Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 270

Search results for: innate immunity

270 Innate Immunity of Insects in Brief

Authors: Ehsan Soleymaninejadian


As the field of immunology is growing day by day, and its chaotic system amazes more people, greed of research in this area is growing; however dealing with human or mammalian cells such as mice make the research expensive. Although there are some differences between higher animals with insects, importance of innate immunity during evolution made it untouched. So, for understanding the innate immunity insects can be good models. They are cheap; reproduction is fast and in the case genetics, less complicated. In this review, we tried to briefly tackle with important factors in insects’ innate immunity such as melanization, encapsulation, JAK-STAT, IMD, and Toll pathways. At the end, we explained how hormones and nerve system also can impact on immune system and make it more beautiful. In concluding remarks, the possibility of taking help from insect immune system to fight against diseases such as cancer has been considered.

Keywords: insects, innate immunity, melanization, intracellular pathways, hormones

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
269 Kids and COVID-19: They Are Winning With Their Immunity

Authors: Husham Bayazed


The infant immune system has a reputation for being weak and underdeveloped when compared to the adult immune system, but the comparison isn’t quite fair. At the start, as the COVID-19 pandemic drags on and evolves, many Pediatricians and kids' parents have been left with renewed questions about the consequences and sequel of infection on children and the steps to be taken if their child, has the symptoms of COVID-19 or tests positive. Recent Findings: Literature reviews and recent studies revealed that children are better than adults at controlling SARS-CoV-2. There was conflicting evidence on age-related differences in ACE2 expression in the nose and lungs. But scientists who measured the ‘viral load’ in children's upper airways have seen no clear difference between children and adults. Moreover, the hypothesis is that kids might be more exposed to other coronaviruses common cold with a production of ready protective antibodies to lock on to the pandemic coronavirus. But the evidence suggests that adults also have this immunity too. Strikingly, these ‘cross-reactive’ antibodies don’t offer any special protection. Summary: One of the few silver linings of the Covid-19 pandemic is that children are relatively spared. The kid's Innate Immunity is hardly the whole story, the innate immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection is early initiative calm with low immunological tone to prevent an overactive immunity and with rapidly repair damage to the lungs in contrast to stormy waves in adults. Therefore, Kids are at much lower risk of Covid-19 infection and they are still winning the battle against Covid-19 with their innate immunity.

Keywords: kids, Covid-19, immunity, ACT2

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268 Innate Immune Dysfunction in Niemann Pick Disease Type C

Authors: Stephanie Newman


Niemann-Pick Type C disease is a rare, usually fatal lysosomal storage disorder. Although clinically characterized by progressive neurodegeneration, there is also evidence of altered innate immune responses such as neuroinflammation that promote disease progression. We have initiated an investigation into whether phagocytosis, an important innate immune activity and the process by which particles are ingested is defective in NPC. Using an in vitro assay, we have shown that NPC macrophages have a deficiency in the phagocytosis of different particles. We plan to investigate the mechanistic basis for impaired phagocytosis, the contribution that this deficiency makes to disease pathology, and whether therapies that have shown in vivo benefit are able to restore phagocytic activity.

Keywords: Niemann Pick Disease C, phagocytosis, innate immunity, lysosomal storage disorder

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267 Hepatocyte-Intrinsic NF-κB Signaling Is Essential to Control a Systemic Viral Infection

Authors: Sukumar Namineni, Tracy O'Connor, Ulrich Kalinke, Percy Knolle, Mathias Heikenwaelder


The liver is one of the pivotal organs in vertebrate animals, serving a multitude of functions such as metabolism, detoxification and protein synthesis and including a predominant role in innate immunity. The innate immune mechanisms pertaining to liver in controlling viral infections have largely been attributed to the Kupffer cells, the locally resident macrophages. However, all the cells of liver are equipped with innate immune functions including, in particular, the hepatocytes. Hence, our aim in this study was to elucidate the innate immune contribution of hepatocytes in viral clearance using mice lacking Ikkβ specifically in the hepatocytes, termed IkkβΔᴴᵉᵖ mice. Blockade of Ikkβ activation in IkkβΔᴴᵉᵖ mice affects the downstream signaling of canonical NF-κB signaling by preventing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, an important step required for the initiation of innate immune responses. Interestingly, infection of IkkβΔᴴᵉᵖ mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) led to strongly increased hepatic viral titers – mainly confined in clusters of infected hepatocytes. This was due to reduced interferon stimulated gene (ISG) expression during the onset of infection and a reduced CD8+ T-cell-mediated response. Decreased ISG production correlated with increased liver LCMV protein and LCMV in isolated hepatocytes from IkkβΔᴴᵉᵖ mice. A similar phenotype was found in LCMV-infected mice lacking interferon signaling in hepatocytes (IFNARΔᴴᵉᵖ) suggesting a link between NFkB and interferon signaling in hepatocytes. We also observed a failure of interferon-mediated inhibition of HBV replication in HepaRG cells treated with NF-kB inhibitors corroborating our initial findings with LCMV infections. Collectively, these results clearly highlight a previously unknown and influential role of hepatocytes in the induction of innate immune responses leading to viral clearance during a systemic viral infection with LCMV-WE.

