Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1578

Search results for: breast cancer

1578 Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Hyekyung Woo, Gwihyun Kim

Abstract:

mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.

Keywords: mobile application, breast cancer, content analysis, mHealth

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1577 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

Abstract:

Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1576 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1575 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity

Authors: Wahab Ali, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman

Abstract:

Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, intelligent classification, neural networks, mammography

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1574 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: breast cancer, coping, diagnosis, Oman, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
1573 Overview and Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Breast Changes as a Consequence of Radiotherapy Toxicity

Authors: Monika Rezacova

Abstract:

Radiation-induced breast changes are a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the breast tissues either related to targeted breast cancer treatment or other thoracic malignancies (eg. lung cancer). This study has created an overview of different changes and their pathophysiology. The main conditions included were skin thickening, interstitial oedema, fat necrosis, dystrophic calcifications, skin retractions, glandular atrophy, breast fibrosis and radiation induced breast cancer. This study has performed focused literature search through multiple databases including pubmed, medline and embase. The study has reviewed English as well as non English publications. As a result of the literature the study provides comprehensive overview of radiation-induced breast changes and their pathophysiology with small focus on new development and prevention.

Keywords: radiotherapy toxicity, breast tissue changes, breast cancer treatment, radiation-induced breast changes

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1572 Detection of Lymphedema after Breast Cancer in Yucatecan Women

Authors: Olais A. Ingrid, Peraza G. Leydi, Estrella C. Damaris

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common among women worldwide; the different treatments can bring sequels that directly affect the quality of life, such as lymphedema. The objective was to determine if there is presence of lymphedema secondary to breast cancer in Yucatecan women. It was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study, 92 women were included who met the following criteria: women with surgical treatment for unilateral: breast cancer, aged between 25 and 65 years old, minimum 6 weeks after unilateral breast surgery and have completed any type of chemotherapy or adjuvant radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The evaluation was through indirect measurement volume by circometry to determine the presence of lymphedema. 23% of women had lymphedema grade I. It related to the presence of some of the symptoms like stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion and feeling of heaviness in the arm of the operated side of the breast. It is important to determine the presence of lymphedema to perform physical therapy treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, lymphedema, physical therapy, Yucatan

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1571 Compare Anxiety, Stress, Depression, andAttitude towards Death among Breast CancerPatient Undergoing Mastectomy and Breast-Conserving

Authors: Mitra JahangirRad, Sheida Sodagar, Maryam Bahrami Hidaji

Abstract:

This study was conducted with the aim of comparing anxiety, stress, depression and attitude towards death among patients with breast cancer who have undergone mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery. The study method is causal-comparative. Statistical population was all patients with breast cancer referring to Medical Center of Panjom Azar Hospital in Gorgan or oncologists' offices in this city within eight months. They were selected using purposive sampling. Sample size of this study was 45 patients with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy and 70 patients under breast-conserving surgery. Measurement tools in this study were depression, anxiety, and stress scale (Dass-21) as well as Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAPR). Results of this study in hypotheses investigation showed that anxiety, stress and depression among patients with breast cancer, undergoing mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery is significantly different. However, their attitudes towards death do not differ. From these findings, it can be concluded that although most patients with breast cancer encounter many psychological problems, patients undergoing mastectomy experience more anxiety, stress and depression relative to patients with breast-conserving surgery and it seems that they need more supportive therapy.

Keywords: anxiety, breast cancer, depression, death, mastectomy

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1570 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh

Abstract:

Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, intervention

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1569 Epidemiological, Clinical, Histopathological Profile and Management of Breast Cancer at Kinshasa University Clinics

Authors: Eddy K. Mukadi

Abstract:

