Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 637

Search results for: thermoplastic polymers

637 Rheological Modeling for Shape-Memory Thermoplastic Polymers

Authors: H. Hosseini, B. V. Berdyshev, I. Iskopintsev


This paper presents a rheological model for producing shape-memory thermoplastic polymers. Shape-memory occurs as a result of internal rearrangement of the structural elements of a polymer. A non-linear viscoelastic model was developed that allows qualitative and quantitative prediction of the stress-strain behavior of shape-memory polymers during heating. This research was done to develop a technique to determine the maximum possible change in size of heat-shrinkable products during heating. The rheological model used in this work was particularly suitable for defining process parameters and constructive parameters of the processing equipment.

Keywords: elastic deformation, heating, shape-memory polymers, stress-strain behavior, viscoelastic model

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636 Bending Test Characteristics for Splicing of Thermoplastic Polymer Using Hot Gas Welding

Authors: Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti, Iswanto Iswanto, Edi Widodo, Sholeh Pamuji


Materials of the thermoplastic polymer when they break is usually thrown away, or is recycled which requires a long process. The purpose of this study is to splice the broken thermoplastic polymer using hot gas welding with different variations of welding wire/electrodes. Materials of thermoplastic polymer used are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using welding wire like the three materials. The method is carried out by using hot gas welding; there are two materials that cannot be connected, namely PE with PVC welding wire, and PP with PVC welding wire. The permeable liquid penetrant test is PP with PE welding wire, and PVC with PE welding wire. The best bending test result with the longest elongation is PE with PE welding wire with a bending test value of 179.03 kgf/mm². The microstructure was all described in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations.

Keywords: thermoplastic polymers, bending test, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hot gas welding, bending test

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635 Interfacial Adhesion and Properties Improvement of Polyethylene/Thermoplastic Starch Blend Compatibilized by Stearic Acid-Grafted-Starch

Authors: Nattaporn Khanoonkon, Rangrong Yoksan, Amod A. Ogale


Polyethylene (PE) is one of the most petroleum-based thermoplastic materials used in many applications including packaging due to its cheap, light-weight, chemically inert and capable to be converted into various shapes and sizes of products. Although PE is a commercially potential material, its non-biodegradability caused environmental problems. At present, bio-based polymers become more interesting owing to its bio-degradability, non-toxicity, and renewability as well as being eco-friendly. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) is a bio-based and biodegradable plastic produced from the plasticization of starch under applying heat and shear force. In many researches, TPS was blended with petroleum-based polymers including PE in order to reduce the cost and the use of those polymers. However, the phase separation between hydrophobic PE and hydrophilic TPS limited the amount of TPS incorporated. The immiscibility of two different polarity polymers can be diminished by adding compatibilizer. PE-based compatibilizers, e.g. polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride, polyethylene-co-vinyl alcohol, etc. have been applied for the PE/TPS blend system in order to improve their miscibility. Until now, there is no report about the utilization of starch-based compatibilizer for PE/TPS blend system. The aims of the present research were therefore to synthesize a new starch-based compatibilizer, i.e. stearic acid-grafted starch (SA-g-starch) and to study the effect of SA-g-starch on chemical interaction, morphological properties, tensile properties and water vapor as well as oxygen barrier properties of the PE/TPS blend films. PE/TPS blends without and with incorporating SA-g-starch with a content of 1, 3 and 5 part(s) per hundred parts of starch (phr) were prepared using a twin screw extruder and then blown into films using a film blowing machine. Incorporating 1 phr and 3 phr of SA-g-starch could improve miscibility of the two polymers as confirmed from the reduction of TPS phase size and the good dispersion of TPS phase in PE matrix. In addition, the blend containing SA-g-starch with contents of 1 phr and 3 phr exhibited higher tensile strength and extensibility, as well as lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities than the naked blend. The above results suggested that SA-g-starch could be potentially applied as a compatibilizer for the PE/TPS blend system.

Keywords: blend, compatibilizer, polyethylene, thermoplastic starch

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634 Graded Orientation of the Linear Polymers

Authors: Levan Nadareishvili, Roland Bakuradze, Barbara Kilosanidze, Nona Topuridze, Liana Sharashidze, Ineza Pavlenishvili


Some regularities of formation of a new structural state of the thermoplastic polymers-gradually oriented (stretched) state (GOS) are discussed. Transition into GOS is realized by the graded oriented stretching-by action of inhomogeneous mechanical field on the isotropic linear polymers or by zonal stretching that is implemented on a standard tensile-testing machine with using a specially designed zone stretching device (ZSD). Both technical approaches (especially zonal stretching method) allows to manage the such quantitative parameters of gradually oriented polymers as a range of change in relative elongation/orientation degree, length of this change and profile (linear, hyperbolic, parabolic, logarithmic, etc.). Uniaxial graded stretching method should be considered as an effective technological solution to create polymer materials with a predetermined gradient of physical properties.