Keywords: CD8+ T cell responses, innate immune mechanisms in the liver, interferon signaling, interferon stimulated genes, NF-kB signaling, viral clearance

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266 Lung Icams and Vcam-1 in Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Influenza Infections: Implications for Vaccination Strategies

Authors: S. Kozlovski, S.W. Feigelson, R. Alon


The b2 integrin ligands ICAM-1 ICAM-2 and the endothelial VLA-4 integrin ligand VCAM-1 are constitutively expressed on different lung vessels and on high endothelial venules (HEVs), the main portal for lymphocyte entry from the blood into lung draining lymph nodes. ICAMs are also ubiquitously expressed by many antigen-presenting leukocytes and have been traditionally suggested as critical for the various antigen-specific immune synapses generated by these distinct leukocytes and specific naïve and effector T cells. Loss of both ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on the lung vasculature reduces the ability to patrol monocytes and Tregs to patrol the lung vasculature at a steady state. Our new findings suggest, however, that in terms of innate leukocyte trafficking into the lung lamina propria, both constitutively expressed and virus-induced vascular VCAM-1 can functionally compensate for the loss of these ICAMs. In a mouse model for influenza infection, neutrophil and NK cell recruitment and clearance of influenza remained normal in mice deficient in both ICAMs. Strikingly, mice deficient in both ICAMs also mounted normal influenza-specific CD8 proliferation and differentiation. In addition, these mice normally combated secondary influenza infection, indicating that the presence of ICAMs on conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) that present viral antigens are not required for immune synapse formation between these APCs and naïve CD8 T cells as previously suggested. Furthermore, long-lasting humoral responses critical for protection from a secondary homosubtypic influenza infection were also normal in mice deficient in both ICAM-1 and ICAM-2. Collectively, our results suggest that the expression of ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on lung endothelial and epithelial cells, as well as on DCs and B cells, is not critical for the generation of innate or adaptive anti-viral immunity in the lungs. Our findings also suggest that endothelial VCAM-1 can substitute for the functions of vascular ICAMs in leukocyte trafficking into various lung compartments.

Keywords: emigration, ICAM-1, lymph nodes, VCAM-1

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265 Molecular Characterization and Identification of C-Type Lectin in Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

Authors: Hafiza Javaria Ashraf, Xinghong Wang, Zhanghong Shi, Youming Hou


Insect’s innate immunity depends on a variety of defense responses for the recognition of invading pathogens. Pathogen recognition involves particular proteins known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRRs interact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens to distinguish between self and non-self. C-type lectins (CTLs) belong to a superfamily of PPRs which involved in insect immunity and defense mechanism. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier is a devastating pest of Palm cultivations in China. Although studies on R. ferrugineus immune mechanism and host defense have conducted, however, the role of CTL in immune responses of R. ferrugineus remains elusive. Here, we report RfCTL, which is a secreted protein containing a single-CRD domain. The open reading frame (ORF) of CTL is 226 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 168 amino acids. Transcript expression analysis revealed that RfCTL highly expressed in immune-related tissues, i.e., hemolymph and fat body. The abundance of RfCTL in the gut and fat body dramatically increased upon Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial challenges, suggesting a role in defense against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infection. Taken together, we inferred that RfCTL might be involved in the immune defense of R. ferrugineus and established a solid foundation for future studies on R. ferrugineus CTL domain proteins for better understanding of insect immunity.

Keywords: biological invasion, c-type lectin, insect immunity, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver

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264 Evaluation of Immunostimulant Potential of Proteoliposomes Derived from Vibrio anguillarum Administered by Immersion in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: M. Caruffo, P. Navarrete, C. G. Feijoo, L. Sáenz


Disease prevention through the use of vaccines has been crucial to achieve the current level of production in the salmon industry. However, vaccines have been developed based largely on inactivated bacterial formulations, using the whole pathogen. These formulations have demonstrated excellent efficacy against extracellular bacterial pathogens. However diseases with the greatest economic impacts correspond to intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens, vaccines based on these types of agents have shown a discrete effectiveness. It is for these reasons that the development of subunit vaccines based on defined antigens offers a promising solution. The main problem is that subunit vaccines offer a low immunogenicity, since they lack immunostimulatory elements, so that the development of new adjuvants platforms becomes an important challenge for this type of formulations. We evaluate the effect of a formulation based on proteoliposomes of Vibrio anguillarum administered by immersion as a new adjuvant strategy, allowing efficient stimulation of the innate immune system. Proteoliposomes physicochemical properties were evaluated in its ability to produce an inflammatory process. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a model species and the transgenic line (Tg(mpx: GFP)i114) allowed us to track the neutrophil migration in real time. Additionally we evaluated the gene expression of some molecular markers involved in the development of the innate immune response characterizing the adjuvant capacity of the formulation.

Keywords: adjuvants, vaccine development, zebrafish, innate immunity

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263 The Influence of Immunity on the Behavior and Dignity of Judges

Authors: D. Avnieli


Immunity of judges from liability represents a departure from the principle that all are equal under the law, and that victims may be granted compensation from their offenders. The purpose of the study is to determine if judicial immunity coincides with the need to ensure the existence of highly independent and incorruptible judiciary. Judges are immune from civil and criminal liability for their judicial acts. Judicial immunity is justified by the need to maintain complete independence and discretion of the judiciary. Scholars and judges believe that absolute immunity is needed to shield judges from pressures, threats, or outside interference. It is commonly accepted, that judges should be free to perform their judicial role in accordance with their assessment of the fact and their understanding of the law, without any restrictions, influences, inducements or interferences. In most countries, immunity applies when judges act in excess of jurisdiction. In some countries, it applies even when they act maliciously or corruptly. The only exception to absolute immunity applicable in all judicial systems is when judges act without jurisdiction over the subject matter. The Israeli Supreme Court recently decided to embrace absolute immunity and strike off a lawsuit of a refugee, who was unlawfully incarcerated. The Court ruled that the plaintiff cannot sue the State or the judge for damages. The questions of malice, dignity, and public scrutiny were not discussed. This paper, based on comparative analysis of many cases, aims to determine if immunity affects the dignity and behavior of judges. It demonstrates that most judges maintain their dignity and ethical code of behavior, but sometimes do not hesitate to act consciously in excess of jurisdiction, and in rare cases even corruptly. Therefore, in order to maintain independent and incorruptible judiciary, immunity should not be applied where judges act consciously in excess of jurisdiction or with malicious incentives.

