Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5559

Search results for: surface functionalization

5559 Surface Functionalization of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Film

Authors: Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari


We report the introduction of the active surface functionalization group on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene film by wet deposition method. The activity of surface functionalized group was tested with surface modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and found that both materials were amalgamated by chemical bonding. The introduction of functional group on the graphene film surface and its vigorous role to bind CNTs with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene film, surface functionalization

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5558 Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide with Aliphatic Polyisocyanate

Authors: E. Changizi, E. Ghasemi, B. Ramezanzadeh, M. Mahdavian


In this study, the graphene oxide was functionalized with polyisocyanate (piGO). The functionalization was carried out at 45⁰C for 24 hrs under nitrogen atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were utilized in order to evaluate the GO functionalization. The GO and piGO stability were then investigated in polar and nonpolar solvents. Results obtained showed that polyisocyanate was successfully grafted on the surface of graphen oxide sheets through covalent bonds formation. The surface nature of the graphen oxide was changed into the hydrophobic after functionalization. Moreover, the graphen oxide sheets interlayer distance increased after modification.

Keywords: graphen oxide, functionalization, polyisocyanate, XRD, TGA, FTIR

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5557 Preparation and Characterization of AlkylAmines’ Surface Functionalized Activated Carbons for Dye Removal

Authors: Said M. AL-Mashaikhi, El-Said I. El-Shafey, Fakhreldin O. Suliman, Saleh Al-Busafi


Activated carbon (AC) was prepared from date palm leaflets via NaOH activation. AC was oxidized using nitric acid, producing oxidized activated carbon (OAC). OAC was surface functionalized using different amine surfactants, including methylamine (ONM), ethylamine (ONE), and diethylamine (ONDE) using the amide coupling process. Produced carbons were surface characterized for surface area and porosity, X-ray diffraction, SEM, FTIR, and TGA. AC surface area (580 m²/g) has shown a decrease in oxidation to 260 m²/g for OAC. On amine functionalization, the surface area has further decreased to 218, 108, and 20 m²/g on functionalization with methylamine, ethylamine, and diethylamine, respectively. FTIR and TGA showed that the nature of amine functionalization of AC is chemical. Methylene blue sorption was tested on these carbons in terms of kinetics and equilibrium. Sorption was found faster on amine-functionalized carbons than both AC and OAC, and this is due to hydrophobic interaction with the alkyl groups immobilized with data following pseudo second-order reaction. On the other hand, AC showed the slowest adsorption kinetic process due to the diffusion in the porous structure of AC. Sorption equilibrium data was found to follow the Langmuir sorption isotherm with maximum sorption found on ONE. Regardless of its lower surface area than activated carbon, ethylamine functionalized AC showed better performance than AC in terms of kinetics and equilibrium for dye removal.

Keywords: activated carbon, dye removal, functionalization, hydrophobic interaction, water treatment

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5556 Functionalized Nanoparticles as Sorbents for Removal of Toxic Species

Authors: Jerina Majeed, Jayshree Ramkumar, S. Chandramouleeswaran, A. K. Tyagi


Removal of various toxic species from aqueous streams is of great importance. Sorption is one of the important remediation procedures as it involves the use of cheap and easily available materials. Also the advantage of regeneration of the sorbent involves the possibility of using novel sorbents. Nanosorbents are very important as the removal is based on the surface phenomena and this is greatly affected by surface charge and area. Functionalization has been very important to bring about the removal of metal ions with greater selectivity.

Keywords: mercury, lead, thiol functionalization, ZnO NPs

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5555 Porosity and Surface Chemistry of Functionalized Carbonaceous Materials from Date Palm Leaflets

Authors: El-Said I. El-Shafey, Syeda Naheed F. Ali, Saleh S. Al-Busafi, Haider A. J. Al-Lawati


Date palm leaflets were utilized as a precursor for activated carbon (AC) preparation using KOH activation. AC produced was oxidized using nitric acid producing oxidized activated carbon (OAC). OAC that possesses acidic surface was surface functionalized to produce basic activated carbons using linear diamine compounds (ethylene diamine and propylene diamine). OAC was also functionalized to produce hydrophobic activated carbons using ethylamine (EA) and aniline (AN). Dehydrated carbon was also prepared from date palm leaflets using sulfuric acid dehydration/ oxidation and was surface functionalized in the same way as AC. Nitric acid oxidation was not necessary for DC as it is acidic carbon. The surface area of AC is high (823 m2/g) with microporosity domination, however, after oxidation and surface functionalization, both the surface area and surface microporosity decrease tremendously. DC surface area was low (15 m2/g) with mesoporosity domination. Surface functionalization has decreased the surface area of activated carbons. FTIR spectra show that -COOH group on DC and OAC almost disappeared after surface functionalization. The surface chemistry of all carbons produced was tested for pHzpc, basic sites, boehm titration, thermogravimetric analysis and zeta potential measurement. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy in addition to CHN elemental analysis were also carried out. DC and OAC possess low pHzpc and high surface functionality, however, basic and hydrophobic carbons possess high pHzpc and low surface functionality. The different behavior of carbons is related to their different surface chemistry. Methylene blue adsorption was found to be faster on hydrophobic carbons based on AC and DC. The Larger adsorption capacity of methylene blue was found for hydrophobic carbons. Dominating adsorption forces of methylene blue varies from carbon to another depending on its surface nature. Sorption forces include hydrophobic forces, H-bonding, electrostatic interactions and van der Waals forces.

