Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Fethi Bedioui

22 Soil Salinity Mapping using Electromagnetic Induction Measurements

Authors: Fethi Bouksila, Nessrine Zemni, Fairouz Slama, Magnus Persson, Ronny Berndasson, Akissa Bahri


Electromagnetic sensor EM 38 was used to predict and map soil salinity (ECe) in arid oasis. Despite the high spatial variation of soil moisture and shallow watertable, significant ECe-EM relationships were developed. The low drainage network efficiency is the main factor of soil salinization

Keywords: soil salinity map, electromagnetic induction, EM38, oasis, shallow watertable

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21 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig


In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

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20 Mathematical Model to Quantify the Phenomenon of Democracy

Authors: Mechlouch Ridha Fethi


This paper presents a recent mathematical model in political sciences concerning democracy. The model is represented by a logarithmic equation linking the Relative Index of Democracy (RID) to Participation Ratio (PR). Firstly the meanings of the different parameters of the model were presented; and the variation curve of the RID according to PR with different critical areas was discussed. Secondly, the model was applied to a virtual group where we show that the model can be applied depending on the gender. Thirdly, it was observed that the model can be extended to different language models of democracy and that little use to assess the state of democracy for some International organizations like UNO.

Keywords: democracy, mathematic, modelization, quantification

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19 Modeling and Simulation of Practical Metamaterial Structures

Authors: Ridha Salhi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani


Metamaterials have attracted much attention in recent years because of their electromagnetic exquisite proprieties. We will present, in this paper, the modeling of three metamaterial structures by equivalent circuit model. We begin by modeling the SRR (Split Ring Resonator), then we model the HIS (High Impedance Surfaces), and finally, we present the model of the CPW (Coplanar Wave Guide). In order to validate models, we compare the results obtained by an equivalent circuit models with numerical simulation.

Keywords: metamaterials, SRR, HIS, CPW, IDC

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18 Surface Sunctionalization Strategies for the Design of Thermoplastic Microfluidic Devices for New Analytical Diagnostics

Authors: Camille Perréard, Yoann Ladner, Fanny D'Orlyé, Stéphanie Descroix, Vélan Taniga, Anne Varenne, Cédric Guyon, Michael. Tatoulian, Frédéric Kanoufi, Cyrine Slim, Sophie Griveau, Fethi Bedioui


The development of micro total analysis systems is of major interest for contaminant and biomarker analysis. As a lab-on-chip integrates all steps of an analysis procedure in a single device, analysis can be performed in an automated format with reduced time and cost, while maintaining performances comparable to those of conventional chromatographic systems. Moreover, these miniaturized systems are either compatible with field work or glovebox manipulations. This work is aimed at developing an analytical microsystem for trace and ultra trace quantitation in complex matrices. The strategy consists in the integration of a sample pretreatment step within the lab-on-chip by a confinement zone where selective ligands are immobilized for target extraction and preconcentration. Aptamers were chosen as selective ligands, because of their high affinity for all types of targets (from small ions to viruses and cells) and their ease of synthesis and functionalization. This integrated target extraction and concentration step will be followed in the microdevice by an electrokinetic separation step and an on-line detection. Polymers consisting of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) or fluoropolymer (Dyneon THV) were selected as they are easy to mold, transparent in UV-visible and have high resistance towards solvents and extreme pH conditions. However, because of their low chemical reactivity, surface treatments are necessary. For the design of this miniaturized diagnostics, we aimed at modifying the microfluidic system at two scales : (1) on the entire surface of the microsystem to control the surface hydrophobicity (so as to avoid any sample wall adsorption) and the fluid flows during electrokinetic separation, or (2) locally so as to immobilize selective ligands (aptamers) on restricted areas for target extraction and preconcentration. We developed different novel strategies for the surface functionalization of COC and Dyneon, based on plasma, chemical and /or electrochemical approaches. In a first approach, a plasma-induced immobilization of brominated derivatives was performed on the entire surface. Further substitution of the bromine by an azide functional group led to covalent immobilization of ligands through “click” chemistry reaction between azides and terminal alkynes. COC and Dyneon materials were characterized at each step of the surface functionalization procedure by various complementary techniques to evaluate the quality and homogeneity of the functionalization (contact angle, XPS, ATR). With the objective of local (micrometric scale) aptamer immobilization, we developed an original electrochemical strategy on engraved Dyneon THV microchannel. Through local electrochemical carbonization followed by adsorption of azide-bearing diazonium moieties and covalent linkage of alkyne-bearing aptamers through click chemistry reaction, typical dimensions of immobilization zones reached the 50 µm range. Other functionalization strategies, such as sol-gel encapsulation of aptamers, are currently investigated and may also be suitable for the development of the analytical microdevice. The development of these functionalization strategies is the first crucial step in the design of the entire microdevice. These strategies allow the grafting of a large number of molecules for the development of new analytical tools in various domains like environment or healthcare.