Keywords: incorruptible judiciary, immunity, independent, judicial, judges, jurisdiction

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262 The Immunology Evolutionary Relationship between Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription Genes from Three Different Shrimp Species in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

Authors: T. C. C. Soo, S. Bhassu


Unlike the common presence of both innate and adaptive immunity in vertebrates, crustaceans, in particular, shrimps, have been discovered to possess only innate immunity. This further emphasizes the importance of innate immunity within shrimps in pathogenic resistance. Under the study of pathogenic immune challenge, different shrimp species actually exhibit varying degrees of immune resistance towards the same pathogen. Furthermore, even within the same shrimp species, different batches of challenged shrimps can have different strengths of immune defence. Several important pathways are activated within shrimps during pathogenic infection. One of them is JAK-STAT pathway that is activated during bacterial, viral and fungal infections by which STAT(Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) gene is the core element of the pathway. Based on theory of Central Dogma, the genomic information is transmitted in the order of DNA, RNA and protein. This study is focused in uncovering the important evolutionary patterns present within the DNA (non-coding region) and RNA (coding region). The three shrimp species involved are Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei which all possess commercial significance. The shrimp species were challenged with a famous penaeid shrimp virus called white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) which can cause serious lethality. Tissue samples were collected during time intervals of 0h, 3h, 6h, 12h, 24h, 36h and 48h. The DNA and RNA samples were then extracted using conventional kits from the hepatopancreas tissue samples. PCR technique together with designed STAT gene conserved primers were utilized for identification of the STAT coding sequences using RNA-converted cDNA samples and subsequent characterization using various bioinformatics approaches including Ramachandran plot, ProtParam and SWISS-MODEL. The varying levels of immune STAT gene activation for the three shrimp species during WSSV infection were confirmed using qRT-PCR technique. For one sample, three biological replicates with three technical replicates each were used for qRT-PCR. On the other hand, DNA samples were important for uncovering the structural variations within the genomic region of STAT gene which would greatly assist in understanding the STAT protein functional variations. The partially-overlapping primers technique was used for the genomic region sequencing. The evolutionary inferences and event predictions were then conducted through the Bayesian Inference method using all the acquired coding and non-coding sequences. This was supplemented by the construction of conventional phylogenetic trees using Maximum likelihood method. The results showed that adaptive evolution caused STAT gene sequence mutations between different shrimp species which led to evolutionary divergence event. Subsequently, the divergent sites were correlated to the differing expressions of STAT gene. Ultimately, this study assists in knowing the shrimp species innate immune variability and selection of disease resistant shrimps for breeding purpose. The deeper understanding of STAT gene evolution from the perspective of both purifying and adaptive approaches not only can provide better immunological insight among shrimp species, but also can be used as a good reference for immunological studies in humans or other model organisms.

Keywords: gene evolution, JAK-STAT pathway, immunology, STAT gene

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261 Leadership and Whether It Stems from Innate Abilities or from Situation

Authors: Salwa Abdelbaki


This research investigated how leaders develop, asking whether they have been leaders due to their innate abilities or they gain leadership characteristics through interactions based on requirements of a situation. If the first is true, then a leader should be successful in any situation. Otherwise, a leader may succeed only in a specific situation. A series of experiments were carried out on three groups including of males and females. First; a group of 148 students with different specializations had to select a leader. Another group of 51 students had to recall their previous experiences and their knowledge of each other to identify who were leaders in different situations. Then a series of analytic tools were applied to the identified leaders and to the whole groups to find out how leaders were developed. A group of 40 young children was also experimented with to find young leaders among them and to analyze their characteristics.

Keywords: leadership, innate characteristics, situation, leadership theories

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260 Pathogenic Effects of IgG and IgM Apoptotic Cell-Reactive Monoclonal Auto-Antibodies on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Lupus

Authors: Monika Malik, Pooja Arora, Ruchi Sachdeva, Vishnampettai G. Ramachandran, Rahul Pal


Apoptotic debris is believed to be the antigenic trigger in lupus. Whether such debris and autoantibodies induced in lupus-prone mice which specifically recognize its constituents can mediate differential effects on innate and humoral responses in such mice was assessed. The influence of apoptotic blebs and apoptotic cell-reactive monoclonal antibodies on phenotypic markers expressed on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and secreted cytokines were evaluated. Sera from lupus-prone and healthy mice immunized with the antibodies were analyzed for anti-self reactivity. Apoptotic blebs, as well as somatically-mutated IgG and non-mutated IgM apoptotic-cell reactive monoclonal antibodies, induced the preferential maturation of BMDCs derived from lupus-prone mice relative to BMDCs derived from healthy mice; antibody specificity and cell genotype both influenced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Immunization of lupus-prone mice with IgM and IgG antibodies led to hypergammaglobulinemia; elicited antibodies were self-reactive, and exhibited enhanced recognition of lupus-associated autoantigens (dsDNA, Ro60, RNP68, and Sm) in comparison with adjuvant-induced sera. While ‘natural’ IgM antibodies are believed to contribute to immune homeostasis, this study reveals that apoptotic cell-reactive IgM antibodies can promote inflammation and drive anti-self responses in lupus. Only in lupus-prone mice did immunization with IgG auto-antibodies enhance the kinetics of humoral anti-self responses, resulting in advanced-onset glomerulosclerosis. This study reveals that preferential innate and humoral recognition of the products of cell death in an autoimmune milieu influences the indices associated with lupus pathology.