Keywords: controlled graded stretching, gradually oriented state, linear polymers, zone stretching device

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633 Recovery of Polymers from Electronic Waste - An Analysis

Authors: Anis A. Ansari, Syed Javed Arif


From the last two-three decades, all countries are continuously generating huge quantities of electronic waste in the form of obsolete computers, gadgets and other discarded electronic instruments mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this area. This is the primary reason why waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. Thermoset and thermoplastic polymers, which are the major constituents in every electronic waste, may create a new business opportunity if these are recovered and recycled properly. This may reduce our directly dependency on petroleum and petro-products for polymer materials and also create a potential market for recycled polymers to improve economy. The main theme of this paper is to evolve the potential of recovery and recycling of polymers from the waste being generated globally in the form of discarded electronic products.

Keywords: polymer recovery, electronic waste, petroleum, thermoplastics

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632 Production and Mechanical Characterization of Ballistic Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: D. Korsacilar, C. Atas


In this study, first thermoplastic composite materials/plates that have high ballistic impact resistance were produced. For this purpose, the thermoplastic prepreg and the vacuum bagging technique were used to produce a composite material. Thermoplastic prepregs (resin-impregnated fiber) that are supplied ready to be used, namely high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was chosen as matrix and unidirectional glass fiber was used as reinforcement. In order to compare the fiber configuration effect on mechanical properties, unidirectional and biaxial prepregs were used. Then the microstructural properties of the composites were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Impact properties of the composites were examined by Charpy impact test and tensile mechanical tests and then the effects of ultraviolet irradiation were investigated on mechanical performance.

Keywords: ballistic, composite, thermoplastic, prepreg

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631 Glass and Polypropylene Combinations for Thermoplastic Preforms

Authors: Hireni Mankodi


The textile preforms for thermoplastic composite play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about preparing combination of yarn from Glass, Basalt, Carbon as reinforcement and PP, PET, Nylon as thermoplastic matrix at yarn stage for preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to develop the hybrid yarn using different yarn manufacturing process and prepare different performs using hybrid yarns. It has been observed that the glass/pp combination give homogeneous distribution in yarn. The proportion varied to optimize the glass/pp composition. The different preform has been prepared with combination of hybrid yarn, PP, glass combination. Further studies will investigate the effect of glass content in fabric, effect of weave, warps and filling density, number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of thermoplastic laminates.

Keywords: thermoplastic, preform, laminates, hybrid yarn, glass

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630 Thermoplastic Composites with Reduced Discoloration and Enhanced Fire-Retardant Property

Authors: Peng Cheng, Liqing Wei, Hongyu Chen, Ruomiao Wang


This paper discusses a light-weight reinforced thermoplastic (LWRT) composite with superior fire retardancy. This porous LWRT composite is manufactured using polyolefin, fiberglass, and fire retardant additives via a wet-lay process. However, discoloration of the LWRT can be induced by various mechanisms, which may be a concern in the building and construction industry. It is commonly understood that discoloration is strongly associated with the presence of phenolic antioxidant(s) and NOx. The over-oxidation of phenolic antioxidant(s) is probably the root-cause of the discoloration (pinking/yellowing). Hanwha Azdel, Inc. developed a LWRT with fire-retardant property of ASTM E84-Class A specification, as well as negligible discoloration even under harsh conditions. In addition, this thermoplastic material is suitable for secondary processing (e.g. compression molding) if necessary.

Keywords: discoloration, fire-retardant, thermoplastic composites, wet-lay process

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629 Forming Simulation of Thermoplastic Pre-Impregnated Textile Composite

Authors: Masato Nishi, Tetsushi Kaburagi, Masashi Kurose, Tei Hirashima, Tetsusei Kurasiki


The process of thermoforming a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) has increased its presence in the automotive industry for its wide applicability to the mass production car. A non-isothermal forming for CFRTP can shorten its cycle time to less than 1 minute. In this paper, the textile reinforcement FE model which the authors proposed in a previous work is extended to the CFRTP model for non-isothermal forming simulation. The effect of thermoplastic is given by adding shell elements which consider thermal effect to the textile reinforcement model. By applying Reuss model to the stress calculation of thermoplastic, the proposed model can accurately predict in-plane shear behavior, which is the key deformation mode during forming, in the range of the process temperature. Using the proposed model, thermoforming simulation was conducted and the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, finite element analysis, pre-impregnated textile composite, non-isothermal forming

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628 Enhancement of Interface Properties of Thermoplastic Composite Materials