Keywords: carbon, acidic, basic, hydrophobic

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5554 Functionalization of Polypropylene with Chiral Monomer for Improving Hemocompatibility

Authors: Xiaodong Xu, Dan Zhao, Xiujuan Chang, Chunming Li, Huiyun Zhou, Xin Li, Qiang Shi, Shifang Luan, Jinghua Yin


Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used plastics because of its low density, outstanding mechanical properties, and low cost. However, its drawbacks such as low surface energy, poor dyeability, lack of chemical functionalities, and poor compatibility with polar polymers and inorganic materials, have restricted the application of PP. To expand its application in biomedical materials, functionalization is considered to be the most effective way. In this study, PP was functionalized with a chiral monomer, (S)-1-acryloylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-APCA), by free-radical grafting in the solid phase. The grafting degree of PP-g-APCA was determined by chemical titration method, and the chemical structure of functionalized PP was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the chiral monomer (S)-APCA was successfully grafted onto PP. Static water contact angle results suggested that the surface hydrophilicity of PP was significantly improved by solid phase grafting and assistance of surface water treatment. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion results showed that hemocompatibility of PP was greatly improved by grafting the chiral monomer.

Keywords: functionalization, polypropylene, chiral monomer, hemocompatibility

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5553 Surface Modification of Co-Based Nanostructures to Develop Intrinsic Fluorescence and Catalytic Activity

Authors: Monalisa Pal, Kalyan Mandal


Herein we report the molecular functionalization of promising transition metal oxide nanostructures, such as Co3O4 nanocubes, using nontoxic and biocompati-ble organic ligand sodium tartrate. The electronic structural modification of the nanocubes imparted through functionalization and subsequent water solubilization reveals multiple absorption bands in the UV-vis region. Further surface modification of the solubilized nanocubes, leads to the emergence of intrinsic multi-color fluorescence (from blue, cyan, green to red region of the spectrum), upon excitation at proper wavelengths, where the respective excitation wavelengths have a direct correlation with the observed UV-vis absorption bands. Using a multitude of spectroscopic tools we have investigated the mechanistic insight behind the origin of different UV-vis absorption bands and emergence of multicolor photoluminescence from the functionalized nanocubes. Our detailed study shows that ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) from tartrate ligand to Co2+/Co3+ ions and d-d transitions involving Co2+/Co3+ ions are responsible for generation of this novel optical properties. Magnetic study reveals that, antiferromagnetic nature of Co3O4 nanocubes changes to ferromagnetic behavior upon functionalization, however, the overall magnetic response was very weak. To combine strong magnetism with this novel optical property, we followed the same surface modification strategy in case of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which reveals that irrespective of size and shape, all Co-based oxides can develop intrinsic multi-color fluorescence upon facile functionalization with sodium tartrate ligands and the magnetic response was significantly higher. Surface modified Co-based oxide nanostructures also show excellent catalytic activity in degradation of biologically and environmentally harmful dyes. We hope that, our developed facile functionalization strategy of Co-based oxides will open up new opportunities in the field of biomedical applications such as bio-imaging and targeted drug delivery.

Keywords: co-based oxide nanostructures, functionalization, multi-color fluorescence, catalysis

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5552 Ligand-Depended Adsorption Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon

Authors: Hamza Simsir, Nurettin Eltugral, Selhan Karagöz


Surface modification and functionalization has been an important tool for scientists in order to open new frontiers in nano science and nanotechnology. Desired surface characteristics for the intended applications can be achieved with surface functionalization. In this work, the effect of water soluble ligands on the adsorption capabilities of silver nanoparticles onto AC which was synthesized from German beech wood, was investigated. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the ligands. Silver nanoparticles with different surface coatings have average sizes range from 10 to 13 nm. They were synthesized in aqueous media by reducing Ag (I) ion in the presence of ligands. These particles displayed adsorption tendencies towards AC when they were mixed together and shaken in distilled water. Silver nanoparticles (NaBH4-AgNPs) reduced and stabilized by NaBH4 adsorbed onto AC with a homogenous dispersion of aggregates with sizes in the range of 100-400 nm. Beside, silver nanoparticles, which were prepared in the presence of both NaBH4 and PVA (NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs), demonstrated that NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs adsorbed and dispersed homogenously but, they aggregated with larger sizes on the AC surface (range from 300 to 600 nm). In addition, desorption resistance of Ag nanoparticles were investigated in distilled water. According to the results AgNPs were not desorbed on the AC surface in distilled water.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, ligand, activated carbon, adsorption

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5551 Easy Method of Synthesis and Functionalzation of Zno Nanoparticules With 3 Aminopropylthrimethoxysilane (APTES)

Authors: Haythem Barrak, Gaetan Laroche, Adel M’nif, Ahmed Hichem Hamzaoui


The use of semiconductor oxides, as chemical or biological, requires their functionalization with appropriate dependent molecules of the substance to be detected. generally, the support materials used are TiO2 and SiO2. In the present work, we used zinc oxide (ZnO) known for its interesting physical properties. The synthesis of nano scale ZnO was performed by co-precipitation at low temperature (60 ° C).To our knowledge, the obtaining of this material at this temperature was carried out for the first time. This shows the low cost of this operation. On the other hand, the surface functionalization of ZnO was performed with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) by using a specific method using ethanol for the first time. In addition, the duration of this stage is very low compared to literature. The samples obtained were analyzed by XRD, TEM, DLS, FTIR, and TGA shows that XPS that the operation of grafting of APTES on our support was carried out with success.

Keywords: functionalization, nanoparticle, ZnO, APTES, caractérisation

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5550 Rh(III)-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction of 8-Methylquinolines with Maleimides

Authors: Sangil Han, In Su Kim


Transition-metal-catalyzed C–H bond activation and its subsequent functionalization has been one of the most attractive topics in organic synthesis because of its remarkable potential for atom economy and environmental sustainability. In this addition, a variety of C(sp2)–H functionalization has been developed under metal catalysis in the past decade. Recently, much attention has been moved towards the C(sp3)–H functionalization events, which continue to be a challenging issue. In this area, directing group assisted sp3 C–H functionalization has been explored by use of amides, carboxylic acids, oximes, N-heterocycles, and etc. In particular, 8-methylquinolines have been found as good substrates for sp3 C–H functionalization due to its ability to form cyclometalated complexes. Succinimides have been recognized as privileged structural cores found in a number of bioactive natural products, pharmaceuticals, and functional materials. Furthermore, the reduced derivatives such as pyrrolidines and γ-lactams have been also found in a large number of pharmaceutical relevant molecules, thus making them one of the most important and promising compounds. We herein describe the first C(sp3)–H activation of 8-methylquinolines and subsequent functionalization with maleimides to afford various succinimide derivatives.