Keywords: antigen spreading, apoptotic cell-reactive pathogenic IgG, and IgM autoantibodies, glomerulosclerosis, lupus

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259 ICAM-2, A Protein of Antitumor Immune Response in Mekong Giant Catfish (Pangasianodon gigas)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn


ICAM-2 (intercellular adhesion molecule 2) or CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102) is type I trans-membrane glycoproteins, composing 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains. ICAM-2 plays the particular role in immune response and cell surveillance. It is concerned in innate and specific immunity, cell survival signal, apoptosis, and anticancer. EST clone of ICAM-2, from P. gigas blood cell EST libraries, showed high identity to human ICAM-2 (92%) with conserve region of ICAM N-terminal domain and part of Ig superfamily. Gene and protein of ICAM-2 has been founded in mammals. This is the first report of ICAM-2 in fish.

Keywords: ICAM-2, CD102, Pangasianodon gigas, antitumor

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258 Circadian Regulations in Epithelial Barrier Functions

Authors: Kanami Orihara, Agnia Vibriani, Jayshree Low Jit Sze, Manitahina Mizan, Yao Du


Peripheral clocks are suggested to influence many aspects of keeping our health. However, the circadian profile of epithelial barrier functions is yet to be elucidated. We investigated the circadian profile of gene expressions of epithelial barriers using quantitative PCR in vitro study with human cell lines. The study found that four tight junction molecule gene expressions (CLDN1, CLDN4, OCLN, ZO1), as well as DEFB1 in skin keratinocytes, demonstrated circadian variations. These results suggest that the peripheral clock is taking an important role in keeping the homeostasis of epithelial barrier functions.

Keywords: chronobiology, barrier function, innate immunity, homeostasis

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257 Tracking Maximum Power Point Utilizing Artificial Immunity System

Authors: Marwa Ahmed Abd El Hamied


In this paper In this paper, a new technique based on Artificial Immunity System (AIS) technique has been developed to track Maximum Power Point (MPP). AIS system is implemented in a photovoltaic system that is subjected to variable temperature and insulation condition. The proposed novel is simulated using Mat Lab program. The results of simulation have been compared to those who are generated from Observation Controller. The proposed model shows promising results as it provide better accuracy comparing to classical model.

Keywords: component, artificial immunity technique, solar energy, perturbation and observation, power based methods

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256 Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimer-Cisplatin Nanocomplex Mixed with Multifunctional Ovalbumin Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Immuno-Chemotherapeutics with M1 Polarization of Macrophages

Authors: Tefera Worku Mekonnen, Hiseh Chih Tsai


Enhancement of drug efficacy is essential in cancer treatment. The immune stimulator ovalbumin (Ova)-coated citric acid (AC-)-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (AC-IO-Ova NPs) and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) based tumor targeted 4.5 (4.5G) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-cisplatin nanocomplex (4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC) were used for enhanced anticancer efficiency. The formations of 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC, AC-IO, and AC-IO-Ova NPs have been examined by FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The conjugation of cisplatin (Cis-pt) with 4.5GDP was confirmed using carbon NMR. The tumor-specific 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC provided ~45% and 28% cumulative cisplatin release in 72 h at pH 6.5 and 7.4, respectively. A significant immune response with high TNF-α and IL-6 cytokine secretion was confirmed when the co-incubation of AC-IO-Ova with RAW 264.7 or HaCaT cells. AC-IO-Ova NP was biocompatible in different cell lines, even at a high concentration (200 µg mL−1). In contrast, AC-IO-Ova NPs mixed with 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC (Cis-pt at 15 µg mL−1) significantly increased the cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, which is dose-dependent on the concentration of AC-IO-Ova NPs. The increased anticancer effects may be attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the efficiency of anticancer cells may be further assisted by induction of an innate immune response via M1 macrophage polarization due to the presence of AC-IO-Ova NPs. We provide a better synergestic chemoimmunotherapeutic strategy to enhance the efficiency of anticancer of cisplatin via chemotherapeutic agent 4.5GDP-Cis-pt NC and induction of proinflammatory cytokines to stimulate innate immunity through AC-IO-Ova NPs against tumors.

Keywords: cisplatin-release, iron oxide, ovalbumin, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer

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255 Inflammatory Changes in Postmenopausal Women including Th17 and Treg

Authors: Ae Ra Han, Seoung Eun Huh, Ji Yeon Kim, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Sung Ki Lee


Objective: Prevalence of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disorders, and Alzheimer's disease rapidly increase after menopause. Immune activation and inflammation are suggested as an important pathogenesis of these serious diseases. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in women with surgical or natural menopause. However, the little is known about IL-17 producing T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in post-menopause. Methods: A total of 34 postmenopausal women, who had no active cardiovascular, endocrine and infectious disorders were recruited as study group and healthy premenopausal women participated as controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. Immuno-morphologic (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56/CD16), intracellular cytokine (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-17), and Treg cell (Foxp3) studies were carried out using flow cytometry. The proportion of peripheral lymphocytes, including IL-17 producing and Foxp3+ Treg cells immune cell in each group were statistically analyzed. Results: The proportion of NK cells was significantly increased in menopausal women as compared to that of controls (P=.005). The ratios of TNF-alpha/IL-10 producing CD3+CD4+ T cells were increased in postmenopausal women. CD3+IL-17+ T cell level was higher in postmenopausal women and CD4+ Foxp3+ Treg cells was lower than that of controls. The ratios of CD3+IL-17+ T cell to CD3+Foxp3+ and to CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were significantly increased in postmenopausal women (P=.001). Conclusions: We found enhanced innate immunity and Th1- and Th17-mediated adaptive immunity in postmenopausal women. This may explain increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases after menopause. Further studies are needed to elucidate what factors contribute to this inflammatory shift in the postmenopause.