Authors: Reyhan Ozbask, Emek Moroydor Derin, Mustafa Dogu


There are a limited number of global companies in the world that manufacture and commercially offer thermoplastic composite prepregs in accordance with aerospace requirements. High-performance thermoplastic materials supplied for aerospace structural applications are PEEK (polyetheretherketone), PPS (polyphenylsulfite), PEI (polyetherimide), and PEKK (polyetherketoneketone). Among these, PEEK is the raw material used in the first applications and has started to become widespread. However, the use of these thermoplastic raw materials in composite production is very difficult due to their high processing temperatures and impregnation difficulties. This study, it is aimed to develop carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic PEEK composites that comply with the requirements of the aviation industry that are superior mechanical properties as well as being lightweight. Therefore, it is aimed to obtain high-performance thermoplastic composite materials with improved interface properties by using the sizing method (suspension development through chemical synthesis and functionalization), to optimize the production process. The use of boron nitride nanotube as a bonding agent by modifying its surface constitutes the original aspect of the study as it has not been used in composite production with high-performance thermoplastic materials yet. For this purpose, laboratory-scale studies on the application of thermoplastic compatible sizing will be carried out in order to increase the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion. The method respectively consists of the selection of appropriate sizing type, laboratory-scale carbon fiber (CF) / poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) polymer interface enhancement studies, manufacturing of laboratory-scale BNNT coated CF/PEEK woven prepreg composites and their tests.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced composite, interface enhancement, boron nitride nanotube, thermoplastic composite

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627 Thermomechanical Behavior of Asphalt Modified with Thermoplastic Polymer and Nanoclay Dellite 43B

Authors: L. F. Tamele Jr., G. Buonocore, H. F. Muiambo


Asphalt binders play an essential role in the performance and properties of asphalt mixtures. The increase in heavy loads, greater traffic volume, and high tire pressure, combined with a substantial variation in daily and seasonal pavement temperatures, are the main responsible for the failure of asphalt pavements. To avoid or mitigate these failures, the present research proposes the use of thermoplastic polymers, HDPE and LLDPE, and nanoclay Dellite 43B for modification of asphalt in order to improve its thermomechanical and rheological properties. The nanocomposites were prepared by the solution intercalation method in a high shear mixer for a mixing time of 2 h, at 180℃ and 5000 rpm. The addition of Dellite 43B improved the physical, rheological, and thermal properties of asphalt, either separated or in the form of polymer/bitumen blends. The results of the physical characterization showed a decrease in penetration and an increase in softening point, thermal susceptibility, viscosity, and stiffness. On the other hand, thermal characterization showed that the nanocomposites have greater stability at higher temperatures by exhibiting greater amounts of residues and improved initial and final decomposition temperatures. Thus, the modification of asphalt by polymers and nanoclays seems to be a suitable solution for road pavement in countries which experiment with high temperatures combined with long heavy rain seasons.

Keywords: asphalt, nanoclay dellite 43B, polymer modified asphalt, thermal and rheological properties

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626 Low-Complex, High-Fidelity Two-Grades Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) Based Thermal Bonding Technique for Sealing a Thermoplastic Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: Jorge Prada, Christina Cordes, Carsten Harms, Walter Lang


The development of microfluidic-based biosensors over the last years has shown an increasing employ of thermoplastic polymers as constitutive material. Their low-cost production, high replication fidelity, biocompatibility and optical-mechanical properties are sought after for the implementation of disposable albeit functional lab-on-chip solutions. Among the range of thermoplastic materials on use, the Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) stands out due to its optical transparency, which makes it a frequent choice as manufacturing material for fluorescence-based biosensors. Moreover, several processing techniques to complete a closed COC microfluidic biosensor have been discussed in the literature. The reported techniques differ however in their implementation, and therefore potentially add more or less complexity when using it in a mass production process. This work introduces and reports results on the application of a purely thermal bonding process between COC substrates, which were produced by the hot-embossing process, and COC foils containing screen-printed circuits. The proposed procedure takes advantage of the transition temperature difference between two COC grades foils to accomplish the sealing of the microfluidic channels. Patterned heat injection to the COC foil through the COC substrate is applied, resulting in consistent channel geometry uniformity. Measurements on bond strength and bursting pressure are shown, suggesting that this purely thermal bonding process potentially renders a technique which can be easily adapted into the thermoplastic microfluidic chip production workflow, while enables a low-cost as well as high-quality COC biosensor manufacturing process.

Keywords: biosensor, cyclo-olefin copolymer, hot embossing, thermal bonding, thermoplastics

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625 Pultrusion of Side by Side Glass/Polypropylene Fibers: Study of Flexural and Shear Properties

Authors: Behrooz Ataee, Mohammad Golzar


The main purpose of using side by side (SBS) hybrid yarn in pultrusion thermoplastic method is reprisal the effect of high viscosity in melted thermoplastic and reduction of distance between reinforced fiber and melted thermoplastic. SBS hybrid fiber yarn composed of thermoplastic fibers and fiber reinforcement should be produced in the preparation of pultruded thermoplastic composites prepreg to reach better impregnation. An experimental set-up was designed and built to pultrude continues polypropylene and glass fiber to get obtain a suitable impregnated round prepregs. In final stage, the round prepregs come together to produce rectangular profile. Higher fiber volume fraction produces higher void volume fraction, however the second stage of the production process of rectangular profile and the cold die decrease 50% of the void volume fraction. Results show that whit increasing void volume fraction, flexural and shear strength decrease. Also, under certain conditions of parameters the pultruded profiles exhibit better flexural and shear strength. The pulling speed seems to have the greatest influence on the profile quality. In addition, adding cold die strongly increases the surface quality of rectangular profile.