Keywords: C(sp3)–H activation, 8-methylquinolines, maleimides, succinimides

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5549 Boron Nitride Nanoparticle Enhanced Prepreg Composite Laminates

Authors: Qiong Tian, Lifeng Zhang, Demei Yu, Ajit D. Kelkar


Low specific weight and high strength is the basic requirement for aerospace materials. Fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites are attractive materials for this purpose. Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) have good radiation shielding capacity, which is very important to aerospace materials. Herein a processing route for an advanced hybrid composite material is demonstrated by introducing dispersed BNNPs in standard prepreg manufacturing. The hybrid materials contain three parts: E-fiberglass, an aerospace-grade epoxy resin system, and BNNPs. A vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was utilized in this processing. Two BNNP functionalization approaches are presented in this study: (a) covalent functionalization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550); (b) non-covalent functionalization with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that BN powder was successfully functionalized via the covalent and non-covalent approaches without any crystal structure change and big agglomerate particles were broken into platelet-like nanoparticles (BNNPs) after functionalization. Compared to pristine BN powder, surface modified BNNPs could result in significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and compressive strength and modulus. CTAB functionalized BNNPs (CTAB-BNNPs) showed higher tensile and flexural strength but lower compressive strength than KH-550 functionalized BNNPs (KH550-BNNPs). These reinforcements are mainly attributed to good BNNPs dispersion and interfacial adhesion between epoxy matrix and BNNPs. This study reveals the potential in improving mechanical properties of BNNPs-containing composites laminates through surface functionalization of BNNPs.

Keywords: boron nitride, epoxy, functionalization, prepreg, composite

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5548 Surface Activation of Carbon Nanotubes Generating a Chemical Interaction in Epoxy Nanocomposite

Authors: Mohamed Eldessouki, Ebraheem Shady, Yasser Gowayed


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known for having high elastic properties with high surface area that promote them as good candidates for reinforcing polymeric matrices. In composite materials, CNTs lack chemical bonding with the surrounding matrix which decreases the possibility of better stress transfer between the components. In this work, a chemical treatment for activating the surface of the multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was applied and the effect of this functionalization on the elastic properties of the epoxy nanocomposites was studied. Functional amino-groups were added to the surface of the CNTs and it was evaluated to be about 34% of the total weight of the CNTs. Elastic modulus was found to increase by about 40% of the neat epoxy resin at CNTs’ weight fraction of 0.5%. The elastic modulus was found to decrease after reaching a certain concentration of CNTs which was found to be 1% wt. The scanning electron microscopic pictures showed the effect of the CNTs on the crack propagation through the sample by forming stress concentrated spots at the nanocomposite samples.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes functionalization, crack propagation, elastic modulus, epoxy nanocomposites

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5547 Investigation of Different Surface Oxidation Methods on Pyrolytic Carbon

Authors: Lucija Pustahija, Christine Bandl, Wolfgang Kern, Christian Mitterer


Concerning today´s ecological demands, producing reliable materials from sustainable resources is a continuously developing topic. Such an example is the production of carbon materials via pyrolysis of natural gases or biomass. The amazing properties of pyrolytic carbon are utilized in various fields, where in particular the application in building industry is a promising way towards the utilization of pyrolytic carbon and composites based on pyrolytic carbon. For many applications, surface modification of carbon is an important step in tailoring its properties. Therefore, in this paper, an investigation of different oxidation methods was performed to prepare the carbon surface before functionalizing it with organosilanes, which act as coupling agents for epoxy and polyurethane resins. Made in such a way, a building material based on carbon composites could be used as a lightweight, durable material that can be applied where water or air filtration / purification is needed. In this work, both wet and dry oxidation were investigated. Wet oxidation was first performed in solutions of nitric acid (at 120 °C and 150 °C) followed by oxidation in hydrogen peroxide (80 °C) for 3 and 6 h. Moreover, a hydrothermal method (under oxygen gas) in autoclaves was investigated. Dry oxidation was performed under plasma and corona discharges, using different power values to elaborate optimum conditions. Selected samples were then (in preliminary experiments) subjected to a silanization of the surface with amino and glycidoxy organosilanes. The functionalized surfaces were examined by X-ray photon spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopy, and by scanning electron microscopy. The results of wet and dry oxidation methods indicated that the creation of functionalities was influenced by temperature, the concentration of the reagents (and gases) and the duration of the treatment. Sequential oxidation in aq. HNO₃ and H₂O₂ results in a higher content of oxygen functionalities at lower concentrations of oxidizing agents, when compared to oxidizing the carbon with concentrated nitric acid. Plasma oxidation results in non-permanent functionalization on the carbon surface, by which it´s necessary to find adequate parameters of oxidation treatments that could enable longer stability of functionalities. Results of the functionalization of the carbon surfaces with organosilanes will be presented as well.