This work is a documentary and descriptive study devoted to the epidemiological, clinical, histopathological and therapeutic profile of breast cancer deals with the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the university clinics of Kinshasa during the period from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We have identified 56 cases of breast cancer. These cancers accounted for 45.2% of gynecological mammary cancers. The youngest in our series was 18 years old while the oldest was 74 years old; And the mean age of these patients was 43.4 years and mostly multiparous (35.7%). Brides (60.7%) and bachelors (26.8%) were the most affected by breast cancer. The reasons for consultation were dominated by nodules in the breast (48.2%) followed by pain (35.7%) and nipple discharge (14.3%). In 89.2% of the cases, it was the advanced clinical stage (stage 3 and 4) and the infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (75%) The malignant tumor was mainly in the left breast (55.3%), and chemotherapy with hormone therapy and patey was the most convenient treatment (42.8%), while patey mastectomy was performed in 12.5% of patients. Because of the high incidence of breast cancer identified in our study, some preventive measures must be taken into account to address this public health problem, including breast autopalpation once a month, Early detection system development of a national breast cancer policy and the implementation of a national breast cancer control program.

Keywords: breast cancer, histopathological profile, epidemiological profile, Kinshasa

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
1568 Estimation of Serum Levels of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Safa Safdar

Abstract:

Breast cancer is a type of cancer which is developed by the formation of a tumor on the breast. This tumor invades and causes different electrolyte imbalance. The present study was designed to measure the serum calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels and to check the frequency of hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia in breast cancer patients. Serum calcium and phosphorous levels of fifty breast cancer women of 18-70 years of age group and fifty healthy women of same age group were measured by using semi-automated chemistry analyzer ( Humalyzer 3000, Human, Germany ). Significant variation in these levels was observed. The mean calcium value in BC patients was higher 9.398 mg/dl as compared to controls which were 8.694 mg/dl. Whereas the mean value of inorganic phosphorus level was lower 4.060 mg/dl in BC patients as compared to controls having 4.456 mg/dl. In this study, the frequency of hypercalcemia in Breast cancer patients was 10% i.e. only 10 out of 50 Breast cancer patients were suffering from hypercalcemia. Whereas the frequency of hypophosphatemia in this study was only 2 % i.e. only 1 out of 50 patients was suffering from hypophosphatemia. Thus it is concluded that there is a significant change in serum calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels in Breast cancer patients as the disease progresses. So, this study will be helpful for the clinicians to maintain serum calcium and phosphorous levels in Breast cancer patients and also preventing them from further complications.

Keywords: serum analysis, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, hpercalcemia hypophosphatemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1567 Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Concerning of Breast Cancer among Nursing Students in Sri Lanka

Authors: Vimarshi Sandamali Godigamuwa

Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Its incidence is increasing and young women affected more than ever. Nursing students are the future nurses who will have the opportunity to encourage and influence women to be aware of breast cancers. Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge, awareness and practices concerning of breast cancer among Sri Lankan student nurses. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 150 nursing students who are in their 2nd and 3rd year studies by distributing a standard self-administered questionnaire. The completed questionnaire were retrieved, graded and scored. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 24.27; (SD=1.66) years and ranged from 20-30 years. Most of the students were female which was 85%. 32% of nursing students scored below 55% for the questionnaire and only 7.3% had good overall knowledge and awareness of breast cancer. Out of 128 female students 89.9% were answered that they know how to perform Breast Self Examination (BSE), out of which 37% of them performed BSE regularly. Only 33% were aware of recommended age for BSE and 10% were knew the recommended age for mammography. 9.3% were aware of frequency for Clinical Breast Examination on 20-39 years of age group. Of the female participants, 11.7% reported positive family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Nursing students should explore to health educational programs on regular basis on breast cancer and its screening methods. Further studies are needed to identify reasons for not practicing BSE.