Keywords: alkyne-azide click chemistry (CuAAC), electrochemical modification, microsystem, plasma bromination, surface functionalization, thermoplastic polymers

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17 Effect of the Workpiece Position on the Manufacturing Tolerances

Authors: Rahou Mohamed , Sebaa Fethi, Cheikh Abdelmadjid


Manufacturing tolerancing is intended to determine the intermediate geometrical and dimensional states of the part during its manufacturing process. These manufacturing dimensions also serve to satisfy not only the functional requirements given in the definition drawing but also the manufacturing constraints, for example geometrical defects of the machine, vibration, and the wear of the cutting tool. The choice of positioning has an important influence on the cost and quality of manufacture. To avoid this problem, a two-step approach have been developed. The first step is dedicated to the determination of the optimum position. As for the second step, a study was carried out for the tightening effect on the tolerance interval.

Keywords: dispersion, tolerance, manufacturing, position

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16 Miniaturization of I-Slot Antenna with Improved Efficiency and Gain

Authors: Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani


In this paper, novel miniaturization technique of antenna is proposed using I-slot. Using this technique, gain of antenna can increased for 4dB (antenna only) to 6.6dB for the proposed I-slot antenna and a frequency shift of about 0.45 GHz to 1 GHz is obtained. Also a reduction of the shape size of the antenna is achieved (about 38 %) to operate in the Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) band.RF Moreover the frequency shift can be controlled by changing the place or the length of the I-slot. Finally the proposed miniature antenna with an improved radiation efficiency and gain was built and tested.

Keywords: slot antenna, miniaturization, RF, electrical equivalent circuit (EEC)

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15 Electric Models for Crosstalk Predection: Analysis and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Kachout Mnaouer, Bel Hadj Tahar Jamel, Choubani Fethi


In this paper, three electric equivalent models to evaluate crosstalk between three-conductor transmission lines are proposed. First, electric equivalent models for three-conductor transmission lines are presented. Secondly, rigorous equations to calculate the per-unit length inductive and capacitive parameters are developed. These models allow us to calculate crosstalk between conductors. Finally, to validate the presented models, we compare the theoretical results with simulation data. Obtained results show that proposed models can be used to predict crosstalk performance.

Keywords: near-end crosstalk, inductive parameter, L, Π, T models

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14 An Architectural Approach for the Dynamic Adaptation of Services-Based Software

Authors: Mohhamed Yassine Baroudi, Abdelkrim Benammar, Fethi Tarik Bendimerad


This paper proposes software architecture for dynamical service adaptation. The services are constituted by reusable software components. The adaptation’s goal is to optimize the service function of their execution context. For a first step, the context will take into account just the user needs but other elements will be added. A particular feature in our proposition is the profiles that are used not only to describe the context’s elements but also the components itself. An adapter analyzes the compatibility between all these profiles and detects the points where the profiles are not compatibles. The same Adapter search and apply the possible adaptation solutions: component customization, insertion, extraction or replacement.

Keywords: adaptative service, software component, service, dynamic adaptation

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13 Comparative Investigation of Miniaturized Antennas Based on Chiral Slotted Ground Plane

Authors: Oussema Tabbabi, Mondher Laabidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David


This study presents a miniaturized antenna based on chiral metamaterials slotted ground plane. To decrease resonant frequency while keeping the antennas physical dimensions the same, we propose a two novel patch antennas with double Z and cross slots on the ground plane. The length of the each type of slot are also altered to investigate the effect on miniaturization performance. Resonance frequency reduction has been achieved nearly to 30% and 23% as well as size reduction of almost 28% and 22% for the double Z and the cross shape respectively.

Keywords: chiral metamaterials, miniaturized antenna, miniaturization, resonance frequency

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12 Modeling and Simulation of InAs/GaAs and GaSb/GaAS Quantum Dot Solar Cells in SILVACO TCAD

Authors: Fethi Benyettou, Abdelkader Aissat, M. A. Benammar


In this work, we use Silvaco TCAD software for modeling and simulations of standard GaAs solar cell, InAs/GaAs and GaSb/GaAs p-i-n quantum dot solar cell. When comparing 20-layer InAs/GaAs, GaSb/GaAs quantum dots solar cells with standard GaAs solar cell, the conversion efficiency in simulation results increased from 16.48 % to 22.6% and 16.48% to 22.42% respectively. Also, the absorption range edge of photons with low energies extended from 900 nm to 1200 nm.