Keywords: thermoplastic pultrusion, hybrid pultrusion, side-by-side fibers, impregnation

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624 Reactive Blending of Thermoplastic Starch, Ethylene-1-Butene Rubber, and Chitosan

Authors: Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Toshiaki Ougizawa


Thermoplastic starch (TPS) was prepared by melt-blending of cassava starch with glycerol (70/30 wt%/wt%) at 130 ◦C for 10 min. Chitosan (CTS) was used as a compatibilizer. TPS/CTS blend was melt-blended with maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-1-butene rubber (EB-MAH) in the composition of 80/20 respectively. Addition of CTS in TPS/EB-MAH blend decreased particles size of EB-MAH rubber to 1µm in TPS matrix. Mechanical properties, solubility, swelling property, morphology, and water contact angle of TPS/EB-MAH blend were improved by CTS incorporation. FTIR confirmed a reaction had occurred between amino groups (-NH2) of CTS and the MAH groups of EB-MAH. This reaction and the enhanced miscibility between TPS and CTS improved morphology and properties of the TPS/EB-MAH/CTS blend.

Keywords: thermoplastic starch, rubber, reactive blending, chitosan

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623 Elastic Stress Analysis of Composite Cantilever Beam Loaded Uniformly

Authors: Merve Tunay Çetin, Ali Kurşun, Erhan Çetin, Halil Aykul


In this investigation an elastic stress analysis is carried out a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beam loaded uniformly at the upper surface. The composite beam material consists of low density polyethylene as a thermoplastic (LDFE, f.2.12) and woven steel fibers. Granules of the polyethylene is put into the moulds and they are heated up to 160°C by using electrical resistance. Subsequently, the material is held for 5min under 2.5 MPa at this temperature. The temperature is decreased to 30°C under 15 MPa pressure in 3 min. Closed form solution is found satisfying both the governing differential equation and boundary conditions. We investigated orientation angle effect on stress distribution of composite cantilever beams. The results show that orientation angle play an important role in determining the responses of a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beams and an optimal design of these structures.

Keywords: cantilever beam, elastic stress analysis, orientation angle, thermoplastic

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622 Predictions for the Anisotropy in Thermal Conductivity in Polymers Subjected to Model Flows by Combination of the eXtended Pom-Pom Model and the Stress-Thermal Rule

Authors: David Nieto Simavilla, Wilco M. H. Verbeeten


The viscoelastic behavior of polymeric flows under isothermal conditions has been extensively researched. However, most of the processing of polymeric materials occurs under non-isothermal conditions and understanding the linkage between the thermo-physical properties and the process state variables remains a challenge. Furthermore, the cost and energy required to manufacture, recycle and dispose polymers is strongly affected by the thermo-physical properties and their dependence on state variables such as temperature and stress. Experiments show that thermal conductivity in flowing polymers is anisotropic (i.e. direction dependent). This phenomenon has been previously omitted in the study and simulation of industrially relevant flows. Our work combines experimental evidence of a universal relationship between thermal conductivity and stress tensors (i.e. the stress-thermal rule) with differential constitutive equations for the viscoelastic behavior of polymers to provide predictions for the anisotropy in thermal conductivity in uniaxial, planar, equibiaxial and shear flow in commercial polymers. A particular focus is placed on the eXtended Pom-Pom model which is able to capture the non-linear behavior in both shear and elongation flows. The predictions provided by this approach are amenable to implementation in finite elements packages, since viscoelastic and thermal behavior can be described by a single equation. Our results include predictions for flow-induced anisotropy in thermal conductivity for low and high density polyethylene as well as confirmation of our method through comparison with a number of thermoplastic systems for which measurements of anisotropy in thermal conductivity are available. Remarkably, this approach allows for universal predictions of anisotropy in thermal conductivity that can be used in simulations of complex flows in which only the most fundamental rheological behavior of the material has been previously characterized (i.e. there is no need for additional adjusting parameters other than those in the constitutive model). Accounting for polymers anisotropy in thermal conductivity in industrially relevant flows benefits the optimization of manufacturing processes as well as the mechanical and thermal performance of finalized plastic products during use.

