Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 267

Search results for: biomarkers

267 Using Artificial Neural Networks for Optical Imaging of Fluorescent Biomarkers

Authors: K. A. Laptinskiy, S. A. Burikov, A. M. Vervald, S. A. Dolenko, T. A. Dolenko

Abstract:

The article presents the results of the application of artificial neural networks to separate the fluorescent contribution of nanodiamonds used as biomarkers, adsorbents and carriers of drugs in biomedicine, from a fluorescent background of own biological fluorophores. The principal possibility of solving this problem is shown. Use of neural network architecture let to detect fluorescence of nanodiamonds against the background autofluorescence of egg white with high accuracy - better than 3 ug/ml.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fluorescence, data aggregation, biomarkers

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
266 Chronic Toxicity of Halofenozide on a Larvivorous Fish, Gambusia affinis: Acetylcholinesterase, Glutathione S-transferase Activities and Glutathione

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine

Abstract:

The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: biomarkers, chronic toxicity, insecticide, halofenozide, Gambusia affinis, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
265 Biomarkers for Rectal Adenocarcinoma Identified by Lipidomic and Bioinformatic

Authors: Patricia O. Carvalho, Marcia C. F. Messias, Laura Credidio, Carlos A. R. Martinez

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Lipidomic strategy can provide important information regarding cancer pathogenesis mechanisms and could reveal new biomarkers to enable early diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma (RAC). This study set out to evaluate lipoperoxidation biomarkers, and lipidomic signature by gas chromatography (GC) and electrospray ionization-qToF-mass spectrometry (ESI-qToF-MS) combined with multivariate data analysis in plasma from 23 RAC patients (early- or advanced-stages cancer) and 18 healthy controls. The most abundant ions identified in the RAC patients were those of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) while those of lisophosphatidylcholine (LPC), identified as LPC (16:1), LPC (18:1) and LPC (18:2), were down-regulated. LPC plasmalogen containing palmitoleic acid (LPC (P-16:1)), with highest VIP score, showed a low tendency in the cancer patients. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were higher in patients with advanced cancer (III/IV stages) than in the early stages groups and the healthy group (p<0.05). No differences in F2-isoprostane levels were observed between these groups. This study shows that the reduction in plasma levels of LPC plasmalogens associated to an increase in MDA levels may indicate increased oxidative stress in these patients and identify the metabolite LPC (P-16:1) as new biomarkers for RAC.

Keywords: biomarkers, lipidomic, plasmalogen, rectal adenocarcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
264 Quality of Life and Renal Biomarkers in Feline Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Bárbara Durão, Pedro Almeida, David Ramilo, André Meneses, Rute Canejo-Teixeira

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The importance of quality of life (QoL) assessment in veterinary medicine is an integral part of patient care. This is especially true in cases of chronic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), where the ever more advanced treatment options prolong the patient’s life. Whether this prolongment of life comes with an acceptable quality of life remains has been called into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CKD disease biomarkers and QoL in cats. Thirty-seven cats diagnosed with CKD and with no known concurrent illness were enrolled in an observational study. Through the course of several evaluations, renal biomarkers were assessed in blood and urine samples, and owners retrospectively described their cat’s quality of life using a validated instrument for this disease. Correlations between QoL scores (AWIS) and the biomarkers were assessed using Spearman’s rank test. Statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05, and every serial sample was considered independent. Thirty-seven cats met the inclusion criteria, and all owners completed the questionnaire every time their pet was evaluated, giving a total of eighty-four questionnaires, and the average-weighted-impact-score was –0.5. Results showed there was a statistically significant correlation between the quality of life and most of 17 the studied biomarkers and confirmed that CKD has a negative impact on QoL in cats especially due to the management of the disease and secondary appetite disorders. To our knowledge, this is the attempt to assess the correlation between renal biomarkers and QoL in cats. Our results reveal a strong potential of this type of approach in clinical management, mainly in situations where it is not possible to measure biomarkers. Whilst health-related QoL is a reliable predictor of mortality and morbidity in humans; our findings can help improve the clinical practice in cats with CKD.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, biomarkers, quality of life, feline

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
263 Scoping Review of Biological Age Measurement Composed of Biomarkers

Authors: Diego Alejandro Espíndola-Fernández, Ana María Posada-Cano, Dagnóvar Aristizábal-Ocampo, Jaime Alberto Gallo-Villegas

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Background: With the increase in life expectancy, aging has been subject of frequent research, and therefore multiple strategies have been proposed to quantify the advance of the years based on the known physiology of human senescence. For several decades, attempts have been made to characterize these changes through the concept of biological age, which aims to integrate, in a measure of time, structural or functional variation through biomarkers in comparison with simple chronological age. The objective of this scoping review is to deepen the updated concept of measuring biological age composed of biomarkers in the general population and to summarize recent evidence to identify gaps and priorities for future research. Methods: A scoping review was conducted according to the five-phase methodology developed by Arksey and O'Malley through a search of five bibliographic databases to February 2021. Original articles were included with no time or language limit that described the biological age composed of at least two biomarkers in those over 18 years of age. Results: 674 articles were identified, of which 105 were evaluated for eligibility and 65 were included with information on the measurement of biological age composed of biomarkers. Articles from 1974 of 15 nationalities were found, most observational studies, in which clinical or paraclinical biomarkers were used, and 11 different methods described for the calculation of the composite biological age were informed. The outcomes reported were the relationship with the same measured biomarkers, specified risk factors, comorbidities, physical or cognitive functionality, and mortality. Conclusions: The concept of biological age composed of biomarkers has evolved since the 1970s and multiple methods of its quantification have been described through the combination of different clinical and paraclinical variables from observational studies. Future research should consider the population characteristics, and the choice of biomarkers against the proposed outcomes to improve the understanding of aging variables to direct effective strategies for a proper approach.