Keywords: building materials, dry oxidation, organosilanes, pyrolytic carbon, resins, surface functionalization, wet oxidation

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5546 Functionalized Spherical Aluminosilicates in Biomedically Grade Composites

Authors: Damian Stanislaw Nakonieczny, Grazyna Simha Martynkova, Marianna Hundakova, G. Kratosová, Karla Cech Barabaszova


The main aim of the research was to functionalize the surface of spherical aluminum silicates in the form of so-called cenospheres. Cenospheres are light ceramic particles with a density between 0.45 and 0.85 kgm-3 hat can be obtained as a result of separation from fly ash from coal combustion. However, their occurrence is limited to about 1% by weight of dry ash mainly derived from anthracite. Hence they are very rare and desirable material. Cenospheres are characterized by complete chemical inertness. Mohs hardness in range of 6 and completely smooth surface. Main idea was to prepare the surface by chemical etching, among others hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrogen peroxide, caro acid, silanization using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to obtain the maximum development and functionalization of the surface to improve chemical and mechanical connection with biomedically used polymers, i.e., polyacrylic methacrylate (PMMA) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). These polymers are used medically mainly as a material for fixed and removable dental prostheses and PEEK spinal implants. The problem with their use is the decrease in mechanical properties over time and bacterial infections fungal during implantation and use of dentures. Hence, the use of a ceramic filler that will significantly improve the mechanical properties, improve the fluidity of the polymer during shape formation, and in the future, will be able to support bacteriostatic substances such as silver and zinc ions seem promising. In order to evaluate our laboratory work, several instrumental studies were performed: chemical composition and morphology with scanning electron microscopy with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Probe (SEM/EDX), determination of characteristic functional groups of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), phase composition of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis of Thermo Gravimetric Analysis/differentia thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), as well as assessment of isotherm of adsorption with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface development. The surface was evaluated for the future application of additional bacteria and static fungus layers. Based on the experimental work, it was found that orated methods can be suitable for the functionalization of the surface of cenosphere ceramics, and in the future it can be suitable as a bacteriostatic filler for biomedical polymers, i.e., PEEK or PMMA.

Keywords: bioceramics, composites, functionalization, surface development

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5545 Surface Sunctionalization Strategies for the Design of Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices for New Analytical Diagnostics

Authors: Camille Perréard, Yoann Ladner, Fanny D'Orlyé, Stéphanie Descroix, Vélan Taniga, Anne Varenne, Cédric Guyon, Michael. Tatoulian, Frédéric Kanoufi, Cyrine Slim, Sophie Griveau, Fethi Bedioui


The development of micro total analysis systems is of major interest for contaminant and biomarker analysis. As a lab-on-chip integrates all steps of an analysis procedure in a single device, analysis can be performed in an automated format with reduced time and cost, while maintaining performances comparable to those of conventional chromatographic systems. Moreover, these miniaturized systems are either compatible with field work or glovebox manipulations. This work is aimed at developing an analytical microsystem for trace and ultra trace quantitation in complex matrices. The strategy consists in the integration of a sample pretreatment step within the lab-on-chip by a confinement zone where selective ligands are immobilized for target extraction and preconcentration. Aptamers were chosen as selective ligands, because of their high affinity for all types of targets (from small ions to viruses and cells) and their ease of synthesis and functionalization. This integrated target extraction and concentration step will be followed in the microdevice by an electrokinetic separation step and an on-line detection. Polymers consisting of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) or fluoropolymer (Dyneon THV) were selected as they are easy to mold, transparent in UV-visible and have high resistance towards solvents and extreme pH conditions. However, because of their low chemical reactivity, surface treatments are necessary. For the design of this miniaturized diagnostics, we aimed at modifying the microfluidic system at two scales : (1) on the entire surface of the microsystem to control the surface hydrophobicity (so as to avoid any sample wall adsorption) and the fluid flows during electrokinetic separation, or (2) locally so as to immobilize selective ligands (aptamers) on restricted areas for target extraction and preconcentration. We developed different novel strategies for the surface functionalization of COC and Dyneon, based on plasma, chemical and /or electrochemical approaches. In a first approach, a plasma-induced immobilization of brominated derivatives was performed on the entire surface. Further substitution of the bromine by an azide functional group led to covalent immobilization of ligands through “click” chemistry reaction between azides and terminal alkynes. COC and Dyneon materials were characterized at each step of the surface functionalization procedure by various complementary techniques to evaluate the quality and homogeneity of the functionalization (contact angle, XPS, ATR). With the objective of local (micrometric scale) aptamer immobilization, we developed an original electrochemical strategy on engraved Dyneon THV microchannel. Through local electrochemical carbonization followed by adsorption of azide-bearing diazonium moieties and covalent linkage of alkyne-bearing aptamers through click chemistry reaction, typical dimensions of immobilization zones reached the 50 µm range. Other functionalization strategies, such as sol-gel encapsulation of aptamers, are currently investigated and may also be suitable for the development of the analytical microdevice. The development of these functionalization strategies is the first crucial step in the design of the entire microdevice. These strategies allow the grafting of a large number of molecules for the development of new analytical tools in various domains like environment or healthcare.

Keywords: alkyne-azide click chemistry (CuAAC), electrochemical modification, microsystem, plasma bromination, surface functionalization, thermoplastic polymers

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5544 Synthesis and Preparation of Carbon Ferromagnetic Nanocontainers for Cancer Therapy

Authors: L. Szymanski, Z. Kolacinski, Z. Kamiński, G. Raniszewski, J. Fraczyk, L. Pietrzak


In the article the development and demonstration of method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nano containers. Methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers includes: the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical and physical characterization, increasing the content of ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Folic acid is ligand of folate receptors which is overexpresion in tumor cells. The presence of ligand should ensure the specificity of the interaction between ferromagnetic nanocontainers and tumor cells. The chemical functionalization contains several step: oxidation reaction, transformation of carboxyl groups into more reactive ester or amide groups, incorporation of spacer molecule (linker), attaching folic acid. Activation of carboxylic groups was prepared with triazine coupling reagent (preparation of superactive ester attached on the nanocontainers). The spacer molecules were designed and synthesized. In order to ensure biocompatibillity of linkers they were built from amino acids or peptides. Spacer molecules were synthesized using the SPPS method. Synthesis was performed on 2-Chlorotrityl resin. The linker important feature is its length. Due to that fact synthesis of peptide linkers containing from 2 to 4 -Ala- residues was carried out. Independent synthesis of the conjugate of foilic acid with 6-aminocaproic acid was made. Final step of synthesis was connecting conjugat with spacer molecules and attaching it on the ferromagnetic nanocontainer surface. This article contains also information about special CVD and microvave plasma system to produce nanotubes and ferromagnetic nanocontainers. The first tests in the device for hyperthermal RF generator will be presented. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz.