Keywords: anisotropy, differential constitutive models, flow simulations in polymers, thermal conductivity

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621 Synthesis of Telechelic Polymers for Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Paula C Arroyo, Norma A Sánchez, Mikhail Tlenkopatchev


The continuous growth in population has resulted in an increment in road construction. The road construction requires more lasting and resistant pavements. Among the different applications of polymers, the reinforcement of pavements throw the modification of asphalt has demonstrated to be an area of special interest for new polymers. The modified asphalt should exhibit a considerable good performance, good elastic properties and an increment in the performance grade (PG). Some of the current polymers used in asphalt are styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-(glycidyl methacrylate) and ethylene-vinyl acetate EVA. The goal of this study was to synthesize low molecular weight (2,000 – 150,000 D) telechelic polymers to be applied at low concentrations in asphalt in order to modify its rheological properties and make it more resistant and durable. The telechelic polymers were obtained from different molar relationships between tensioned and functionalized olefins by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and cross metathesis (CR). The synthesis was carried out under inert conditions with Grubbs second generation catalyst. The reaction efficiency was superior to 96% and telechelic polymers were characterized. The telechelic polymers were used to modify asphalt and the rheological properties of the modified asphalt were evaluated finding that at low concentrations (1%) the PG increased in one or two degrees.

Keywords: asphalt polymers, metathesis polymers, telechelic polymers, modified asphalt

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620 Preparation and Properties of Polylactic Acid/MDI Modified Thermoplastic Starch Blends

Authors: Sukhila Krishnan, Smita Mohanty, Sanjay K. Nayak


Polylactide (PLA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) are the most promising bio-based materials presently available on the market. Polylactic acid is one of the versatile biodegradable polyester showing wide range of applications in various fields and starch is a biopolymer which is renewable, cheap as well as extensively available. The usual increase in the cost of petroleum-based commodities in the next decades opens bright future for these materials. Their biodegradability and compostability was an added advantage in applications that are difficult to recycle. Currently, thermoplastic starch (TPS) has been used as a substitute for synthetic plastic in several commercial products. But, TPS shows some limitations mainly due to its brittle and hydrophilic nature, which has to be resolved to widen its application.The objective of the work we report here was to initiate chemical modifications on TPS and to build up a process to control its chemical structure using a solution process which can reduce its water sensitive properties and then blended it with PLA to improve compatibility between PLA and TPS. The method involves in cleavage of starch amylose and amylopectin chain backbone to plasticize with glycerol and water in batch mixer and then the prepared TPS was reacted in solution with diisocyanates i.e, 4,4'-Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI).This diisocyanate was used before with great success for the chemical modification of TPS surface. The method utilized here will form an urethane-linkages between reactive isocyanate groups (–NCO) and hydroxyl groups (-OH) of starch as well as of glycerol. New polymer synthesised shows a reduced crystallinity, less hydrophilic and enhanced compatibility with other polymers. The TPS was prepared by Haake Rheomix 600 batch mixer with roller rotors operating at 50 rpm. The produced material is then refluxed for 5hrs with MDI in toluene with constant stirring. Finally, the modified TPS was melt blended with PLA in different compositions. Blends obtained shows an improved mechanical properties. These materials produced are characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR), DSC, X-Ray diffraction and mechanical tests.

Keywords: polylactic acid, thermoplastic starch, Methylenediphenyl Diisocyanate, Polylactide (PLA)

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619 Evaluation of Vine Stem Waste as a Filler Material for High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Y. Seki, A. Ç. Kılıç, M. Atagür, O. Özdemir, İ. Şen, K. Sever, Ö. Seydibeyoğlu, M. Sarikanat, N. Küçükdoğan


Cheap and abundant waste materials have been investigated as filler materials in thermoplastic polymers instead of wood- based materials because of deforestation. Vine stem, as an agricultural waste, was used as a filler material for a thermoplastic polymer, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in this study. Agricultural waste of vine stem was collected from Manisa region, Turkey. Vine stem at different rations was used to reinforce HDPE. The effect of vine stem loading on tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composites were obtained. It was clearly observed that tensile strength and Young’s modulus of HDPE was increased by vine stem loading. Thermal stabilities of composites were obtained by using thermogravimetric analysis. Water absorption behavior of HDPE was improved by loading vine stem into HDPE. The crystallinity index values of neat HDPE and vine stem loaded HDPE composites were investigated byX-ray diffraction analysis. From this study, it was inferred that vine stem, as an agricultural waste, can be used as a filler material for HDPE.

Keywords: waste filler, high density polyethylene, composite, composite materials

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618 The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes in Copolyamide Nonwovens on the Properties of CFRP Laminates

Authors: Kamil Dydek, Anna Boczkowska, Paulina Latko-Duralek, Rafal Kozera, Michal Salacinski


In recent years there has been increasing interest in many industries, such as the aviation, automotive, and military industries, in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). This is because of the excellent properties of CFRP, which are characterized by very high strength and stiffness in relation to their mass, low density (almost twice as low as aluminum and more than five times as low as steel), and corrosion resistance. However, they do not have sufficient electrical conductivity, which is required in some applications. Therefore, work is underway to improve their electrical conductivity, for example, by incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the CFRP structure. CNTs possess excellent properties, such as high electrical conductivity, high aspect ratio, high Young’s modulus, and high tensile strength. An idea developed by our team is a modification of CFRP by the use of thermoplastic nonwovens containing CNTs. Nanocomposite fibers were made from three different masterbatches differing in the content of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and then nonwovens that differed in areal weight were produced using a thermo-press. The out of autoclave method was used to fabricate the laminates from commercial carbon-epoxy prepreg dedicated to aviation applications - one without the nonwovens (reference) and five containing nonwovens placed between each prepreg layer. The volume of electrical conductivity of the manufactured laminates was measured in three directions. In order to investigate the adhesion between carbon fibers and nonwovens, the microstructure of the produced laminates was observed. The mechanical properties of the CFRP composites were measured in a short-beam shear test. In addition, the influence of thermoplastic nonwovens on the thermos-mechanical properties of laminates was analyzed by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. The studies were carried out within grant no. DOB-1-3/1/PS/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development in Poland.