Keywords: biological age, biological aging, aging, senescence, biomarker

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262 Detecting Potential Biomarkers for Ulcerative Colitis Using Hybrid Feature Selection

Authors: Mustafa Alshawaqfeh, Bilal Wajidy, Echin Serpedin, Jan Suchodolski

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Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a disease of the colon with characteristic inflammation. Clinically IBD is detected using laboratory tests (blood and stool), radiology tests (imaging using CT, MRI), capsule endoscopy and endoscopy. There are two variants of IBD referred to as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. This study employs a hybrid feature selection method that combines a correlation-based variable ranking approach with exhaustive search wrapper methods in order to find potential biomarkers for UC. The proposed biomarkers presented accurate discriminatory power thereby identifying themselves to be possible ingredients to UC therapeutics.

Keywords: ulcerative colitis, biomarker detection, feature selection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
261 Identification of Potential Predictive Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Preeclampsia Growth Factors to microRNAs

Authors: Sadia Munir

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Preeclampsia is the contributor to the worldwide maternal mortality of approximately 100,000 deaths a year. It complicates about 10% of all pregnancies and is the first cause of maternal admission to intensive care units. Predicting preeclampsia is a major challenge in obstetrics. More importantly, no major progress has been achieved in the treatment of preeclampsia. As placenta is the main cause of the disease, the only way to treat the disease is to extract placental and deliver the baby. In developed countries, the cost of an average case of preeclampsia is estimated at £9000. Interestingly, preeclampsia may have an impact on the health of mother or infant, beyond the pregnancy. We performed a systematic search of PubMed including the combination of terms such as preeclampsia, biomarkers, treatment, hypoxia, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular endothelial growth factor A, activin A, inhibin A, placental growth factor, transforming growth factor β-1, Nodal, placenta, trophoblast cells, microRNAs. In this review, we have summarized current knowledge on the identification of potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Although these studies show promising data in early diagnosis of preeclampsia, the current value of these factors as biomarkers, for the precise prediction of preeclampsia, has its limitation. Therefore, future studies need to be done to support some of the very promising and interesting data to develop affordable and widely available tests for early detection and treatment of preeclampsia.

Keywords: activin, biomarkers, growth factors, miroRNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
260 Cell Line Screens Identify Biomarkers of Drug Sensitivity in GLIOMA Cancer

Authors: Noora Al Muftah, Reda Rawi, Richard Thompson, Halima Bensmail

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Clinical responses to anticancer therapies are often restricted to a subset of patients. In some cases, mutated cancer genes are potent biomarkers of response to targeted agents. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers that predict which patients with are most likely to respond to treatment. Systematic efforts to correlate tumor mutational data with biologic dependencies may facilitate the translation of somatic mutation catalogs into meaningful biomarkers for patient stratification. To identify genomic features associated with drug sensitivity and uncover new biomarkers of sensitivity and resistance to cancer therapeutics, we have screened and integrated a panel of several hundred cancer cell lines from different databases, mutation, DNA copy number, and gene expression data for hundreds of cell lines with their responses to targeted and cytotoxic therapies with drugs under clinical and preclinical investigation. We found mutated cancer genes were associated with cellular response to most currently available Glioma cancer drugs and some frequently mutated genes were associated with sensitivity to a broad range of therapeutic agents. By linking drug activity to the functional complexity of cancer genomes, systematic pharmacogenomic profiling in cancer cell lines provides a powerful biomarker discovery platform to guide rational cancer therapeutic strategies.

Keywords: cancer, gene network, Lasso, penalized regression, P-values, unbiased estimator

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
259 Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Blood Biomarkers and Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Man-Yun Liu, Emily Chia-Yu Su

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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the public health crisis of the 21st century. AD is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, a costly disease on the healthcare system. Unfortunately, the cause of AD is poorly understood, furthermore; the treatments of AD so far can only alleviate symptoms rather cure or stop the progress of the disease. Currently, there are several ways to diagnose AD; medical imaging can be used to distinguish between AD, other dementias, and early onset AD, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Compared with other diagnostic tools, blood (plasma) test has advantages as an approach to population-based disease screening because it is simpler, less invasive also cost effective. In our study, we used blood biomarkers dataset of The Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) which was funded by National Institutes of Health (NIH) to do data analysis and develop a prediction model. We used independent analysis of datasets to identify plasma protein biomarkers predicting early onset AD. Firstly, to compare the basic demographic statistics between the cohorts, we used SAS Enterprise Guide to do data preprocessing and statistical analysis. Secondly, we used logistic regression, neural network, decision tree to validate biomarkers by SAS Enterprise Miner. This study generated data from ADNI, contained 146 blood biomarkers from 566 participants. Participants include cognitive normal (healthy), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patient suffered Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Participants’ samples were separated into two groups, healthy and MCI, healthy and AD, respectively. We used the two groups to compare important biomarkers of AD and MCI. In preprocessing, we used a t-test to filter 41/47 features between the two groups (healthy and AD, healthy and MCI) before using machine learning algorithms. Then we have built model with 4 machine learning methods, the best AUC of two groups separately are 0.991/0.709. We want to stress the importance that the simple, less invasive, common blood (plasma) test may also early diagnose AD. As our opinion, the result will provide evidence that blood-based biomarkers might be an alternative diagnostics tool before further examination with CSF and medical imaging. A comprehensive study on the differences in blood-based biomarkers between AD patients and healthy subjects is warranted. Early detection of AD progression will allow physicians the opportunity for early intervention and treatment.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, blood-based biomarkers, diagnostics, early detection, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
258 Biomarkers in a Post-Stroke Population: Allied to Health Care in Brazil