Keywords: inflammation, immune cell, menopause, Th17, regulatory T cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
254 Dermatological Study on Risk Factors for Pruritic Skin: Skin Properties of Elderly

Authors: Dianis Wulan Sari, Takeo Minematsu, Mikako Yoshida, Hiromi Sanada


Introduction: Pruritus is diagnosed as itching without macroscopic abnormalities on skin. It is the most skin complaint of elderly people. In the present study, we conducted a dermatological study to examine the risk factors of pruritic skin and predicted how to prevent pruritus especially in the elderly population. Pruritus is caused several types of inflammation, including epidermal innate immunity based on keratinocyte responses and acquired immunity regulated by type 1 or 2 helper T (Th) cells. The triggers of pruritus differ among inflammation types, therefore we did separately assess the pruritus-associated factors of each inflammation type in an effort to contribute to the identification of intervention targets for preventing pruritus. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the factors related with actual condition of pruritic skin by examine the skin properties. Method: This study was conducted in elderly population of Indonesian nursing home. Basic characteristics and behaviors were obtained by interview. The properties of pruritic skin were collected by examination of skin biomarker using skin blotting as novel method of non-invasive skin assessment method and examination of skin barrier function using stratum corneum hydration and skin pH. Result: The average age of participants was 74 years with independent status was 66.8%. Age (β = -0.130, p = 0.044), cumulative lifetime sun exposure (β = 0.145, p = 0.026), bathing duration (β = 0.151, p = 0.022), clothing change frequency (β = 0.135, p = 0.029), and clothing type (β = -0.139, p = 0.021) were risk factors of pruritic skin in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Risk factors of pruritic skin in elderly population were caused by internal factors such as skin senescence and external factors such as sun exposure, hygiene care and skin care behavior.

Keywords: aging, hygiene care, pruritus, skin care, sun exposure

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253 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance

Authors: Oya Bulut, Oguzhan Avci, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek


Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: MHC, polymorphism, disease, resistance

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252 Transcriptional Evidence for the Involvement of MyD88 in Flagellin Recognition: Genomic Identification of Rock Bream MyD88 and Comparative Analysis

Authors: N. Umasuthan, S. D. N. K. Bathige, W. S. Thulasitha, I. Whang, J. Lee


The MyD88 is an evolutionarily conserved host-expressed adaptor protein that is essential for proper TLR/ IL1R immune-response signaling. A previously identified complete cDNA (1626 bp) of OfMyD88 comprised an ORF of 867 bp encoding a protein of 288 amino acids (32.9 kDa). The gDNA (3761 bp) of OfMyD88 revealed a quinquepartite genome organization composed of 5 exons (with the sizes of 310, 132, 178, 92 and 155 bp) separated by 4 introns. All the introns displayed splice signals consistent with the consensus GT/AG rule. A bipartite domain structure with two domains namely death domain (24-103) coded by 1st exon, and TIR domain (151-288) coded by last 3 exons were identified through in silico analysis. Moreover, homology modeling of these two domains revealed a similar quaternary folding nature between human and rock bream homologs. A comprehensive comparison of vertebrate MyD88 genes showed that they possess a 5-exonic structure. In this structure, the last three exons were strongly conserved, and this suggests that a rigid structure has been maintained during vertebrate evolution. A cluster of TATA box-like sequences were found 0.25 kb upstream of cDNA starting position. In addition, putative 5'-flanking region of OfMyD88 was predicted to have TFBS implicated with TLR signaling, including copies of NFB1, APRF/ STAT3, Sp1, IRF1 and 2 and Stat1/2. Using qPCR technique, a ubiquitous mRNA expression was detected in liver and blood. Furthermore, a significantly up-regulated transcriptional expression of OfMyD88 was detected in head kidney (12-24 h; >2-fold), spleen (6 h; 1.5-fold), liver (3 h; 1.9-fold) and intestine (24 h; ~2-fold) post-Fla challenge. These data suggest a crucial role for MyD88 in antibacterial immunity of teleosts.

Keywords: MyD88, innate immunity, flagellin, genomic analysis

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251 Garlic Extracts Stimulating Innate Immune System in Marble Goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus)

Authors: Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn, Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Prachaub Chaibu


Marble goby is one of high demand consuming in Southeast Asia. However, the product was from riparian fisheries because of low yield in aquaculture, especially in nursery stage. Therefore, we studied for herb supplement in pellet feed of marble goby fingering. Garlic, a common herb and illustrated novel pharmaceutical and medical effectiveness, was considered. Garlic extracts with water (DW), 50% EtOH (50E), 95% EtOH (95E) and diethyl ether (DE) were subjected for feed additive to induce immune response in marble goby fingering for 0 (control), 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 % (w/w). After seven days of feeding, blood was collected for analysis of blood composition; i.e. haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and humoral immune responses; i.e. lysozyme activity (Lys). It was resulted that values of HCT, WBC and Lys in all garlic fed group were significantly different from control (p < 0.05). For HCT, the highest values belonged to 5% DW and 0.5% 95E. For WBC and Lys, the highest values were 5% DW. For RBC, there was not obviously significant (p < 0.05). There were only 3 groups; 0.5% 95E, 1% and 5% DW, showed distinct statistical significance from the other groups. It was concluded that garlic extracts showed satisfy bioactivity to enhancing innate immune response in marble goby fingering. This result will be valuable for specific feed formula of marble goby nursery.