Keywords: CFRP, thermoplastic nonwovens, carbon nanotubes, electrical conductivity

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617 Horse Chestnut Starch: A Noble Inedible Feedstock Source for Producing Thermoplastic Starch (TPS)

Authors: J. Castaño, S. Rodriguez, C. M. L. Franco


Starch isolated from non-edible A. hippocastanum seeds was characterized and used for preparing starch-based materials. The apparent amylose content of the isolated starch was 33.1%. The size of starch granules ranged from 0.7 to 35µm, and correlated with the shape of granules (spherical, oval and irregular). The chain length distribution profile of amylopectin showed two peaks, at polymerization degree (DP) of 12 and 41-43. Around 53% of branch unit chains had DP in the range of 11-20. A. hippocastanum starch displayed a typical C-type pattern and the maximum decomposition temperature was 317°C. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) prepared from A. hippocastanum with glycerol and processed by melt blending exhibited adequate mechanical and thermal properties. In contrast, plasticized TPS with glycerol:malic acid (1:1) showed lower thermal stability and a pasty and sticky behavior, indicating that malic acid accelerates degradation of starch during processing.

Keywords: Aesculus hippocastanum L., amylopectin structure, thermoplastic starch, non-edible source

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616 Mechanical Properties of Poly(Propylene)-Based Graphene Nanocomposites

Authors: Luiza Melo De Lima, Tito Trindade, Jose M. Oliveira


The development of thermoplastic-based graphene nanocomposites has been of great interest not only to the scientific community but also to different industrial sectors. Due to the possible improvement of performance and weight reduction, thermoplastic nanocomposites are a great promise as a new class of materials. These nanocomposites are of relevance for the automotive industry, namely because the emission limits of CO2 emissions imposed by the European Commission (EC) regulations can be fulfilled without compromising the car’s performance but by reducing its weight. Thermoplastic polymers have some advantages over thermosetting polymers such as higher productivity, lower density, and recyclability. In the automotive industry, for example, poly(propylene) (PP) is a common thermoplastic polymer, which represents more than half of the polymeric raw material used in automotive parts. Graphene-based materials (GBM) are potential nanofillers that can improve the properties of polymer matrices at very low loading. In comparison to other composites, such as fiber-based composites, weight reduction can positively affect their processing and future applications. However, the properties and performance of GBM/polymer nanocomposites depend on the type of GBM and polymer matrix, the degree of dispersion, and especially the type of interactions between the fillers and the polymer matrix. In order to take advantage of the superior mechanical strength of GBM, strong interfacial strength between GBM and the polymer matrix is required for efficient stress transfer from GBM to the polymer. Thus, chemical compatibilizers and physicochemical modifications have been reported as important tools during the processing of these nanocomposites. In this study, PP-based nanocomposites were obtained by a simple melt blending technique, using a Brabender type mixer machine. Graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) were applied as structural reinforcement. Two compatibilizers were used to improve the interaction between PP matrix and GnPs: PP graft maleic anhydride (PPgMA) and PPgMA modified with tertiary amine alcohol (PPgDM). The samples for tensile and Charpy impact tests were obtained by injection molding. The results suggested the GnPs presence can increase the mechanical strength of the polymer. However, it was verified that the GnPs presence can promote a decrease of impact resistance, turning the nanocomposites more fragile than neat PP. The compatibilizers’ incorporation increases the impact resistance, suggesting that the compatibilizers can enhance the adhesion between PP and GnPs. Compared to neat PP, Young’s modulus of non-compatibilized nanocomposite increase demonstrated that GnPs incorporation can promote a stiffness improvement of the polymer. This trend can be related to the several physical crosslinking points between the PP matrix and the GnPs. Furthermore, the decrease of strain at a yield of PP/GnPs, together with the enhancement of Young’s modulus, confirms that the GnPs incorporation led to an increase in stiffness but to a decrease in toughness. Moreover, the results demonstrated that incorporation of compatibilizers did not affect Young’s modulus and strain at yield results compared to non-compatibilized nanocomposite. The incorporation of these compatibilizers showed an improvement of nanocomposites’ mechanical properties compared both to those the non-compatibilized nanocomposite and to a PP sample used as reference.