Authors: Michael Ricardo Lang, AdriéLle Costa, Ivana Iesbik, Karine Haag, Leonardo Trindade Buffara, Oscar Reimann Junior, Chelin Auswaldt Steclan

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Stroke affects not only the individual, but has significant impacts on the social and family context. Therefore, it is necessary to know the peculiarities of each region, in order to contribute to regional public health policies effectively. Thus, the present study discusses biomarkers in a post-stroke population, admitted to a stroke unit (U-stroke) of reference in the southern region of Brazil. Biomarkers were analyzed, such as age, length of stay, mortality rate, survival time, risk factors and family history of stroke in patients after ischemic stroke. In this studied population, comparing men and women, it was identified that men were more affected than women, and the average age of women affected was higher, as they also had the highest mortality rate and the shortest hospital stay. The risk factors identified here were according to the global scenario; with SAH being the most frequent and those associated with sedentary lifestyle in women the most frequent (dyspilipidemia, heart disease and obesity). In view of this, the importance of studies that characterize populations regionally is evident, strengthening the strategic planning of policies in favor of health care.

Keywords: biomarkers, sex, stroke, stroke unit, population

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257 Determining Cellular Biomarkers Sensitive to Low Damaging Exposure

Authors: Svetlana Guryeva, Inna Kornienko, Elena Petersen

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At present, translational medicine is a rapidly developing branch of biomedicine. The main idea of translational medicine is a practical application of fundamental research. One of the possible applications for translational medicine is researching therapies that improve human age-related organism condition. To fill the gap between experiments and clinical practice, it is necessary to create the standardized system for the investigation of different effects on cellular aging models. In this study, primary human fibroblasts derived from patients of different ages were used as a cellular aging model. The senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, lipofuscin, γ-H2AX, the reactive oxygen species level, and cell death markers (annexin V/propidium iodide) were used as biomarkers of the cell functional state. The effects of damaging exposures (oxidative stress and heat shock), potential positive factors (metformin and acetaminophen), and their combinations were investigated using the described biomarkers. Oxidative stress and heat shock caused the increase in the levels of all biomarkers, and only the cells from young patients partly coped with stress 3 days after the exposures. Metformin improved the state of pretreatment cells from young and old patients. The acetaminophen did not show significant changes in the biomarker levels compare to the action of metformin. This study proved the opportunity to develop a standardized screening system based on biomarkers of the cell functional state to identify potential positive or negative effects of some physical and chemical exposures. Moreover, such a system can be useful for the aims of regenerative medicine to determine the effect of cell pretreatment before transplantation.

Keywords: biomarkers, primary fibroblasts, regenerative medicine, senescence, test system, translational medicine

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256 The Psychosis Prodrome: Biomarkers of the Glutamatergic System and Their Potential Role in Prediction and Treatment

Authors: Peter David Reiss

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The concept of the psychosis prodrome has allowed for the identification of adolescent and young adult patients who have a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A number of different interventions have been tested in order to prevent or delay progression of symptoms. To date, there has been no consistent meta-analytical evidence to support efficacy of antipsychotic treatment for patients in the prodromal state, and their use remains therefore inconclusive. Although antipsychotics may manage symptoms transiently, they have not been found to prevent or delay onset of psychotic disorders. Furthermore, pharmacological intervention in high-risk individuals remains controversial, because of the antipsychotic side effect profile in a population in which only about 20 to 35 percent will eventually convert to psychosis over a two-year period, with even after two years conversion rates not exceeding 30 to 40 percent. This general estimate is additionally problematic, in that it ignores the fact that there is significant variation in individual risk among clinical high-risk cases. The current lack of reliable tests for at-risk patients makes it difficult to justify individual treatment decisions. Preventive treatment should ideally be dictated by an individual’s risk while minimizing potentially harmful medication exposure. This requires more accurate predictive assessments by using valid and accessible prognostic markers. The following will compare prediction and risk modification potential of behavioral biomarkers such as disturbances of basic sense of self and emotion awareness, neurocognitive biomarkers such as attention, working and declarative memory, and neurophysiological biomarkers such as glutamatergic abnormalities and NMDA receptor dysfunction. Identification of robust biomarkers could therefore not only provide more reliable means of psychosis prediction, but also help test and develop new clinical interventions targeted at the prodromal state.