Keywords: garlic extract, innate immune, marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus

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250 Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex with Cell Mediated Immunity

Authors: Atefeh Esmailnejad, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni


Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the best characterized genetic regions associated with immune responses and controlling disease resistance in chicken. Association of the MHC with a wide range of immune responses makes it a valuable predictive factor for the disease pathogenesis and outcome. In this study, the association of MHC with cell-mediated immune responses was analyzed in commercial broiler chicken. The tandem repeat LEI0258 was applied to investigate the MHC polymorphism. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated by peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay using MTT method. Association study revealed a significant influence of MHC alleles on cellular immune responses in this population. Alleles 385 and 448 bp were associated with elevated cell-mediated immunity. Haplotypes associated with improved immune responses could be considered as candidate markers for disease resistance and applied to breeding strategies.

Keywords: MHC, cell-mediated immunity, broiler, chicken

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249 Virucidal, Bactericidal and Fungicidal Efficiency of Dry Microfine Steam on Innate Surfaces

Authors: C. Recchia, M. Bourel, B. Recchia


Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi) are responsible for most communicable diseases, threatening human health. For domestic use, chemical agents are often criticized because of their potential dangerousness, and natural solutions are needed. Application of the “dry microfine steam” (DMS) technology was tested on a selection of common pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, enterovirus EV-71, human coronavirus 229E, E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans), on different innate surfaces, for 5 to 10 seconds. Quantification of the remaining pathogens was performed, and the reduction rates ranged from 99.8% (S. aureus on plastic) to over 99.999%. DMS showed high efficacy in the elimination of common microorganisms and could be seen as a natural alternative to chemical agents to improve domestic hygiene.

Keywords: steam, SARS-CoV-2, bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, sterilization

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248 Studying the Anti-Cancer Effects of Thymoquinone on Tumor Cells Through Natural Killer Cells Activity

Authors: Nouf A. Aldarmahi, Nesrin I. Tarbiah, Nuha A. Alkhattabi, Huda F. Alshaibi


Nigella sativa which is known as dark cumin is a well-known example for a widely applicable herbal medicine. Nigella sativa can be effective in a variety of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, bronchitis, gastrointestinal upset, and cancer. The anticancer effect of Nigella sativa appeared to be mediated by immune-modulatory effect through stimulating human natural killer (NK) cells. This is a type of lymphocytes which is part of the innate immunity, also known as the first line of defense in the body against pathogens. This study investigated the effect of thymoquinone as a major component of Nigella sativa on the molecular cytotoxic pathway of NK cell and the role of thymoquinone therapeutic effect on NK cells. NK cells were cultured with breast tumor cells in different ways and cultured media was collected and the concentration of perforin, granzyme B and interferon-α were measured by ELISA. The cytotoxic effect of NK cells on breast tumor cells was enhanced in the presence of thymoquinone, with increased activity of perforin in NK cells. This improved anticancer effect of thymoquinone on breast cancer cells.

Keywords: breast cancer, cancer cells, natural killer cells, thymoquinone

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247 Immunity Boosting and Balanced Diet Prevents Viral Infections with Special Emphasis on COVID-19

Authors: K. R. Padma, K. R. Don


Background and aims: A balanced nutritional diet is essential in maintaining immunity and for deterrence as well as desisting of viral infections. Nevertheless, currently, very less information is available online regarding nutrition consumption during the period of coronavirus infection, i.e. (COVID-19). In our systematic review article, we portrayed and aimed to evaluate evidence from various previous clinical trials, which was based on nutritional interventions for viral diseases and given a concise overview. Methods: A systematic search was carried out employing 3 key medical databases: PubMed®, Web of Science®, and SciVerse Scopus®. Studies were performed and evaluated suitable if clinical trials in humans, appropriate immunological parameters on viral and respiratory infections, need to perform. Basic Clinical trials on nutritional vitamins, minerals, nutraceuticals as well as probiotics were included. Results: We have explored 10 review articles and extracted data for our study. A total of > 2000 participants were included and excluded several other trace elements as well as various vitamins, but in inclusion criteria mainly concentrated on those who have shown propitious immune-modulatory effects against viral respiratory infections. Conclusions: We have encapsulated the potential health benefits of some minerals, vitamins, as well as certain designer foods, nutraceuticals, and probiotics in viral infections. Based on this nutritional interventional strategy available from our present data, it could be promising to abstain and reduce the COVID-19 infection replication and boost our immunity to fight against the virus.

Keywords: COVID-19, immunity, vitamins, nutritional intervention strategy

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246 Evaluation of the Synergistic Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 Infection by Interferon-α Coupled with Pleconaril in RD Cells

Authors: Wen-Yu Lin, Yi-Ching Chung, Tzyy-Rong Jinn


It is well known that enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes recurring outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and encephalitis leading to complications or death in young children. And, several HFMD of EV71 with high mortalities occurred in Asia countries, such as Malaysia (1997), Taiwan (1998) and China (2008). Thus, more effective antiviral drugs are needed to prevent or reduce EV71-related complications. As reported, interferon-α protects mice from lethal EV71 challenge by the modulation of innate immunity and then degrade enterovirus protease 3Cᵖʳᵒ. On the other side, pleconaril by targeting enterovirus VP1 protein and then block virus entry and attachment. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic antiviral activity of interferon-α and pleconaril against enterovirus 71 infection. In a preliminary study showed that pleconaril at concentrations of 50, 100 and 300 µg/mL reduced EV71-induced CPE to 52.0 ± 2.5%, 40.2 ± 3.5% and 26.5 ± 1.5%, respectively, of that of the EV71-infected RD control cells (taken as 100%). Notably, 1000 IU/mL of interferon-α in combination with pleconaril at concentrations of 50, 100 and 300µg/mL suppressed EV71-induced CPE by 30.2 ± 3.8%, 16.5 ± 1.3% and 2.8 ± 2.0%, respectively, of that of the pleconaril alone treated with the infected RD cells. These results indicated that interferon-α 1000 IU/mL combination with pleconaril (50, 100 and 300µg/mL) inhibited EV71-induced CPE more effectively than treated with pleconaril alone in the infected RD cells.