Keywords: SILVACO TCAD, the quantum dot, simulation, materials engineering

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11 Estimation of the Pore Electrical Conductivity Using Dielectric Sensors

Authors: Fethi Bouksila, Magnus Persson, Ronny Berndtsson, Akissa Bahri


Under salinity conditions, we evaluate the performance of Hilhost (2000) model to predict pore electrical conductivity ECp from dielectric permittivity and bulk electrical conductivity (ECa) using Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry sensors (TDR, FDR). Using FDR_WET sensor, RMSE of ECp was 4.15 dS m-1. By replacing the standard soil parameter (K0) in Hilhost model by K0-ECa relationship, the RMSE of ECp decreased to 0.68 dS m-1. WET sensor could give similar accuracy to estimate ECp than TDR if calibrated values of K0 were used instead of standard values in Hilhost model.

Keywords: hilhost model, soil salinity, time domain reflectometry, frequency domain reflectometry, dielectric methods

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10 Mutual Coupling Reduction between Patch Antenna Array Elements Using Metamaterial Z Shaped Resonators

Authors: Oossama Tabbabi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David


Modern wireless communication systems require compact design, low cost and simple structure antennas to insure reliability, agility, and high efficiency characteristics. This paper presents a microstrip antenna array designed for 8 GHz applications. To reduce the mutual coupling effects, a Z shape metamaterial structure was imprinted in the microstrip antenna array composed of two elements. Simulation results show the improvement of mutual coupling by adding Z shape metamaterial structure to the antenna substrate. The proposed structure reduces mutual coupling by 19 dB. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS simulator.

Keywords: antenna array, compact design, modern wireless communication, mutual coupling effects

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9 Mathematical Modeling of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) during Microwave Treatments

Authors: Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Ahlem Ayadi, Ammar Ben Brahim


Given the importance of the preservation of polyphenols and carotenoids during thermal processing, we attempted in this study to investigate the variation of these two parameters in faba beans during microwave treatment using different power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g), then to perform a mathematical modeling by using non-linear regression analysis to evaluate the models constants. The variation of the carotenoids and polyphenols ratio of faba beans and the models are tested to validate the experimental results. Exponential models were found to be suitable to describe the variation of caratenoid ratio (R²= 0.945, 0.927 and 0.946) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively, and polyphenol ratio (R²= 0.931, 0.989 and 0.982) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively. The effect of microwave power density Pd(W/g) on the coefficient k of models were also investigated. The coefficient is highly correlated (R² = 1) and can be expressed as a polynomial function.

Keywords: microwave treatment, power density, carotenoid, polyphenol, modeling

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8 Dynamic Analysis of Viscoelastic Plates with Variable Thickness

Authors: Gülçin Tekin, Fethi Kadıoğlu


In this study, the dynamic analysis of viscoelastic plates with variable thickness is examined. The solutions of dynamic response of viscoelastic thin plates with variable thickness have been obtained by using the functional analysis method in the conjunction with the Gâteaux differential. The four-node serendipity element with four degrees of freedom such as deflection, bending, and twisting moments at each node is used. Additionally, boundary condition terms are included in the functional by using a systematic way. In viscoelastic modeling, Three-parameter Kelvin solid model is employed. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain are transformed to the real time domain by using MDOP, Dubner & Abate, and Durbin inverse transform techniques. To test the performance of the proposed mixed finite element formulation, numerical examples are treated.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, inverse laplace transform techniques, mixed finite element formulation, viscoelastic plate with variable thickness

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7 Study of Two Adsorbent-Refrigerant Pairs for the Application of Solar-Powered Adsorption Refrigeration System

Authors: Mohammed Ali Hadj Ammar, Fethi Bouras, Kamel Sahlaoui


This article presents a detailed study of two working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption refrigeration (SAR) system. The study was based on two indicators: the daily production and coefficient of performance (COP). The thermodynamic cycle of the system is based on the adsorption phenomena at a constant temperature. A computer simulation program has been developed for modeling and performance evaluation for the solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle. It was found that maximal cycled mass is obtained by S40/water (0.280kg/kg) followed by CarboTech C40/1/methanol (0.260kg/kg). At a condenser temperature of 30°C, with an adsorbent mass of 38.59 kg, and an integrated collector/bed configuration, the couple CarboTech C40/1/methanol for the ice-maker purpose can reach cycle COP of 0.63 and can produce about 13.6kg ice per day, while the couple S40/water for the air-conditioning can reach cycle COP of 0.66 and 212kg as daily cold-water production. Additionally, adequate indicators are evaluated addressing the economic and environmental associated with each working pair.