Keywords: at-risk mental state, biomarkers, glutamatergic system, NMDA receptor, psychosis prodrome, schizophrenia

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
255 Enzymatic Biomonitoring of Aquatic Pollution at Jeddah Southern Red Sea Shore

Authors: Saleh Mohamed, Mohamed El-Shal, Taha Kumosani, Ahmad Mal, Youssri Ahmed, Yasser Almulaiky

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The marine environment of the Jeddah southern red sea shore is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities as sewage sludge draining and desalting processes. The objective of this study is to compare the quantitative responses of enzymatic biomarkers in fish from polluted area with the responses of organism from reference area. Enzymatic biomarkers as neurotoxic, antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were evaluated in the brain and liver from Variola louti as a sentinel species sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Jeddah southern red sea shore during four months January, April, July and October in 2014 and 2015. In brain of V. louti, the activity of acetylcholinestease (AChE) collected from reference area significantly increased 8.8 and 10.5 folds than that from polluted area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from liver of V. louti in polluted area significantly increased 1.4, 1.27 and 3, 4.5 and 4.37, 2 and 5, 4.5 folds than that from reference area in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The levels of examined enzymes are approximately similar in the four seasons detected in 2014 and 2015 indicating that the similar components of sewage were draining in red sea. In conclusion, these findings suggest the important of enzymatic biomarkers in monitoring the pollution in Jeddah red sea shore.

Keywords: Variola louti, enzymatic biomarkers, pollution, Red sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
254 mRNA Biomarkers of Mechanical Asphyxia-Induced Death in Cardiac Tissue

Authors: Yan Zeng, Li Tao, Liujun Han, Tianye Zhang, Yongan Yu, Kaijun Ma, Long Chen

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Mechanical asphyxia is one of the main cause of death; however, death by mechanical asphyxia may be difficult to prove in court, particularly in cases in which corpses exhibit no obvious signs of asphyxia. To identify a credible biomarker of asphyxia, we first examined the expression levels of all the mRNAs in human cardiac tissue specimens subjected to mechanical asphyxia and compared these expression levels with those of the corresponding mRNAs in specimens subjected to craniocerebral injury. A total of 119 differentially expressed mRNAs were selected and the expression levels of these mRNAs were examined in 44 human cardiac tissue specimens subjected to mechanical asphyxia, craniocerebral injury, hemorrhagic shock and other causes of death. We found that DUSP1 and KCNJ2 were up-regulated in tissue specimens of mechanical asphyxia compared with control tissues, with no significant correlation between age, environmental temperature and PMI, indicating that DUSP1 and KCNJ2 may associate with mechanical asphyxia-induced death and can thus serve as useful biomarkers of death by mechanical asphyxia.

Keywords: mechanical asphyxia, biomarkers, DUSP1, KCNJ2, cardiac tissue

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
253 Impact of Two Xenobiotics in Mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis: Several Approaches

Authors: Chouahda Salima, Soltani Noureddine

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The present study is a part of biological control against mosquitoes. It aims to assess the impact of two xenobiotics (a selective insect growth regulator: halofenozide and heavy metals: cadmium, more toxic and widespread in the region) in mosquitofish: Gambusia affinis. Several approaches were examined: Acute toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide: The acute toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide was examined in juvenile and adult males and females of G. affinis at different concentrations, cadmium causes mortality of the species studied with a relation dose-response. In laboratory conditions, the impact of cadmium was determined on two biomarkers of environmental stress: glutathione and acetylcholinesterase. The results show that the juvenile followed by adult males are more susceptible than adult females, while the halofenozide does not have any effect on the mortality of juvenile and adult males and females of G.affinis. Chronic toxicity of cadmium and halofenozide: both xenobiotics were added to the water fish raising at different doses tested in juveniles and adults males and females during two months of experience. Growth and metric indices; results show that halofenozide added to the water juveniles of G. affinis has no effect on their growth (length and weight). On the other side, the cadmium at the dose 5 µg/L shows a higher toxicity against juvenile, where he appears to reduce significantly their linear growth and weight. In females, the both xenobiotics have significant effects on metric indices, but these effects are more important on the hepatosomatic index that the gonadosomatic index and the coefficient of condition. Biomarkers; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) used in assessing of environmental stress were measured in juveniles and adults males and females. The response of these biomarkers reveals an inhibition of AChE specific activity, an induction of GST activity, and decrease of GSH rates in juveniles in the end of experiment and during chronic treatment adult males and females. The effect of these biomarkers is more pronounced in females compared to males and juveniles. These different biomarkers have a similar profile for the duration of exposure.

Keywords: gambusia affinis, insecticide, heavy metal, morphology, biomarkers, chronic toxicity, acute toxicity, pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
252 Health Status Monitoring of COVID-19 Patient's through Blood Tests and Naïve-Bayes

Authors: Carlos Arias-Alcaide, Cristina Soguero-Ruiz, Paloma Santos-Álvarez, Adrián García-Romero, Inmaculada Mora-Jiménez

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Analysing clinical data with computers in such a way that have an impact on the practitioners’ workflow is a challenge nowadays. This paper provides a first approach for monitoring the health status of COVID-19 patients through the use of some biomarkers (blood tests) and the simplest Naïve Bayes classifier. Data of two Spanish hospitals were considered, showing the potential of our approach to estimate reasonable posterior probabilities even some days before the event.

Keywords: Bayesian model, blood biomarkers, classification, health tracing, machine learning, posterior probability

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251 Target and Biomarker Identification Platform to Design New Drugs against Aging and Age-Related Diseases

Authors: Peter Fedichev

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We studied fundamental aspects of aging to develop a mathematical model of gene regulatory network. We show that aging manifests itself as an inherent instability of gene network leading to exponential accumulation of regulatory errors with age. To validate our approach we studied age-dependent omic data such as transcriptomes, metabolomes etc. of different model organisms and humans. We build a computational platform based on our model to identify the targets and biomarkers of aging to design new drugs against aging and age-related diseases. As biomarkers of aging, we choose the rate of aging and the biological age since they completely determine the state of the organism. Since rate of aging rapidly changes in response to an external stress, this kind of biomarker can be useful as a tool for quantitative efficacy assessment of drugs, their combinations, dose optimization, chronic toxicity estimate, personalized therapies selection, clinical endpoints achievement (within clinical research), and death risk assessments. According to our model, we propose a method for targets identification for further interventions against aging and age-related diseases. Being a biotech company, we offer a complete pipeline to develop an anti-aging drug-candidate.