Keywords: synthesis of carbon nanotubes, hyperthermia, ligands, carbon nanotubes

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5543 Destruction of Colon Cells by Nanocontainers of Ferromagnetic

Authors: Lukasz Szymanski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Grzegorz Raniszewski, Slawomir Wiak, Lukasz Pietrzak, Dariusz Koza, Karolina Przybylowska-Sygut, Ireneusz Majsterek, Zbigniew Kaminski, Justyna Fraczyk, Malgorzata Walczak, Beata Kolasinska, Adam Bednarek, Joanna Konka


The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of electromagnetic field from the range of radio frequencies on the desired nanoparticles for cancer therapy. In the article, the development and demonstration of the method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nanocontainers. The methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers (FNCs) includes: The synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical, and physical characterization, increasing the content of a ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. The ferromagnetic nanocontainers were synthesised in CVD and microwave plasma system. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Pristine ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes are not suitable for application in medicine and biotechnology. Appropriate functionalization of ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes allows to receiving materials useful in medicine. Finally, a product contains folic acids on the surface of FNCs. The folic acid is a ligand of folate receptors – α which is overexpressed on the surface of epithelial tumours cells. It is expected that folic acids will be recognized and selectively bound by receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. In our research, FNCs were covalently functionalized in a multi-step procedure. Ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes were oxidated using different oxidative agents. For this purpose, strong acids such as HNO3, or mixture HNO3 and H2SO4 were used. Reactive carbonyl and carboxyl groups were formed on the open sides and at the defects on the sidewalls of FNCs. These groups allow further modification of FNCs as a reaction of amidation, reaction of introduction appropriate linkers which separate solid surface of FNCs and ligand (folic acid). In our studies, amino acid and peptide have been applied as ligands. The last step of chemical modification was reaction-condensation with folic acid. In all reaction as coupling reagents were used derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine. The first trials in the device for hyperthermal RF generator have been done. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz. Obtained functionalized nanoparticles enabled to reach the temperature of denaturation tumor cells in given frequencies.

Keywords: cancer colon cells, carbon nanotubes, hyperthermia, ligands

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5542 Plasma Pretreatment for Improving the Durability of Antibacterial Activity of Cotton Using ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: Sheila Shahidi, Hootan Rezaee, Abosaeed Rashidi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss


Plasma treatment has an explosive increase in interest and use in industrial applications as for example in medical, biomedical, automobile, electronics, semiconductor and textile industry. A lot of intensive basic research has been performed in the last decade in the field of textiles along with technical textiles. Textile manufacturers and end-users alike have been searching for ways to improve the surface properties of natural and man-made fibers. Specifically, there is a need to improve adhesion and wettability. Functional groups may be introduced onto the fiber surface by using gas plasma treatments, improving fiber surface properties without affecting the fiber’s bulk properties. In this research work, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were insitue synthesized by sonochemical method at room temperature on both untreated and plasma pretreated cotton woven fabric. Oxygen and nitrogen plasmas were used for pre-functionalization of cotton fabric. And the effect of oxygen and nitrogen pre-functionalization on adhesion properties between ZnO nanoparticles and cotton surface were studied. The results show that nanoparticles with average sizes of 20-100 nm with different morphologies have been created on the surface of samples. Synthesis of ZnO-NPs was varied in the morphological transformation by changes in zinc acetate dehydrate concentration. Characterizations were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and Spectrophotometery. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics were assessed semi-quantitatively by the colonies count method. The results show that the finished fabric demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus in antibacterial test. The wash fastness of both untreated and plasma pretreated samples after 30 times of washing was investigated. The results showed that the parameters of plasma reactor plays very important role for improving the antibacterial durability.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, cotton, fabric, nanoparticles, plasma

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5541 Improved Signal-To-Noise Ratio by the 3D-Functionalization of Fully Zwitterionic Surface Coatings

Authors: Esther Van Andel, Stefanie C. Lange, Maarten M. J. Smulders, Han Zuilhof


False outcomes of diagnostic tests are a major concern in medical health care. To improve the reliability of surface-based diagnostic tests, it is of crucial importance to diminish background signals that arise from the non-specific binding of biomolecules, a process called fouling. The aim is to create surfaces that repel all biomolecules except the molecule of interest. This can be achieved by incorporating antifouling protein repellent coatings in between the sensor surface and it’s recognition elements (e.g. antibodies, sugars, aptamers). Zwitterionic polymer brushes are considered excellent antifouling materials, however, to be able to bind the molecule of interest, the polymer brushes have to be functionalized and so far this was only achieved at the expense of either antifouling or binding capacity. To overcome this limitation, we combined both features into one single monomer: a zwitterionic sulfobetaine, ensuring antifouling capabilities, equipped with a clickable azide moiety which allows for further functionalization. By copolymerizing this monomer together with a standard sulfobetaine, the number of azides (and with that the number of recognition elements) can be tuned depending on the application. First, the clickable azido-monomer was synthesized and characterized, followed by copolymerizing this monomer to yield functionalizable antifouling brushes. The brushes were fully characterized using surface characterization techniques like XPS, contact angle measurements, G-ATR-FTIR and XRR. As a proof of principle, the brushes were subsequently functionalized with biotin via strain-promoted alkyne azide click reactions, which yielded a fully zwitterionic biotin-containing 3D-functionalized coating. The sensing capacity was evaluated by reflectometry using avidin and fibrinogen containing protein solutions. The surfaces showed excellent antifouling properties as illustrated by the complete absence of non-specific fibrinogen binding, while at the same time clear responses were seen for the specific binding of avidin. A great increase in signal-to-noise ratio was observed, even when the amount of functional groups was lowered to 1%, compared to traditional modification of sulfobetaine brushes that rely on a 2D-approach in which only the top-layer can be functionalized. This study was performed on stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces for future microring resonator based assays, however, this methodology can be transferred to other biosensor platforms which are currently being investigated. The approach presented herein enables a highly efficient strategy for selective binding with retained antifouling properties for improved signal-to-noise ratios in binding assays. The number of recognition units can be adjusted to a specific need, e.g. depending on the size of the analyte to be bound, widening the scope of these functionalizable surface coatings.