Keywords: enterovirus 71, interferon-α, pleconaril, RD cells

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245 Dietary Effect of Selenium-Enriched Radish Sprouts, Vitamin E and Rhodobacter capsulatus on Hypocholesterolemia and Immunity of Broiler

Authors: Abdul G. Miah, Hirotada Tsujii, Ummay Salma, Iwao Takeda


The study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary Selenium-enriched radish sprouts (Se-RS), Vitamin E (Vit E) and Rhodobacter capsulatus (RC) on broiler's immunity, cholesterol concentration and fatty acid composition in broiler meat. A total of 100 two-week-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 5 dietary groups, such as i) Control; ii) Se-RS (5 μg/kg Se-RS); iii) Se-RS+RC (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC); iv) Se-RS+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 50 mg/kg Vit E) and v) Se-RS+RC+Vit E (5 μg/kg Se-RS + 0.2 g/kg RC + 50 mg/kg Vit E). The broilers were offered ad libitum specific diets and clean drinking water. After the end of 3-wk of feeding period, serum cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were decreased (p<0.05) specially, in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet compared to the broilers fed control diet. At the end of the 6-wk feeding period, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) reduced cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations, and improved the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) in broiler meat. The highest (p<0.05) number of leukocytes was observed in the broilers fed Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than that of the broilers fed control diet. Spleen, bursa and thymus weight were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet than the control diet. Compared to the control diet, Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplemented diet significantly (p<0.05) increased foot web index. Moreover, there was no mortality in all groups of broilers during the experimental period. Therefore, the study may conclude that there are dual benefits of Se-RS+RC+Vit E supplementation in broiler diet improved immunity and meat quality for health conscious consumers.

Keywords: hypocholesterolemia, immunity of broiler, rhodobacter capsulatus, selenium-enriched radish sprouts, vitamin E

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244 Decreased Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle Staphylococcus aureus Increases Survival to Innate Immunity

Authors: Trenten Theis, Trevor Daubert, Kennedy Kluthe, Austin Nuxoll


Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium responsible for an estimated 23,000 deaths in the United States and 25,000 deaths in the European Union annually. Recurring S. aureus bacteremia is associated with biofilm-mediated infections and can occur in 5 - 20% of cases, even with the use of antibiotics. Despite these infections being caused by drug-susceptible pathogens, they are surprisingly difficult to eradicate. One potential explanation for this is the presence of persister cells—a dormant type of cell that shows a high tolerance to antibiotic treatment. Recent studies have shown a connection between low intracellular ATP and persister cell formation. Specifically, this decrease in ATP, and therefore increase in persister cell formation, is due to an interrupted tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, S. aureus persister cells’ role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Initial studies have shown that a fumC (TCA cycle gene) knockout survives challenge from aspects of the innate immune system better than wild-type S. aureus. Specifically, challenges from two antimicrobial peptides--LL-37 and hBD-3—show a log increase in survival of the fumC::N∑ strain compared to wild type S. aureus after 18 hours. Furthermore, preliminary studies show that the fumC knockout has a log more survival within a macrophage. These data lead us to hypothesize that the fumC knockout is better suited to other aspects of the innate immune system compared to wild-type S. aureus. To further investigate the mechanism for increased survival of fumC::N∑ within a macrophage, we tested bacterial growth in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and a low pH. Preliminary results suggest that the fumC knockout has increased growth compared to wild-type S. aureus in the presence of all three antimicrobial factors; however, no difference was observed in any single factor alone. To investigate survival within a host, a nine-day biofilm-associated catheter infection was performed on 6–8-week-old male and female C57Bl/6 mice. Although both sexes struggled to clear the infection, female mice were trending toward more frequently clearing the HG003 wild-type infection compared to the fumC::N∑ infection. One possible reason for the inability to reduce the bacterial burden is that biofilms are largely composed of persister cells. To test this hypothesis further, flow cytometry in conjunction with a persister cell marker was used to measure persister cells within a biofilm. Cap5A (a known persister cell marker) expression was found to be increased in a maturing biofilm, with the lowest levels of expression seen in immature biofilms and the highest expression exhibited by the 48-hour biofilm. Additionally, bacterial cells in a biofilm state closely resemble persister cells and exhibit reduced membrane potential compared to cells in planktonic culture, further suggesting biofilms are largely made up of persister cells. These data may provide an explanation as to why infections caused by antibiotic-susceptible strains remain difficult to treat.