Keywords: aging, longevity, biomarkers, senescence

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250 Short-Term versus Long-Term Effect of Waterpipe Smoking Exposure on Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Mice

Authors: Abeer Rababa'h, Ragad Bsoul, Mohammad Alkhatatbeh, Karem Alzoubi

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Introduction: Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis in particular. WPS contains several toxic materials such as: nicotine, carcinogens, tar, carbon monoxide and heavy metals. Thus, WPS is considered to be as one of the toxic environmental factors that should be investigated intensively. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of WPS on several cardiovascular biological markers that may cause atherosclerosis in mice. The study also conducted to study the temporal effects of WPS on the atherosclerotic biomarkers upon short (2 weeks) and long-term (8 weeks) exposures. Methods: mice were exposed to WPS and heart homogenates were analyzed to elucidate the effects of WPS on matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and, myeloperoxidase (MPO). Following protein estimation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were done to measure the levels of MMPs (isoforms 1, 3, and 9), MPO, and ET-1 protein expressions. Results: our data showed that acute exposure to WPS significantly enhances the levels of MMP-3, MMP- 9, and MPO expressions (p < 0.05) compared to their corresponding control. However, the body was capable to normalize the level of expressions for such parameters following continuous exposure for 8 weeks (p > 0.05). Additionally, we showed that the level of ET-1 expression was significantly higher upon chronic exposure to WPS compared to both control and acute exposure groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Waterpipe exposure has a significant negative effect on atherosclerosis and the enhancement of the atherosclerotic biomarkers expression (MMP-3 and 9, MPO, and ET-1) might represent an early scavenger of compensatory efforts to maintain cardiac function after WP exposure.

Keywords: atherosclerotic biomarkers, cardiovascular disease, matrix metalloproteinase, waterpipe

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249 Combined Optical Coherence Microscopy and Spectrally Resolved Multiphoton Microscopy

Authors: Bjorn-Ole Meyer, Dominik Marti, Peter E. Andersen

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A multimodal imaging system, combining spectrally resolved multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is demonstrated. MPM and OCM are commonly integrated into multimodal imaging platforms to combine functional and morphological information. The MPM signals, such as two-photon fluorescence emission (TPFE) and signals created by second harmonic generation (SHG) are biomarkers which exhibit information on functional biological features such as the ratio of pyridine nucleotide (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in the classification of cancerous tissue. While the spectrally resolved imaging allows for the study of biomarkers, using a spectrometer as a detector limits the imaging speed of the system significantly. To overcome those limitations, an OCM setup was added to the system, which allows for fast acquisition of structural information. Thus, after rapid imaging of larger specimens, navigation within the sample is possible. Subsequently, distinct features can be selected for further investigation using MPM. Additionally, by probing a different contrast, complementary information is obtained, and different biomarkers can be investigated. OCM images of tissue and cell samples are obtained, and distinctive features are evaluated using MPM to illustrate the benefits of the system.

Keywords: optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy, multimodal imaging, two-photon fluorescence emission

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248 Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Down Regulation in Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Patients

Authors: Awan A. Zaima, Tanvieer Ayesha, Mirshahi Shahsoltan, Pocard Marc, Mirshahi Massoud

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is described as a factor helping to support the survival of existing neurons by involving the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. Cancer diagnosis impacts the mental health, and in consequences, depression arise eventually hinders recovery and disrupts the quality of life and surviving chances of patients. The focus of this study is to hint upon a prospective biomarker as a promising diagnostic tool for an early indicator/predictor of depression prevalence in cancer patients for better care and treatment options. The study aims to analyze peripheral biomarkers from neuro immune axis (BDNF, IL21 as a NK cell activator) using co-relation approach. Samples were obtained from random non cancer candidates and advanced peritoneum carcinomatosis patients with 25% pseudomyxoma, 21% Colon cancer,19% stomach cancer, 10% ovarian cancer, 8% appendices cancer, and 10% other area of peritoneum cancer patients. Both groups of the study were categorized by gender and age, with a range of 18 to 86 years old. Biomarkers were analyzed in collected plasma by performing multiplex sandwich ELISA system. Data were subjected to statistical analysis for the assessment of the correlation. Our results demonstrate that BNDF and IL 21 down regulated significantly in patient groupas compared to non-cancer candidates (ratio of patients/normalis 2.57 for BNDF and 1.32 for IL21). This preliminary investigation suggested that the neuro immune biomarkers are down regulated in carcinomatosis patients and can be associated with cancer expansion and cancer genesis. Further studies on larger cohort are necessary to validate this hypothesis.

