solutions to their situation, UNHCR remains an indispensable international organization. However, there are significant gaps in the international refugee protection regime, and there have been many occasions when UNHCR has failed to fulfill its mandate. The analysis was carried out through qualitative research methods and techniques based essentially on consultation of books, newspapers and scientific articles, television and journalistic reports and interviews with the people who were involved in the process. From the data obtained, it was concluded that UNHCR worked in coordination with its partners and the government of Malawi to provide protection and emergency assistance to the refugees. However, existing funds covered only the immediate needs of refugees, more funds had to be allocated. That was made through an interinstitutional appeal. Although the funds allocated were not sufficient, they allowed the agency to protect and assist the refugees until a permanent solution was found. UNHCR also worked in coordination with the governments of Malawi and Mozambique so that a tripartite agreement was signed between the parties for the voluntary repatriation of Mozambican refugees, since security conditions were guaranteed and the refugees had expressed their willingness to return to their country of origin. UNHCR's actions to protect Mozambican refugees in Malawi have enabled humanitarian conditions to be respected and the rights of refugees to be guaranteed. Cooperation with the different actors involved in the response has allowed UNHCR to fulfil its mandate.

Keywords: assistance , cooperation, international protection, refugees

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