Keywords: breast cancer, student nurses, knowledge, awareness, practice, BSE

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1566 Impact of Mammographic Screening on Ethnic Inequalities in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis and Survival in New Zealand

Authors: Sanjeewa Seneviratne, Ian Campbell, Nina Scott, Ross Lawrenson

Abstract:

Introduction: Indigenous Māori women experience a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We explored the impact of difference in the rate of screen detected breast cancer between Māori and European women on more advanced disease at diagnosis and lower survival in Māori women. Methods: All primary in-situ and invasive breast cancers diagnosed in screening age women (as defined by the New Zealand National Breast Cancer Screening Programme) between 1999 and 2012 in the Waikato area were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register and the national screening database. Association between screen versus non-screen detection and cancer stage at diagnosis and survival were compared by ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Results: Māori women had 50% higher odds of being diagnosed with more advance staged cancer compared with NZ European women, a half of which was explained by the lower rate of screen detected cancer in Māori women. Significantly lower breast cancer survival rates were observed for Māori compared with NZ European and most deprived compared with most affluent socioeconomic groups for symptomatically detected breast cancer. No significant survival differences by ethnicity or socioeconomic deprivation were observed for screen detected breast cancer. Conclusions: Low rate of screen detected breast cancer appears to be a major contributor for more advanced stage disease at diagnosis and lower breast cancer survival in Māori compared with NZ European women. Increasing screening participation for Māori has the potential to substantially reduce breast cancer mortality inequity between Māori and NZ European women.

Keywords: breast cancer, screening, ethnicity, inequity

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
1565 The impact of Breast Cancer Polymorphism on Breast Cancer

Authors: Roudabeh Vakil Monfared, Farhad Mashayekhi

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy type among women with about 1 million new cases each year. The immune system plays an important role in the breast cancer development. OX40L (also known as TNFSF4), a membrane protein, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor super family binds to its receptor OX40 and this co-stimulation has a crucial role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytokine release. Due to the importance of the T-cells in anti-tumor activities of OX40L we studied the association of rs3850641 (T→C) polymorphism of OX40L gene with breast cancer. The study included 123 women with breast cancer and 126 healthy volunteers with no signs of cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leucocytes. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in patients and control cases with the method of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the analysis was performed by Med Calc. The prevalence of genotype frequencies of TT, CT and CC were 60.9%, 30.08% and 8.9 % in patients with breast cancer and 74.6 %, 18.25 % and 7.14 % in healthy volunteers while the T and C allelic frequency was 76.01% and 23.98 % in patients and 83.73% and 16.26% in healthy controls. Respectively Statistical analysis has shown no significant difference from the comparison of either genotype (P=0.06). According to these results, the rs3850641 SNP has no association with the susceptibility of breast cancer in a population in northern Iran. However, further studies in larger populations including other genetic and environmental factors are required to achieve conclusion.

Keywords: OX40L, gene, polymorphism, breast cancer

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1564 Impact of Lobular Carcinoma in situ on Local Recurrence in Breast Cancer Treated with Breast Conservation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Christopher G. Harris, Guy D. Eslick

Abstract:

Purpose: Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a known risk factor for breast cancer of unclear significance when detected in association with invasive carcinoma. This meta-analysis aims to determine the impact of LCIS on local recurrence risk for individuals with breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy to help guide appropriate treatment strategies. Methods: We identified relevant studies from five electronic databases. Studies were deemed suitable for inclusion where they compared patients with invasive breast cancer and concurrent LCIS to those with breast cancer alone, all patients underwent breast conservation therapy (lumpectomy with adjuvant radiation therapy), and local recurrence was evaluated. Recurrence data were pooled by use of a random effects model. Results: From 1488 citations screened by our search, 8 studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. These studies comprised of 908 cases and 10638 controls. Median follow-up time was 90 months. There was a significantly increased overall risk of local breast cancer recurrence for individuals with LCIS in association with breast cancer following breast conservation therapy [pOR 1.87; 95% CI 1.14-3.04; p = 0.012]. The risk of local recurrence was non-significantly increased at 5 [pOR 1.09; 95% CI 0.48-2.48; p = 0.828] and 10 years [pOR 1.90; 95% CI 0.89-4.06; p = 0.096]. Conclusions: Individuals with LCIS in association with invasive breast cancer have an increased risk of local recurrence following breast conservation therapy. This supports consideration of aggressive local control of LCIS by way of completion mastectomy or re-excision for certain high-risk patients.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast conservation therapy, lobular carcinoma in situ, lobular neoplasia, local recurrence, meta-analysis