Keywords: biomarkers, depression, peritoneum carcinoma, BNDF, IL21

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247 Development of an Electrochemical Aptasensor for the Detection of Human Osteopontin Protein

Authors: Sofia G. Meirinho, Luis G. Dias, António M. Peres, Lígia R. Rodrigues

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The emerging development of electrochemical aptasen sors has enabled the easy and fast detection of protein biomarkers in standard and real samples. Biomarkers are produced by body organs or tumours and provide a measure of antigens on cell surfaces. When detected in high amounts in blood, they can be suggestive of tumour activity. These biomarkers are more often used to evaluate treatment effects or to assess the potential for metastatic disease in patients with established disease. Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein found in all body fluids and constitutes a possible biomarker because its overexpression has been related with breast cancer evolution and metastasis. Currently, biomarkers are commonly used for the development of diagnostic methods, allowing the detection of the disease in its initial stages. A previously described RNA aptamer was used in the current work to develop a simple and sensitive electrochemical aptasensor with high affinity for human OPN. The RNA aptamer was biotinylated and immobilized on a gold electrode by avidin-biotin interaction. The electrochemical signal generated from the aptamer–target molecule interaction was monitored electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry in the presence of [Fe (CN) 6]−3/− as a redox probe. The signal observed showed a current decrease due to the binding of OPN. The preliminary results showed that this aptasensor enables the detection of OPN in standard solutions, showing good selectivity towards the target in the presence of others interfering proteins such as bovine OPN and bovine serum albumin. The results gathered in the current work suggest that the proposed electrochemical aptasensor is a simple and sensitive detection tool for human OPN and so, may have future applications in cancer disease monitoring.

Keywords: osteopontin, aptamer, aptasensor, screen-printed electrode, cyclic voltammetry

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246 In Silico Analysis of Salivary miRNAs to Identify the Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

Authors: Andleeb Zahra, Itrat Rubab, Sumaira Malik, Amina Khan, Muhammad Jawad Khan, M. Qaiser Fatmi

Abstract:

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the role of miRNA in disease pathology, indicating its potential use in an early diagnostic tool. miRNAs are small, double stranded, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by deregulating mRNAs. miRNAs play important roles in modifying various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune response. Dis-regulated expression of miRNAs is known to affect the cell growth, and this may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various cancers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to characterize the extracellular miRNAs involved in oral cancer (OC) to assist early detection of cancer as well as to propose a list of genes that can potentially be used as biomarkers of OC. We used gene expression data by microarrays already available in literature. Materials and Methods: In the first step, a total of 318 miRNAs involved in oral carcinoma were shortlisted followed by the prediction of their target genes. Simultaneously, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of oral carcinoma from all experiments were identified. The common genes between lists of DEGs of OC based on experimentally proven data and target genes of each miRNA were identified. These common genes are the targets of specific miRNA, which is involved in OC. Finally, a list of genes was generated which may be used as biomarker of OC. Results and Conclusion: In results, we included some of pathways in cancer to show the change in gene expression under the control of specific miRNA. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) provided a list of major biomarkers like CDH2, CDK7 and functional enrichment analysis identified the role of miRNA in major pathways like cell adhesion molecules pathway affected by cancer. We observed that at least 25 genes are regulated by maximum number of miRNAs, and thereby, they can be used as biomarkers of OC. To better understand the role of miRNA with respect to their target genes further experiments are required, and our study provides a platform to better understand the miRNA-OC relationship at genomics level.

Keywords: biomarkers, gene expression, miRNA, oral carcinoma

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245 Biosensor Design through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Steven W. Cranford, Ming L. Wang

Abstract:

The beginning of 21st century has witnessed new advancements in the design and use of new materials for biosensing applications, from nano to macro, protein to tissue. Traditional analytical methods lack a complete toolset to describe the complexities introduced by living systems, pathological relations, discrete hierarchical materials, cross-phase interactions, and structure-property dependencies. Materiomics – via systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation – can provide structure-process-property relations by using a materials science approach linking mechanisms across scales and enables oriented biosensor design. With this approach, DNA biosensors can be utilized to detect disease biomarkers present in individuals’ breath such as acetone for diabetes. Our wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has successfully detected trace amount of various chemicals in vapor differentiated by pattern recognition. Here, we present how MD simulation can revolutionize the way of design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. It demonstrates great potential to be utilized to build a library of DNDA sequences for reliable detection of several biomarkers of one specific disease, and as well provides a new methodology of creating, designing, and applying of biosensors.

Keywords: biosensor, DNA, biomarker, molecular dynamics simulation

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244 HPTLC Fingerprint Profiling of Protorhus longifolia Methanolic Leaf Extract and Qualitative Analysis of Common Biomarkers

Authors: P. S. Seboletswe, Z. Mkhize, L. M. Katata-Seru

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Protorhus longifolia is known as a medicinal plant that has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as hemiplegic paralysis, blood clotting related diseases, diarrhoea, heartburn, etc. The study reports a High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile of Protorhus longifolia methanolic extract and its qualitative analysis of gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. HPTLC analysis was achieved using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, CAMAG Automatic Developing Chamber 2 (ADC2), CAMAG visualizer 2, CAMAG Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) scanner and visionCATS CAMAG HPTLC software. Mobile phase comprising toluene, ethyl acetate, formic acid (21:15:3) was used for qualitative analysis of gallic acid and revealed eight peaks while the mobile phase containing ethyl acetate, water, glacial acetic acid, formic acid (100:26:11:11) for qualitative analysis of rutin and quercetin revealed six peaks. HPTLC sillica gel 60 F254 glass plates (10 × 10) were used as the stationary phase. Gallic acid was detected at the Rf = 0.35; while rutin and quercetin were not evident in the extract. Further studies will be performed to quantify gallic acid in Protorhus longifolia leaves and also identify other biomarkers.