Keywords: solar adsorption, refrigeration, activated carbon, silica gel

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6 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai


Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization

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5 Inhibitory Effect of Potential Bacillus Probiotic Strains against Pathogenic Bacteria and Yeast Isolated from Oral Cavity

Authors: Fdhila Walid, Bayar Sihem, Khouidi Bochra, Maâtouk Fethi, Ben Amor Feten, Hajer Hentati, Mahdhi Abdelkarim


The presence of resistant bacteria in the oral cavity can be the major cause of dental antibiotic prophylaxis failure. Multidrug efflux has been described for many organisms, including bacteria and fungi as part of their drugs resistance strategy. The potential use of probiotic bacteria can be considered as a new alternative in the prevention or cure of oral cavity diseases. In this study, different Bacillus strains isolated from the environment were isolated and characterized using biochemical and molecular procedures. The inhibitory activity against different pathogenic bacteria and yeast strains was tested using diffusion agar assay method. Our data revealed that the tested strains have an antimicrobial effect against the pathogenic strains such as Streptococcus mutants. The inhibitory effect was variable depending from the probiotic and pathogenic strains. The obtained result demonstrated that Bacillus can be used as a potential candidates probiotic and help in the prevention and treatment of oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. Our data, partly encourage the use of probiotic strains because they do not produce acid which can contribute to faster installation decay and these are spore-forming bacteria that can withstand the stress of the oral cavity (acids, alkalis, and salty foods).

Keywords: probiotic, pathogenic bacteria, yeast, oral cavity

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4 Gradient Index Metalens for WLAN Applications

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubeni, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David


The control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of several researches over the past decade. In this regard, Metamaterials have shown a strong ability to manipulate the electromagnetic waves on a subwavelength scales thanks to its unconventional properties that are not available in natural materials such as negative refraction index, super imaging and invisibility cloaking. Metalenses were used to avoid some drawbacks presented by conventional lenses since focusing with conventional lenses suffered from the limited resolution because they were only able to focus the propagating wave component. Nevertheless, Metalenses were able to go beyond the diffraction limit and enhance the resolution not only by collecting the propagating waves but also by restoring the amplitude of evanescent waves that decay rapidly when going far from the source and that contains the finest details of the image. Metasurfaces have many mechanical advantages over three-dimensional metamaterial structures especially the ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Those structures have been widely used for antenna performance improvement and to build flat metalenses. In this work, we showed that a well-designed metasurface lens operating at the frequency of 5.9GHz, has efficiently enhanced the radiation characteristics of a patch antenna and can be used for WLAN applications (IEEE 802.11 a). The proposed metasurface lens is built with a geometrically modified unit cells which lead to a change in the response of the lens at different position and allow the control of the wavefront beam of the incident wave thanks to the gradient refractive index.

Keywords: focusing, gradient index, metasurface, metalens, WLAN Applications

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3 Metamaterial Lenses for Microwave Cancer Hyperthermia Treatment

Authors: Akram Boubakri, Fethi Choubani, Tan Hoa Vuong, Jacques David


Nowadays, microwave hyperthermia is considered as an effective treatment for the malignant tumors. This microwave treatment which comes to substitute the chemotherapy and the surgical intervention enables an in-depth tumor heating without causing any diseases to the sane tissue. This technique requires a high precision system, in order to effectively concentrate the heating just in the tumor, without heating any surrounding healthy tissue. In the hyperthermia treatment, the temperature in cancerous area is typically raised up to over 42◦C and maintained for one hour in order to destroy the tumor sufficiently, whilst in the surrounding healthy tissues, the temperature is maintained below 42◦C to avoid any damage. Metamaterial lenses are widely used in medical applications like microwave hyperthermia treatment. They enabled a subdiffraction resolution thanks to the amplification of the evanescent waves and they can focus electromagnetic waves from a point source to a point image. Metasurfaces have been used to built metamaterial lenses. The main mechanical advantages of those structures over three dimensional material structures are ease of fabrication and a smaller required volume. Here in this work, we proposed a metasurface based lens operating at the frequency of 6 GHz and designed for microwave hyperthermia. This lens was applied and showed good results in focusing and heating the tumor inside a breast tissue with an increased and maintained temperature above 42°C. The tumor was placed in the focal distance of the lens so that only the tumor tissue will be heated. Finally, in this work, it has been shown that the hyperthermia area within the tissue can be carefully adjusted by moving the antennas or by changing the thickness of the metamaterial lenses based on the tumor position. Even though the simulations performed in this work have taken into account an ideal case, some real characteristics can be considered to improve the obtained results in a realistic model.