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1563 Evaluation of the Radiolabelled 68GA-DOTATOC Complex in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Naderi, H. Yousefnia, B. Alirzapour, A. R. Jalilian, A. Ramazani

Abstract:

Nowadays, 68Ga-DOTATOC has been known as a potential agent for the detection of neuroendocrine tumours and it has indicated higher sensitivity compared with the 111In-Octeroetide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this new agent in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma breast cancer. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by the specific activity of 39.6 TBq/mmol. 37 MBq of the complex was injected intravenously into the BULB/c mice with adenocarcinoma breast cancer. PET/CT images were acquired after 30, 60 and 90 min post injection demonstrated significant accumulation in the tumour sites. Also, considerable activity was observed in the kidney and bladder as the main routs of excretion. Generally, the results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a suitable complex for diagnosis of the adenocarcinoma breast cancer using PET procedure.

Keywords: adenocarcinoma breast cancer, 68Ga, octreotide, imaging

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1562 Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group G: Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Breast Cancer

Authors: Malik SS, Masood N, Mubarik S, Khadim TM

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Introduction: Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) gene plays a crucial role in the correction of UV-induced DNA damage through nucleotide excision repair pathway. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in XPG gene have been reported to be associated with different cancers. Current case-control study was designed to evaluate the relationship between one of the most frequently found XPG (rs1047768 T>C) polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Methodology: A total of 200 individuals were screened for this polymorphism including 100 pathologically confirmed breast cancer cases and age-matched 100 controls. Genotyping was carried out using Tetra amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR and results were confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Results: Conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant association between TC genotype (OR: 8.9, CI: 2.0 – 38.7) and increased breast cancer risk. Although homozygous CC genotype was more frequent in patients as compared to controls, but it was statistically non-significant (OR: 3.9, CI: 0.4 – 35.7). Conclusion: In conclusion, XPG (rs1047768 T>C) polymorphism may contribute towards increased risk of breast cancer but other polymorphisms may also be evaluated to elucidate their role in breast cancer.

Keywords: XPG, breast cancer, NER, ARMS-PCR

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1561 Breast Cancer Risk Factors: A Big Data Analysis of Black and White Women in the USA

Authors: Tejasvi Parupudi, Mochen Li, Lakshya Mittal, Ignacio G. Camarillo, Raji Sundararajan

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With breast cancer becoming a global pandemic, it is very important to assess a woman’s risk profile accurately in a timely manner. Providing an estimate of the risk of developing breast cancer to a woman gives her an opportunity to consider options to decrease this risk. Women at low risk may be suggested yearly screenings whereas women with a high risk of developing breast cancer would be candidates for aggressive surveillance. Fortunately, there is a set of risk factors that are used to predict the probability of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer in the future. Studying risk factors and understanding how they correlate to cancer is important for early diagnosis, prevention and reducing mortality rates. The effect of crucial risk factors among black and white women was compared in this study. The various risk factors analyzed include breast density, age, cancer in a first-degree relative, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI) and prior breast cancer diagnosis, etc. Breast density, age at first full-term birth and BMI were utilized in this study as important risk factors for the comparison of incidence rates between women of black and white races in the USA. Understanding the differences could lead to the development of solutions to reduce disparity in mortality rates among black women by improving overall access to care.

Keywords: big data, breast cancer, risk factors, incidence rates, mortality, race

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1560 Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Digital Mammograms Based on Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Mussarat Lakho

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A method of artificial intelligence using digital mammograms data has been proposed in this paper for detection of breast cancer. Many researchers have developed techniques for the early detection of breast cancer; the early diagnosis helps to save many lives. The detection of breast cancer through mammography is effective method which detects the cancer before it is felt and increases the survival rate. In this paper, we have purposed image processing technique for enhancing the image to detect the graphical table data and markings. Texture features based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and intensity based features are extracted from the selected region. For classification purpose, neural network based supervised classifier system has been used which can discriminate between benign and malignant. Hence, 68 digital mammograms have been used to train the classifier. The obtained result proved that automated detection of breast cancer is beneficial for early diagnosis and increases the survival rates of breast cancer patients. The proposed system will help radiologist in the better interpretation of breast cancer.