Keywords: biomarkers, fingerprint profiling, gallic acid, HPTLC, Protorhus longifolia

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243 Psychological Stress and Accelerated Aging in SCI Patients - A Longitudinal Pilot Feasibility Study

Authors: Simona Capossela, Ramona Schaniel, Singer Franziska, Aquino Fournier Catharine, Daniel Stekhoven, Jivko Stoyanov

Abstract:

A spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic life event that often results in ageing associated health conditions such as muscle mass decline, adipose tissue increase, decline in immune function, frailty, systemic chronic inflammation, and psychological distress and depression. Psychological, oxidative, and metabolic stressors may facilitate accelerated ageing in the SCI population with reduced life expectancy. Research designs using biomarkers of aging and stress are needed to elucidate the role of psychological distress in accelerated aging. The aim of this project is a feasibility pilot study to observe changes in stress biomarkers and correlate them with aging markers in SCI patients during their first rehabilitation (longitudinal cohort study). Biological samples were collected in the SwiSCI (Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study) Biobank in Nottwil at 4 weeks±12 days after the injury (T1) and at the end of the first rehabilitation (discharge, T4). The "distress thermometer" is used as a selfassessment tool for psychological distress. Stress biomarkers, as cortisol and protein carbonyl content (PCC), and markers of cellular aging, such as telomere lengths, will be measured. 2 Preliminary results showed that SCI patients (N= 129) are still generally distressed at end of rehabilitation, however we found a statistically significant (p< 0.001) median decrease in distress from 6 (T1) to 5 (T4) during the rehabilitation. In addition, an explorative transcriptomics will be conducted on N=50 SCI patients to compare groups of persons with SCI who have different trajectories of selfreported distress at the beginning and end of the first rehabilitation after the trauma. We identified 4 groups: very high chronic stress (stress thermometer values above 7 at T1 and T4; n=14); transient stress (high to low; n=14), low stress (values below 5 at T1 and T4; n=14), increasing stress (low to high; n=8). The study will attempt to identify and address issues that may occur in relation to the design and conceptualization of future study on stress and aging in the SCI population.

Keywords: stress, aging, spinal cord injury, biomarkers

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242 Hepatological Alterations in Market Gardeners Occupationally Exposed to Pesticides in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

Authors: M. G. Tanga, P. B. Telefo, D. N. Tarla

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Even though the WHO, the EPA and other regulatory bodies have recognized the effects of acute pesticide poisoning little data exists on health effects after long-term low-dose exposures especially in Africa and Cameroon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pesticides on the hepatic functions of market gardeners in the Western Region of Cameroon by studying some biochemical parameters. Sixty six male market gardeners in Foumbot, Massangam, and Bantoum were interviewed on their health status, habits and pesticide use in agriculture, including the spray frequency, application method, and pesticide dosage. Thirty men with no history of pesticide exposure were recruited as control group. Thereafter, their blood samples were collected for assessment of hepatic function biomarkers (ALT, AST, and albumin). The results showed that 56 pesticides containing 25 active ingredients were currently used by market gardeners enrolled in our study and most of their symptoms (headache, fatigue, skin rashes, eye irritation, and nausea) were related to the use of these chemicals. Compared to the control subjects market gardeners’ ALT levels (32.9 ± 7.19 UL-1 vs. 82.11 ± 35.40 UL-1; P < 0.001) and, AST levels (40.63 ± 6.52 UL-1 vs. 112.11 UL-1 ± 47.15 UL-1; P < 0.001) were significantly increased. These results suggest that liver function tests can be used as biomarkers to indicate toxicity before overt clinical signs occur. The market gardeners’ chronic exposure to pesticides due to poor application measures could lead to hepatic function impairment. Further research on larger scale is needed to confirm these findings and to establish a mechanism of toxicity.

Keywords: biomarkers, liver, pesticides, occupational exposure

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241 Effect of Brewing on the Bioactive Compounds of Coffee

Authors: Ceyda Dadali, Yeşim Elmaci

Abstract:

Coffee was introduced as an economic crop during the fifteenth century; nowadays it is the most important food commodity ranking second after crude oil. Desirable sensory properties make coffee one of the most often consumed and most popular beverages in the world. The coffee preparation method has a significant effect on flavor and composition of coffee brews. Three different extraction methodologies namely decoction, infusion and pressure methods have been used for coffee brew preparation. Each of these methods is related to specific granulation (coffee grind) of coffee powder, water-coffee ratio temperature and brewing time. Coffee is a mixture of 1500 chemical compounds. Chemical composition of coffee highly depends on brewing methods, coffee bean species and roasting time-temperature. Coffee contains a wide number of very important bioactive compounds, such as diterpenes: cafestol and kahweol, alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline, melanoidins, phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds of coffee include chlorogenic acids (quinyl esters of hidroxycinnamic acids), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric acid. In coffee caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids and di-caffeoylquinic acids are three main groups of chlorogenic acids constitues 6% -10% of dry weight of coffee. The bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in coffee depends on the absorption and metabolization to biomarkers in individuals. Also, the interaction of coffee polyphenols with other compounds such as dietary proteins affects the biomarkers. Since bioactive composition of coffee depends on brewing methods effect of coffee brewing method on bioactive compounds of coffee will be discussed in this study.