Keywords: graphene nanoplatelets, mechanical properties, melt blending processing, poly(propylene)-based nanocomposites

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615 Heating Behavior of Ni-Embedded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Adhesive Film by Induction Heating

Authors: DuckHwan Bae, YongSung Kwon, Min Young Shon, SanTaek Oh, GuNi Kim


The heating behavior of nanometer and micrometer sized Nickel particle-imbedded thermoplastic polyurethane adhesive (TPU) under induction heating is examined in present study. The effects of particle size and content, TPU film thickness on heating behaviors were examined. The correlation between heating behavior and magnetic properties of Nickel particles were also studied. From the results, heat generation increased with increase of Nickel content and film thickness. However, in terms of particle sizes, heat generation of Nickel-imbedded TPU film were in order of 70nm>1µm>20 µm>70 µm and this results can explain by increasing ration of eddy heating to hysteresis heating with increase of particle size.

Keywords: induction heating, thermoplastic polyurethane, nickel, composite, hysteresis loss, eddy current loss, curie temperature

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614 Rheological Properties of PP/EVA Blends

Authors: Othman Y. Alothman


The study aims to investigate the effects of blend ratio, VA content and temperature on the rheological properties of PPEVA blends. The results show that all pure polymers and their blends show typical shear thinning behaviour. All neat polymers exhibit power-low type flow behaviour, with the viscosity order as EVA328 > EVA206 > PP in almost all frequency ranges. As temperature increases, the viscosity of all polymers decreases as expected, and the viscosity becomes more sensitive to the addition of EVA. Two different regions can be observed on the flow curve of some of the polymers and their blends, which is thought to be due to slip-stick transition or melt fracture.

Keywords: polypropylene, ethylene vinyl acetate, blends, rheological properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
613 Determination of Foaming Behavior in Thermoplastic Composite Nonwoven Structures for Automotive Applications

Authors: Zulfiye Ahan, Mustafa Dogu, Elcin Yilmaz


The use of nonwoven textile materials in many application areas is rapidly increasing thanks to their versatile performance properties. The automotive industry is one of the largest sectors in the world with a potential market of more than 2 billion euros for nonwoven textile materials applications. Lightweight materials having higher mechanical performance, better sound and heat insulation properties are of interest in many applications. Since the usage of nonwoven surfaces provides many of these advantages, the demand for this kind of materials is gradually growing especially in the automotive industry. Nonwoven materials used in lightweight vehicles can contain economical and high strength thermoplastics as well as durable components such as glass fiber. By bringing these composite materials into foam structure containing micro or nanopores, products with high absorption ability, light and mechanically stronger can be fabricated. In this respect, our goal is to produce thermoplastic composite nonwoven by using nonwoven glass fiber fabric reinforced polypropylene (PP). Azodicarbonamide (ADC) was selected as a foaming agent and a thermal process was applied to obtain porous structure. Various foaming temperature ranges and residence times were studied to examine the foaming behaviour of the thermoplastic composite nonwoven. Physicochemical and mechanical tests were applied in order to analyze the characteristics of composite foams.

Keywords: composite nonwoven, thermoplastic foams, foaming agent, foaming behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
612 Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorous on the Flame Retardant Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber

Authors: Mustafa Yılmaz, Ahmet Akar, Nesrin Köken, Nilgün Kızılcan


Commercially available poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) P(AN-VA) or poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) P(AN-MA) are not satisfactory to meet the demand in flame and fire-resistance. In this work, vinylphosphonic acid is used during polymerization of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methacrylic acid to produce fire-retardant polymers. These phosphorus containing polymers are successfully spun in the form of nanofibers. Properties such as water absorption of polymers are also determined and compared with commercial polymers.

Keywords: flame retardant, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile, phosphorous compound, membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
611 Determination of Foaming Behavior in thermoplastic Composite Nonwoven Structures for Automotive Applications

Authors: Zulfiye Ahan, Mustafa Dogu, Elcin Yilmaz


The use of nonwoven textile materials in many application areas is rapidly increasing thanks to their versatile performance properties. The automotive industry is one of the largest sectors in the world, with a potential market of more than 2 billion euros for nonwoven textile materials applications. Lightweight materials having higher mechanical performance, better sound and heat insulation properties are of interest in many applications. Since the usage of nonwoven surfaces provides many of these advantages, the demand for this kind of material is gradually growing, especially in the automotive industry. Nonwoven materials used in lightweight vehicles can contain economical and high strength thermoplastics as well as durable components such as glass fiber. By bringing these composite materials into foam structure containing micro or nanopores, products with high absorption ability, light and mechanically stronger can be fabricated. In this respect, our goal is to produce thermoplastic composite nonwoven by using nonwoven glass fiber fabric reinforced polypropylene (PP). Azodicarbonamide (ADC) was selected as a foaming agent, and a thermal process was applied to obtain a porous structure. Various foaming temperature ranges and residence times were studied to examine the foaming behaviour of the thermoplastic composite nonwoven. Physicochemical and mechanical tests were applied in order to analyze the characteristics of composite foams.