Keywords: medical imaging, cancer, processing, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
1559 Awareness About Breast Cancer in Young Pakistani Women

Authors: Marshal Rashid

Abstract:

In Pakistan, one in nine women develops breast cancer at some stage of their lives. Every year thousands of females lose their lives due to lack of awareness, several women do not share their health issues with others and are shy to go for any kind of breast examination. An inductive approach was used to analyze the data which resulted in the emergence of eight subthemes under the umbrella of three major themes that delineate individual, socio-cultural and structural barriers to seek screening and treatment of breast cancer in Pakistan. Individual barriers included lack of awareness, hesitance in accepting social support, and spiritual healing. The identified socio-cultural factors included feminine sensitivity, stigmatization, and aversion to male doctors.

Keywords: breast, cancer, women, Pakistan

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1558 Molecular Study of P53- and Rb-Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Breast Cancers

Authors: Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany, Saad Hasan M. Ali, Ibrahim Mohammed S. Shnawa

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The study was aimed to define the percentage of detection of high-oncogenic risk types of HPV and their genotyping in archival tissue specimens that ranged from apparently healthy tissue to invasive breast cancer by using one of the recent versions of In Situ Hybridization(ISH) 0.2. To find out rational significance of such genotypes as well as over expressed products of mutants P53 and RB genes on the severity of underlying breast cancers. The DNA of HPV was detected in 46.5 % of tissues from breast cancers while HPV DNA in the tissues from benign breast tumours was detected in 12.5%. No HPV positive–ISH reaction was detected in healthy breast tissues of the control group. HPV DNA of genotypes (16, 18, 31 and 33) was detected in malignant group in frequency of 25.6%, 27.1%, 30.2% and 12.4%, respectively. Over expression of p53 was detected by IHC in 51.2% breast cancer cases and in 50% benign breast tumour group, while none of control group showed P53- over expression. Retinoblastoma protein was detected by IHC test in 49.7% of malignant breast tumours, 54.2% of benign breast tumours but no signal was reported in the tissues of control group. The significance prevalence of expression of mutated p53 & Rb genes as well as detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.

Keywords: human papilloma virus, P53, RB, breast cancer

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1557 Breast Cancer Risk is Predicted Using Fuzzy Logic in MATLAB Environment

Authors: S. Valarmathi, P. B. Harathi, R. Sridhar, S. Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Machine learning tools in medical diagnosis is increasing due to the improved effectiveness of classification and recognition systems to help medical experts in diagnosing breast cancer. In this study, ID3 chooses the splitting attribute with the highest gain in information, where gain is defined as the difference between before the split versus after the split. It is applied for age, location, taluk, stage, year, period, martial status, treatment, heredity, sex, and habitat against Very Serious (VS), Very Serious Moderate (VSM), Serious (S) and Not Serious (NS) to calculate the gain of information. The ranked histogram gives the gain of each field for the breast cancer data. The doctors use TNM staging which will decide the risk level of the breast cancer and play an important decision making field in fuzzy logic for perception based measurement. Spatial risk area (taluk) of the breast cancer is calculated. Result clearly states that Coimbatore (North and South) was found to be risk region to the breast cancer than other areas at 20% criteria. Weighted value of taluk was compared with criterion value and integrated with Map Object to visualize the results. ID3 algorithm shows the high breast cancer risk regions in the study area. The study has outlined, discussed and resolved the algorithms, techniques / methods adopted through soft computing methodology like ID3 algorithm for prognostic decision making in the seriousness of the breast cancer.