Keywords: bioactive compounds of coffee, biomarkers, coffee brew, effect of brewing

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240 Proteomics Application in Disease Diagnosis and Reproduction İmprovement in Cow

Authors: Abdollah Sobhani, Hossein Vaseghi-Dodaran

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Proteomics is defined as the study of the component of a cell, tissue and biological fluid. This technique has the potential to identify protein biomarkers of a disease states. In this study which was performed on bovine ovarian follicular cysts (BOFC), eight proteins are over expressed in BOFC that these proteins could be useful biomarkers for BOFC. The difference between serum proteome pattern cows affected by postpartum endometritis with healthy cows revealed that concentrations orosomucoid was decreased in endometritis. The comparison proteome of brucella abortus between laboratory adapted strains and clinical isolates could be useful to better understand this disease and vaccine development. Proteomics experiments identified new proteins and pathways that may be important in future hypothesis-driven studies of glucocorticoid-induced immunosuppression. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of effective parameters on male fertility is essential for obtaining high reproductive efficiency by decreasing cost and time. The investigations on proteome of high fertility spermatozoa indicated that expression of some proteins such as casein kinase 2 (CKII) prime poly peptide and tyrosine kinase in high fertility spermatozoa was higher compared to low fertility spermatozoa. Also, some evidence has indicated that variation in protein types and amounts in seminal fluid regulates fertility indexes in dairy bull. In conclusion, proteomics is a useful technique for discovering drugs, vaccine development, and diagnosis disease by biomarkers and improvement of reproduction efficiency.

Keywords: proteomics, reproduction, biomarker, immunity

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239 Determination of Medians of Biochemical Maternal Serum Markers in Healthy Women Giving Birth to Normal Babies

Authors: Noreen Noreen, Aamir Ijaz, Hamza Akhtar

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Background: Screening plays a major role to detect chromosomal abnormalities, Down syndrome, neural tube defects and other inborn diseases of the newborn. Serum biomarkers in the second trimester are useful in determining risk of most common chromosomal anomalies; these test include Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), Unconjugated Oestriol (UEȝ)and inhibin-A. Quadruple biomarkers are worth test in diagnosing the congenital pathology during pregnancy, these procedures does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in Pakistan, so the median value is lacking for population in Pakistan. Objective: To determine median values of biochemical maternal serum markers in local population during second trimester maternal screening. Study settings: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi. Methods: Cross-Sectional study for estimation of reference values. Non-probability consecutive sampling, 155 healthy pregnant women, of 30-40 years of age, will be included. As non-parametric statistics will be used, the minimum sample size is 120. Result: Total 155 women were enrolled into this study. The age of all women enrolled ranged from 30 to39 yrs. Among them, 39 per cent of women were less than 34 years. Mean maternal age 33.46±2.35 SD and maternal body weight were 54.98±2.88. Median value of quadruple markers calculated from 15-18th week of gestation that will be used for calculation of MOM for screening of trisomy21 in this gestational age. Median value at 15 week of gestation were observed hCG 36650 mIU/ml, AFP 23.3 IU/ml, UEȝ 3.5 nmol/L, InhibinA 198 ng/L, at 16 week of gestation hCG 29050 mIU/ml, AFP 35.4 IU/ml, UEȝ 4.1 nmol/L, InhibinA 179 ng/L, at 17 week of gestation hCG 28450 mIU/ml, AFP 36.0 IU/ml, UEȝ 6.7 nmol/L, InhibinA 176 ng/L and at 18 week of gestation hCG 25200 mIU/ml, AFP 38.2 IU/ml, UEȝ 8.2 nmol/L, InhibinA 190 ng/L respectively.All the comparisons were significant (p-Value <0.005) with 95% confidence Interval (CI) and level of significance of study set by going through literature and set at 5%. Conclusion: The median values for these four biomarkers in Pakistani pregnant women can be used to calculate MoM.

Keywords: screening, down syndrome, quadruple test, second trimester, serum biomarkers

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238 Risk Factors and Biomarkers for the Recurrence of Ovarian Endometrioma: About the Immunoreactivity of Progesterone Receptor Isoform B and Nuclear Factor Kappa B.

Authors: Ae Ra Han, Taek Hoo Lee, Sun Zoo Kim, Hwa Young Lee

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Introduction: Ovarian endometrioma is one of the important causes of poor ovarian reserve and up to half of them have recurred. However, the treatment for recurrence prevention has limited efficiency and repeated surgical management makes worsen the ovarian reserve. To find better management for recurrence prevention, we investigated risk factors and biomarkers for the recurrence of ovarian endometrioma. Methods: The medical records of women with the history of surgical dissection for ovarian endometrioma were collected. After exclusion of the cases with concurrent hysterectomy, been menopaused during follow-up, incomplete medical record, and loss of follow-up, a total of 134 women were enrolled. Immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) was done with the fixed tissue blocks of their endometriomas which were collected at the time of surgery. Results: Severity of dysmenorrhea and co-existence of adenomyosis had significant correlation with recurrence of endometrioma. Increased PR-B (P = .041) and decreased NFκB (P = .036) immunoreactivity were found in recurrent group. Serum CA-125 level at the time of recurrence was higher than the highest level of CA-125 during follow-up in unrecurred group (55.6 vs. 21.3 U/mL, P = .014). Conclusion: We found that the severity of dysmenorrhea and coexistence of adenomyosis are risk factors for recurrence of ovarian endometrioma, and serial follow-up of CA-125 is effective to detect and prevent the recurrence. However, to determine the possibility of immunoreactivity of PR-B and NFκB as biomarkers for ovarian endometrioma, further studies of various races and large numbers with prospective design are needed.

Keywords: endometriosis, recurrence, biomarker, risk factor

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