Keywords: antifouling, signal-to-noise ratio, surface functionalization, zwitterionic polymer brushes

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5540 Synthesis and Functionalization of MnFe₂O₄ Nano−Hollow Spheres for Optical and Catalytic Properties

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal


Herein, we synthesize MnFe₂O₄ nano−hollow spheres (NHSs) of average diameter 100 nm through a facile template free solvothermal process and carry out a time dependent morphological study to investigate their process of core excavation. Further, a surface engineering of as−synthesized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs has been executed with organic disodium tartrate dihydrate ligand and interestingly, the surface modified MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to capable of emerging multicolor fluorescence starting from blue, green to red. The magnetic measurements through vibrating sample magnetometer demonstrate that room temperature superparamagnetic nature of MnFe₂O₄ NHSs remains unaltered after surface modification. Moreover, functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NHSs are found to exhibit excellent reusable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of cationic dye, methylene blue with rate constant of 2.64×10−2 min.

Keywords: nano hollow sphere, tartrate modification, multiple fluorescence, catalytic property

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5539 Stereoselective Glycosylation and Functionalization of Unbiased Site of Sweet System via Dual-Catalytic Transition Metal Systems/Wittig Reaction

Authors: Mukul R. Gupta, Rajkumar Gandhi, Rajitha Sachan, Naveen K. Khare


The field of glycoscience has burgeoned in the last several decades, leading to the identification of many glycosides which could serve critical roles in a wide range of biological processes. This has prompted a resurgence in synthetic interest, with a particular focus on new approaches to construct the selective glycosidic bond. Despite the numerous elegant strategies and methods developed for the formation of glycosidic bonds, stereoselective construction of glycosides remains challenging. Here, we have recently developed the novel Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) catalyzed stereoselective glycosylation methods by using KDN imidate glycosyl donor and a variety of alcohols in excellent yield. This method is broadly applicable to a wide range of substrates and with excellent selectivity of glycoside. Also, herein we are reporting the functionalization of the unbiased side of newly formed glycosides by dual-catalytic transition metal systems (Ru- or Fe-). We are using the innovative Reverse & Catalyst strategy, i.e., a reversible activation reaction by one catalyst with a functionalization reaction by another catalyst, together with enabling functionalization of substrates at their inherently unreactive sites. As well, we are targeting the diSia derivative synthesis by Wittig reaction. This synthetic method is applicable in mild conditions, functional group tolerance of the dual-catalytic systems and also highlights the potential of the multicatalytic approach to address challenging transformations to avoid multistep procedures in carbohydrate synthesis.

Keywords: KDN, stereoselective glycosylation, dual-catalytic functionalization, Wittig reaction

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5538 Interaction of Glycolipid S-TGA-1 with Bacteriorhodopsin and Its Functional Role

Authors: Masataka Inada, Masanao Kinoshita, Nobuaki Matsumori


It has been demonstrated that lipid molecules in biological membranes are responsible for the functionalization and structuration of membrane proteins. However, it is still unclear how the interaction of lipid molecules with membrane proteins is correlated with the function of the membrane proteins. Here we first developed an evaluation method for the interaction between membrane proteins and lipid molecules via surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), which was obtained by the culture of halobacteria, was used as a membrane protein. We prepared SPR sensor chips covered with self-assembled monolayer containing mercaptocarboxylic acids, and immobilized bR onto them. Then, we evaluated the interactions with various lipids that have different structures. As a result, the halobacterium-specific glycolipid S-TGA-1 was found to have much higher affinity with bRs than other lipids. This is probably due to not only hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions but also hydrogen bonds with sugar moieties in the glycolipid. Next, we analyzed the roles of the lipid in the structuration and functionalization of bR. CD analysis showed that S-TGA-1 could promote trimerization of bR monomers more efficiently than any other lipids. Flash photolysis further indicated that bR trimers formed by S-TGA-1 reproduced the photocyclic activity of bR in purple membrane, halobacterium-membrane. These results suggest that S-TGA-1 promotes trimerization of bR through strong interactions and consequently fulfills the bR’s function efficiently.

Keywords: membrane protein, lipid, interaction, bacteriorhodopsin, glycolipid

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5537 Carbon Nanotubes Functionalization via Ullmann-Type Reactions Yielding C-C, C-O and C-N Bonds