Keywords: ID3 algorithm, breast cancer, fuzzy logic, MATLAB

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1556 The Predictive Significance of Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer-1 (MACC1) in Primary Breast Cancer

Authors: Jasminka Mujic, Karin Milde-Langosch, Volkmar Mueller, Mirza Suljagic, Tea Becirevic, Jozo Coric, Daria Ler

Abstract:

MACC1 (metastasis associated in colon cancer-1) is a prognostic biomarker for tumor progression, metastasis, and survival of a variety of solid cancers. MACC1 also causes tumor growth in xenograft models and acts as a master regulator of the HGF/MET signaling pathway. In breast cancer, the expression of MACC1 determined by immunohistochemistry was significantly associated with positive lymph node status and advanced clinical stage. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the prognostic or predictive value of MACC1 expression in breast cancer using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The results of our study have shown that high MACC1 expression in breast cancer is associated with shorter disease-free survival, especially in node-negative tumors. The MACC1 might be a suitable biomarker to select patients with a higher probability of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Our results support a biologic role and potentially open the perspective for the use of MACC1 as predictive biomarker for treatment decision in breast cancer patients.

Keywords: breast cancer, biomarker, HGF/MET, MACC1

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1555 Molecular Portraits: The Role of Posttranslational Modification in Cancer Metastasis

Authors: Navkiran Kaur, Apoorva Mathur, Abhishree Agarwal, Sakshi Gupta, Tuhin Rashmi

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Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and resistance to the current therapeutics, often concurrently, is an increasing clinical challenge. Glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications. It is widely known that aberrant glycosylation has been implicated in many different diseases due to changes associated with biological function and protein folding. Alterations in cell surface glycosylation, can promote invasive behavior of tumor cells that ultimately lead to the progression of cancer. In breast cancer, there is an increasing evidence pertaining to the role of glycosylation in tumor formation and metastasis. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the disease associated sialoglycoproteins in breast cancer by using bioinformatics tools. The sequence will be retrieved from UniProt database. A database in the form of a word document was made by a collection of FASTA sequences of breast cancer gene sequence. Glycosylation was studied using yinOyang tool on ExPASy and Differential genes expression and protein analysis was done in context of breast cancer metastasis. The number of residues predicted O-glc NAc threshold containing 50 aberrant glycosylation sites or more was detected and recorded for individual sequence. We found that the there is a significant change in the expression profiling of glycosylation patterns of various proteins associated with breast cancer. Differential aberrant glycosylated proteins in breast cancer cells with respect to non-neoplastic cells are an important factor for the overall progression and development of cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, bioinformatics, cancer, metastasis, glycosylation

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1554 Survival Analysis of Identifying the Risk Factors of Affecting the First Recurrence Time of Breast Cancer: The Case of Tigray, Ethiopia

Authors: Segen Asayehegn

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Introduction: In Tigray, Ethiopia, next to cervical cancer, breast cancer is one of the most common cancer health problems for women. Objectives: This article is proposed to identify the prospective and potential risk factors affecting the time-to-first-recurrence of breast cancer patients in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: The data were taken from the patient’s medical record that registered from January 2010 to January 2020. The study considered a sample size of 1842 breast cancer patients. Powerful non-parametric and parametric shared frailty survival regression models (FSRM) were applied, and model comparisons were performed. Results: Out of 1842 breast cancer patients, about 1290 (70.02%) recovered/cured the disease. The median cure time from breast cancer is found at 12.8 months. The model comparison suggested that the lognormal parametric shared a frailty survival regression model predicted that treatment, stage of breast cancer, smoking habit, and marital status significantly affects the first recurrence of breast cancer. Conclusion: Factors like treatment, stages of cancer, and marital status were improved while smoking habits worsened the time to cure breast cancer. Recommendation: Thus, the authors recommend reducing breast cancer health problems, the regional health sector facilities need to be improved. More importantly, concerned bodies and medical doctors should emphasize the identified factors during treatment. Furthermore, general awareness programs should be given to the community on the identified factors.