Keywords: focusing, hyperthermia, metamaterial lenses, metasurface, microwave treatment

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2 Representation of History in Cinema: Comparative Analysis of Turkish Films Based on the Conquest of Istanbul

Authors: Dilara Balcı Gulpinar


History, which can be defined as the narrative of the past, is a process of reproduction that takes place in current time. Scientificness of historiography is controversial for reasons such as the fact that the historian makes choices and comments; even the reason for choosing the subject distracts him/her from objectivity. Historians may take advantage of the current values, cannot be able to afford to contradict society and/or face pressures of dominant groups. In addition, due to the lack of documentation, interpretation, and fiction are used to integrate historical events that seem disconnected. In this respect, there are views that relate history to narrative arts rather than positive sciences. Popular historical films, which are visual historical representations, appeal to wider audiences by taking advantage of visuality, dramatic fictional narrative, various effects, music, stars, and other populist elements. Historical film, which does not claim to be scientific and even has the freedom to distort historical reality, can be perceived as reality itself and becomes an indispensable resource for individual and social memory. The ideological discourse of popular films is not only impressive and manipulative but also changeable. Socio-cultural and political changes can transform the representation of history in films extremely sharply and rapidly. In accordance with the above-mentioned hypothesis, this study is aimed at examining Turkish historical films about the conquest of Istanbul, using methods of historical and social analysis. İstanbul’un Fethi (Conquest of Istanbul, Aydin Arakon, 1953), Kuşatma Altında Aşk (Love Under Siege, Ersin Pertan, 1997) and Fetih 1453 (Conquest 1453, Faruk Aksoy, 2012) are the only three films in Turkish cinema that revolve around the said conquest, therefore constituting the sample of this study. It has been determined that real and fictional events, as well as characters, both focused and ignored, differ from one another in each film. Such significant differences in the dramatic and cinematographic structure of these three films shot respectively in the 50s, 90s, and 2010s show that the representation of history in popular cinema has altered throughout the years, losing its aspect of objectivity.

Keywords: cinema, conquest of Istanbul, historical film, representation

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1 Localized Recharge Modeling of a Coastal Aquifer from a Dam Reservoir (Korba, Tunisia)

Authors: Nejmeddine Ouhichi, Fethi Lachaal, Radhouane Hamdi, Olivier Grunberger


Located in Cap Bon peninsula (Tunisia), the Lebna dam was built in 1987 to balance local water salt intrusion taking place in the coastal aquifer of Korba. The first intention was to reduce coastal groundwater over-pumping by supplying surface water to a large irrigation system. The unpredicted beneficial effect was recorded with the occurrence of a direct localized recharge to the coastal aquifer by leakage through the geological material of the southern bank of the lake. The hydrological balance of the reservoir dam gave an estimation of the annual leakage volume, but dynamic processes and sound quantification of recharge inputs are still required to understand the localized effect of the recharge in terms of piezometry and quality. Present work focused on simulating the recharge process to confirm the hypothesis, and established a sound quantification of the water supply to the coastal aquifer and extend it to multi-annual effects. A spatial frame of 30km² was used for modeling. Intensive outcrops and geophysical surveys based on 68 electrical resistivity soundings were used to characterize the aquifer 3D geometry and the limit of the Plio-quaternary geological material concerned by the underground flow paths. Permeabilities were determined using 17 pumping tests on wells and piezometers. Six seasonal piezometric surveys on 71 wells around southern reservoir dam banks were performed during the 2019-2021 period. Eight monitoring boreholes of high frequency (15min) piezometric data were used to examine dynamical aspects. Model boundary conditions were specified using the geophysics interpretations coupled with the piezometric maps. The dam-groundwater flow model was performed using Visual MODFLOW software. Firstly, permanent state calibration based on the first piezometric map of February 2019 was established to estimate the permanent flow related to the different reservoir levels. Secondly, piezometric data for the 2019-2021 period were used for transient state calibration and to confirm the robustness of the model. Preliminary results confirmed the temporal link between the reservoir level and the localized recharge flow with a strong threshold effect for levels below 16 m.a.s.l. The good agreement of computed flow through recharge cells on the southern banks and hydrological budget of the reservoir open the path to future simulation scenarios of the dilution plume imposed by the localized recharge. The dam reservoir-groundwater flow-model simulation results approve a potential for storage of up to 17mm/year in existing wells, under gravity-feed conditions during level increases on the reservoir into the three years of operation. The Lebna dam groundwater flow model characterized a spatiotemporal relation between groundwater and surface water.

Keywords: leakage, MODFLOW, saltwater intrusion, surface water-groundwater interaction

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