Keywords: composite nonwoven, thermoplastic foams, foaming agent, foaming behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
610 Repair of Thermoplastic Composites for Structural Applications

Authors: Philippe Castaing, Thomas Jollivet


As a result of their advantages, i.e. recyclability, weld-ability, environmental compatibility, long (continuous) fiber thermoplastic composites (LFTPC) are increasingly used in many industrial sectors (mainly automotive and aeronautic) for structural applications. Indeed, in the next ten years, the environmental rules will put the pressure on the use of new structural materials like composites. In aerospace, more than 50% of the damage are due to stress impact and 85% of damage are repaired on the fuselage (fuselage skin panels and around doors). With the arrival of airplanes mainly of composite materials, replacement of sections or panels seems difficult economically speaking and repair becomes essential. The objective of the present study is to propose a solution of repair to prevent the replacement the damaged part in thermoplastic composites in order to recover the initial mechanical properties. The classification of impact damage is not so not easy : talking about low energy impact (less than 35 J) can be totally wrong when high speed or weak thicknesses as well as thermoplastic resins are considered. Crash and perforation with higher energy create important damages and the structures are replaced without repairing, so we just consider here damages due to impacts at low energy that are as follows for laminates : − Transverse cracking; − Delamination; − Fiber rupture. At low energy, the damages are barely visible but can nevertheless reduce significantly the mechanical strength of the part due to resin cracks while few fiber rupture is observed. The patch repair solution remains the standard one but may lead to the rupture of fibers and consequently creates more damages. That is the reason why we investigate the repair of thermoplastic composites impacted at low energy. Indeed, thermoplastic resins are interesting as they absorb impact energy through plastic strain. The methodology is as follows: - impact tests at low energy on thermoplastic composites; - identification of the damage by micrographic observations; - evaluation of the harmfulness of the damage; - repair by reconsolidation according to the extent of the damage ; -validation of the repair by mechanical characterization (compression). In this study, the impacts tests are performed at various levels of energy on thermoplastic composites (PA/C, PEEK/C and PPS/C woven 50/50 and unidirectional) to determine the level of impact energy creating damages in the resin without fiber rupture. We identify the extent of the damage by US inspection and micrographic observations in the plane part thickness. The samples were in addition characterized in compression to evaluate the loss of mechanical properties. Then the strategy of repair consists in reconsolidating the damaged parts by thermoforming, and after reconsolidation the laminates are characterized in compression for validation. To conclude, the study demonstrates the feasibility of the repair for low energy impact on thermoplastic composites as the samples recover their properties. At a first step of the study, the “repair” is made by reconsolidation on a thermoforming press but we could imagine a process in situ to reconsolidate the damaged parts.

Keywords: aerospace, automotive, composites, compression, damages, repair, structural applications, thermoplastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
609 The Effect of Floor Impact Sound Insulation Performance Using Scrambled Thermoplastic Poly Urethane and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

Authors: Bonsoo Koo, Seong Shin Hong, Byung Kwon Lee


Most of apartments in Korea have wall type structure that present poor performance regarding floor impact sound insulation. In order to minimize the transmission of floor impact sound, flooring structures are used in which an insulating material, 30 mm thickness pad of EPS or EVA, is sandwiched between a concrete slab and the finished mortar. Generally, a single-material pad used for insulation has a heavyweight impact sound level of 44~47 dB with 210 mm thickness slab. This study provides an analysis of the floor impact sound insulation performance using thermoplastic poly urethane (TPU), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and expanded polystyrene (EPS) materials with buffering performance. Following mock-up tests the effect of lightweight impact sound turned out to be similar but heavyweight impact sound was decreased by 3 dB compared to conventional single material insulation pad.

Keywords: floor impact sound, thermoplastic poly urethane, ethylene vinyl acetate, heavyweight impact sound

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
608 The Application of Polymers in Enhanced Oil Recovery: Recent Trends

Authors: Reza M. Rudd, Ali Saeedi, Colin Wood


In this article, the latest advancements made in the applications of polymers in the enhanced hydrocarbon recovery technologies are investigated. For this purpose, different classes of polymers are reviewed and the latest progresses made in making them suitable for application under harsh reservoir conditions are discussed. The main reservoir conditions whose effects are taken into account include the temperature, rock mineralogy and brine salinity and composition. For profile modification and blocking the thief zones, polymers are used in the form of nanocomposite hydrogels. Polymers are also used as thickeners during CO2 flooding. Also, they are used in enhanced gas recovery, to inhibit the mixing of injection gas with the in-situ natural gas. This review covers the main types of polymers, their functions and the challenges in their applications, some of which are mentioned above. Included in this review are also the latest progresses made in the development of new polymeric surfactants used for surfactant flooding.

Keywords: EOR, EGR, polymer flooding, profile modification, mobility control, nanocomposite hydrogels, CO2 flooding, polymeric surfactants

Procedia PDF Downloads 186