Keywords: acceleration factor, breast cancer, Ethiopia, shared frailty survival models, Tigray

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1553 Aspects and Studies of Fractal Geometry in Automatic Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Kakali Das Jr., Barin Kumar De, Debotosh Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and a leading cause of death for women in the 35 to 55 age group. Early detection of breast cancer can decrease the mortality rate of breast cancer. Mammography is considered as a ‘Gold Standard’ for breast cancer detection and a very popular modality, presently used for breast cancer screening and detection. The screening of digital mammograms often leads to over diagnosis and a consequence to unnecessary traumatic & painful biopsies. For that reason recent studies involving the use of thermal imaging as a screening technique have generated a growing interest especially in cases where the mammography is limited, as in young patients who have dense breast tissue. Tumor is a significant sign of breast cancer in both mammography and thermography. The tumors are complex in structure and they also exhibit a different statistical and textural features compared to the breast background tissue. Fractal geometry is a geometry which is used to describe this type of complex structure as per their main characteristic, where traditional Euclidean geometry fails. Over the last few years, fractal geometrics have been applied mostly in many medical image (1D, 2D, or 3D) analysis applications. In breast cancer detection using digital mammogram images, also it plays a significant role. Fractal is also used in thermography for early detection of the masses using the thermal texture. This paper presents an overview of the recent aspects and initiatives of fractals in breast cancer detection in both mammography and thermography. The scope of fractal geometry in automatic breast cancer detection using digital mammogram and thermogram images are analysed, which forms a foundation for further study on application of fractal geometry in medical imaging for improving the efficiency of automatic detection.

Keywords: fractal, tumor, thermography, mammography

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1552 Factors Contributing to Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer and Its Outcome in Jamhoriat Hospital Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Jawad Fardin

Abstract:

Over 60% of patients with breast cancer in Afghanistan present late with advanced stage III and IV, a major cause for the poor survival rate. The objectives of this study were to identify the contributing factors for the diagnosis and treatment delay and its outcome. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 318 patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer in the oncology department of Jamhoriat hospital, which is the first and only national cancer center in Afghanistan; data were collected from medical records and interviews conducted with women diagnosed with breast cancer, linear regression and logistic regression were used for analysis. Patient delay was defined as the time from first recognition of symptoms until first medical consultation and doctor form first consultation with a health care provider until histological confirmation of breast cancer. The mean age of patients was 49.2+_ 11.5years. The average time for the final diagnosis of breast cancer was 8.5 months; most patients had ductal carcinoma 260.7 (82%). Factors associated with delay were low education level 76% poor socioeconomic and cultural conditions 81% lack of cancer center 73% lack of screening 19%. The stage distribution was as follows stage IV 4 22% stage III 44.4% stage II 29.3% stage I 4.3%. Complex associated factors were identified to delayed the diagnosis of breast cancer and increased adverse outcomes consequently. Raising awareness and education in women, the establishment of cancer centers and providing accessible diagnosis service and screening, training of general practitioners; required to promote early detection, diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: delayed diagnosis and poor outcome, breast cancer in Afghanistan, poor outcome of delayed breast cancer treatment, breast cancer delayed diagnosis and treatment in Afghanistan

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1551 PNIPAAm-MAA Nanoparticles as Delivery Vehicles for Curcumin Against MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: H. Tayefih, F. farajzade ahari, F. Zarghami, V. Zeighamian, N. Zarghami, Y. Pilehvar-soltanahmadi

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women throughout the world. Natural compounds such as curcumin hold promise to treat a variety of cancers including breast cancer. However, curcumin's therapeutic application is limited, due to its rapid degradation and poor aqueous solubility. On the other hand, previous studies have stated that drug delivery using nanoparticles might improve the therapeutic response to anticancer drugs. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (PNIPAAm–MAA) is one of the hydrogel copolymers utilized in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic potential of curcumin encapsulated within the NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticle, on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. In this work, polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized through the free radical mechanism, and curcumin was encapsulated into NIPAAm-MAA nanoparticles. Then, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was measured by MTT assays. The evaluation of the results showed that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA has more cytotoxic effect on the MCF-7 cell line and efficiently inhibited the growth of the breast cancer cell population, compared with free curcumin. In conclusion, this study indicates that curcumin-loaded NIPAAm-MAA suppresses the growth of the MCF-7 cell line. Overall, it is concluded that encapsulating curcumin into the NIPAAm-MAA copolymer could open up new avenues for breast cancer treatment.