Authors: Anna Kolanowska, Anna Kuziel, Sławomir Boncel


Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) represent a combination of lightness and nanoscopic size with high tensile strength, excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. By now, CNTs have been used as a support in heterogeneous catalysis (CuCl anchored to pre-functionalized CNTs) in the Ullmann-type coupling with aryl halides toward formation of C-N and C-O bonds. The results indicated that the stability of the catalyst was much improved and the elaborated catalytic system was efficient and recyclable. However, CNTs have not been considered as the substrate itself in the Ullmann-type reactions. But if successful, this functionalization would open new areas of CNT chemistry leading to enhanced in-solvent/matrix nanotube individualization. The copper-catalyzed Ullmann-type reaction is an attractive method for the formation of carbon-heteroatom and carbon-carbon bonds in organic synthesis. This condensation reaction is usually conducted at temperature as high as 200 oC, often in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of copper reagent and with activated aryl halides. However, a small amount of organic additive (e.g. diamines, amino acids, diols, 1,10-phenanthroline) can be applied in order to increase the solubility and stability of copper catalyst, and at the same time to allow performing the reaction under mild conditions. The copper (pre-)catalyst is prepared by in situ mixing of copper salt and the appropriate chelator. Our research is focused on the application of Ullmann-type reaction for the covalent functionalization of CNTs. Firstly, CNTs were chlorinated by using iodine trichloride (ICl3) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). This method involves formation of several chemical species (ICl, Cl2 and I2Cl6), but the most reactive is the dimer. The fact (that the dimer is the main individual in CCl4) is the reason for high reactivity and possibly high functionalization levels of CNTs. This method, indeed, yielded a notable amount of chlorine onto the MWCNT surface. The next step was the reaction of CNT-Cl with three substrates: aniline, iodobenzene and phenol for the formation C-N, C-C and C-O bonds, respectively, in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as a base. As the CNT substrates, two multi-wall CNT (MWCNT) types were used: commercially available Nanocyl NC7000™ (9.6 nm diameter, 1.5 µm length, 90% purity) and thicker MWCNTs (in-house) synthesized in our laboratory using catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD). In-house CNTs had diameter ranging between 60-70 nm and length up to 300 µm. Since classical Ullmann reaction was found as suffering from poor yields, we have investigated the effect of various solvents (toluene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide and N,N-dimethylformamide) on the coupling of substrates. Owing to the fact that the aryl halides show the reactivity order of I>Br>Cl>F, we have also investigated the effect of iodine presence on CNT surface on reaction yield. In this case, in first step we have used iodine monochloride instead of iodine trichloride. Finally, we have used the optimized reaction conditions with p-bromophenol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene for the control of CNT dispersion.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, coupling reaction, functionalization, Ullmann reaction

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5536 Opto-Electronic Properties of Novel Structures: Sila-Fulleranes

Authors: Farah Marsusi, Mohammad Qasemnazhand


Density-functional theory (DFT) was applied to investigate the geometry and electronic properties H-terminated Si-fullerene (Si-fullerane). Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis confirms sp3 hybridization nature of Si-Si bonds in Si-fulleranes. Quantum confinement effect (QCE) does not affect band gap (BG) so strongly in the size between 1 to 1.7 nm. In contrast, the geometry and symmetry of the cage have significant influence on BG. In contrast to their carbon analogues, pentagon rings increase the stability of the cages. Functionalized Si-cages are stable and can be chemically very active. The electronic properties are highly sensitive to the surface chemistry via functionalization with different chemical groups. As a result, BGs and chemical activities of these cages can be drastically tuned through the chemistry of the surface.

Keywords: density functional theory, sila-fullerens, NBO analysis, opto-electronic properties

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5535 Gas-Phase Nondestructive and Environmentally Friendly Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide Paper with Amines

Authors: Natalia Alzate-Carvajal, Diego A. Acevedo-Guzman, Victor Meza-Laguna, Mario H. Farias, Luis A. Perez-Rey, Edgar Abarca-Morales, Victor A. Garcia-Ramirez, Vladimir A. Basiuk, Elena V. Basiuk


Direct covalent functionalization of prefabricated free-standing graphene oxide paper (GOP) is considered as the only approach suitable for systematic tuning of thermal, mechanical and electronic characteristics of this important class of carbon nanomaterials. At the same time, the traditional liquid-phase functionalization protocols can compromise physical integrity of the paper-like material up to its total disintegration. To avoid such undesirable effects, we explored the possibility of employing an alternative, solvent-free strategy for facile and nondestructive functionalization of GOP with two representative aliphatic amines, 1-octadecylamine (ODA) and 1,12-diaminododecane (DAD), as well as with two aromatic amines, 1-aminopyrene (AP) and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The functionalization was performed under moderate heating at 150-180 °C in vacuum. Under such conditions, it proceeds through both amidation and epoxy ring opening reactions. Comparative characterization of pristine and amine-functionalized GOP mats was carried out by using Fourier-transform infrared, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM, respectively). Besides that, we compared the stability in water, wettability, electrical conductivity and elastic (Young's) modulus of GOP mats before and after amine functionalization. The highest content of organic species was obtained in the case of GOP-ODA, followed by GOP-DAD, GOP-AP and GOP-DAN samples. The covalent functionalization increased mechanical and thermal stability of GOP, as well as its electrical conductivity. The magnitude of each effect depends on the particular chemical structure of amine employed, which allows for tuning a given GOP property. Morphological characterization by using SEM showed that, compared to pristine graphene oxide paper, amine-modified GOP mats become relatively ordered layered assemblies, in which individual GO sheets are organized in a near-parallel pattern. Financial support from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (grants DGAPA-IN101118 and IN200516) and from the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT, grant 250655) is greatly appreciated. The authors also thank David A. Domínguez (CNyN of UNAM) for XPS measurements and Dr. Edgar Alvarez-Zauco (Faculty of Science of UNAM) for the opportunity to use TGA equipment.

Keywords: amines, covalent functionalization, gas-phase, graphene oxide paper

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5534 Vegetable Oil-Based Anticorrosive Coatings for Metals Protection

Authors: Brindusa Balanuca, Raluca Stan, Cristina Ott, Matei Raicopol


The current study aims to develop anti corrosive coatings using vegetable oil (VO)-based polymers. Due to their chemical versatility, reduced costs and more important, higher hydrophobicity, VO’s are great candidates in the field of anti-corrosive materials. Lignin (Ln) derivatives were also used in this research study in order to achieve performant hydrophobic anti-corrosion layers. Methods Through a rational functionalization pathway, the selected VO (linseed oil) is converted to more reactive monomer – methacrylate linseed oil (noted MLO). The synthesized MLO cover the metals surface in a thin layer and through different polymerization techniques (using visible radiation or temperature, respectively) and well-established reaction conditions, is converted to a hydrophobic coating capable to protect the metals against corrosive factors. In order to increase the anti-corrosion protection, lignin (Ln) was selected to be used together with MLO macromonomer. Thus, super hydrophobic protective coatings will be formulated. Results The selected synthetic strategy to convert the VO in more reactive compounds – MLO – has led to a functionalization degree of greater than 80%. The obtained monomers were characterized through NMR and FT-IR by monitoring the characteristic signals after each synthesis step. Using H-NMR data, the functionalization degrees were established. VO-based and also VO-Ln anti corrosion formulations were both photochemical and thermal polymerized in specific reaction conditions (initiators, temperature range, reaction time) and were tested as anticorrosive coatings. Complete and advances characterization of the synthesized materials will be presented in terms of thermal, mechanical and morphological properties. The anticorrosive properties were also evaluated and will be presented. Conclusions Through the design strategy briefly presented, new composite materials for metal corrosion protection were successfully developed, using natural derivatives: vegetable oils and lignin, respectively.