Keywords: antibiotic tolerance, Staphylococcus aureus, host-pathogen interactions, microbial pathogenesis

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243 Effects of the Supplementation of Potassium Humate at Different Levels to the Dairy Cows' Concentrated Mix during Dry Period on Early Lactation Yield Parameters and Dam/Calf Immunity

Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, E. Eren Gultepe, I. Sadi Cetingul, Ismail Bayram


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of humic acid (Potassium Humate) at different levels on rations on the effects of both maternal and offspring health, metabolic parameters and immunity levels in transition dairy cows. For this purpose, 50 Holstein dairy cows divided 5 trial groups. Experimental groups were designed as follows: A) Control (0% Humas); B) 0.5 Humas (0,5% in concentrated diet); C) 1 Humas (1% in concentrated diet), D) 1,5 Humas (1,5% in concentrated diet), E) 2 Humas (2% in concentrated diet), respectively. The study lasted from the first day of the dry period to postpartum 30th day. Diets were prepared as isocaloric and isonitrogenic. In the experiment, the day on which the animals gave birth was accepted as ‘0 (zero)’ and blood was taken from tail vein (v. coccygea) at -60, -53, -46, -39, -32, -25, -18, -11, -4, 0, ; Colostrum samples were taken on days 0, 1 and 2; Blood samples were taken on days 0, 1, 2, 15 and 30 from the juguler vein (v. jugularis) of the new born calves. Total blood leukocyte, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, granulocytes, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MWC, RDW, PLT, MPV, PDW, PCT, NEFA, BHBA, Glucose, Total Cholesterol , Triglyceride, LDL, HDL, VLDL, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and Total IgG levels and colostrum IgG levels were determined in this experiment. The results suggest that although the supplementation of humic acid at 2% level adversely affected to production parameters, the addition of humic acid (potassium humate) to the concentrate mix during the dry period (particularly 0.5 and 1% levels) may provide an increasing on mother and the offspring immunity, some improving on serum metabolism parameters and enhancing the milk production.

Keywords: humic acid, dairy cow, calf, immunity

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242 Copper Related Toxicity of 1-Hydroxy-2-Thiopyridines

Authors: Elena G. Salina, Vadim A. Makarov


With the emergence of primary resistance to the current drugs and wide distribution of latent tuberculosis infection, a need for new compounds with a novel mode of action is growing steadily. Copper-mediated innate immunity and antibacterial toxicity propose novel strategies in TB drug discovery and development. Transcriptome of M. tuberculosis was obtained by RNA-seq, intracellular copper content was measured by ISP MS and complexes of 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines with copper were detected by HPLC.1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridine derivatives were found to be highly active in vitro against both actively growing and dormant non-culturable M. tuberculosis. Transcriptome response to 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines revealed signs of copper toxicity in M. tuberculosis bacilli. Indeed, Cu was found to accumulate inside cells treated with 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines. These compounds were found to form stable charged lipophylic complexes with Cu²⁺ ions which transport into mycobacterial cell. Subsequent metabolic destruction of the complex led to transformation of 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines into 2-methylmercapto-2-ethoxycarbonylpyridines, which did not possess antitubercular activity and releasing of free Cu²⁺ in the cytoplasm. 1-hydroxy-2-thiopyridines are a potent class of Cu-dependent inhibitors of M. tuberculosis which may control M. tuberculosis infection by impairment of copper homeostasis. Acknowledgment: This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the RussianFederation (Agreement No 14.616.21.0065; unique identifier RFMEFI61616X0065).

Keywords: copper toxicity, drug discovery, M. tuberculosis inhibitors, 2-thiopyridines

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241 Poliovirus Vaccine Immunity among Chronically Malnourished Pakistani Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial from Developing Country

Authors: Ali Faisal Saleem, Farheen Quadri, Mach Ondrej, Anita Zaidi


Purpose: Pakistan is the final frontier for a polio-free world. Chronic malnutrition is associated with lack of effective gut immunity, and possibly associated with poliomyelitis in children received multiple OPV. We evaluate IPV dose administered together with OPV results in higher immunogenicity and mucosal immunity compared to OPV alone in chronically malnourished infants. Methods AND Materials: A community-based, unblinded-randomized-trial, conducted in 5 peri-urban, low-middle-income households of Karachi, in infants 9-12 months. Two study groups were non-malnourished (HAZ= -2 or more) and chronic malnourished (HAZ <-2SD), with 2-arms each i) OPV and ii) OPV and IPV. Two blood specimens (2ml) at baseline and at day 28 and two stool specimens (6 gm.) at day 29 and after 7 days. All infants received a bOPV challenge dose after first stool specimen. Calculates sample size was 210 in each arm. Serological (baseline compared to 28 days post-vaccine) and mucosal immunity after one week of bOPV challenge dose were study outcomes. Results: Baseline seroprevalence in malnourished infants were low compared to non-malnourished (P1, P2 and P3 (p=<0.001). There is significant rise in antibody titer and P1 seroprevalence in Mal A and B after receiving study vaccine; much higher in Mal B. Infants randomized to bOPV + IPV study vaccine showed incremental immune response against P1 (Mal B, 92.2%; Nor B, 98.4%), P2 (Mal B, 90.4%; Nor B, 94.7%), and P3 (Mal B, 85.6% and Nor B, 93.5%) was observed. A significant proportion of infants in malnourished (P1, 13%; P2, 24%; P3, 26%) and normally nourished group (P1, 5%; P2, 11%; P3, 14%) were found to be seronegative at baseline. Infants who received BOPV + IPV as their study vaccine showed a very high seroconversion response after vaccine (p=<0.001 for P1, P2 and P3). Majority of the specimens were negative at baseline (Mal A, 2%, Mal B, 1%; Nor A, 2%; Nor B, 1%), and remains negative after bOPV challenge dose (Mal A, 8%, Mal B, 6%; Nor A, 11%; Nor B, 10%). Conclusion: Malnourished-infants have low poliovirus-seroprevalence that increased remarkably after IPV. There is less viral shedding after IPV in infants.

Keywords: chronic malnutrition, infants, IPV, OPV

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