Keywords: PNIPAAm-MAA, breast cancer, curcumin, drug delivery

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1550 Assessment of Predictive Confounders for the Prevalence of Breast Cancer among Iraqi Population: A Retrospective Study from Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Nadia H. Mohammed, Anmar Al-Taie, Fadia H. Al-Sultany

Abstract:

Although breast cancer prevalence continues to increase, mortality has been decreasing as a result of early detection and improvement in adjuvant systemic therapy. Nevertheless, this disease required further efforts to understand and identify the associated potential risk factors that could play a role in the prevalence of this malignancy among Iraqi women. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of certain predictive risk factors on the prevalence of breast cancer types among a sample of Iraqi women diagnosed with breast cancer. This was a retrospective observational study carried out at National Cancer Research Center in College of Medicine, Baghdad University from November 2017 to January 2018. Data of 100 patients with breast cancer whose biopsies examined in the National Cancer Research Center were included in this study. Data were collected to structure a detailed assessment regarding the patients’ demographic, medical and cancer records. The majority of study participants (94%) suffered from ductal breast cancer with mean age 49.57 years. Among those women, 48.9% were obese with body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2. 68.1% of them had positive family history of breast cancer and 66% had low parity. 40.4% had stage II ductal breast cancer followed by 25.5% with stage III. It was found that 59.6% and 68.1% had positive oestrogen receptor sensitivity and positive human epidermal growth factor (HER2/neu) receptor sensitivity respectively. In regard to the impact of prediction of certain variables on the incidence of ductal breast cancer, positive family history of breast cancer (P < 0.0001), low parity (P< 0.0001), stage I and II breast cancer (P = 0.02) and positive HER2/neu status (P < 0.0001) were significant predictive factors among the study participants. The results from this study provide relevant evidence for a significant positive and potential association between certain risk factors and the prevalence of breast cancer among Iraqi women.

Keywords: Ductal Breast Cancer, Hormone Sensitivity, Iraq, Risk Factors

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1549 Risk Association of RANKL and OPG Gene Polymorphism with Breast to Bone Metastasis

Authors: Najeeb Ullah Khan

Abstract:

Background: The receptor activator NF-κβ ligand (RANKL) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) polymorphisms have been associated with the progression of breast cancer to bone metastasis. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of RANKL and OPG gene polymorphism with breast to bone metastasis in the Pashtun population, Pakistan. Methods: Genomic DNA was obtained from all the study subjects (106 breast cancer, 58 breast to bone metastasis, and 51 healthy controls). RANKL (rs9533156) and OPG (rs2073618, rs3102735) polymorphisms were genotyped using Tetra-ARMS PCR. Results: Our results indicated that the frequencies of OPG (rs3102735) risk allele and genotypes carrying risk allele in breast cancer vs healthy control (C- p=0.005; CC- p=0.0208; TC- p=0.0181), bone metastasis vs healthy control (C- p=0.0211; CC- p=0.0153; TC- p=0.0775), and breast cancer vs breast to bone metastasis (C- p=0.0001; CC- p=0.0001; TC- p=0.001) were found significantly associated with disease risk. However, there was no significant association observed for OPG (rs2073618) risk allele and risk allele containing genotypes in all study groups. Similarly, RANKL (rs9533156) risk alleles and corresponding genotypes in breast cancer vs healthy control (C- p=0.0001; CC- p=0.0001; TC- p=0.0084), bone metastasis vs healthy control (C- p=0.0001; CC- p=0.0001; TC- p=0.5593), and breast cancer vs breast to bone metastasis (C- p=0.0185; CC- p=0.6077; TC- p=0.1436) showed significant association except for the risk allele carrying genotypes in breast cancer to bone metastasis (TC, p=0.1436; CC, p=0.6077). Conclusion: OPG (rs3102735) and RANKL (rs9533156) showed significant association with breast to bone metastasis, while OPG (rs2073618) didn’t show a significant association with breast to bone metastasis in Pashtun population of Pakistan. However, more investigation will be required to disseminate the results while gene sequencing or whole-exome sequencing.

Keywords: breast cancer, bone metastasis, OPG, RANKL, polymorphism

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