Keywords: anticorrosion protection, hydrophobe layers, lignin, methacrylates, vegetable oil

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5533 Metal-Organic Frameworks for Innovative Functional Textiles

Authors: Hossam E. Emam


Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are new hybrid materials investigated from 15 years ago; they synthesized from metals as inorganic center joined with multidentate organic linkers to form a 1D, 2D or 3D network structure. MOFs have unique properties such as pore crystalline structure, large surface area, chemical tenability and luminescent characters. These significant properties enable MOFs to be applied in many fields such like gas storage, adsorption/separation, drug delivery/biomedicine, catalysis, polymerization, magnetism and luminescence applications. Recently, many of published reports interested in superiority of MOFs for functionalization of textiles to exploit the unique properties of MOFs. Incorporation of MOFs is found to acquire the textiles some additional formidable functions to be used in considerable fields such like water treatment and fuel purification. Modification of textiles with MOFs could be easily performed by two main techniques; Ex-situ (preparation of MOFs then applied onto textiles) and in-situ (ingrowth of MOFs within textiles networks). Uniqueness of MOFs could be assimilated in acquirement of decorative color, antimicrobial character, anti-mosquitos character, ultraviolet radiation protective, self-clean, photo-luminescent and sensor character. Additionally, textiles treatment with MOFs make it applicable as filter in the adsorption of toxic gases, hazardous materials (such as pesticides, dyes and aromatics molecules) and fuel purification (such as removal of oxygenated, nitrogenated and sulfur compounds). Also, the porous structure of MOFs make it mostly utilized in control release of insecticides from the surface of the textile. Moreover, [email protected] as recyclable materials lead it applicable as photo-catalyst composites for photo-degradation of different dyes in the day light. Therefore, MOFs is extensively considered for imparting textiles with formidable properties as ingeniousness way for textile functionalization.

Keywords: MOF, functional textiles, water treatment, fuel purification, environmental applications

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5532 Effects of Surface Topography on Roughness of Glazed Ceramic Substrates

Authors: R. Sarjahani, M. Sheikhattar, S. Javadpour, B. Hashemi


Glazes and their surface characterization is an important subject for ceramic industries. Fabrication of a super smooth surface resistant to stains is a big improvement for those industries. In this investigation, surface topography of popular glazes such as Zircon and Titania based opaque glazes, calcium based matte glaze and transparent glaze has been analyzed by Marsurf M300, SEM, EDS and XRD. Results shows that surface roughness of glazes seriously depends on surface crystallinity, crystal size and shapes.

Keywords: crystallinity, glaze, surface roughness, topography

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5531 Functionalization of Carboxylated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with 2-En 4-Hydroxy Cyclo 1-Octanon and Toxicity Investigation

Authors: D. ChobfroushKhoei, S. K. Heidari , Sh. Dariadel


Carbon nanotubes were used in medical sciences especially in drug delivery system and cancer therapy. In this study, we functionalized carboxylated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) with 2-en 4-hydroxy cyclo 1-octanon. Synthesized sample was characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TGA and cellular investigations. The results showed well formation of SWNT-Ester. Cell viability assay results and microscopic observations demonstrated that cancerous cells were killed in the sample. The synthesized sample can be used as a toxic material for cancer therapy.

Keywords: MWNT-COOH, functionalization, phenylisocyanate, phenylisothiocyanate, 1, 4-phenylendiamine, toxicity investigation

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5530 Design and Development of Bioactive a-Hydroxy Carboxylate Group Modified MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle: Comparative Fluorescence Study, Magnetism and DNA Nuclease Activity

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal


Three new α-hydroxy carboxylate group functionalized MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to explore the microscopic origin of ligand modified fluorescence and magnetic properties of nearly monodispersed MnFe₂O₄ NPs. The surface functionalization has been carried out with three small organic ligands (tartrate, malate, and citrate) having different number of α-hydroxy carboxylate functional group along with steric effect. Detailed study unveils that α-hydroxy carboxylate moiety of the ligands plays key role to generate intrinsic fluorescence in functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NPs through the activation of ligand to metal charge transfer transitions, associated with ligand-Mn²⁺/Fe³⁺ interactions along with d-d transition corresponding to d-orbital energy level splitting of Fe³⁺ ions on NP surface. Further, MnFe₂O₄ NPs show a maximum 140.88% increase in coercivity and 97.95% decrease in magnetization compared to its bare one upon functionalization. The ligands that induce smallest crystal field splitting of d-orbital energy level of transition metal ions are found to result in strongest ferromagnetic activation of the NPs. Finally, our developed tartrate functionalized MnFe₂O₄ (T-MnFe₂O₄) NPs have been utilized for studying DNA binding interaction and nuclease activity for stimulating their beneficial activities toward diverse biomedical applications. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs bind calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode. The ability of T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs to induce DNA cleavage was studied by gel electrophoresis technique where the complex is found to promote the cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA from the super coiled form I to linear coiled form II and nicked coiled form III with good efficiency. This may be taken into account for designing new biomolecular detection agents and anti-cancer drug which can open up a new door toward diverse non-invasive biomedical applications.

Keywords: MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticle, α-hydroxy carboxylic acid, comparative fluorescence, magnetism study, DNA interaction, nuclease activity

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